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Transylvania highlighted on a map of Romania, with the counties' boundaries. The light yellow areas correspond to the core territory of the historical Voivodeship. The regions marked in dark yellow, corresponding to Maramureş, Crişana and the Romanian Banat, are sometimes considered part of Transylvania.
Location of Transylvania (including Banat, Crişana and Maramureş) in Europe.

Transylvania (Romanian: Ardeal or Transilvania; Hungarian: Erdély; German: About this sound Siebenbürgen , see also other denominations) is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term frequently encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical regions of Crişana, Maramureş, and (Romanian) Banat.

Transylvania was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia (82 BC–106 AD). In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory and after that its wealth was systematically exploited. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of tribes, which subjected it to various influences. During this time areas of it were under the control of the Carpi (Dacian tribe), Visigoths, Huns, Gepids, Avars and Bulgars. It is subject of controversy whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Dark Ages (becoming the ancestors of modern Romanians) or the first Vlachs appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northwards migration from the Balkan Peninsula . There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest (see Origin of the Romanians).

The Hungarians (Magyars) conquered the area at the end of the 9th century and firmly established their control over it in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the native prince entitled or named Gyula.[1][2][3][4] Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship of the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the Hungarian King. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Transylvania became part of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom which, in 1571, was transformed into the Principality of Transylvania (1571–1711) ruled primarily by Calvinist Hungarian princes. For most of this period, Transylvania, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainity of the Ottoman Empire.

The Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. The Habsburgs, however, recognized the Hungarian sovereignty over Transylvania,[5] while the Transylvanians recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I (1687), and the region was officially attached to the Habsburg Empire, separated in all but name[6][7] from Habsburg controlled Hungary[8][9][10] and subjected to the direct rule of the emperor's governors.[11] In 1699 the Turks legally conceded their loss of Transylvania in the Treaty of Karlowitz; however, anti-Habsburg elements within the principality only submitted to the emperor in the 1711 Peace of Szatmár. After the Ausgleich of 1867 the region was fully reabsorbed into Hungary [2][4] as a part of the newly established Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Following defeat in World War I, Austria-Hungary began to disintegrate. The ethnic Romanian majority elected representatives, who then proclaimed union with Romania on December 1, 1918. The "Proclamation of Union" of Alba Iulia was adopted by the Deputies of the Romanians from Transylvania, and supported one month later by the vote of the Deputies of the Saxons from Transylvania. In 1920, the Allies confirmed the union in the Treaty of Trianon. Hungary protested against the detach, as over 1,600,000 Hungarian people[12] were living in the area in question, mainly in Szekler Land of Eastern Transylvania, and along the newly created border, which was drawn through areas with Hungarian majority. In August 1940, in the midst of World War II, Hungary regained about 40% of Transylvania by the Vienna Award, with the aid of Germany and Italy. The territory, however, reverted to Romania in 1945; this was confirmed in the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties[2].

In distant regions, Transylvania is also often associated with Dracula[13][14][15] (Bram Stoker's novel and its film adaptations), and the horror genre in general, while in countries of Central and Eastern Europe the region is known for the scenic beauty of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history.

Contents

Etymology

  • Transylvania was first referred to in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest" (ultra (+accusative) meaning "beyond" or "on the far side of" and the accusative case of sylva (sylvam) meaning "wood or forest"). Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods". Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin form Ultrasylvania, later Transylvania, was a direct translation from the Hungarian form Erdő-elve (not the Hungarian was derived from the Latin).[16]
  • The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven fortresses", after the seven (ethnic German) Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region (Kronstadt, Schäßburg, Mediasch, Hermannstadt, Mühlbach, Bistritz and Klausenburg). This is also the origin of many other languages' names for the region, such as the Polish Siedmiogród.
  • The Hungarian form Erdély was first mentioned in the 12th century Gesta Hungarorum as "Erdeuleu".
  • The first known written occurrence of the Romanian name Ardeal appeared in a document in 1432 as Ardeliu.[17]

History

In its early history, the territory of Transylvania belonged to a variety of empires and states, including Dacia, the Roman Empire, the Hun Empire and the Gepid Kingdom.[18] There were also periods when autonomous political entities arose under the control of the Byzantine and the Bulgarian Empire[19].

According to the theory of Daco-Romanian continuity, Hungary took possession of Transylvania in the 11th century, a territory that probably had a mixed but basically Romanian population.[20] According to Hungarian historiograpy, the population of Transylvania at the time of the Hungarian conquest in 895-96 consisted of Slavs and probably some Eurasian Avars. In this view, Romanians did not live in Translvania in that period and appeared there only as from the 12th century.

After the occupation the Hungarian crown encouraged immigration in order to strengthen against outside invasion. Most important was the settlement of the Szeklers and the Germans, who came in the 12th century. As a political entity, (Southern) Transylvania is mentioned from the 12th century as a county (Alba) of the Kingdom of Hungary (M. princeps ultrasilvanus - comes Bellegratae). Transylvania's seven counties were brought under the voivode's (count of Alba Iulia) rule in 1263. Although Transylvania was part of the Kingdom of Hungary, it retained wide autonomous privileges[21] and status[22] and after 1526 became a fully autonomous principality[22] under nominal Ottoman suzerainty.

A few centuries later, in 1688, it was added to the expanding territories of Habsburg Monarchy, then became again a part of the Kingdom of Hungary within the newly established Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1867. Since World War I, it has been part of Romania, apart from a brief period of Hungarian occupation during World War II.

Cluj-Napoca is today considered to be the region's spiritual capital, although Transylvania was also ruled from Alba Iulia during its period as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire, and from Sibiu, where the Habsburg governor was located from 1711 to 1848. The seat of the Transylvanian Diet was itself moved to Sibiu for some time in the 19th century.

Since medieval times, the population of the region has been a mixture of ethnic Romanians (historically known as Vlachs), Hungarians, the ethnic Hungarian[23] Székely people, Germans (known as Saxons), Bulgarians (see Şchei, Şcheii Braşovului, Banat Bulgarians), Armenians (especially in Gherla (Armenopolis), Gheorgheni and Tarnaveni), Jews and Roma (known as Gypsies or "tatars" - Tatern in Transylvanian Saxon or tătăraşi in Romanian).

The Roman province of Dacia

The Kingdom of Dacia was in existence at least as early as the beginning of the 2nd century BC when, Rubobostes, a Dacian king from the territory of present-day Transylvania, undertook the control of the Carpathian basin by defeating the Celts who previously held the power in the region.

Transylvania within the Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC, stretching from the Black Sea to the Adriatic and from the Balkan Mountains to Bohemia.[24]

Dacia reached its maximum extent under the rule of Burebista. The area now constituting Transylvania was the political center of the ancient Kingdom of Dacia, where several important fortified cities were built; among them was the capital Sarmizegetusa, located near the current Romanian town of Hunedoara.

In 101-102 and 105-106 AD, Roman armies under the Emperor Trajan fought a series of military campaigns to subjugate the wealthy Dacian Kingdom. The Romans under Trajan succeeded by 106 to subdue the south and the center regions of Dacia. After the conquest, the Romans seized an enormous amount of wealth (the Dacian Wars were commemorated on Trajan's Column in Rome) and immediately started to exploit the Dacian gold and salt mines located in today territory of Transylvania. Roman influence was broadened by the construction of modern roads, and some existing major cities, like Sarmizegetusa and Dierna (today Orsova) were made colonies. The new province was divided under Hadrian: Dacia Superior, that corresponded roughly to Transylvania and Dacia Inferior, similar to the region of South Romania (Walachia)[citation needed]. During Antoninus Pius (138-161) the same territory was included in the provinces Dacia Porolissensis (capital at Porolissum) and Dacia Apulensis (capital at Apulum, today Alba-Iulia city in Romania). The Romans built new mines, roads and forts in the province. Colonists from other Roman provinces were brought in to settle the land and found cities like Apulum (now Alba Iulia), Napoca (now Cluj-Napoca), Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa and Aquae. During the Roman administration also Christianity entered in the current territory of Transylvania from the neighboring Roman provinces where, according to the tradition of the Romanian Orthodox Church, St. Peter preached.

