Transport in Indonesia: Wikis

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Pelni shipping line connects Indonesian islands.

Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago with thousands of islands, and the distribution of its more than 200 million people highly concentrated on a single island which is Java[1].

All transport modes play a role in the country’s transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive. Road transport is predominant, with a total system length of 370,500 km in 2003. The railway system has four unconnected networks in Java and Sumatra primarily dedicated to transport bulk commodities and long-distance passenger traffic. Sea transport is extremely important for economic integration and for domestic and foreign trade. It is well developed, with each of the major islands having at least one significant port city. The role of inland waterways is relatively minor and is limited to certain areas of Eastern Sumatra and Kalimantan. The function of air transport is significant, particularly where land or water transport is deficient or non-existent. It is based on an extensive domestic airline network where all major cities can be reached by passenger plane.

Contents

Merchant marine vessels

Pelni Shipping Routes 2006

Because Indonesia encompasses a sprawling archipelago, maritime shipping provides essential links between different parts of the country. Boats in common use include large container ships, a variety of ferries, passenger ships, sailing ships, and smaller motorized vessels.

Frequent ferry services cross the straits between nearby islands, especially in the chain of islands stretching from Sumatra through Java to the Lesser Sunda Islands. On the busy crossings between Sumatra, Java, and Bali, multiple car ferries run frequently twenty-four hours per day. There are also international ferry services between across the Straits of Malacca between Sumatra and Malaysia, and between Singapore and nearby Indonesian islands, such as Batam.

A network of passenger ships makes longer connections to more remote islands, especially in the eastern part of the archipelago. The national shipping line, Pelni, provides passenger service to ports throughout the country on a two to four week schedule. These ships generally provide the least expensive way to cover long distances between islands. Still smaller privately run boats provide service between islands.

On some islands, major rivers provide a key transportation link in the absence of good roads. On Kalimantan, longboats running on the rivers are the only way to reach many inland areas.

Waterways

Indonesia has 21,579 km of navigable waterways (As of 2005), of which about one half are on Kalimantan, and a quarter each on Sumatra and Papua. Waterways are highly needed because the rivers on these islands are not wide enough to hold medium-sized ships. In addition to this, roads and railways are not good options since Kalimantan and Papua are not like Java, which is a highly developed island[2]. With the current length of waterways, Indonesia ranked seven on the countries with longest waterways rant[3].

Ports and harbours

Major ports and harbors include Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, and Makassar. Ports are managed by the various Indonesia Port Corporations, of which there are four, numbered I through IV. Each has jurisdiction over various regions of the country, with I in the west and IV in the east.

Roads and highways

Loading cargo onto a minibus
Transjakarta bus rapid transit.
Taxi in Jakarta.

A wide variety of vehicles are used for transportation on Indonesia's roads. Bus services are available in most areas connected to the road network. Between major cities, especially on Sumatra, Java, and Bali, services are frequent and direct; many services are available with no stops until the final destination. In more remote areas, and between smaller towns, most services are provided with minibuses or minivans (angkut). Buses and vans are also the primary form of transportation within cities. Often, these are operated as share taxis, running semi-fixed routes.

Many cities and towns have some form of transportation for hire available as well, such as taxis, bus rapid transit system (such as TransJakarta), and motorized autorickshaws (bajaj). Cycle rickshaws, called becak in Indonesia, are common in many cities, and provide an inexpensive form of in-town transportation. They have been blamed for causing traffic congestion and banned from most parts of central Jakarta. Horse-drawn carts are found in some cities and towns.

Private cars are far too expensive for the majority of the population, and are uncommon except in larger cities.

The AH2 highway is one of Indonesia's main highways.

Indonesia has about 213,649 km of paved highways and about 154,711 km of unpaved highways (As of 2002 estimate).

Indonesia has some highways, all the freeways are tolled (toll road). The most expensive is the Cipularang Toll road that connects Jakarta and Bandung.

Here are some Indonesian toll roads (Jalan tol) :

