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Caravan, Netherlands 2005
Car & camping trailer, 1933, Glacier National Park

A travel trailer or caravan is towed behind a road vehicle to provide a place to sleep which is more comfortable and protected than a tent (although there are fold-down trailer tents).[1] [2] It provides the means for people to have their own home on a journey or a vacation, without relying on a motel or hotel, and enables them to stay in places where none is available. However, in some countries campers are restricted to designated sites for which fees are payable.

Travel trailers and caravans vary from basic models which may be little more than a tent on wheels to those containing several rooms with all the furniture and furnishings and equipment of a home. They are used principally in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand and are rare elsewhere, so this article deals mainly with those continents/countries.

In all of these locations it is generally illegal for people to ride in a travel trailer or caravan while it is being towed on a public road.

Contents

History

Early house trailer
Early House-Trailer built in 1933 by Jack Porcella.
House trailer #2
House-Trailer at Crater Lake Hotel, Oregon, 1937.

In Europe, the origins of travel trailers and caravanning can be traced back to traveling Romani people ('Gypsies'), and showmen who spent most of their lives in horse drawn trailers.

The world's first leisure trailer was built by the Bristol Carriage Company in 1880 for Dr. W. Gordon-Stables. It was an 18 ft. design, based upon their Bible Wagons, which the Doctor named "Wanderer".

One of the first home-built house trailers in America. Built by John "Jack" Anthony Porcella, grocer-barber-restauranteer-miner who traveled extensively throughout the western states.

Modern travel trailers come in a range of sizes, from tiny two-berth trailers with no toilet and only basic kitchen facilities, to large, triple-axle, six-berth types.

Gypsy Caravans

Caravans have served both as a significant cultural icon and symbol of the nomadic Gypsy people. Until the early 19th century, Gypsy caravans served primarily as a means of transportation and not as a domicile[3]. At the beginning of the 19th century, more Gypsy people began to live in their caravans instead of sleeping in tents. The caravan offered greater protection from weather conditions and could be outfitted with modern amenities such as wood burning stoves[4]. Often, caravans were commissioned to be built at the request of newlywed couples and their families. The small-scale, pre-industrial methods of the builders and the labor-intensive nature of the building process meant that a family's caravan could take up to a year to build[5].

North America

Travel trailers

In the United States and Canada, the history of travel trailers can be traced back to the early 1920s, when those who enjoyed their use were often referred to as 'tin can tourists'.[6] As time progressed, trailers became more livable and earned a new name in the 1930s and 1940s, which was the house trailer.[7] In the 1950s and 1960s, the industry seemed to split, creating the two types that we see today, that of the recreational vehicle (RV) industry and mobile home industry. Today travel trailers are classified as a type of RV along with motorhomes, fifth wheel trailers, pop-up trailers, and truck campers.

Smaller travel trailers and pop-ups are still made with touring in mind. These generally are less than 18 feet (5.5 m) long and contain simple amenities. By design, they are lightweight and quick to set up or prepare for travel. Most weigh less than 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg) and can be towed with a large car or small truck depending upon its towing capacity. Lightweight pop-up trailers weighing less than 700 pounds (320 kg), such as the Combi-camper and Kamparoo can be towed even by small economy cars and small SUVs. Some exceptionally light travel trailers can be pulled by motorcycle. Fiberglass body construction entered the U.S. scene in 1971 with the introduction of the first U.S.-produced mini travel trailer, called the Playpac. The Playpac, invented by Steven Whysel, was the answer to the needs of the growing horde of VW "Bug" and other small-car owners who wanted a hard-shelled camper, light enough to be pulled by a small car, with a private water closet, shower and the ability to sleep six. Its ultramodern aerodynamic styling and domed skylight by the modernist Industrial Designer Toshihiko Sakow made it an instant hit. It was short-lived, however (1971–1973), as the first Arab oil embargo and the ensuing major slow-down of RV sales caused it to cease operations. The Boler travel trailer, produced earlier in Canada, soon joined the Playpac in the U.S. fiberglass light-weight class. The Hunter and Amerigo travel trailers were also on the scene by then.