Due to increasing pressure from the Visigoths,[25] the Romans abandoned the province during the reign of the Emperor Aurelian in 271. The history of the aftermath of the abandonnement of the province by the Romans is controversial. The theory of Daco-Romanian continuity asserts that as across much of Europe, a period of chaos and conquests followed after the collapse of Roman rule, however, archeological research shows that many of the Roman cities continued to exist, building fortifications. It is also asserted that Christianity survived which is proven by great number of artifacts discovered. The theory refers with emphasis to a donarium from Biertan (4th century) having the inscription 'Ego Zenovius votvm posui' (I, Zenovie, offered this). The Migration theory denies that any significant Romanized population continued to exist in the former province after its occupation by the Visigoths. It is asserted that the rare and isolated Latin inscriptions may be attributed to slaves captured by the Goths in the territory of the Roman Empire and even these disappear within a few decades. The Goths themselves were Christians, so Christian artifacts do not prove for the continuity of a Romanized population. The territory fell under the control of the Visigoths and Carpians until they were, in their turn, displaced and subdued by the Huns after 376. After the disintegration of Attila's empire, the Huns were succeeded by the Gepids, whom were defeated by the Eurasian Avars who rules the region until around 800 AD. During the Avar rule, after the 6th century, the region was influenced by massive Slavic immigration.

At the beginning of the 9th century, Transylvania, along with eastern Pannonia, was under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire[citation needed]. After a brief period of Bulgarian rule, the territory, was partially under Byzantine control.

Conquest of Transylvania and integration into the Kingdom of Hungary

Based on primary sources

The presence of Romanians in Transylvania before the arrival of the Magyar tribes is mentioned in the Hungarian chronicle Gesta Hungarorum. According to this document, Transylvania was inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs and Slavs at the time of the Magyar conquest and was ruled by the Vlach prince Gelou. After Gelou was killed by the Hungarians in a battle near the River Someş, his subjects elected Tuhutum as their prince.[26]

Some historians consider the Gesta Hungarorum an unreliable source.[27] For example the author thought Kende had been the father of Kurszán.[28] In fact "kende" was a title of a Hungarian dignitary, probably the sacral ruler.[28] It is also worth mentioning that the Gesta was written about 300 years after the Hungarians entered Transylvania. The author of Gesta also talks about Cuman people at the time of the arrival of the Hungarians in Transylvania, though their first appearance in the ancient homeland of the Hungarians (between the Lower Danube and the Don) is dated to the eleventh century.[29]

The account of the Gesta Hungarorum is however repeated by Simon of Kéza who writes that the Vlachs remained after Attila left in Pannonia and Transylvania,[30] and also that the Székely were settled "among the Vlachs" (sed cum Blakis) in the mountains.[31] These words are repeated in the Chronicon Dubnicense, Chronicon Posoniense[32] Anna Komnenos also mentions "Dacians" (Vlachs) North of the Danube in her Alexiad.[33] Likewise, John Kinnamos writes in 1176 on the expedition of emperor Vatzates that there were Vlachs North of the Danube and that "it is said they are colonists arrived long ago from Italy."[34] These statements are repeated by all humanist authors like Antonio Bonfini[35] or Filip Callimachus[36] who state the Vlachs were descendants of the Roman colonists in Transylvania. With the exception of Istvan Szamoskozy, it was not until the late 18th century that any historian cast doubt on the continuity of the Romanians in Dacia.[37]

Based on Library of Congress

The Library of Congress in its country study about Romania: "Romanians descend from the Dacians, an ancient people who fell under Rome's dominance in the first century A.D., intermarried with Roman colonists, and adopted elements of Roman culture, including a Vulgar Latin that evolved into today's Romanian."[38]. However, according to the same source, when the Magyars arrived in the Pannonian Basin (896 ad), they met local population: "A century later their king, Stephen I, integrated Transylvania into his Hungarian kingdom. The Hungarians constructed fortresses, founded a Roman Catholic bishopric, and began proselytizing Transylvania's indigenous people. There is little doubt that these included some Romanians who remained faithful to the Eastern Orthodox Church after the East-West Schism."[39] Though, the US Library of Congress in its country study about Hungary simply points out that "Romanian and Hungarian historians disagree about the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Magyars' arrival [...]The Romanians assert that their Latin ancestors inhabited Transylvania and survived there through the Dark Ages [...] The Hungarians maintain that, when Hungarians conquered it in the 11th century, Transylvania was inhabited not by the ancestors of the Romanians but by Slavs".[40]

These facts have fueled a centuries-long feud between Romanian and Hungarian historians over Transylvania.[39]

The Romanian historians assert that their ancestors remained in Transylvania after Rome's exodus and that Romanians constitute the region's aboriginal inhabitants.<[38]

Hungarians assert, among other things, that the Roman population quit Dacia completely in 271, that the Romans could not have made a lasting impression on Transylvania's aboriginal population in only two centuries,[39] and that Transylvania's Romanians descended from Balkan nomads who crossed northward over the Danube in the thirteenth century and flowed into Transylvania in any significant numbers only after Hungary opened its borders to foreigners.[39] The Hungarians maintain that Transylvania was inhabited not by the ancestors of the Romanians but by Slavs and point out that the first mention of the Romanians' ancestors in Hungarian records, which appeared in the thirteenth century, described them as drifting herders.[40]

The Hungarian conquest according to Gesta Hungarorum

Map of Europe showing Transylvania as part of the Kingdom of Hungary (around 1097 AD)

At the beginning of the 9th century the Hungarian tribes were located in the north of the Black Sea. In 895 as a result of a planned 'conquest' and a massive withdrawal caused by a Bulgarian-Pecheneg attack they established in the Upper-Tisza region and Transylvania and started to expand their territories towards west only in 899. According to the Gesta Hungarorum describing among others the conquest of Transylvania, three statal structures ruled by[41] Menumorut, Glad and Gelu, the most powerful local leaders who opposed the Magyars[41] were encountered and defeated. The privileged position of these figures tended to put brakes on the normal exercise of Romanian critical historiography.[42]

Magyars in Transylvania (10-11th century)[43]

Gelou (Gelu in Romanian, Gyalu in Hungarian) Duke of the Vlachs[44] (ancient Romanians)[41] and Slavs[41] in Transylvania was ruling over the Middle part of Transylvania[41] and had his capital at Dabaca. He was defeated by the warriors of the Magyar chieftain Tétény (also called Töhötöm; in the original Latin: Tuhutum) sometime during the 10th century.

Glad (Bulgarian and Serbian Cyrillic: Глад) ruled over the South-West of Transylvania,[41] having authority over the Slavs and Vlachs, which consisted most of the population of mentioned regions at the time. He was, according to the Gesta Hungarorum, a voivod (duke) from Bundyn (Vidin), ruler of the territory of Banat, during the 9th and 10th centuries. He also ruled part of south Transylvania, and Vidin region, and was a local governor or vassal of the First Bulgarian Empire under Bulgarian tsar Simeon. Glad was defeated by the Hungarians during the 10th century.[41] One of his descendants, Ahtum, was a duke of Banat and the last ruler[41] who opposed the establishment of the Hungarian Kingdom in the 11th century, but he too was defeated by the Hungarian Crown.

Menumorut, a vassal of Byzantium[41] ruled the lands between the River Tisza and the Ygfon Forest[41] in the direction of Transylvania, from the Mureş river to the Someş river. He declined the request of the Magyar ruler Árpád (907) to cede his territory between the Someş river and the Meseş Mountains, and in the negotiations with the ambassadors Usubuu and Veluc of Árpád he invoked the sovereignty of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise. The Magyars first besieged the citadel of Zotmar (Romanian: Satu Mare, Hungarian: Szatmár) and then Menumorut's castle in Bihar, and were able to defeat him. The Gesta Hungarorum then retells the story of Menumorut[41] . In the second telling, he married his daughter into the Árpád dynasty. Her son Taksony, the grandson of Menumorut[41], became ruler of the Magyars and father of Mihály and Géza, whose son Vajk became the first King of Hungary in 1001 under the Christian baptismal name Stephen (István). The early 11th century was marked by the conflict between King Stephen I of Hungary and his uncle Gyula, the ruler of Transylvania. The Hungarian ruler was successful in these wars, and Transylvania was incorporated into the Christian Kingdom of Hungary. The Transylvanian Christian bishopric and the comitatus system were organised. By the early 11th century the ethnic Hungarian Székely were established in southeastern Transylvania[45] as a border population of ready warriors, and in the 12th and 13th centuries, the areas in the south and northeast were settled by German colonists called Saxons.[45] Romanians maintained control over a few autonomous regions called 'terrae': Fagaras, Amlas. Hateg, Maramures, Lapus. However, the autonomy was taken by the end of Árpád dynasty in 1301.

