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Treaty of Lausanne
Turkey-Greece-Bulgaria on Treaty of Lausanne.png
Borders of Turkey according to the Treaty of Lausanne
1923 July
Lausanne, Switzerland
Signatories United Kingdom United Kingdom
France France
Italy Italy
Japan Japan
Greece Greece
Romania Romania
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia
Turkey Turkey
Depositary French Republic

The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne, Switzerland on July 24, 1923, that settled the Anatolian and East Thracian parts of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) that was signed by the Constantinople-based Ottoman government.[1] The treaty was the consequence of the Turkish War of Independence between the Allies of World War I and the Ankara-based Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish national movement) led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The treaty also led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkey as the successor state of the defunct Ottoman Empire.[2]



Borders of Turkey according to the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) which was annulled and replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) as a consequence of the Turkish War of Independence led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

After the expulsion of the Allied forces by the Turkish army under the command of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Ankara-based government of the Turkish national movement rejected the Treaty of Sèvres that was signed by the Constantinople-based Ottoman government.

Negotiations were undertaken during the Conference of Lausanne at which İsmet İnönü was the chief negotiator for Turkey. Lord Curzon, the British Foreign Secretary of that time, was the chief negotiator for the Allies, while Eleftherios Venizelos negotiated on behalf of Greece. The negotiations took many months. On November 20, 1922, the peace conference was opened and after strenuous debate was interrupted by Turkish protest on February 4, 1923. After reopening again on April 23, and following more protests by the Turks and tense debates, the treaty was signed on July 24 as a result of eight months of arduous negotiation. The delegation on behalf of the Allies included negotiators such as the U.S. Admiral Mark L. Bristol, who served as the United States High Commissioner and championed Turkish efforts.[3]


The treaty was composed of 143 articles with major sections including:[4]

The treaty provided for the independence of the Republic of Turkey but also for the protection of the Greek Orthodox Christian minority in Turkey and the mainly ethnically Turkish Muslim minority in Greece. However, most of the Christian population of Turkey and the Muslim population of Greece had already been deported under the earlier Exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey agreement signed by Greece and Turkey. Only the Greeks of Constantinople, Imbros and Tenedos were excluded (about 270,000 at that time),[5] and the Turkish population of Western Thrace (about 129,120[6] in 1923. Article 14 of the treaty granted the islands of Imbros and Tenedos "special administrative organisation", a right that was revoked by the Turkish government on February 17, 1926. The Republic of Turkey also formally accepted the loss of Cyprus (which was leased to the British Empire following the Congress of Berlin in 1878, but de jure remained an Ottoman territory until World War I) as well as Egypt and Sudan (which were occupied by British forces with the pretext of "establishing order" in 1882) to the British Empire. The fate of the province of Mosul was left to be determined through the League of Nations. Turkey also renounced all claims on the Dodecanese Islands, which Italy was obliged to return back to Turkey according to Article 2 of the Treaty of Ouchy in 1912 (also known as the First Treaty of Lausanne (1912), as it was signed at the Ouchy Castle in Lausanne, Switzerland) following the Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912).[7]



The treaty delimited the boundaries of Greece, Bulgaria, and Turkey; formally ceded all Turkish claims on the Dodecanese Islands (Article 15); Cyprus (Article 20); Egypt and Sudan (Article 17); Iraq and Syria (Article 3); and (along with the Treaty of Ankara) settled the boundaries of the latter two nations.[2] Turkey also renounced its privileges in Libya which were defined by Article 10 of the Treaty of Ouchy in 1912 (per Article 22 of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923).[2]


Among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States: the Chester concession. The United States Senate refused to ratify the treaty, and consequently Turkey annulled the concession.[4]


The Treaty of Lausanne led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkey as the successor state of the defunct Ottoman Empire.[2] The Convention on the Turkish Straits lasted only thirteen years and was replaced with the Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits in 1936. The customs limitations in the treaty were shortly reworked.

Hatay Province remained a part of the French Mandate of Syria according to the Treaty of Lausanne but in 1938 gained its independence as the Hatay State, which later joined Turkey with a referendum in 1939. Syria does not recognize the addition of Hatay Province to Turkey and continues to show it as a part of Syria on its maps.

Political amnesty was applied. 150 personae non gratae of Turkey (descendants of the Ottoman dynasty) slowly acquired citizenship - the last one was in 1974.

See also


  1. ^ ;
    ARTICLE 91
    All grants of patents and registrations of trade-marks, as well as all registrations of transfers or assignments of patents or trade marks which have been duly made since the 30th October, 1918, by the Imperial Ottoman Government at Constantinople or elsewhere..
  2. ^ a b c d Full text of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
  3. ^ Morgenthau, Henry, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story,(Detroit: Wayne State University, 2003), 303.
  4. ^ a b Mango, Andrew (2002). Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey. Overlook Press. pp. 388. ISBN 158567334X. 
  5. ^ The Greek minority of Turkey - Hellenic Resources Network
  6. ^ Öksüz 2004, 255
  7. ^ Treaty of Ouchy (1912), also known as the First Treaty of Lausanne

External links

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Treaty of Lausanne
the Allied Powers and Turkey
Wikipedia logo Wikipedia has more on:
Treaty of Lausanne.
Signed at Lausanne (Switzerland) on 24 July 1923.
Official texts in English: [1923] UKTS 16 (Cmd. 1929)
This version compiled from the version published by the Brigham Young University Library.

The following agreements are annexed to the Treaty of Lausanne:

  • Convention relating to the Straits (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Convention concerning the exchange of Greek and Turkish populations and Protocol (Lausanne, 30 January 1923)
  • Declaration relating to the administration of justice in Turkey (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Protocol relating to certain concessions granted in the Ottoman Empire and Declaration (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Convention respecting the Thracian frontiers (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Convention respecting conditions of residence and business and jurisdiction (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Commercial Convention (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Graeco-Turkish Agreement on the restitution of interned civilians and the exchange of prisoners of war (Lausanne, 30 January 1923)
  • Amnesty Declaration and Protocol (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Declaration relating to Moslem properties in Greece (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Declaration relating to sanitary matters (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Protocol relating to the accession of Belgium and Portugal to certain provisions of Instruments signed at Lausanne and Declarations of these two Powers concerning such accession (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Protocol relating to the evacuation of the Turkish territory occupied by the British, French and Italian forces and Declaration (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Protocol relating to the Karagatch territory and to the islands of Imbros and Tenedos (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Protocol, signed on the 24 July 1923, relating to the Treaty concluded at Sèvres between the Principal Allied Powers and Greece on the 10 August 1920, concerning the protection of minorities in Greece, and to the Treaty relating to Thrace concluded on the same day between the same Powers (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)
  • Protocol relating to signature by the Serb-Croat-Slovene State (Lausanne, 24 July 1923)


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