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Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic

1918
 

 

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Russian Transcaucasia immediately prior to the formation of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.
Capital T'bilisi
Language(s) Georgian, Armenian, Azerbaijani
Government Republic
Historical era Interwar period
 - Independence 24 February 1918
 - Georgia secedes May 26, 1918
 - Armenia and Azerbaijan secede May 28, 1918
 - Georgia declared independence. 28 May 1918
Currency Transcaucasian ruble

The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR, Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР), Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika (ZKDFR); also known as the Transcaucasian Federation) (February 1918 – May 1918) was a short-lived state composed of the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia in the South Caucasus.

Contents

History

After the February Revolution, the Russian Provisional Government installed the Special Transcaucasian Committee (особый Закавказский Комитет (ОЗАКОМ), osobyy Zakavkazskiy Komitet (OZAKOM)) to govern the area.

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Sejm

In November 1917, following the October Revolution, the first government of the independent Transcaucasia was created in Tbilisi. The "Transcaucasian Commissariat (Sejm)" and "Transcaucasian Committee" existed for couple months following the Bolshevik seizure of power in St. Petersburg. Sejm was headed by a Georgian Menshevik Nikolay Chkheidze.

On December 5, 1917, this new "Transcaucasian Committee" gave the endorsment to Armistice of Erzincan that was signed with the Ottoman command of Third Army.

TDFR

On February 10, 1918, the Sejm gathered and made the decision to establish independence. On February 24, 1918, The Sejm proclaimed the "Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic".

On March 3, 1918, the armistice of Erzincan followed up with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk marking Russia's exit from World War I. In Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Ottoman Empire regained the Batum and Kars and Ardahan.

Between March 14 - April 1918 the Trabzon peace conference held among the Ottoman Empire and the delegation of the Sejm. On April 5, the head of the Transcaucasian delegation Akaki Chkhenkeli accepted the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk as a basis for more negotiations and wired the governing bodies urging them to accept this position[1]. The mood prevailing in Tiflis was very different. Tiflis acknowledge the existence of a state of war between themselves and the Ottoman Empire[1]. Shortly after, the Third Army began its advance and took Erzerum and Kars.

On May 11, 1918, a new peace conference opened at Batum.[2] At this conference Ottomans extended their demands to include Tiflis as well as Alexandropol and Echmiadzin which they wanted a railroad to be built to connect Kars and Julfa with Baku. The Armenian and Georgian members of the Republic’s delegation began to stall. Beginning on May 21, the Ottoman army moved ahead once again. The conflict led to the Battle of Sardarapat (May 21-29), the Battle of Kara Killisse (1918) (May 24-28), and the Battle of Bash Abaran (May 21-24).

On May 26, 1918, the federation dissolved initially with the Georgian (Democratic Republic of Georgia) declaration of independence following on May 28 with the Armenian (Democratic Republic of Armenia), and Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan Democratic Republic).

Military

Following the Russian Revolution the break up of the Russian Caucasus Army, left the Caucasus virtually undefended against advancing Third Army. The Armenians, Georgians, and Azerbaijanis made an attempt to setup regional military unity. The three nationalities placed their military forces under the command of the "Military Council of Nationalities".

The forces under "Military Council of Nationalities" consisted of Armenian military units that had been formed during the course of World War I, Georgian forces raised by the Provisional Government, and Azerbaijani troops that had been raised independently without any central sanctions.

The "Military Council of Nationalities" was short-lived. On May 28, 1918, Georgia, signed the Treaty of Poti with Germany, and welcomed the German Caucasus Expedition, seeing in the Germans protectors against the post-Russian Revolution havoc and the Ottoman military advances.[3] Azerbaijan sided with the Ottoman Empire. Each Nationality then went alone to try and defend itself.

Legislature

  • 32 Social Democratic Menshevik party,
  • 30 Musavat party,
  • 27 were of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. (R. Zorian, H. Ohanjanian, H. Zavrian, H. Kachaznuni, S. Tigranian, Al. Khatisian, Kh. Karchikian, M. Haroutiunian)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Richard Hovannisian "The Armenian people from ancient to modern times" Pages 292-293
  2. ^ Ezel Kural Shaw History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Page 326
  3. ^ Lang, David Marshall (1962). A Modern History of Georgia, p. 207-8. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

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