Medieval period

In 1241–1242, during the Mongol invasion of Europe, Transylvania was among the territories devastated by the Golden Horde. A large portion of the population perished. This was followed by a second Mongol invasion in 1285, led by Nogai Khan. To escape the deprecations, Wallachian (Romanian) settlers moved into the mountain fastness of the Carpathians.[5] The rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary established programs of colonization in eastern and southern Hungary. Saxon Germans, Szeklers, Slavs, and Wallachians settled in the peripheral areas which had suffered so greatly from the Mongol invasion.[5]

Diocesan division of Transylvania in the 13th century within the Kingdom of Hungary

Following this devastation, Transylvania was reorganized according to a class system of Estates, which established privileged groups (universitates) with power and influence in economic and political life, as well as along ethnic lines. The first Estate was the lay and ecclesiastic aristocracy, ethnically heterogeneous, but undergoing a process of homogenization around its Hungarian nucleus. The other Estates were Saxons, Szeklers and Romanians (or Vlachs - Universitas Valachorum), all with an ethnic and ethno-linguistic basis (Universis nobilibus, Saxonibus, Syculis et Olachis). The general assembly (congregatio generalis) of the four Estates had few genuine legislative powers in Transylvania, but it sometimes took measures regarding order in the country.

After the Decree of Turda (1366), which openly called for "to expel or to exterminate in this country malefactors belonging to any nation, especially Romanians" in Transylvania,[46] the only possibility for Romanians to retain or access nobility was through conversion to Roman Catholicism. Some Orthodox Romanian nobles converted, being integrated in the Hungarian nobility, but the most of them declined, thus losing their status and privileges.[47]

In some regions in the north (Maramureş) and south (Ţara Haţegului, Fagaras, Banat) where Romanians formed a majority of the population,[48] the Orthodox Romanian ruling class of nobilis kenezius (classed as lesser and middle nobility in the Kingdom as a whole) enjoyed a period of prosperity at the end of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, reflected in the reconstruction and decoration of some Orthodox churches. A Romanian archbishop is mentioned in 1377 in Transylvania; other Orthodox hierarchs were established in St. Michael's monastery at Feleac, near Cluj and Peri.[48] Nevertheless, because of the gradual loss of a nobility of its own, Romanians were no longer able to keep their Universitas Valachorum.

A key figure to emerge in Transylvania in the first half of the 15th century was John Hunyadi/János Hunyadi[49][50]/Iancu de Hunedoara, a native of Transylvania, born in a family of Romanian origins.[48] (According to the usage of Hungarian noblemen of the time, Iancu/John/János took his family name after his landed estate.[49]) He was one of the greatest military figures of the time, being Hungarian general, voivode of Transylvania[49] and then governor of the Kingdom of Hungary[48][49] from 1446 to 1452. He was a Transylvanian noble of Romanian origin[48] some sources indicating him as the son of Voicu/Vajk, a Romanian boyar from Wallachia[51] though other sources are telling that his father was a native Transylvanian .[52] Hungarian historians claim that his mother was Erzsébet Morzsinay the daughter of a Hungarian noble family.[53] His fame was built in the effective wars of defence against the Turkish attacks, waged from 1439. With his private mercenary army John rapidly rose to the heights of power. His military campaigns against the Ottoman Empire brought him the status of Transylvanian governor in 1446 and papal recognition as the Prince of Transylvania in 1448. Continuing his military activity, he won an important victory at Belgrade in 1456, which halted the Ottomans' advance for several decades, but died shortly afterwards during an epidemic.

After the suppression of the Budai Nagy Antal-revolt in 1437, the political system was based on Unio Trium Nationum (The Union of the Three Nations). According to the Union, which was explicitly directed against serfs and other peasants, society was ruled by three privileged Estates of the nobility (mostly ethnic Hungarians), the Székelys, also an ethnic Hungarian people who primarily served as warriors, and the ethnic German, Saxon burghers.

The only possibility for Romanians to retain or access nobility in Hungarian Transylvania was through conversion to Catholicism. Some Orthodox Romanian nobles converted, becoming integrated into the Hungarian nobility. These circumstances marked the beginning of a conflict between ethnic Hungarian Catholics and ethnic Romanian Orthodox (and ethnic Romanian Greek Catholics also) in the territory of Transylvania which in some regions remains unresolved to this very day.[54]

Transylvania as an independent principality

The Kingdom of Hungary was divided into three parts after the Battle of Mohács, (1526) which led to the formation of the Independent Principality     Transylvania
Transylvania in the 16th Century (According to Sambucus)

The 16th century in Southeastern Europe was marked by the struggle between the Muslim Ottoman Empire and the Catholic Habsburg Empire. After the Hungarian defeat at Mohacs, Hungary was divided between the Ottoman and Habsburg empires.[55]

Principality of Transylvania

Transylvania became an Ottoman vassal state, where native princes, who paid the Turks tribute, ruled with considerable autonomy.[55] Austrian and Turkish influences vied for supremacy for nearly two centuries. It is this period of independence and Turkish influence that contributed to Transylvania being seen as exotic in the eyes of Victorians such as Bram Stoker, whose novel Dracula was published in 1897.[56]

Because Transylvania was now beyond the reach of Catholic religious authority, Protestant preaching such as Lutheranism and Calvinism were able to flourish in the region. In 1568 the Edict of Turda proclaimed four religious expressions in Transylvania - Latin Rite or Eastern Rite Catholicism, Lutheranism, Calvinism and Unitarianism (Unitarian Church of Transylvania), while Eastern Orthodoxy, which was the confession of almost the entire ethnic Romanian part of the population, was proclaimed as "tolerated" (tolerata).

The Báthory, a Hungarian noble family, began to rule Transylvania as princes under the Ottomans in 1571, and briefly under Habsburg suzerainty until 1600. The latter period of their rule saw a four-sided conflict in Transylvania involving the Transylvanian Báthorys, the emerging Austrian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Romanian voivoideship (province) of Wallachia. This included a one year period of Romanian rule after the conquest of the territory by Wallachian voivod Michael the Brave. As he subsequently extended his rule over Moldavia, Michael the Brave unified all the territories where Romanians lived, rebuilding the mainland of the ancient Kingdom of Dacia[57]

The three principalities were united under Romanian rule from 1599 to 1600

The Calvinist magnate of Bihar county Stephen Bocskai managed to obtain, through the Peace of Vienna (June 23, 1606), religious liberty and political autonomy for the region, the restoration of all confiscated estates, the repeal of all "unrighteous" judgments, as well as his own recognition as independent sovereign prince of an enlarged Transylvania. Under Bocskai's successors, most notably Gabriel Bethlen and George I Rákóczi, Transylvania passed through a golden age for many religious movements and for the arts and culture. Transylvania became one of the few European States where Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Lutherans and Unitarians lived in peace, although Orthodox Romanians continued to be denied equal recognition.

This golden age and relative independence of Transylvania ended with the reign of George II Rákóczi. The prince, coveting the Polish crown, allied with Sweden and invaded Poland in spite of the Turkish Porte clearly prohibiting any military action. Rákóczi's defeat in Poland, combined with the subsequent invasions of Transylvania by the Turks and their Crimean Tatar allies, the ensuing loss of territory (most importantly, the loss of the most important Transylvanian stronghold, Oradea) and diminishing manpower led to the complete subordination of Transylvania, which now became a powerless vassal of the Ottoman Empire.

Within the Habsburg Empire

After the defeat of the Ottomans at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Habsburgs gradually began to impose their rule on the formerly autonomous Transylvania. Apart from strengthening the central government and administration, the Habsburgs also promoted the Roman Catholic Church, both as a uniting force and also as an instrument to reduce the influence of the Protestant nobility. In addition, they tried to persuade Romanian Orthodox clergymen to join the Greek (Byzantine Rite) Catholic Church in union with Rome. As a response to this policy, several peaceful movements of the Romanian Orthodox population advocated for freedom of worship for all the Transylvanian population, most notably being the movements led by Visarion Sarai, Nicolae Oprea Miclăuş and Sofronie of Cioara. Additional Germans settled in the principality under official colonization schemes and a large number of Romanians, fleeing the Turkish rule in their own principalities, also moved in to occupy vacant lands.[5]

The Transylvanian Principality in 1857
Administrative map of Hungary, Galicia and Transylvania in 1862

From 1711 onward, the princes of Transylvania were replaced with imperial governors[7][11] and in 1765 Transylvania was declared a Grand Principality, further consolidating its special separate status within the Habsburg Empire established by the Diploma Leopoldinum in 1691.[10] The Hungarian historiography sees this as a mere formality.[58][59] Within the Habsburg-controlled Kingdom of Hungary there was a separate administrative Hungary and Transylvania.

