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Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken-language source, as in the proceedings of a court hearing. It can also mean the conversion of a written source into another medium, as by scanning books and making digital versions. A transcriptionist is a person who performs transcription.

In a strict linguistic sense, transcription is the process of matching the sounds of human speech to special written symbols, using a set of exact rules, so that these sounds can be reproduced later.

Principles

Transcription as a mapping from sound to script must be distinguished from transliteration, which creates a mapping from one script to another that is designed to match the original script as directly as possible.

Standard transcription schemes for linguistic purposes include the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), and its ASCII equivalent, SAMPA. See also phonetic transcription.

Transcription is often confused with transliteration, due to a common journalistic practice of mixing elements of both in rendering foreign names. The resulting practical transcription is a hybrid that is called both "transcription" and "transliteration" by the general public.

In this table IPA is an example of phonetic transcription of the name of the former Russian president known in English as Boris Yeltsin, followed by accepted hybrid forms in various languages. "Boris" is a transliteration rather than a transcription in the strict sense.

Transcription and transliteration examples
Original Russian text Борис Николаевич Ельцин
Official transliteration ISO 9 (GOST 7.79-2000) Boris Nikolaevič Elʹcin
Scholarly transliteration Boris Nikolaevič Elʼcin
IPA phonetic transcription [bʌˈɾʲis nʲɪkʌˈɫajɪvʲɪt͡ʃʲ ˈjelʲt͡sɨn]
23 examples of the same name rendered in other languages
Bulgarian Борис Николаевич Елцин
Macedonian Борис Николаевич Елцин
Serbian Борис Николајевич Јељцин (translit. Boris Nikolajevič Jeljcin)
Czech / Slovene Boris Nikolajevič Jelcin
Slovak Boris Nikolajevič Jeľcin
Croatian Boris Nikolajevič Jeljcin
Polish Borys Nikołajewicz Jelcyn
Latvian Boriss Nikolajevičs Jeļcins
Lithuanian Borisas Nikolajevičius Jelcinas
English Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
German Boris Nikolajewitsch Jelzin
Swedish / Danish Boris Nikolajevitj Jeltsin
Norwegian Borís Nikolájevitsj Jéltsin
Spanish Borís Nikoláyevich Yeltsin
French Boris Nikolaïevitch Ieltsine
Albanian Boris Nikollajeviç Jellcin
Mahl ބޮރިސް ނިކޮލަޔެވިޗް ޔެލްސިން
Hungarian Borisz Nyikolajevics Jelcin
Finnish Boris Nikolajevitš Jeltsin
Estonian Boriss Nikolajevitš Jeltsin
Turkish Boris Nikolayeviç Yeltsin
Arabic بوريس نيكولايفتش يلتسن (approx. translit. Būrīs Nīkūlāyafitsh Yīltsin)
Hebrew בוריס ניקולאיביץ' ילצין (approx. translit. bwrjs njḳwlʾjbjṣ' jlṣjn)
Chinese (Mandarin) 鲍里斯·尼古拉耶维奇·叶利钦 (pinyin: Bàolǐsī Nígǔlāyēwéiqí Yèlìqīn)
Japanese ボリス・ニコライェヴィッチ・イェリツィン (approx. translit. borisu nikorayevicchi yeritsin)
Korean 보리스 니콜라예비치 옐친 (approx. translit. boriseu nikollayebichi yelchin)

The same words are likely to be transcribed differently under different systems. For example, the Mandarin Chinese name for the capital of the People's Republic of China is Beijing in the commonly-used contemporary system Hanyu Pinyin, and in the historically significant Wade Giles system, it is written Pei-Ching.

Practical transcription can be done into a non-alphabetic language too. For example, in a Hong Kong Newspaper, George Bush's name is transliterated into two Chinese characters that sounds like "Bou-sū" (布殊) by using the characters that mean "cloth" and "special". Similarly, many words from English and other Western European languages are borrowed in Japanese and are transcribed using Katakana, one of the Japanese syllabaries.

See also Romanization of Russian, Romanization of Chinese.

After transcribing

After transcribing a word from one language to the script of another language:

  • one or both languages may develop further. The original correspondence between the sounds of the two languages may change, and so the pronunciation of the transcribed word develops in a different direction than the original pronunciation.
  • the transcribed word may be adopted as a loan word in another language with the same script. This often leads to a different pronunciation and spelling than a direct transcription.

This is especially evident for Greek loan words and proper names. Greek words are normally first transcribed to Latin (according to their old pronunciations), and then loaned into other languages, and finally the loan word has developed according to the rules of the goal language. For example, Aristotle is the currently used English form of the name of the philosopher whose name in Greek is spelled  ̓Aριστoτέλης (Aristotélēs), which was transcribed to Latin Aristóteles, from where it was loaned into other languages and followed their linguistic development.(In "classical" Greek of Aristotle's time, lower-case letters were not used, and the name was spelled ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΗΣ.)

Pliocene comes from the Greek words πλεîον (pleîon, "more") and καινóς (kainós, "new"), which were first transcribed (Latinised) to plion and caenus and then loaned into other languages. The historic latinization of <κ> by <c> stems from a time when Latin pronounced <c> as [k] in all contexts.

