Tribal chief: Wikis

  
  

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Badge of office of Chief Gambo, Rhodesia c. 1979.

A traditional tribal chief is the leader of a tribe, or the head of a tribal form of self-government.

The notion of a "tribal chief" is rather vague and arbitrary; neither chief nor tribe is clearly defined, so in many cases other designations are used for the same institution, such as petty ruler or even headman (in a very small but autonomous community, e.g. in the jungle). In some cases they merely lead a traditional consultative entity within a larger polity, in other cases tribal autonomy comes closer to statehood. A chieftain is a leader of a tribe.

There are many variations on it, but the most common types are the chairman of a council (usually of 'elders') and/or a (broader) popular assembly in 'parliamentary' cultures, the war chief (can be an alternative or additional post in war time), the hereditary chief, the politically dominant medicineman ('theocratic' cultures).

The term is usually distinct from chiefs at still lower levels, such as village headman (geographically defined) or clan chief (an essentially genealogical notion), as the notion 'tribal' rather requires an ethno-cultural identity (racial, linguistic, religious etc.) as well as some political (representative, legislative, executive and/or judicial) expression.

Contents

Modern states providing an organized form of tribal chiefships

India

Adivasi in Sanskrit refers to indigenous people who are living from ages. (Adi meaning first and vasi meaning habitant.) These tribes do have "Chiefs" and they are referred by various names. The north eastern states of India with a large tribal population is a valid case study, with tribal chiefs enjoying a lot of power and status in the region. See also Rigvedic tribes.

Middle East

Arabs, in particular peninsular Arabs and nomadic Beduins are largely organized in tribes, many of whom have official representatives in governments. Tribal chiefs are known as Sheikhs, though this term is also sometimes applied as an honorific title to spiritual leaders Sufism.

Oceania

The Solomon Islands have a Local Court Act which empowers chiefs to deal with crimes in their communities.

Scotland

In Scotland, the Lord Lyon decides who is the rightful chief of each clan. However, the role of clan chief is now largely ceremonial, and has little power.

United States

Goyathlay, or Geronimo, Apache chieftain for the Chiricahua

Historical cultural differences between tribes

Generally, a tribe or nation are considered to be part of an ethnic group, usually sharing cultural values. For example, the forest-dwelling Chippewa historically built dwellings from the bark of trees, as opposed to the Great Plains-dwelling tribes, who would not have access to trees, except by trade, for example for lodgepoles. Thus the tribes of the Great Plains might typically dwell in skin-covered tipis rather than bark lodges. But some Plains tribes built their lodges of earth, as for example the Pawnee;[1] the Pueblo people built their dwellings of stone and earth; some Puebloans were matrilineal.

Political power in a tribe

A chief might be considered to hold political power, say by oratory or by example. But on the North American continent, it was historically possible to evade the political power of another by migration. The Mingos, for example, were Iroquois who migrated further west to the sparsely populated Ohio Country during the 18th century. Two Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois, Hiawatha and the Great Peacemaker, formulated a constitution for the Iroquois Confederation.

The tribes were pacified by units of the US Army in the nineteenth century, and were also subject to forced schooling in the decades afterward. Thus it is uncommon for today's tribes to have a purely Native American cultural background, and today Native Americans are simply another ethnicity of the secular American people. Because formal education is now respected, some like Peter McDonald, a Navajo, left their jobs in the mainstream US economy to become chairman of the tribal council.

Not all tribal leaders need be men; Wilma Mankiller (1945- ) was a well-known Chief of the Cherokee Nation. Also, though the seat of power might be the chief, they were not free to wield power without the consent of a council of elders. For example: Cherokee men were not permitted to go to war without the consent of the council of women.

Tribal government is an official form of government in the United States[2] and in other countries around the world.

Historically the US government treated tribes as seats of political power, and made treaties with the tribes as legal entities. But frequently the territory of the tribes fell under the authority of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) as reservations held in trust for the tribes. Citizenship was formerly considered a tribal matter. For example, it was not until 1924 that the Pueblo people were granted US citizenship, and it was not until 1948 that the Puebloans were granted the right to vote in state elections in New Mexico. In Wisconsin, the Menominee Nation has its own county Menominee County, Wisconsin with special car license plates; 87% of the county's population is Native American.

Secular (mainstream) Americans often find pride and comfort in realizing that at least part of their ethnic ancestry is Native American, although the connection is usually only sentimental and not economic or cultural. Thus there is some political power in one's ability to claim a Native American connection (as in the Black Seminole).

Economic power in a tribe

Because the Nations were sovereign, with Treaty rights with the Federal government, the Wisconsin tribes innovated Indian gaming (1988), that is, on-reservation gambling casinos, a 14 billion dollar industry, nationwide. This has been imitated in many of the respective states which still have Native American tribes. The money to be made has engendered some political scandal. For example, the Tigua tribe, which fled their ancestral lands in New Mexico during the Pueblo revolt of 1680, and who then settled on land in El Paso County, Texas has paid 4.2 million dollars in political contributions in Texas for a low probable return to the tribe because of the Jack Abramoff publicity.