The revolutionary year 1848 was marked by a great struggle between the Hungarians, the Romanians and the Habsburg Empire. The Hungarians promised for Romanians the abolition of serfdom for their support against Austria.[45] The Romanians rejected the offer and instead rose against the Hungarian national state.[45] Warfare erupted in November with both Romanian and Saxon troops, under Austrian command, battling the Hungarians led by the Polish born general Józef Bem in Transylvania. He carried out a sweeping offensive through Transylvania,[citation needed] and Avram Iancu managed to retreat to the harsh terrain of the Apuseni Mountains, mounting a guerrilla campaign on Bem's forces. After the intervention by the armies of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, Bem's army was defeated decisively at the Battle of Timişoara (Temesvár, Hun.) on 9 August 1849.

Having quashed the revolution, Austria imposed a repressive regime on Hungary, ruled Transylvania directly through a military governor and granted citizenship to the Romanians.[citation needed]

The 300-year long special separate status came to an end by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which established the dual monarchy and reincorporated Transylvania into Hungary. On 20 June 1867, the Diet was dissolved by royal decree, and an ordinance abrogated the legislative acts of the Cluj-Napoca provincial assembly. The department of the interior inherited the responsibilities of the Transylvanian Gubernium, and the government reserved the right to name Transylvania's royal magistrates as well as the Saxon bailiff of the Universitas Saxorum. Hungarian legislation also came to supersede the Austrian code of civil procedure, penal law, commercial law, and regulations for bills of exchange.

The new unity of Austria-Hungary created a process Magyarization affecting Transylvania's Romanians[60] and German Saxons.[61] After the Ausgleich of 1867, when an autonomous government for the Kingdom of Hungary was formed within Austria-Hungary, the importance of Transylvania as a core territory was once again illustrated when Hungarian leaders successfully demanded and secured Transylvania's return to the Hungarian Kingdom. By the 1890s, the Hungarians government began implementing vigurous Magyarization policies in an attempt to integrate the territories of the Hungarian Kingdom. Those Magyarization policies were primarily directed at Transylvania.[62] In an important sense, Transylvania was the historical breeding ground of Hungarian romantic nationalism. Its Magyar-led anti-Hapsburg struggles preceded the popular nationalism that emerged among the Pannonian Magyars in the early nineteenth century. Even after the revolution of 1848 and the 1867 Ausgleich separating Austria from Hungary, Transylvanian aristocrats continued to exert a high degree of power since Hungary adopted what some historians call an official nationalism.[63]

The signers of the Transylvanian Memorandum

Although Romanians formed the majority of Transylvania's population (59%), they had not been awarded legal status as a nation. In 1892 the leaders of the Romanians of Transylvania sent a Memorandum to the Austro-Hungarian Emperor-King Franz Joseph, asking for equal ethnic rights with the Hungarians, and demanding an end to persecutions and Magyarization attempts. Franz Josef forwarded the memorandum to Budapest, and the authors were tried for "homeland betrayal" in May 1894, being sentenced to long prison terms.