When this process continues over several languages, it may fail miserably in conveying the original pronunciation. One ancient example is the Sanskrit word dhyāna ("contemplation", "meditation") which was transcribed into the Chinese word ch'anna through Buddhist scriptures; next shortened into ch'an. Ch'an (禪), pronounced zen in Japanese, used as the name of the Buddhist sect of "Chan" (Zen Buddhism), was transcribed from Japanese (ゼン zen) to zen in English. Dhyāna to zen is quite a change.

Another complex problem is the subsequent change in "preferred" transcription. For instance, the word describing a philosophy or religion in China was popularized in English as Tao and given the termination -ism to produce an English word Taoism. That transcription reflects the Wade-Giles system. More recent Pinyin transliterations produce Dao and Daoism. (See also Daoism-Taoism Romanization issue.)

See also

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Simple English

This article is about linguistics. For other uses, see Transcription disambiguation page

Transcription[1] is the conversion of a text another medium.

That can be the conversion of human speech into written, typewritten or printed form. But it can also mean the scanning of books and making digital versions. A transcriber is a person who performs transcriptions.

Transcription as going from sound to script must be distinguished from transliteration, which creates a mapping from one script to another that is designed to match the original script as directly as possible.

Standard transcription schemes for linguistic purposes include the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), and its ASCII equivalent, SAMPA. See also phonetic transcription

In this table IPA is an example of phonetic transcription of the name of the former Russian president known in English as Boris Yeltsin, followed by accepted hybrid forms in various languages. Note that 'Boris' is a transliteration rather than transcription in strict sense.

Transcription and transliteration examples
Original Russian text Борис Николаевич Ельцин
Official transliteration ISO 9 (GOST 7.79-2000) Boris Nikolaevič Elʹcin
Scholarly transliteration Boris Nikolaevič Elʼcin
IPA phonetic transcription [bʌˈɾʲis nʲɪkʌˈɫajɪvʲɪʧʲ ˈjelʲʦɨn]
5 examples of the same name rendered in other languages
English Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
Arabic بوريس نيكولايفتش يلتسن (approx. translit. Būrīs Nīkūlāyafitsh Yīltsin)
French Boris Nikolaïevitch Ieltsine
Hebrew בוריס ניקולאיביץ' ילצין (approx. translit. bwrjs njḳwlʾjbjṣ' jlṣjn)
Spanish Boris Nikoláyevich Yeltsin
German Boris Nikolajewitsch Jelzin
Polish Borys Nikołajewicz Jelcyn

The same words are likely to be transcribed differently under different systems. For example, the Mandarin Chinese name for the capital of the People's Republic of China is Beijing in the commonly-used contemporary system Hanyu Pinyin, and in the historically significant Wade Giles system, it is written Pei-Ching.

Practical transcription can be done into a non-alphabetic language too. For example, in a Hong Kong Newspaper, George Bush's name is transliterated into two Chinese characters that sounds like "Bou-sū" (布殊) by using the characters that mean "cloth" and "special". Similarly, many words from English and other Western European languages are borrowed in Japanese and are transcribed using Katakana, one of the Japanese syllabaries.

See also transcription of Chinese, transcription of Russian, transcribing English to Japanese.

Contents

After transcribing

After transcribing a word from one language to the script of another language:

  • one or both languages may develop further. The original correspondence between the sounds of the two languages may change, and so the pronunciation of the transcribed word develops in a different direction than the original pronunciation.
  • the transcribed word may be adopted as a loan word in another language with the same script. This often leads to a different pronunciation and spelling than a direct transcription.

This is especially evident for Greek loan words and proper names. Greek words are normally first transcribed to Latin (according to their old pronunciations), and then loaned into other languages, and finally the loan word has developed according to the rules of the goal language. For example, Aristotle is the currently used English form of the name of the philosopher whose name in Greek is spelled  ̓Aριστoτέλης (Aristotélēs), which was transcribed to Latin Aristóteles, from where it was loaned into other languages and followed their linguistic development.(In "classical" Greek of Aristotle's time, lower-case letters were not used, and the name was spelled ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΗΣ.)

When this process continues over several languages, it may fail miserably in conveying the original pronunciation. One ancient example is the Sanskrit word dhyāna which transcribed into the Chinese word Ch'an through Buddhist scriptures. Ch'an (禪 Zen Buddhism) was transcribed from Japanese (ゼン zen) to Zen in English. dhyāna to Zen is quite a change.

Another complex problem is the subsequent change in "preferred" transcription. For instance, the word describing a philosophy or religion in China was popularized in English as Tao and given the termination -ism to produce an English word Taoism. That transcription reflects the Wade-Giles system. More recent Pinyin transliterations produce Dao and Daoism.

Footnotes

  1. In a strict linguistic sense, transcription is the process of matching the sounds of human speech to special written symbols using a set of exact rules, so that these sounds can be reproduced later. But it is often used also with the meaning of transliteration, due to a common journalistic practice of mixing elements of both in rendering foreign names. The resulting practical transcription is a hybrid called both transcription and transliteration by general public.

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