19 ft (5.8 m) Scamp fiberglass camper

Mid-range travel trailers are 18 to 25 feet (5.5 to 7.6 m) long, can weigh 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) or more, and are generally towed with compact pickup trucks and SUVs. They have most of the amenities of the larger travel trailers, but sleep fewer people.

Airstream travel trailer

Larger travel trailers are made with the seasonal or full-time user in mind. These generally range from 25 to 40 feet (7.6 to 12 m) long and contain all the comforts of a luxury condominium. Because they require a purpose built tow vehicle, highway tractor or large truck or SUV, these amenity-laden homes can reach 12,000 pounds (5,400 kg) or more. While trailers may weigh in even above that, most long-box pickups have a maximum tow-weight of 15,500 pounds (7,000 kg). Multiple televisions and air conditioners are common in units of this size. Slide-out rooms and screen porches add to livability. By law, travel trailers are limited to 400 square feet (37 m2) of living area, and many models offer exactly that plus any optional slide-outs.

With all of the disincentives inherent in municipal zoning bylaws and building codes to affordable, ecological (off-grid) and compact housing solutions, travel-trailers offer a possibility for those considering an ecological full-time home or seasonal cottage. Travel-trailers are often acceptable on flood-plains, areas outside of urban growth limits, etc. where regular buildings may not tread. One of the great virtues of a trailer park is its light infrastructure, low ecological footprint, minimal land disturbance, abundant permeable surfaces (for stormwater drainage) and ease of site restoration.

Some specialized brands of trailer, such as the hi-lo trailer, have an upper half (slightly larger than the lower half) that can be folded down over the lower half to a total height of about five feet for reduced wind resistance during travel; these otherwise contain everything other travel trailers have (except for a full-height closet).

An innovation in the travel trailer types is the "toy box" or "toy hauler". Half living area and half garage, these trailers allow 'toys' to be brought to the countryside. A folding rear ramp give access for motorcycles, ATVs, personal watercraft or racecars. A generator provides power for the equipment.

A hybrid travel trailer

Another innovation is the hybrid travel trailer, combining the features of a pop-up trailer and a hard-sided trailer. In its camping configuration, one or more bunks fold down from the side with canvas tent covers. When in travel, the bunks fold up into the side of the trailer leaving four hard sides. Larger models allow the hybrid travel trailer to be used while "turtled", that is with the sides up. The primary advantage of a hybrid travel trailer is that it offers a greater space-to-weight ratio. A disadvantage is that the tent ends are not insulated and subject to heat loss and condensation.

In the United States, it is generally illegal for passengers to ride in a travel trailer, while in motion,[8][9][10][11][12] unlike horse-drawn trailers and coaches. Triple towing is not allowed in some states, such as California,[8] Alabama,[11] Florida,[12] or New York;[10] however, triple towing is permitted in Texas if the combined length does not exceed 65 feet (20 m)).[9]

Fifth-wheel trailers

A 'fifth-wheel' is a travel trailer supported by a hitch in the center of the bed of a pickup truck instead of a hitch at the back of a vehicle. The special hitch used for fifth-wheels is a smaller version of the one used on 18-wheeler trucks and can be connected by simply driving the tow vehicle under the trailer. Fifth wheel trailers are popular with full-time recreational vehicle enthusiasts, who often live in them for several months in one place, using their pickup truck tow vehicle for local errands. A fifth wheel trailer tows more securely than a traditional travel trailer. Because of the greater room available on the roads in North America, these vehicles are more popular in the United States and Canada than in Europe or other parts of the world.

United Kingdom

German Wohnwagen

The National Caravan Council estimate that the caravan industry which includes motorhomes, touring caravans (caravans designed to be hitched to a car and towed to a site) and static caravans and mobile homes (caravans designed to be transported to a permanent site, where they are anchored to the ground) is now worth over £1bn (€1.5bn/US$1.7bn) to the UK economy alone. The growth in popularity of caravanning has been enhanced by improvements in caravan quality and caravan site facilities making caravan holidays possible at any time of the year not just summer months.

