Tribe of Judah: Wikis

  
  

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According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Judah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה, Modern Yəhuda Tiberian Yəhûḏāh ; "Praise") was one of the twelve Tribes of Israel.

Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE[1], Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes.

From after the conquest of the land by Joshua until the formation of the first Kingdom of Israel in c. 1050 BCE, the Tribe of Judah was a part of a loose confederation of Israelite tribes. No central government existed, and in times of crisis the people were led by ad hoc leaders known as Judges. (see the Book of Judges) With the growth of the threat from Philistine incursions, the Israelite tribes decided to form a strong centralised monarchy to meet the challenge. The first king of this new entity was Saul, who came from the Tribe of Benjamin, (1 Samuel 9:1-2) which at the time was the smallest of the tribes.

After the death of Saul, all the tribes other than Judah remained loyal to the House of Saul, while Judah chose David as its king. However, after the death of Ish-bosheth, Saul's son and successor to the throne of Israel, all the other Israelite tribes made David, who was then the king of Judah, king of a re-united Kingdom of Israel. However, on the accession of Rehoboam, Solomon's son, in c. 930 BCE, the northern tribes split from the House of David to reform a Kingdom of Israel as the Northern Kingdom. The tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal to the House of David. These tribes formed the Kingdom of Judah, which existed until Judah was conquered by Babylon in c. 586 BCE and the population deported.

When the Jews returned from Babylonian exile, residual tribal affiliations were abandoned, probably because of the impossibility of reestablishing previous tribal land holdings. However, the special religious roles decreed for the Levis and Kohanim were preserved, and the general population was called Israel. These designations are still followed today.

Contents

The main cities of the Tribe of Judah

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At its height, the Tribe of Judah was the leading tribe of the Kingdom of Judah, and occupied most of the territory of the kingdom, except for a small region in the north east occupied by Benjamin, and an enclave towards the south west which was occupied by Simeon. After the reign of Solomon, the Kingdom of Israel was divided in two, the house of Joseph in the north made up of ten tribes (Gad, Zebulun, Ashur, Gad, Simon, Naphteli, Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh), Dan, Reuben, Levi) and the Kingdom of Judah in the south made up of two tribes (Judah and Benjamin) 1Kings 11:29-39. Later, Levi left the house of Joseph and came to Judah as well 2Chronicles 11:14. The word Jew is a derivative of the word Judah referring to a descendant of the Kingdom of Judah, however a Jew could also be a descendant of Benjamin or Levi.

The size of the territory of the tribe of Judah meant that in practice it had four distinct regions:

  • The Negev (Hebrew: south) - the southern portion of the land, which was highly suitable for pasture
  • The Shephelah (Hebrew: lowland) - the coastal region, between the highlands and the Mediterranean sea, which was used for agriculture, in particular for grains.
  • The wilderness - the barren region immediately next to the Dead Sea, and below sea level; it was wild, and barely inhabitable, to the extent that animals and people which were made unwelcome elsewhere, such as bears, leopards, and outlaws, made it their home. In biblical times, this region was further subdivided into three sections - the wilderness of En Gedi,[2] the wilderness of Judah,[3] and the wilderness of Maon.[4]
  • The hill country - the elevated plateau situated between the Shephelah and the wilderness, with rocky slopes but very fertile soil. This region was used for the production of grain, olives, grapes, and other fruit, and hence produced oil and wine.

The Kingdom of Judah was conquered by Babylon in c. 586 BCE and the population deported. When the Jews returned from Babylonian exile, during Roman times their state was known as Judea Matthew 2:22, the Greek form of the word Judah in reference to the ancient southern kingdom of Judah. Today most Jews consider their ethnicity as a member of the modern state of Israel, however biblically after the reign of Solomon the word Israel is a reference to the house of Joseph, rather than Judah 2Kings 14:9 2Kings 23:22 2Kings 23:27. Several prophectic events in the Bible also list Israel and Judah separately, as two entities rather than one Jeremiah 3:11-12, Zechariah 11:14. Today residual tribal affiliations have been abandoned, probably because of the impossibility of reestablishing previous tribal land holdings. However, the special religious roles decreed for the Levis and Kohanim were preserved, and the general population was called Israel. These designations are still followed today.

Origin

The territory of Judah appears in orange at the south on this map of the tribes. The text is in German.

According to the Torah, the tribe consisted of descendants of Judah, the fourth son of Jacob and of Leah; however some Biblical scholars view this as postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an aetiology of the connectedness of the tribe to others in the Israelite confederation.[5][6] With Leah as a matriarch, Biblical scholars regard the tribe as having been believed by the text's authors to have been part of the original Israelite confederation. [6]

Like the other tribes of the kingdom of Judah, the tribe of Judah is entirely absent from the ancient Song of Deborah, rather than present but described as unwilling to assist in the battle between Israelites and their enemy. Traditionally, this has been explained as being due to the southern kingdom being too far away to be involved in the battle, but Israel Finkelstein et al. claim the alternative explanation that the southern kingdom was simply an insignificant rural backwater at the time the poem was written.[7]

Character

The lion is the symbol of the Tribe of Judah. It is often represented in Jewish art, such as this sculpture outside a synagogue
The Lion of Judah on the municipal emblem of Jerusalem

The tribe of Judah stood apart from the others as the leading tribe of the Kingdom of Judah, and from the tribe came the kingdom's rulers (though not the later Hasmonean kings of Judea, who were Levites). The regal status of Judah is seemingly prophesied in the Blessing of Jacob, which argues that the staff shall not depart from Judah, nor the sceptre from between his feet...[8] though some textual scholars view this as postdiction, since they date the poem to a few centuries after the Song of Deborah, to roughly 800-700 BC. With the Davidic line thus being from the tribe, the tribe counted David among its members, as well as his ancestors Boaz, Obed, and Jesse. According to Jewish belief, since the Blessing appears to promise that Judah would always rule the kingdom, the (Jewish) Messiah has to be a member of the tribe.