Clickable Map of the Grand Duchy of Transylvania

Page 1: Căuaş, Craidorolţ, Moftin Page 2: Pir, Săuca, Santău Page 3: Acâş, Săcăşeni, Săuca, Tăşnad Page 4: Acâş, Beltiug, Craidorolţ Page 5: Asuaju de Sus, Băiţa de sub Codru Page 6: Bârsău, Fărcaşa, Gârdani, Recea, Satulung Page 7: Baia Sprie, Coltău, Săcălăşeni, Recea Page 8: Boianu Mare, Săuca, Viişoara Page 9: Bobota, Cehal, Chegea, Supuru de Sus Page 10: Bicaz, Bogdand, Hodod, Supur Page 11: Ariniş, Asuaju de Sus, Băiţa de sub Codru, Băseşti, Bicaz, Hodod, Oarţa de Jos Page 12: Mireşu Mare, Şomcuta Mare, Ulmeni Page 13: Cărbunari, Copalnic-Mănăştur, Remetea Chioarului Page 14: Cerneşti, Cupşeni Page 15: Băiuţ Page 16: Balc, Carastelec, Ip, Măerişte Page 17: Bocşa, Chieşd, Coşeiu, Hodod, Sărmăşag Page 18: Benesat, Cehu Silvaniei, Dobrin, Sălăţig, Someş-Odorhei Page 19: Benesat, Valea Chioarului Page 20: Boiu Mare, Copalnic-Mănăştur, Şomcuta Mare, Vima Mică Page 21: Cerneşti, Cupşeni, Târgu Lăpuş Page 22: Lăpuş, Groşii Ţibleşului Page 23: Romuli Page 24: Romuli Page 25: Cosniciu de Sus, Ip, Halmăşd Page 26: Crasna, Halmăşd, Ip, Nuşfalău, Şimleu Silvaniei Page 27: Crişeni, Hereclean, Pericei, Recea, Zalău Page 28: Creaca, Dobrin, Jibou, Mirşid, Someş-Odorhei, Surduc Page 29: Băbeni, Ileanda, Letca, Lozna, Năpradea, Surduc Page 30: Coroieni, Gâlgău, Ileanda, Poiana Blenchii Page 31: Boireni, Chiuieşti, Coroieni Page 32: Suciu de Sus, Târlişua Page 33: Telciu, Zagra Page 34: Empty Page 35: Empty Page 36: Empty Page 37: Bănişor, Cizer, Iaz, Marin, Sâg, Valcău de Jos Page 38: Horoatu Crasnei, Meseşenii de Jos, Treznea, Zalău Page 39: Bălan, Creaca, Românaşi Page 40: Cristolţ, Gârbou, Surduc, Zalha Page 41: Bobâlna, Câţcău, Gâlgău, Şimişna, Vad Page 42: Căşeiu, Ciceu-Giurgeşti, Negrileşti Page 43: Căianu Mic, Spermezeu, Uriu Page 44: Coşbuc, Nimigea, Năsăud, Runcu Salvei, Salva, Zagra Page 45: Parva, Rebra, Sângeorz-Băi Page 46: Măgura Ilvei, Maieru, Rodna, Şanţ Page 47: Empty Page 48: Cizer, Ciucea Page 49: Agrij, Almaşu, Buciumi Page 50: Dragu, Hida, Sânmihaiu Almaşului, Zimbor Page 51: Bobâlna, Gârbou, Panticeu, Recea-Cristur Page 52: Aluniş, Bobâlna, Dej, Corneşti, Jichişu de Jos Page 53: Căşeiu, Ciceu-Mihăieşti, Cuzdrioara, Dej, Mica, Petru Rareş, Uriu Page 54: Căianu Mic, Chiuza, Nimigea, Şieu-Odorhei, Şintereag, Uriu Page 55: Dumitra, Năsăud, Nimigea, Rebrişoara, Şintereag Page 56: Feldru, Ilva Mică, Leşu, Tiha Bârgăului Page 57: Ilva Mare Page 58: Empty Page 59: Poieni, Săcuieu Page 60: Almaşu, Fildu de Jos, Huedin, Săcuieu, Sâncraiu Page 61: Aghireşu, Cuzăplac, Dragu, Zimbor Page 62: Aşchileu, Dăbâca, Dragu, Panticeu, Vultureni Page 63: Corneşti, Dăbâca, Gherla, Iclod, Mintiu Gherlii Page 64: Fizeşu Gherlii, Gherla, Mintiu Gherlii, Sânmartin, Unguraş Page 65: Chiochiş, Lechinţa, Matei, Nuşeni, Şieu-Odorhei Page 66: Bistriţa, Budacu de Jos, Şieu-Măgheruş, Şintereag Page 67: Cetate, Josenii/Mureşenii/Susenii Bârgăului Page 68: Mureşenii Bârgăului Page 69: Mărgău Page 70: Călăţele, Căpuşu Mare, Izvoru Crişului, Mănăstireni, Sâncraiu Page 71: Aghireşu, Căpuşu Mare, Cluj-Napoca Page 72: Chinteni, Cluj-Napoca, Sânmartin Page 73: Cluj-Napoca, Dăbâca, Iclod, Jucu, Sic Page 74: Buza, Fizeşu Gherlii, Pălatca, Sânmartin, Ţaga Page 75: Chiochiş, Lechinţa, Matei Page 76: Galaţii Bistriţei, Mărişelu, Şieu Page 77: Dumitriţa, Şieu, Şieuţ Page 78: Empty Page 79: Empty Page 80: Someşu Cald Page 81: Dângău Mare, Mărişel Page 82: Căpuşu Mare, Cluj-Napoca, Floreşti, Gilău, Săvădisla Page 83: Apahida, Cluj-Napoca Page 84: Căianu, Cluj-Napoca, Jucu Page 85: Cămăraşu, Cătina, Geaca, Mociu, Pălatca, Suatu Page 86: Budeşti, Miceştii de Câmpie, Sânmihaiu de Câmpie Page 87: Batoş, Lunca, Milaş, Teaca Page 88: Batoş, Monor, Ruşii-Munţi, Vătava Page 89: Deda Page 90: Lunca Bradului, Stânceni Page 91: Bilbor Page 91a: Empty Page 92: Empty Page 93: Măguri-Răcătău Page 94: Ciurila, Săvădisla Page 95: Ciurila, Cluj-Napoca Page 96: Ceanu Mare, Cluj-Napoca, Suatu Page 97: Cămăraşu, Frata, Sărmaşu, Suatu Page 98: Crăieşti, Sânpetru de Câmpie, Silivaşu de Câmpie, Râciu Page 99: Breaza, Cozma, Fărăgău, Lunca Page 100: Aluniş, Batoş, Brâncoveneşti, Ideciu de Jos, Suseni Page 101: Empty Page 102: Stânceni, Topliţa Page 103: Empty Page 103a: Empty Page 104: Avram Iancu, Ceru-Băcăinţi Page 105: Empty Page 106: Empty Page 107: Empty Page 108: Băişoara, Iara, Ocoliş Page 109: Iara, Mihai Viteazu, Petreştii de Jos, Sănduleşti Page 110: Câmpia Turzii, Ceanu Mare, Tritenii de Jos, Turda, Viişoara Page 111: Frata, Miheşu de Câmpie, Valea Largă, Zau de Câmpie Page 112: Ceuaşu de Câmpie, Grebenişu de Câmpie, Pogăceaua, Râciu, Şincai Page 113: Băla, Breaza, Ceuaşu de Câmpie, Fărăgău, Glodeni, Gorneşti, Voivodeni Page 114: Beica de Jos, Chiheru de Jos, Gorneşti, Gurghiu, Petelea, Reghin, Solovăstru Page 115: Hodac, Ibăneşti Page 116: Empty Page 117: Subcetate, Remetea Page 118: Empty Page 119: Hălmagiu, Pleşcuţa, Vârfurile Page 120: Bulzeştii de Sus, Hălmăgel, Hălmagiu, Vârfurile Page 121: Câmpeni, Sohodol, Vidra Page 122: Baia de Arieş, Bistra, Lupşa Page 123: Livezile, Ocoliş, Poşaga, Rimetea, Sălciua Page 124: Mihai Viteazu, Mirăslău, Moldoveneşti, Unirea Page 125: Câmpia Turzii, Cheţani, Luna Page 126: Cuci, Iclănzel, Luduş, Papiu Ilarian, Zau de Câmpie Page 127: Band, Iclănzel, Ogra, Pănet Page 128: Ceuaşu de Câmpie, Ernei, Livezeni, Sântana de Mureş, Sângeorgiu de Mureş, Sâncraiu de Mureş, Târgu Mureş, Veţa Page 129: Bereni, Gorneşti, Hodoşa, Măgherani, Vărgata Page 130: Empty Page 131: Empty Page 132: Ciumani, Gheorgheni, Joseni, Lăzarea, Suseni Page 133: Gherman, Ivaneş Page 134: Vaţa de Jos Page 135: Baia de Criş, Bulzeştii de Sus, Ribiţa, Tomeşti Page 136: Abrud, Blăjeni, Buceş, Bulzeştii de Sus, Ciuruleasa Page 137: Bucium, Lupşa, Mogoş, Roşia Montană Page 138: Întregalde, Ponor, Râmeţ Page 139: Aiud, Livezile, Mirăslău, Ocna Mureş, Unirea Page 140: Aţântiş, Hopârta, Lunca Mureşului, Noşlac, Ocna Mureş Page 141: Aţintiş, Bichiş, Cucerdea, Cuci, Iernut Page 142: Cristeşti, Gheorghe Doja, Mica, Ogra, Sânpaul, Ungheni Page 143: Acăţari, Corunca, Crăciuneşti, Cristeşti, Găleşti, Păsăreni Page 144: Bereni, Găleşti, Ghindari, Măgherani, Miercurea Nirajului, Neaua Page 145: Atid, Praid, Sărăţeni, Sovata Page 146: Empty Page 147: Ciumani, Suseni, Voslăbeni Page 148: Empty Page 149: Gurasada, Vorţa, Zam Page 150: Brad, Crişcior, Luncoiu de Jos, Vorţa Page 151: Almaşu Mare, Balşa, Buceş, Bucium, Bucureşci, Zlatna Page 152: Zlatna Page 153: Cricău, Galda de Jos, Ighiu, Stremţ Page 154: Aiud, Bucerdea Grânoasă, Lopadea Nouă, Mihalţ, Rădeşti, Stremţ, Teiuş Page 155: Fărău, Lopadea Nouă, Sâncel, Şona Page 156: Adămuş, Cetatea de Baltă, Fărău, Jidvei, Târnăveni Page 157: Bahnea, Băgaciu, Găneşti, Mica Page 158: Acăţari, Bălăuşeri, Coroisânmartin, Nadeş, Zagăr Page 159: Atid, Fântânele, Sângeorgiu de Pădure, Veţca Page 160: Atid, Avrămeşti, Corund, Lupeni, Şimoneşti Page 161: Empty Page 162: Mădăraş Page 163: Cârţa, Dăneşti, Mădăraş, Mihăileni, Sândominic, Tomeşti Page 164: Lunca de Sus Page 165: Lăpugiu de Jos Page 166: Burjuc, Dobra, Gurasada, Ilia, Lăpugiu de Jos Page 167: Băiţa, Brănişca, Certeju de Sus, Ilia, Şoimuş, Vălişoara, Veţel Page 168: Almaşu Mare, Băiţa, Balşa, Certeju de Sus, Geoagiu Page 169: Almaşu-Mare, Ceru-Băcăinţi, Geoagiu, Meteş, Zlatna Page 170: Alba Iulia, Ciugud, Ighiu, Meteş Page 171: Berghin, Blaj, Crăciunelu de Jos, Mihalţ, Ohaba, Roşia de Secaş, Sântimbru Page 172: Blaj, Cergău, Jidvei, Valea Lungă Page 173: Bazna, Blăjel, Cetatea de Baltă, Jidvei, Mediaş, Micăsasa, Târnava Page 174: Alma, Bahnea, Blăjel, Brateiu, Dârlos, Dumbrăveni, Viişoara Page 175: Hoghilag, Laslea, Nadeş, Sighişoara, Viişoara, Vânători Page 176: Albeşti, Avrămeşti, Cristuru Secuiesc, Săcel, Secuieni, Veţca Page 177: Cristuru Secuiesc, Feliceni, Lupeni, Mugeni, Odorheiu Secuiesc, Şimoneşti Page 178: Brădeşti, Căpâlniţa, Dealu, Odorheiu Secuiesc, Satu Mare, Vlăhiţa, Zetea Page 179: Racu, Siculeni, Vlăhiţa Page 180: Ciceu, Frumoasa, Miercurea Ciuc, Mihăileni, Păuleni-Ciuc, Racu, Stânceni, Topliţa Page 180a: Empty Page 181: Dobra, Lăpugiu de Jos Page 182: Bătrâna, Cerbăl, Dobra, Pestişu Mic, Veţel Page 183: Almaşu Mare, Brănişca, Cârjiţi, Deva, Hărău, Pestişu Mic, Simeria, Şoimuş, Veţel Page 184: Certeju de Sus, Geoagiu, Hărău, Rapoltu Mare, Simeria, Turdaş Page 185: Blandiana, Ceru-Băicăinţi, Cugir, Geoagiu, Săliştea, Şibot Page 186: Alba Iulia, Cut, Daia Română, Pianu, Sebeş, Vinţu de Jos Page 187: Berghin, Daia Română, Doştat, Păuca, Roşia de Secaş, Şpring Page 188: Călvasăr, Cenade, Cergău, Micăsasa, Păuca, Şeica Mare, Şeica Mică Page 189: Axente Sever, Copşa Mică, Mediaş, Şeica Mare, Valea Viilor Page 190: Aţel, Biertan, Brateiu, Hoghilag, Laslea, Moşna Page 191: Apold, Daneş, Laslea, Sighişoara Page 192: Albeşti, Apold, Saschiz, Vânători Page 193: Dârjiu, Feliceni, Mugeni, Odorheiu Secuiesc, Porumbenii Mari, Ulieş, Vânători Page 194: Feliceni, Mărtiniş, Mereşti, Odorheiu Secuiesc, Vlăhiţa Page 195: Empty Page 196: Ciucsângeorgiu, Leliceni, Miercurea Ciuc, Sâncrăieni, Sântimbru Page 197: Empty Page 198: Bunila, Cerbăl, Ghelari, Lelese, Lunca Cernii de Jos, Topliţa Page 199: Călan, Ghelari, Hunedoara, Pestişu Mic, Teliucu Inferior Page 200: Băcia, Beriu, Călan, Mărtineşti, Orăştie, Simeria, Turdaş Page 201: Cugir, Romos Page 202: Câlnic, Gârbova, Pianu, Săsciori, Sebeş Page 203: Apoldu de Jos, Gârbova, Ludoş, Miercurea Sibiului, Ocna Sibiului, Şpring Page 204: Loamneş, Ocna Sibiului, Slimnic Page 205: Alţâna, Mihăileni, Şeica Mare Page 206: Agnita, Alţâna, Bârghiş, Moşna Page 207: Brădeni, Iacobeni, Merghindeal Page 208: Buneşti, Jibert Page 209: Buneşti, Caţa, Rupea, Ulieş Page 210: Brăduţ, Caţa, Homorod, Mărtiniş, Ocland, Vârghiş Page 211: Băţani, Brăduţ Page 212: Cozmeni, Plăieşii de Jos, Sânmartin, Sânsimion, Tuşnad Page 213: Plăieşii de Jos Page 214: Lunca Cernii de Jos, Răchitova, Topliţa Page 215: Bretea Română, Călan, General Berthelot, Haţeg Page 216: Boşorod, Bretea Română, Orăştioara de Sus Page 217: Empty Page 218: Jina, Şugag Page 219: Amnaş, Galeş, Tilişca Page 220: Cristian, Hamba, Sibiu, Şura Mare Page 221: Daia, Roşia, Vurpăr Page 222: Alţâna, Chirpăr, Nocrich Page 223: Bruiu, Cincu, Seliştat Page 224: Bărcuţ, Felmer, Jibert Page 225: Hoghiz, Homorod, Rupea, Ungra Page 226: Augustin, Baraolt, Ormeniş Page 227: Baraolt, Băţani Page 228: Bixad, Sânzieni Page 229: Estelnic, Lemnia, Mereni, Poian, Sânzieni Page 230: Băuţar Page 231: Densuş, Râu de Mori, Sarmizegetusa Page 232: Pui, Sălaşu de Sus, Sântămăria-Orlea, Toteşti Page 233: Boşorod, Pui Page 234: Empty Page 235: Empty Page 236: Gura Râului, Orlat Page 237: Cisnădie, Mohu, Răşinari Page 238: Avrig, Caşolţ, Porumbacu Page 239: Arpaş, Cârţa, Săsăuş Page 240: Calbor, Rucăr, Voila Page 241: Mândra, Făgăraş, Şercaia Page 242: Comăna, Hoghiz, Părău Page 243: Aita Mare, Apaţa, Belin, Măieruş Page 244: Bodoc, Malnaş, Valea Crişului Page 245: Cernat, Sânzieni, Turia Page 246: Breţcu, Catalina, Lemnia, Mereni, Ojdula, Poian, Sânzieni, Târgu Secuiesc Page 247: Empty Page 248: Baru, Pui, Sălaşu de Sus Page 249: Baru, Băniţa, Ponor Page 250: Petrila Page 251: Empty Page 252: Empty Page 253: Boiţa, Tălmaciu, Sadu Page 254: Racoviţa, Porceşti, Sebeş Page 255: Cârţişoara, Ucea Page 256: Lisa, Recea, Săsciori, Viştea Page 257: Hîrseni, Recea, Şinca Page 258: Dumbrăviţa, Perşani Page 259: Crizbav, Feldioara, Hălchiu Page 260: Ghidfalău, Ilieni, Sf.Gheorghe, Reci Page 261: Boroşneu, Moacşa, Reci Page 262: Catalina, Ghelniţa, Ojdula Page 263: Empty Page 264: Uricani Page 265: Petroşani, Vulcan Page 266: Petrila, Petroşani Page 267: Empty Page 268: Codlea, Holbav, Vulcan Page 269: Braşov, Hălchiu, Hărman Page 270: Ozun, Prejmer, Teliu Page 271: Boroşneu, Covasna, Pachia Page 272: Covasna Page 273: Moieciu, Râşnov, Tohan, Zărneşti Page 274: Braşov, Săcele, Timişu de Jos Page 275: Budila, Săcele, Tărlungeni Page 276: Floroaia, Scrădoasa Page 277: Empty Page 278: Fundata, Moieciu, Şimon Page 279: Întorsura Buzăului Page 280: Empty Page 0: Legend Background: Original map(mini) Original map
Josephinische Landesaufnahme. Senzitive map of the Grand Duchy of Transylvania, 1769-1773. (Click on the desired quadrant)