Theft of touring caravans was a significant problem but this has reduced in recent years. In the UK, The Association of Chief Police Officers estimates that some 1,600 touring caravans are stolen each year but this is showing a downward trend Crime Reduction. Many caravan insurance companies require additional security features to be purchased such as wheel clamps and electronic tracking devices. The CRIS registration service has also helped track theft.

There are two main organisations that many caravanners join in the United Kingdom, the Caravan Club, established in 1907, and the Camping and Caravanning Club, established in 1901. Both clubs offer a range of services including exclusive club sites, preferential rates, advice, services such as insurance, and community activities including regional and national rallies.

BBC Top Gear

The BBC's televsion programme Top Gear detroys caravans continously throughout the series since its regeneration in 2002, leading to complaints from the caravan community.

Australia

1956 Propert 'Trailaway' Touring Caravan at the National Museum of Australia.

In Australia, camper trailers are common alongside the traditional caravan. Camper trailers differentiate themselves from similar products due to their ability to go off road. They feature large water holding tanks, batteries for electricity and off-road suspension. See also Caravan, RV & Accommodation Industry of Australia.

Amenities

A mid-range, modern travel trailer may contain the following features:

  • Powered wheel mover system (integrated or clip-on) to enable parking once unhitched
  • Gas/electric powered refrigerator
  • Gas/electric powered stove, oven and grill
  • Microwave cooker
  • Gas/electric powered water heater
  • Warm air heating
  • Beds, some of which double-up as daytime seating
  • Electricity supplied by battery or external hookup
  • Toilet with removable disposal tank and flush-water tank
  • Shower
  • Radio/CD/DVD/MP3 player
  • Television aerial/satellite dish

Travel trailers (especially North American ones) may also contain the following:

  • Air conditioning
  • External barbecue points
  • Tow hitch stabilizers
  • Separate wastewater tanks for "gray water" (wash water) and "black water" (sewage)
  • CD players
  • Awning or screen room
  • Clothes washer and dryer
  • Microwave
  • Slide-out rooms (such as a 4 x 7 ft dinette or bedroom extension)

Double-decker trailers

A double-decker trailer is a two-level travel trailer. When traveling the trailer is only as high as a regular trailer, but when set up it increases in height to two full levels. Built by Jexcar and others, they are often used in motion picture production as portable dressing rooms.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Folding Camping Trailer (fold-down) : a towable RV". Gorving.ca. http://www.gorving.ca/foldingcamping.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-29.  
  2. ^ "Buying a trailer tent or folding camper.". http://www.gocaravanning.com/trailer/. Retrieved 2009-08-10.  
  3. ^ Vardo History'
  4. ^ Vardo History'
  5. ^ Vardo History'
  6. ^ "Tin Can Tourists". Tin Can Tourists. 2006-02-14. http://www.tincantourists.com. Retrieved 2009-07-29.  
  7. ^ "NMAH | 1934 Trav-L-Coach House Trailer". Americanhistory.si.edu. http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/object.cfm?key=35&objkey=222. Retrieved 2009-07-29.  
  8. ^ a b "California: RV Road Laws" (and for travel trailers and campers), Liz Curtis, RV Advice, 2005, RVadvice.com webpage: RVadvice-CA-RoadLaws.
  9. ^ a b "Texas: RV Road Laws" (and for travel trailers and campers), Liz Curtis, RV Advice, 2005, RVadvice.com webpage: RVadvice-TX-RoadLaws: passengers allowed only in camper (not travel trailer).
  10. ^ a b "New York: RV Road Laws" (and for travel trailers and campers), Liz Curtis, RV Advice, 2005, RVadvice.com webpage: RVadvice-NY-RoadLaws: passengers allowed only in camper (not travel trailer).
  11. ^ a b "Alabama: RV Road Laws" (and for travel trailers and campers), Liz Curtis, RV Advice, 2005, RVadvice.com webpage: RVadvice-AL-RoadLaws: passengers allowed only in camper (not travel trailer).
  12. ^ a b "Florida: RV Road Laws" (and for travel trailers and campers), Liz Curtis, RV Advice, 2005, RVadvice.com webpage: RVadvice-FL-RoadLaws: passengers allowed only in camper (not travel trailer).







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