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Java

  • Jakarta Inner Ring Road (beltway)
  • Jakarta Outer Ring Road (JORR) (beltway) (some parts have not finished)[4]
    • JORR W1 (Pantai Indah Kapuk-Kebon Jeruk Toll Road) (under construction)
    • JORR W2 U (Kebon Jeruk-Ulujami Toll Road) (contract)
    • JORR W2 S (Ulujami-Pondok Pinang Toll Road) (finished)
    • JORR S (Pondok Pinang-Taman Mini Indonesia Indah Toll Road)[1] (finished)
    • JORR E1 (Taman Mini Indonesia Indah-Cikunir Toll Road) (finished)
    • JORR E2+E3 (Cikunir-Cakung-Cilincing Toll Road) (finished)
    • JORR N (Tanjung Priok Access Toll Road) (under construction)
  • Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road (Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Toll Road)
  • Jakarta-Serpong Toll Road
  • Surabaya/Waru-Juanda International Airport Toll Road
  • Surabaya-Madura Bridge (Suramadu Bridge) (opened at 9 June 2009)
  • Transjava Toll Road (under Construction, some parts are finished) AH 2[5]
    • Tangerang-Merak Toll Road (finished)
    • Jakarta-Tangerang Toll Road (finished)
    • Cilegon-Bojonegara Toll Road (tender preparation)
    • Jakarta-Bogor-Ciawi Toll Road (Jagorawi Toll Road) (finished)
    • Ciawi-Sukabumi Toll Road (contract)
    • Sukabumi-Ciranjang Toll Road (tender preparation)
    • Ciranjang-Padalarang Toll Road (contract)
    • Jakarta-Cikampek Toll Road (finished)
    • Cikampek-Purwakarta-Padalarang Toll Road (Cipularang Toll Road) (finished)
    • Padalarang-Cileunyi Toll Road (Padaleunyi Toll Road) (finished)
    • Cileunyi-Sumedang Toll Road (tender preparation)
    • Sumedang-Dawuan/Palimanan Toll Road (tender preparation)
    • Cikampek-Palimanan Toll Road (contract)
    • Palimanan-Cirebon-Kanci Toll Road (Palikanci Toll Road) (finished)
    • Kanci-Pejagan Toll Road (under construction)
    • Pejagan-Pemalang Toll Road (contract)
    • Pemalang-Batang Toll Road (contract)
    • Batang-Semarang Toll Road (contract)
    • Semarang Section A,B,C Toll Road (finished)
    • Semarang-Demak Toll Road (tender preparation)
    • Semarang-Solo Toll Road (under construction)
    • Solo-Yogyakarta Toll Road (tender preparation)
    • Solo-Mantingan-Ngawi Toll Road (tender negotiation)
    • Ngawi-Kertosono Toll Road (tender negotiation)
    • Kertosono-Mojokerto Toll Road (under construction)
    • Mojokerto-Surabaya Toll Road (under construction)
    • Surabaya-Gresik Toll Road (finished)
    • Surabaya-Gempol Toll Road (finished)
    • Gempol-Pandaan Toll Road (contract)
    • Pandaan-Malang Toll Road (tender preparation)
    • Gempol-Pasuruan Toll Road (under construction)
    • Pasuruan-Probolinggo Toll Road (contract)
    • Probolinggo-Banyuwangi Toll Road (tender preparation)
  • Bogor Ring Road

Planned :

  • Merak-Bakauheuni Bridge (Sunda Strait Bridge) AH 25
  • Jakarta/Antasari-Depok Toll Road (under construction)[6]
  • Jakarta Outer Ring Road 2 (JORR 2) (beltway)[4]
    • Soekarno-Hatta International Airport-Kunciran Toll Road (tender negotiation)
    • Kunciran-Serpong Toll Road (tender negotiation)
    • Serpong-Cinere Toll Road (tender negotiation)
    • Cinere-Cimanggis/Jagorawi Toll Road (under construction)
    • Cimanggis-Cibitung Toll Road (tender negotiation)
    • Cibitung-Cilincing Toll Road (contract)
  • Bekasi-Cawang-Kampung Melayu Toll Road (Becakayu Toll Road) (contract)[6]
  • Serpong-Balaraja Toll Road
  • Balaraja-Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Toll Road
  • Bogor Ring Road (beltway)[6]
  • Pasir Koja-Soreang Toll Road[7]

Sumatra

  • Belawan-Medan-Tanjung Morawa Toll Road (Belmera Toll Road)

Planned :

Sulawesi

Planned:

  • Manado-Bitung Toll Road[13]

Bali

Planned:

  • Serangan-Tanjung Benoa Toll Road[14]

Note: Tender Preparation --> Tender Negotiation --> Contract --> Construction --> Operational/Finished

Railways

Argo train in Gambir Station.

Most railways in Indonesia are on Java, which has two major rail lines that run the length of the island, as well as several minor lines. Passenger and freight service runs on all of the lines. There is also commuter rail service in the Jakarta metropolitan area, known as KRL Jabotabek and Surabaya and the vicinities. In 2008, the government under PT Kereta Api and Angkasa Pura planned to built the airport railway from Soekarno-Hatta Airport to Manggarai (Jakarta). A monorail mass transit system is under construction in Jakarta.

The only other areas in Indonesia having railroads are three separate regions of Sumatra, one in the north around Medan, second in the West Sumatra from Pariaman to Padang and the other in the southern trip, from Lubuk Linggau (South Sumatra) to Bandar Lampung, (Lampung).

Pipelines

Crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)

Air transport

Air transportation in Indonesia is important to connect thousands of islands spread throughout archipelago. However safety issue still remains a problem. Several accidents happened in 2006–2007 has made Indonesia air transportation safety among the lowest with global average of 0.25 in 2007.[15]

Airports

Total: 668 (2005)

Airports - with paved runways

  • over 3,047 m: 4
  • 2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
  • 1,524 to 2,437 m: 48
  • 914 to 1,523 m: 51
  • under 914 m: 43
Total: 161 (2005)

Airports - with unpaved runways

  • 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
  • 914 to 1,523 m: 26
  • under 914 m: 475
Total: 507 (2005)

Heliports

Total: 23 (2005)

Airlines

National airline:

Other airlines

See also

References


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