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Treaty of Bucharest
Balkan Wars Boundaries.jpg
Borders of the Balkan states after the Treaty of Bucharest (below)
Signed
Location
10 August 1913
Bucharest, Romania
Signatories Bulgaria Bulgaria
Romania Romania
Serbia Serbia
Greece Greece
Montenegro Montenegro

The Treaty of Bucharest (Romanian: Tratatul de la Bucureşti) was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece.

As Bulgaria had been completely isolated in the Second Balkan War (June–July 1913), and as it was closely invested on its northern boundary by Romania and on its western frontier by the allied armies of Greece and Serbia, and in the East by the Ottoman Army, it was obliged to submit to terms imposed by the victorious states. All important arrangements and concessions involving the rectification of the controverted international boundary lines were perfected in a series of committee meetings, incorporated in separate protocols, and formally ratified by subsequent action of the general assembly of delegates. Although the Ottomans had also participated in the Second Balkan War, they were not represented at this treaty. Instead, bilateral treaties were later concluded with Bulgaria (Treaty of Constantinople) and Greece (Treaty of Athens).

Contents

Serbia's gain in territory

The eastern frontier of Serbia was drawn from the summit of Patarika, on the old frontier, and followed the watershed between the Vardar and the Struma rivers to the Greek-Bulgarian boundary, except that the upper valley of the Strumica remained in the possession of Bulgaria. The territory thus obtained embraced central Vardar, including Ohrid, Štip, Kočani and Bitola in the modern Republic of Macedonia. By this arrangement, Serbia increased its territory from 18,650 to 33,891 square miles (87,780 km2) and its population by more than 1,500,000.

Greece's gain in territory

The boundary line separating Greece from Bulgaria was drawn from the crest of Belasica to the mouth of the Mesta (Nestos), on the Aegean Sea. This important territorial concession, which Bulgaria resolutely contested, in compliance with the instructions embraced in the notes which the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary presented to the conference, increased the area of Greece from 25,014 to 41,933 square miles (108,610 km2) and its population from 2,660,000 to 4,363,000.

The territory thus annexed included Epirus up to the present Greek-Albanian border, a large part of Macedonia, including Thessaloniki and all of what constitutes the current region of Macedonia. The Greek-Bulgarian border was moved eastwards to beyond Kavala, thus restricting the Aegean seaboard of Bulgaria to an inconsiderable extent of 70 miles (110 km), with only Dedeagach (modern Alexandroupoli) as a seaport. In addition, Crete was definitively assigned to Greece and was formally taken over on December 14 of that year. Within this region was also Florina.

Bulgaria's gain in territory

Bulgaria's share of the spoils, although greatly reduced, was not entirely negligible. Its net gains in territory, which embraced a portion of Macedonia, Pirin Macedonia (or Bulgarian Macedonia), including the town of Strumica, Western Thrace, and 70 miles (110 km) of the Aegean littoral, were about 9,663 square miles (25,030 km2), and its population was increased by 129,490.

Bulgaria ceded to Romania all that portion of the Dobrudja lying north of a line extending from the Danube just above Tutrakan (Turtucaia) to the western shore of the Black Sea, south of Ekrene (Ecrene); Southern Dobruja has an approximate area of 2,687 square miles (6,960 km2), a population of 286,000, and includes the fortress of Silistra and the cities of Tutrakan on the Danube and Balchik (Balcic) on the Black Sea.

In addition, Bulgaria agreed to dismantle all existing fortresses and bound itself not to construct forts at Rousse or Shumen or in any of the territory between these two cities, or within a radius of 20 kilometers around Balchik.

Appraisement

The severe terms imposed on Bulgaria contrasted the ambitions of its government upon the entry into the Balkan War: the territory eventually gained was relatively circumscribed; Bulgaria had failed to gain Macedonia, which was its avowed purpose in entering the war, and especially the districts of Ohrid and Bitola, which had been a main demand. With only a small outlet to the Aegean around the minor port of Dedeagach, the country had to abandon its project of Balkan hegemony.

A winner and triumphant after the acquisition of Thessaloniki and most of Macedonia up to and including the port of Kavala, Greece still had outstanding issues. Italy was opposed to Greek claims to Northern Epirus, and controlled the Greek-inhabited Dodecanese islands. In addition, the status quo of the islands of the Northeastern Aegean, which Greece had taken from the Ottomans, remained undetermined until February 1914, when the Great Powers recognized Greek sovereignty over them. Tensions with the Ottomans remained high, however, in the face of persecutions of Anatolian Greeks, leading to a crisis and a naval race in summer 1914 that was stopped only by the outbreak of World War I. At the end of the war, Greece still had claims to territories inhabited, at the time, by some 3,000,000 Greeks.

References

  • Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey. Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870-1914, Prepared for the National Board for Historical Service, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1918.
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