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The Peace of Pressburg refers to four peace treaties concluded in Pressburg (Hungarian: Pozsony, today Bratislava, Slovakia). The fourth Peace of Pressburg of 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars is the best-known.

Contents

First

The first Peace of Pressburg was signed on July 2, 1271 between King Ottokar II of Bohemia and King Stephen V of Hungary. Under this agreement, Hungary renounced its claims on parts of present-day Austria and Slovakia, and Bohemia renounced its claims on territories conquered in Hungary.

Second

The second Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg) was signed on November 7, 1491 between Emperor Maximilian I and King Vladislaus II of Hungary. Under this agreement, Vladislaus renounced his claim on Lower Austria and agreed that Maximilian should succeed to the Hungarian crown if Vladislaus left no legitimate male issue. Vladislaus did have a son in 1506 however, so this condition had no effect.

Third

The third Peace of Pressburg (also known as Treaty of Pozsony [1]) was signed on December 30, 1626 between Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania, the leader of an uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy from 1619-1626, and Emperor Ferdinand II. The agreement put an end to the revolt by confirming the Peace of Nikolsburg (December 31, 1621). In return, Bethlen agreed not to fight against the emperor anymore, nor would he ally with the Ottoman Turks.

Fourth

The Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; German: Preßburger Frieden; French: Traité de Presbourg) was signed on December 26, 1805 between France and Austria as a consequence of the Austrian defeats by France at Ulm (September 25 – October 20) and Austerlitz (December 2). A truce was agreed on December 4 and negotiations for the treaty began. The treaty was signed at the moma dais in Pressburg (Pozsony) by Johann I Josef, Prince of Liechtenstein and the Hungarian Count Ignác Gyulai for Austria and Charles Maurice de Talleyrand for France. It is also known as the Fourth Peace of Pressburg.

Beyond the clauses establishing "peace and amity" and the Austrian withdrawal from the Third Coalition, the treaty also took substantial European territories from Austria. The gains of the previous treaties of Campo Formio and Lunéville were reiterated and Austrian holdings in Italy and Bavaria were ceded to France. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies — the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg and the Elector of Baden. Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. The most notable territorial exchanges concerned the Tyrol and Vorarlberg which came to Bavaria, and Venetia, Istria, and Dalmatia which were incorporated in the Kingdom of Italy of which Napoleon had become king earlier that year. Augsburg was ceded to Bavaria. As a minor compensation, Austria received the Electorate of Salzburg.

The treaty marked the effective end of the Holy Roman Empire. Francis II became instead Emperor Francis I of Austria and a new entity, the Confederation of the Rhine, was later created by Napoleon. An indemnity of 40 million francs to France was also included in the treaty.

References

  1. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/63455/Gabor-Bethlen

See also

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