Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic: Wikis

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Անդրկովկասի Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Ֆեդերատիվ Հանրապետություն
(Armenian)
Закавказская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика
(Russian)
Загафгaзија Совет Федератив Сосиалист Республикасы/
Zaqafqaziya Sovet Federativ Sosialist Respublikası
(Azerbaijani)
ამიერკავკასიის საბჭოთა ფედერაციული სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა
(Georgian)
Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

Flag of SSRA.svg
Azerbaijansovietrep1920-1921.svg
Flag of Georgian SSR 1940-1952.png
19221936 Flag of Armenian SSR (1936-1940).svg
Flag AzSSR.svg
Flag of Georgian SSR 1940-1952.png
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR.svg Coat of arms of the Transcaucasian SFSR.png
Flag Coat of arms
SovietUnionTranscaucasia.png
Capital Tbilisi
Official language Armenian, Azerbaijani, Georgian and Russian
Established
In the Soviet Union:
 - Since
 - Until
March 12, 1922

December 30, 1922
December 5, 1936
Area
 - Total
 - Water (%)
Ranked 4th in 1922 (6th in 1929) in the USSR
186,100 km²
4.7%
Time zone UTC +3 to +5

The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Russian: Закавказская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика – ЗСФСР, Zakavkazskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsalisticheskaya Respublika – ZSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian SFSR and the TSFSR for short, was a short-lived republic of the Soviet Union. It consisted of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics, being separated from Russia by the Caucasus Mountains.

Contents

History

A map of the Transcaucasian region during the Soviet era

The republic's roots date back to the dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1917, during the Russian Revolution, when the provinces of the Caucasus seceded and attempted to form their own federal state called the Transcaucasian Federation. Competing national interests and war with Turkey led to the disbanding of the republic half a year later, in April 1918.

In the following years, the three constituent territories went through the civil war with heavy involvement of the Red Army, and emerged as Soviet Republics. In March 1922, the area was reunited as a union of Soviet republics. It was reorganized as a single republic in December of that year. In 1936, the republic was dissolved and the three regions became the Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijan SSRs respectively.

Names in the languages of the constituent republics

  • Armenian: Անդրկովկասի Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Ֆեդերատիվ Հանրապետություն, Andrkovkasyan Sovetakan Soc‘ialistakan Federativ Hanrapetowt‘yown
  • Azerbaijani:  Загафгазија Совет Федератив Сосиалист Республикасы, Zaqafqaziya Sovet Federativ Sosialist Respublikası
  • Georgian: ამიერკავკასიის საბჭოთა ფედერაციული სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა, Amierk'avk'asiis Sabch'oti Pederatsiuli Sotsialist'uri Resp'ublik'a

Stamps and postal history

2 gold kopecks, 1923

Before 1923, each of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan issued its own postage stamps. The Federation began issuing its own stamps on September 15, 1923, and superseded the separate republics' issues on October 1. The first issues consisted of some of the stamps of Russia and Armenia overprinted with a star containing the five-letter acronym of the federation inside the points. Massive inflation having set in, this was followed by an issue of the Federation's own designs, four values of a view of oil fields, and four with a montage of Soviet symbols over mountains and oil derricks, values ranging from 40,000 to 500,000 rubles. The 40,000 руб and 75,000 руб were then surcharged to 700,000 rubles. On October 24, the stamps were re-issued with values from 1 to 18 gold kopecks. Starting in 1924, the Federation used stamps of the Soviet Union.

Most of the stamps of the Federation are not especially rare today, with 1998 prices in the US$1–2 range, although the overprints on Armenian stamps range up to US$200. As might be expected from a short period of usage, used stamps are less common than unused, and covers are not often seen.

Heads of state

Chairs of the Union Council
Name Dates Party
Nariman Narimanov Mar–Dec 1922 Communist Party of Azerbaijan
Polikarp Mdivani Mar–Dec 1922 Communist Party of Georgia
Aleksandr Myasnikyan Mar–Dec 1922 Communist Party of Armenia
Chairs of the Central Executive Committee
Name Period For
Mikhail Tskhakaya (1st time) 1922–1927 Georgia
Samad aga Aliyev 1922–1929 Azerbaijan
Sarkis Ambartsumyan 1922–1925 Armenia
Sarkis Kasyan 1927–1931 Armenia
Filipp Makharadze (1st time) 1927–1928 Georgia
Mikhail Tskhakaya (2nd time) 1928–1931 Georgia
Gazanfar Musabekov 1929–1931 Azerbaijan
Filipp Makharadze (2nd time) 1931–1935 Georgia
Armenek Ananjan 1931–1935 Armenia
Sultan Majid Afandiyev 1931–1936 Azerbaijan
Sergo Martikiyan 1935–1936 Armenia
Avel Enukidze Mar–May 1935 Georgia
Filipp Makharadze (3rd time) 1935–1936 Georgia

See also

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