Part of Romania

The National Assembly in Alba Iulia (December 1, 1918)

As Austria-Hungary disintegrated at the end of World War I, the nationalities living there proclaimed their independence from the empire. The 1228-member National Assembly of Romanians of Transylvania and Hungary, headed by leaders of Transylvania's Romanian National Party and Social Democratic Party, passed a resolution calling for unification of all Romanians in a single state on 1 December in Alba Iulia.[64] This was approved by the National Council of the Germans from Transylvania and the Council of the Danube Swabians from the Banat, on 15 December in Mediaş. In response, the Hungarian General Assembly of Cluj reaffirmed the loyalty of Hungarians from Transylvania to Hungary on December 22, 1918. (See also: Union of Transylvania with Romania) The Treaty of Versailles placed Transylvania under the sovereignty of Romania, an ally of the Triple Entente, and the Treaty of St. Germain (1919) and the Treaty of Trianon (signed in June 1920) further elaborated the status of Transylvania and defined the new border between the states of Hungary and Romania.[65][66] King Ferdinand I of Romania and Queen Maria of Romania were crowned at Alba Iulia in 1922 as King and Queen of all Romania.

Greater Romania Historical Provinces after World War I

The new regime's objective became to effectively Romanianize Transylvania in a social-political fashion, after centuries of Hungarian rule.[67] The regime's goal was to create a Romanian middle and upper class that would assume power in all fields. The Hungarian language was expunged from official life that it solely occupied before, and all place-names were Romanianized.[68] About 197,000 Transylvanian Hungarians fled to Hungary between 1918 and 1922,[69] and a further group of 169,000 emigrated over the remainder of the interwar period.[68] In 1930, Romanians formed the majority of the Transylvanian population (58.2%, up from 53.8% in 1910), while Magyars (26.7%, down from 31.6% in 1910), Germans (9.8%) and Jews (3.2%) were minority groups.[70] The expropriation of the estates of Magyar magnates, the distribution of the lands to the Romanian peasants, and the policy of cultural Romanianization that followed were major causes of friction between Hungary and Romania.[45]

In August 1940, the second Vienna Award granted the Northern Transylvania to Hungary. After the Treaty of Paris (1947), at the end of World War II, the territory was returned to Romania. The post-World War II borders with Hungary, agreed on at the Treaty of Paris, were identical with those set out in 1920.

After World War II and especially after the fall of Communism, Transylvania lost almost all of the German-speaking population, most of them left for Germany.

After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, a Hungarian minority group is pressing for greater autonomy in the Szekler Region (the counties of Harghita and Covasna and part of Mures County) where its members outnumber Romanians.[71][72] There have been tensions in Transylvania between Romanians and ethnic Hungarians who want autonomy.[72][73] The Hungarians said they were the target of attacks by Romanian politicians and news organizations.[73] They say the aim is to forcibly assimilate the Hungarian minority of 1.43 million people, or 6.6% the Romanian population. Romanians chided the Hungarians for refusing to integrate and in some cases for their ignorance of the Romanian language.[73]

In 1996 Romania and Hungary signed a Basic Treaty on Understanding, Cooperation, and Good-Neighborliness, one of the aims being protection and development of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of the Hungarian minority in Romania and the Romanian minority in Hungary[74] receiving good feedback from US and EU members in the context of NATO enlargement.[75][76]

Hungarian minority in Transylvania

In 2003, the Szekler National Council was founded - a local Hungarian group with autonomy as its stated goal.[72] Unlike the Kosovars, the Szeklers are asking for autonomy within Romania rather than complete independence, leaving foreign policy and national defense in the hands of the government in Bucharest.[72]

A new and more radical organization, the Hungarian Civic Party, has risen to challenge the establishment Hungarian party and has advocated for the autonomy of the Szekler region.[72] The Hungarian politician, László Tőkés, one of the party leaders, is pressing for greater autonomy, saying that Romanian and Hungarian authorities have to reach an agreement regarding the statute of the Hungarian community, the Szeckler county respectively.[77]

However, relations between Romania and Hungary have improved significantly.[78] The governments of Hungary and Romania held their second annual joint session in 2006. The main objective is convergence of Hungarian and Romanian National Development Plans. In particular they are keen to increase co-operation aimed at improving their absorption capacity of EU funds and to ensure development in line with EU standards. The two countries are also working closely on policies to promote the welfare of ethnic Romanians living in Hungary and ethnic Magyar (Hungarians) in Romania.[78]

Geography and ethnography

Romanian ethnographic regions (Transylvania-red; Maramureş-blue; Sǎtmar-green; Crişana-yellow; Banat-purple)
Hungarian ethnographic regions (King's Pass - yellow; Western Transylvania - green; Eastern Transylvania - blue)

The Transylvanian plateau, 300 to 500 metres (1,000-1,600 feet) high, is drained by the Mureş, Someş, Criş, and Olt rivers, as well as other tributaries of the Danube. This core of historical Transylvania roughly corresponds with nine counties of modern Romania. Other areas to the west and north, which also united with Romania in 1918 (inside the border established by peace treaties in 1919-20), are since that time widely considered part of Transylvania.