Many of the tribes use professional management for their money. Thus the Mescalero Apache have renovated their Inn of the Mountain Gods to include gambling as well as the previous tourism, lodging, and skiing in the older Inn, as of 2005.

The Navajo nation defeated bids to open casinos in 1994, but by 2004, the Shiprock casino was a fait accompli.

See also: Economy of the Iroquois

Tribal government around the world

Native Brazilian chiefs

Many minority ethnic groups in many countries have founded semi-autonomous regions in their part of the country such as the Kurds in Iraq. Also, weak governments in Africa usually have no control over far-flung regions with ethnic minorities. During the 600 BC to 200 BC Period, there were many tribes in India. The Tribal Chief, also known as Raja in those times, lead the tribe and was generally the oldest and wisest in the tribe.

In Gaelic Ireland

In Gaelic Ireland, up to its destruction in the 16th Century, hundreds of families such as the Cunninghams, O'Neills, McMahons, MacCarthys, Byrnes and O'Flahertys, organised as clans like tribes, were ruled by tribal chiefs of the name or taoisigh (a title later adopted for the prime minister of the Republic of Ireland), titled according to their surname as The O'Neill, The O'Flaherty etc. In Federated Kingdoms such as Airgialla, the subKingdom lords competited for the title of The over wider clan kingdom. Gaelic Inaugurations had religious and civil rituals, where new chieftains or would stand on the clans Inauguration stone. This system came to an end at the end of the 16th century.

Specific tribal chief titles

The following lists are undoubtedly quite incomplete

There are titles for the most prestigious tribal leaderships, see rather under terms marking them out as such, e.g. High Chief, or even as princely titles. This terminology, which ultimately is only a western rendering of widely varied cultural and historical traditions, is quite inconsistent; for instance Polynesian titles using Tu'i are sometimes rendered as Paramount Chief, sometimes as King.

In Asian tribes

Famous Asian tribal chiefs

The original tribal chief of all the Han Chinese

Huang-di, (黃帝/黄帝 huángdì)(BC 2300) or the Yellow Emperor, was the tribal chief who is considered in Chinese mythology to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese.

Shennong (Traditional Chinese: 神農)(BC 2300), also known as the Yan Emperor (炎帝) or the Emperor of the Five Grains.

Modu Shanyu (Turkic: Mete, Chinese: 冒頓單于) (born 234 BC) was the founder of the Asian Hun Empire (Xiongnu Empire), in 209 BC. According to Chinese records, the name is Modu. The beginning of his rule is also accepted as the formation of the first systematic nomad army. The years of his rule were 209 BCE to 174 BCE.

Tuoba Liwei (Chinese: 拓拔力微; pinyin: Tuòbá Lìwéi) was the first leader of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei people, from AD 219-AD 277.

Wanyan Aguda (Chinese:完颜阿骨打; Han name 完颜旻) (1068–1123, r. 1115-1123) was the chieftain of the Jurchen Wanyan tribe, founder and first emperor of the Jin Dynasty (Chinese:金朝). He was the younger brother of Wanyan Wuyashu and the descendant of Wanyan Hanpu. Aguda was given the temple name Taizu (Chinese:太祖).

Genghis Khan ( 1162–1227), born Temüjin, was the Mongol founder, Khan and posthumously declared Khagan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire in history.

He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he started the Mongol invasions and raids of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, Caucasus, Khwarezmid Empire, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. During his life, the Mongol Empire eventually occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia.

Nurhaci is also known as the Taizu Emperor. Nurhaci was the last chieftain of the Jiànzhōu Jurchens and First Khan of Later Jin.

  • The Datus were the chieftains who led the immigrations to the Philippines. When Magellan arrived in the Philippines, they found that some local (Hindu or Buddhist) kings were styled Rajahs, or in the Muslim islands, many kings were Sultans
  • Gam is the style of the elected tribal village chiefs among the Adi people
  • (Lal)s were the Chieftains who had ruled various parts of the state of Mizoram (India)till 1953.

In American tribes

In African tribes

  • Gbong Gwon
  • Gio (of Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire.)
  • Krahn (of Liberia and La Côte d'Ivoire.)
  • Morêna
  • Obai (Temne people of Sierra Leone)
  • Orkoiyot (Nandi people, in Kenya)
  • Kgosi (Botswana)
  • Nkosi (Zulu, Ndebele and Xhosa peoples, South Africa and Zimbabwe)
  • Akan (Asante or Ashanti, Akyem or Akim, Kwahu, Fante, Nzema, Akuapim, Brong, Ahafo, Wassa and Ahanta people of Ghana)
  • Ojoye (Yorubas of Nigeria)
  • Eze (Ibos of Nigeria)

In Oceania

See also

Notes

^  The Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois has an exhibit on the Pawnee earth lodge.

^  The Field Museum has exhibits with artifacts, dress, tools and pottery of the Pueblo people, the Northwest tribes, the Plains tribes and the Woodland tribes, especially those of the Midwest.

References

External links


Simple English

A traditional tribal chief is the leader of a tribe, or the head of a tribal form of self-government.








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