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London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the Kingdom of Italy, the United Kingdom, France and Russia.[1]

According to the pact, Italy was to leave the Triple Alliance and join Triple Entente, as already stated in a secret agreement signed in London, on 4-5 September 1914. Furthermore, Italy was to declare war against Germany and Austria-Hungary within a month — and in fact the declaration of war was published 23 May of the same year. In exchange, Italy was to obtain the following territorial gains (see Italia irredenta) at the end of the war.

Tyrol, partitioned in 1918, parts remaining Austrian referred to as Nordtirol and Osttirol, but part of one Federal State of Tirol
Lands offered to Serbia by the Allies in 1915.
  1. Tyrol, up to the Alpine water divide, which includes the modern-day provinces of Trento (Trentino) and Bolzano-Bozen (South Tyrol).
  2. Trieste
  3. Gorizia and Gradisca
  4. Istria, but not Fiume(Rijeka)
  5. part of Inner Carniola (with the districts of Vipava, Idrija and Ilirska Bistrica, but without Postojna)
  6. Northern Dalmatia, including Zara (Zadar) and most of the islands.
  7. Dodecanese
  8. Vlorë
  9. Protectorate over Albania
  10. part of the German Asian and African colonial empire

To the Kingdom of Serbia it was promised

  1. the Dalmatian coast between the Krka and Ston, including the Pelješac peninsula (Sabbioncello), the port of Split (Spalato), and the island of Brač (BrazzaBrazza).

The Kingdom of Montenegro was assigned

  1. the Dalmatian coast between Budva and Ston, including Raguse and the Kotor Bay (Cattaro), but without the Pelješac peninsula;
  2. and the coast south to the Albanian port Shengjin (San Giovanni di Medua).

Also, but less precisely, Serbia was promised

  1. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  2. Srem
  3. Bačka
  4. Slavonia (this one against the Italian objections),
  5. Some unspecified areas of Albania (to be divided between Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece).

The Italians insisted, and the Allies agreed, that the question of the Croatian coast between Zara and Istria should be settled after the war. They also insisted that Serbia should not be informed about the agreements. This, however, the Allies overruled by sending to the Government of Serbia an official Note, dated 4 August 1915, confirming the postwar territorial claims of Serbia and Montenegro. Spalato

The pact was to be kept secret, but after the October Revolution, it was published by Russian journal Izvestia, in November 1917.

At the Paris Peace Conference, the Italians insisted that they would negotiate only with their wartime allies Serbia and Montenegro, not with defeated enemies included in delegation of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In particular they were incensed that three members of the delegation were former Austro-Hungarian deputies (Croats Ante Trumbić, Josip Smodlaka, and the Slovene Otokar Rybář), and that one (the Slovene Ivan Žolger) had served as Minister in the wartime Austrian Cabinet.

The pact was nullified with the Treaty of Versailles, because President Woodrow Wilson, supporting Slavic claims and not recognizing the treaty, rejected Italian requests on Dalmatian territories.[2]

The partition of the Tyrol on the water divide line was confirmed by the Treaty of St. Germain.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ray Stannard Baker Woodrow Wilson and world settlement, Volume 1 Publisher: Double Day Page and Company 1923 Harvard College Library pages 52-55 [1]
  2. ^ American Society of International Law Volume 15, Oxford University Press 1921 Library of the University of Michigan, page 253 [2]
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