See also Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary. In common reference, the Western border of Transylvania has come to be identified with the present Romanian-Hungarian border, settled in the Treaty of Trianon, although geographically the two are not identical.

Administrative divisions

The historical region granted to Romania in 1920 covered 23 counties including nearly 102,200 km² (102,787 - 103,093 in Hungarian sources and 102,200 in contemporary Romanian documents) now due to the several administrative reorganisations Transylvania covers 16 present-day counties (Romanian: judeţ) which include nearly 99,837 km² of central and northwest Romania. The 16 counties are:

The most populous cities are:

Population

Historical definitions of Transylvania vary geographically. The 2002 Romanian census classified Transylvania as the entire region of Romania west of the Carpathians. This region has a population of 7,221,733, with a large Romanian majority (75.9%). There are also sizeable Hungarian (20%), Roma (3.3%), German (0.7%) and Serb (0.1%) communities.[79][80] The ethnic Hungarian population of Transylvania, largely composed of Székely, form a majority in the counties of Covasna and Harghita.

Population in Tranylvania at the time of the Treaty of Trianon.

The percentage of Romanian majority has increased since the union of Transylvania with Romania after World War I in 1918 (the 1910 Census indicates a total population of 5,262,495, Romanians 53.8%; Hungarians 31.6%; Germans 10.7%), it should be noted however that the number of Hungarians grew at twice the rate of the overall population, mostly due to pre-World War I policies of Magyarization.[81]

The expropriation of the estates of Magyar magnates, the distribution of the lands to the Romanian peasants, and the policy of cultural Romanianization that followed the Treaty of Trianon were major causes of friction between Hungary and Romania.[82] Other factors include the emigration of non-Romanian peoples, assimilation and internal migration within Romania (estimates show that between 1945 and 1977, some 630,000 people moved from the Old Kingdom to Transylvania, and 280,000 from Transylvania to the Old Kingdom, most notably to Bucharest).[83]

Economy

Transylvania is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite, iron, lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, salt and sulfur.

There are large iron and steel, chemical, and textile industries. Stock raising, agriculture, wine production and fruit growing are important occupations. Timber is another valuable resource.

Transylvania accounts for around 35% of Romania's GDP, and has a GDP per capita (PPP) of around $11,500, around 10% higher than the Romanian average.

Tourist attractions

Historical coat of arms of Transylvania

The historical arms of Transylvania (1659).

The first heraldic representations of Transylvania date from the 16th century. One of the predominant early symbols of Transylvania was the coat of arms of Sibiu city. In 1596 Levinus Hulsius created a coat of arms for the imperial province of Transylvania, consisting of a shield party per fess, with a rising eagle in the upper field and seven hills with towers on top in the lower field. He published it in his work "Chronologia", issued in Nuremberg the same year. The seal from 1597 of Sigismund Bathory, prince of Transylvania, reproduced the new coat of arms with some slight changes: in the upper field the eagle was flanked by a sun and a moon and in the lower field the hills were replaced by simple towers.[87]

The seal of Michael the Brave from 1600 depicts the territory of the former Dacian kingdom: Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania:[88]

  • The black eagle (Wallachia)
  • The aurochs's head (Moldavia)
  • The seven hills (Transylvania).
  • Over the hills there were two rampant lions affrotns, supporting the trunk of a tree, as a symbol of the reunited Dacian kingdom.[88]

The Diet of 1659 codified the representation of the privileged nations in Transylvania's coat of arms. It depicted a black turul on a blue background, representing the nobility, a Sun and the Moon representing the Székelys, and seven red towers on a yellow background representing the seven fortified cities of the Transylvanian Saxons. The red dividing band was originally not part of the coat of arms.

Currently, unlike the counties included in it, the region of Transylvania does not have its own official coat of arms. Nonetheless, the historical coat of arms is currently present in the coat of arms of Romania, alongside the traditional coats of arms of the rest of Romanian's historical regions.

Gallery

Fiction

Following the publication of Emily Gerard's The Land Beyond the Forest (1888), Bram Stoker wrote his gothic horror novel Dracula in 1897, using Transylvania as a setting. Due to the success of the latter work, Transylvania became associated in the English-speaking world with vampires. Since then it has been represented in fiction and literature as a land of mystery and magic. For example, in Paulo Coelho's novel The Witch of Portobello, the main character, Sherine Khalil, is described as a Transylvanian orphan with a Romani mother, in an effort to add to the character's exotic mystique. The so-called Transylvanian trilogy of historical novels by Miklos Banffy, The Writing on the Wall, is an extended treatment of the 19th and early 20th century social and political history of the country.

References

  1. ^ Gyula - it is possible that during the 10th century some of the holders of the title of gyula also used Gyula as a personal name, but the issue has been confused because the chronicler of one of the most important primary sources (the Gesta Hungarorum) has been shown to have used titles or even names of places as personal names in some cases.
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Further reading

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Balkans : Romania : Transylvania
Rasnov fortress emerging over the misty hill.
Rasnov fortress emerging over the misty hill.

Transylvania is the largest region of Romania and probably the best known one. When you visit Transylvania you dive into the mix of cultures, nature and history. Transylvania is a unitary region, but diverse at the same time: it is worth trying to observe the differences between the region, both culturally and naturally.This region is a place with abundant history and multicultural convergence. All over Transylvania the cohabitation of Romanians, Hungarians, Saxons and Rromas is the leading theme. Transylvania is rich in myth and misty medieval sites: there about 100 castles and fortresses and about 70 fortified churches. Romania's greatest and best preserved castles and fortresses are to be found here. But for the more curious traveler, there are many small villages with old houses and fortified churches. As Transylvania is circled by the Carpathian mountains there are a lot of mountain forests and hiking or climbing possibilities. All over the Carpathians there are great national parks. In the center of Transylvania there are green hills and rivers. Most big cities are very western Europe like, and the infrastructure is generally good, making it easy for travelers.

Regions in Transylvania with the capital cities of the counties.
Regions in Transylvania with the capital cities of the counties.
South-east
This region, with Sibiu and Brasov, has a more pronounced Saxon background. It is one of the most popular places for travelers due to its richness in fortresses (Rasnov, Bran), old towns, fortified churches in picturesque villages (Biertan) and mountain forests (Piatra Craiului). It is also home to some of the most important ski resorts(Poiana Brasov).
East
The region around Sfantu Gheorghe, Miercurea Ciuc and Targu Mures has strong Hungarian cultural influences. The countys Harghita (Miercurea Ciuc) and Covasna (Sfantu Gheorghe) are also known as the Szeklerland. Here you can buy fresh bread and Kurtos Kolacs from locals or see the Sfanta Ana lake.
South-west
Hunedoara (Deva) and Alba (Alba Iulia) are important historical sites for Romanian culture. Alba Iulia was the place where the unification of the Romanian regions took place. In this region you can see a the great Corvinesti Castle, lakes, caves and other beautiful natural sites. The main acces points to Retezat National Park are to be found here.
North-west
Cluj and Bistrita Nasaud are harder to define in terms of a cultural predominant. Cluj Napoca is a very important university and research city. It also has important historical and cultural landmarks. Around it there are picturesque villages (Romanian, Hungarian and German). Near Turda you can visit the imposing Turda Canyon. Bistrita Nasaud is famous for its lakes, caves, health resorts, but also historical sites. Giurtelecu Şimleului is also in this region.

