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A gas main being laid in a trench.

A trench is a type of excavation or depression in the ground. Trenches are generally defined by being deeper than they are wide (as opposed to a wider gully or ditch), and by being narrow compared to their length (as opposed to a simple hole).[1]

Contents

Usage

A number of areas exist in which trenches play a significant role:

Agriculture

Trenches have long been used to carry water. Trenches can be used for draining purposes, leading water away from a swamp or wetland that is to be dried out. Likewise they can be used for irrigation purposes, directing water into dry areas. Both uses generally require a slope for the water to flow down.

Archaeology

Archeologists may use the 'trench method', pioneered by Dame Kathleen Kenyon in Israel, for searching and excavating ancient ruins or to dig into strata of sedimented material to get a sideways (layered) view of the deposits - with a hope of being able to place found objects or materials in a chronological order. The advantage of this method is that it destroys only a small part of the site (those areas where the trenches, often arranged in a grid pattern, are located). However, this method also has the disadvantage of only revealing small slices of the whole volume, and modern archeological digs usually employ combination methods.[2]

Geology

Trenches are a natural feature in many landscapes. Some are created as a result of erosion by rivers in flow (which may have long since fallen dry), others are features created by geological movement of tectonic plates, such as rift valleys or more commonly oceanic trenches. The latter form is relatively deep (ca. 10 km), linear and narrow, and is formed by plate subduction when plates are converging.[3]

Infrastructure

In the civil engineering field of construction or maintenance of infrastructure, trenches play a major role. They may be created to search for pipes and other infrastructure that is known to be underground in the general area, but whose exact location has been lost ('search trench' or 'search slit'). They are also used to underground easily damaged and obstructive infrastructure or utilities (such as gas mains, water mains or telephone lines). A similar use for higher bulk would be in pipeline transport. Finally, trenches may be created as the first step of creating a foundation wall.

Military usage

While trenches have often been dug as defensive measures, in the pre-firearm eras, they were mainly a type of hindrance for an attacker of a fortified location, such as the moat around a castle (this is technically called a ditch). An early example of this can be seen in the Battle of the Trench.

Only with the advent of accurate firearms, and the tactics that evolved in World War I and the Crimean War, did the use of trenches as positions for the defender of a fortification become common, though the Māori of New Zealand were known to have used it earlier in their fortifications in the late 19th Century. The military usage evolved very quickly in the First World War, until whole systems of extensive main trenches, backup trenches (in case the first lines were overrun) and communication trenches had been developed, often stretching dozens of kilometres along a front without interruption, and some kilometres further back from the opponents lines.

Other uses

  • Trenches can be used for mass graves, sometimes have been dug by prisoners about to be executed.
  • Sunken trenches may be combined with a wall on one of their sides to form a ha-ha, a type of hidden fence.

See also

References

  1. ^ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Volume 8, Page 374 (Code revised as of July 1, 2003, via Compliance Magazine's website)
  2. ^ Archaeology - Restore! Magazine, Winter 1998
  3. ^ Ocean trench (glossary from Student Resource Center website, Houghton Mifflin college division)

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to trench article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Etymology

Old French trenchier (cut, make a cut).

Noun

Singular
trench

Plural
trenches

trench (plural trenches)

  1. A long, narrow ditch or hole dug in the ground, especially in warfare.
  2. (archaeology) A pit, usually rectangular with smooth walls and floor, excavated during an archaeological investigation.
  3. (informal) A trench coat.
    • 1999, April 24, Xiphias Gladius <ian@schultz.io.com>, "Re: trenchcoat mafia", ne.general.selected, Usenet:
      I was the first person in my high school to wear a trench and fedora constantly, and Ben was one of the first to wear a black trench.
    • 2007, Nina Garcia, The Little Black Book of Style, HarperCollins, as excerpted in Elle, October, page 138:
      A classic trench can work in any kind of weather and goes well with almost anything.

Derived terms

Translations

Verb

Infinitive
to trench

Third person singular
trenches

Simple past
trenched

Past participle
trenched

Present participle
trenching

to trench (third-person singular simple present trenches, present participle trenching, simple past and past participle trenched)

  1. (usually followed by upon) To invade, especially with regard to the rights or the exclusive authority of another.
    • 1640, Ben Jonson, Underwoods, page 68:
      Shee is the Judge, Thou Executioner, Or if thou needs would'st trench upon her power, Thou mightst have yet enjoy'd thy crueltie, With some more thrift, and more varietie.
    • 1949, Charles Austin Beard, American Government and Politics, page 16:
      He could make what laws he pleased, as long as those laws did not trench upon property rights.
    • 2005, Carl von Clausewitz, J. J. Graham, On War, page 261:
      [O]ur ideas, therefore, must trench upon the province of tactics.
  2. (military, infantry) To excavate an elongated pit for protection of soldiers and or equipment, usually perpendicular to the line of sight toward the enemy.
  3. (archaeology) To excavate an elongated and often narrow pit.

French

Etymology

From English

Noun

trench m. (plural trenchs)

  1. trench coat

Italian

Etymology

From English trench (coat).

Noun

trench m. inv.

  1. trench coat

Simple English

A trench is a long, narrow ditch. It is like a valley, only on a very much smaller scale. It was used in World War I it was supposed to be a short term barrier but many trenches started to be made so soldiers would be safer.

The following kinds exist:

  • Military trench: Both sides of a conflict dig out trenches, they then shoot at each other from those trenches.
  • Geological trench: For example the Mariana Trench
  • Archaeological trench: When archaeologists do open excavation

The trench coat got its name from there.








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