Understand

Even though some people may only associate the name with tales of bloodthirsty vampires (it played host to Bram Stoker's novel "Dracula"), Transylvania is actually known as one of the most beautiful natural regions in Europe dotted with picturesque, medieval fortress towns and monasteries and lively cities with stunning baroque architecture which offer modern tourism services at a price far below that of, say, Germany or France. You can find here some of the most developed cities from Romania, but also old villages where people are living as they did one hundred years ago. Transylvania is surrounded by the misty Carpathian mountains and home to almost extinct fauna (bears, wolves) and flora (orchids and other plants).

Transylvania has all the history and multi-ethnic culture you want. The history of Transylvania is much disputed: once it was an integral part of Kingdom of Hungary (950-1526) it was independent Transylvanian Principality (1526-1690) from 1868 it was integral part of the Austrian-Hungarian empire and under its rule. These explain many cultural differences between Transylvania and the rest of Romania. It was home to a majority of Romanians, who had few rights, and ruling minorities such as Hungarian and Saxons. Other minorities included Roma and Jews. After world war I Transylvania became part of the Greater Romania. The relations between the ethnic minorities and majority has known tense times, but there has never been a serious conflict. Even though attitudes of individuals can still be closed towards out groups, Transylvania can be regarded as an example of different ethnic groups living together in peace. However, as the case of whole Europe, the Roma ethnicity is still seriously discriminated from Romanians and their culture far from understood. Communism has been a harsh time for ethnic minorities, especially for those who where small business owners (Hungarians, Jews) before the totalitarian regime. After the revolution in 1989, most Saxons moved to Germany (they settled to Romania in large groups in the 13th century). Romania has not yet become conscious about this huge loss. Many Hungarians left as well.

Today Transylvania is the most developed region in Romania, in part because of tourism, and in part because of a stronger capitalist tradition before world war II. The presence of the German and Hungarian minorities has been a catalyst for western influences in Transylvania after 1989. It is interesting to try to observe the differences in this small region: The south and south east is marked more by the Saxon culture, while the east and north east is marked more by the Hungarian culture. The north is a bit more slavish, and the south west is once again a little different. Try to see a few old villages, as people are in general very friendly.

Talk

Nowadays, almost everyone in Transylvania speaks Romanian, though for many of the ethnic Hungarians -- about 20% of the population, but far more in certain areas -- Hungarian is actually their first language. Few native German-speakers remain, but in any sizable town you should be easily able to find people who speak at least moderately good English, French, or German.

Get in

Transylvania is relatively easy to access, due to its relative economic prosperity, tourism industry and proximity to Central Europe.

By plane

There are three main airports in the region.

  • Cluj-Napoca International Airport [1] is located in north-western Transylvania. It's the largest airport in Transylvania and an emerging regional hub.
  • Sibiu International Airport [5] is located in the southern part of Transylvania.
    • BlueAir [6] flies to/from London, Madrid and Stuttgart;
    • Austrian Airlines [7] flies to/from Vienna;
    • Lufthansa [8] flies to/from Munich;
    • TAROM flies to/from Bucharest and Munich;
    • Carpatair flies to/from Timisoara;
  • Transilvania International Airport [9] is located in central Transylvania, near Târgu-Mureş. It has daily flights to/from Budapest with Wizzair, MALEV [10] and from Bucharest with TAROM.

By train

There are several daily international trains:

  • Dacia Express -links Vienna with Bucharest (via Budapest); it passes through various cities in the southern part of Transylvania (Deva, Alba Iulia, Mediaş, Sighisoara, Brasov);
  • Ister Express -a faster night train that links Budapest with Bucharest and has the same route as above;
  • Pannonia Express -links Prague with Bucharest (passing through Bratislava and Budapest) and reaches the same cities in southern Transylvania as the above trains;
  • Corona Express -a night train that links Budapest with Brasov going through Cluj and the eastern parts of Transylvania;
  • Ady Endre Express -links Budapest with Cluj (leaves from Cluj early in the morning, gets to Budapest around noon and then gets back to Cluj, arriving in the evening);
  • Maros/Mureş Express -links Budapest with Targu-Mureş;

Very frequent trains link cities in Transylvania with Bucharest and major cities in all other regions of Romania. Check timetables on infofer.ro [11].

Transylvania is a must see destination for people travelling in this part of Europe. Trains are usually the best way to travel between major Transylvanian cities and touristic destinations. However, many of the region's landmarks lie hidden from major transportation routes, so it is recommended you either rent a car or take buses to these places. Here you can find information about trains: [12] and [13]

You can find great and detailed road maps in any gas station throughout the country, in train stations and in most newsstands. These detailed road maps can lead you anywhere, without much guidance needed. Be careful though for secondary and tertiary roads are not clearly marked, so sometimes you have to ask for directions. People are usually very friendly and will help you get to the destination of your choice.

Buses are becoming a popular means of transportation in Transylvania. Usually, they leave from train stations in major cities, and stop in the central area of smaller ones.

As in all eastern Europe, hitchhiking is common and even a preferred way of transport for some locals. It is polite to leave the one who drives you some money, about 1-2 lei / 30min. However, people won't get mad if you don't leave anything and they might turn your money down anyway. Choosing the right spot for hitching increases your chances drastically- try to ask people on the street where to stand.

  • Sarmale - meat in wine or cabbage leaves
  • Mici - a symbol of Romania. To some locals it is like the sword to a samurai (but tastier).
  • Ciorba de Burta - tripe (cow stomach) soup. Tastes better than it sounds!
  • Bulz - cheese with polenta (only in Transylvania)
  • Papanasi - desert: try it love it
  • Bean soup in bread - you will be amazed from serving to licking your plate
  • Gulash
  • Cabbage soup
  • Lentil soup
  • Kurtos Kalacs - dessert, can be found around tourist attraction or in Hungarian zones on the road

Saxon dishes

There aren't many Saxon restaurants, but if you find one you can explore it and post some info here.

  • Ursus Black beer - a medium-bodied, dark lager arguably ranking among Eastern Europe's premier drinks
  • Bergenbier - a rich, German-style lager extremely popular throughout Romania
  • Stejar beer - A 7% strong beer with a distinct taste
  • Lacrima Lui Ovidiu - a nice, sweet Romanian wine, available in supermarkets for around 20 lei.
  • Dracula Beer - a kitsch beer sold to foreign tourists, around Bran Castle as well as supermarkets, noted for it's remarkably unsavory flavor.
  • Ciuc beer - One of the best beers part of the Group Heineken
  • Wine from a local wine cellar. You will find these in any town, just ask for "crama" (read: krahmah)
  • Horinca de Bihor, or other Tuica. This is a local brandy. Many locals brew their own natural and tasteful brandy. You can find it at locals (they will be happy to have you taste theirs) and in wine cellars.

Stay safe

Transylvania is not a land of dangers lurking around each darkened corner. It houses a relatively large bundle of police headquarters, so that if anything goes amiss in your journey, help will be close by. You should beware of pickpocketing around busy tourist attractions.

On the other hand, especially in heavily touristed towns like Sinaia, there will be some con men out to prey on tourists. Beware of the "maradona".

Police corruption has been reduced significantly and you should be better off being nice and friendly to the police officers, rather than offering him money. If you feel like you are being betrayed/abused by a police officer, ask for his superior.

  • Maramures in the north, Banat in the south west and Crisana in the west are historically tied to Transylvania and can be a good extension of your trip to Transylvania.
  • Moldova is popular for its monasteries and small villages.
  • Dobrogea is where you can go to the Black sea side.
  • In the south of Romania you can see the green Oltenia and the fieldy region of Muntenia.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

A map of Romania with Transylvania highlighted in yellow

Etymology

From the Latin preposition trans (meaning "across") + silvam, the accusative singular of silva meaning "forest". Meaning "across the forest".

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Transylvania

Plural
-

Transylvania

  1. A region in the west of Romania.

Translations

See also


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|Map of Romania, the part in yellow is Transylvania]]

File:Transsylvania
Transylvanian countryside. Near Bicalatu

Transylvania is a historical region of Romania. In the past, it was a part of Hungary, was an independent principality, belonged to the Ottoman Empire or was a province of Austria-Hungary.

Transylvania's main city, Cluj-Napoca, is seen as the region's informal capital. But Transylvania was also ruled from Alba Iulia during its dependence from the Ottoman Empire, and the seat of the Transylvanian Diet was moved to Sibiu for some time in the 19th century.

In popular culture, Transylvania is mainly known as the seat (and origin) of Count Dracula. This vampire story by Bram Stoker is based on a local nobleman Vlad III the Impaler, known for his cruelty.









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