Many other important leaders were also from the tribe. Some of the most important literary prophets, including Isaiah, as well as Amos, Habakkuk, Joel, Micah, Obadiah, Zechariah, and Zephaniah, hailed from Judah. Later, during the Babylonian Exile, the Exilarchs (officially recognised community leaders) were from the tribe, and when the Exile ended, the tribe included Zerubbabel (the leader of the first Jews to return to what became Judea), Shealtiel (a somewhat mysterious figure), and Nehemiah (one of the earliest and most prominent Achamenid-appointed governors of Judea). In the time of Roman rule, all the holders of the office of Nasi (prince) after Shemaiah, were rumoured to be from the tribe of Judah, since they were all descended from Hillel, who was rumoured to have maternal lineage from the Davidic line (in Judaism, maternal lineage is more important to ethnicity).

Fate

As part of the kingdom of Judah, the tribe of Judah survived the destruction of Israel by the Assyrians, and instead was subjected to the Babylonian captivity; when the captivity ended, the distinction between the tribes were lost in favour of a common identity. Since Simeon and Benjamin had been very much the junior partners in the Kingdom of Judah, it was Judah that gave its name to the identity - that of the Jews. Most modern-day Jews claim descended from the tribe of Judah. Some are descended from converts.[9][10][11][12]

See also

References

  1. ^ Kitchen, Kenneth A. (2003), "On the Reliability of the Old Testament" (Grand Rapids, Michigan. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company)(ISBN 0-8028-4960-1)
  2. ^ 1 Samuel 24:1
  3. ^ Judges 1:16; Matthew 3:1
  4. ^ 1 Samuel 23:24
  5. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  6. ^ a b Jewish Encyclopedia
  7. ^ Israel Finkelstein, the Bible Unearthed
  8. ^ Genesis 49:10
  9. ^ Glossary of terms related to Judaism (religious studies dept., university of California - Davis)
  10. ^ Who Is a Jew? Origins of the Words "Jew" and "Judaism" (jewfaq.org)
  11. ^ Where does the word "Jew" come from? by Rabbi Naftali Silberberg (askmoses.com)
  12. ^ Biography of Judah (Chabad.org)

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Tribes of Israel
Reuben
Simeon
Levi
Judah
Dan
Naphtali
Gad
Asher
Issachar
Zebulun
Joseph:
    Manasseh
    Ephraim
Benjamin

Biblical Data:

The tribe of Judah is said to have been descended from the patriarch Judah, the fourth son of Jacob and Leah (Gen 29:35). In the Book of Numbers it is represented as sharing with the other tribes, without distinctive fortunes, the experiences of the Exodus and of the sojourn in the wilderness. The clans which then composed the tribe are said to have been the Shelanites, Perizzites, Zerahites, Hezronites, and Hamulites (Num 26:19ff).

In Josh. 15 Judah is said to have received a large inheritance which stretched right across the land from Jericho westward to the Mediterranean and from Jerusalem southward to the desert. The territory is said to have extended south as far as Kadeshbarnea (verse 3), which lay about fifty miles south of Beer-sheba (see Trumbull, "Kadesh Barnea," New York, 1884), and west as far as Gaza, Ashdod, and Ekron (verses 42-47). From the Book of Judges (Jdg 1:16) it is learned that the Kenites united with Judah so as to become, probably, a clan of the tribe. To these clans the two Kenizzite clans of Caleb and Othniel appear to have been added (Jdg 1:12ff; Josh 14:6ff, Josh 15:13ff). Closely connected with Caleb was Jerahmeel, who is said to have been Caleb's brother (1Chr 2:42). In 1Sam 27:10, 1Sam 30:29, the Jerahmeelites appear to be a part of the tribe of Judah; they are therefore to be regarded as another clan of the tribe.

After the settlement in Canaan, Judah seems to have stood apart from the other tribes. It is not mentioned in the song of Deborah; and in the accounts of the kingdom of Saul it is regularly reckoned separately from the other tribes (comp. 1Sam 11:8, 1Sam 17:52, 1Sam 18:16). Upon the death of Saul, David erected the tribe of Judah into a separate kingdom (2 Sam 2:1ff). As the house of Saul under the weak Ish-bosheth maintained its supremacy over the remaining tribes but seven and one-half years, Judah was after that time reunited to Israel under her own king, David. This union continued for eighty years, through the reigns of David and Solomon. For the further history of the tribe see Kingdom of Judah

Critical View:

Possibly the tribe of Judah is mentioned in the El-Amarna tablets (comp. Jastrow in "Jour. Bib. Lit." xii. 61 et seq.); but, if so, the reference is too obscure to increase present knowledge. In the judgment of critics the stories of the patriarch Judah are not real biography, but are narratives of an eponymous hero, or portions of the history of the tribe. These being taken in this way, it is gathered that the clan of Judah was at first weaker than the clans of Reuben, Simeon, and Levi; that when Judah entered Palestine it first gained a foothold at Adullam and Timnah (Gen 38:1, Gen 38:12), places which were probably on the eastern side of the Judean ridge. This Timnah is not to be confused with the Timnah of the Shephelah (Jdg 14:1).

An alliance was soon made with the clans of the Perizzites and Zerahites, who had the palm-tree for their totem, and were therefore said to be children of Tamar (Gen 38:13ff). Later the Kenizzite clans of Caleb and Othniel were amalgamated with the tribe. These clans were, perhaps, of Edomitish origin, since Kenaz is counted among the descendants of Esau (Gen 36:11). These two clans occupied the region around Hebron, Carmel, and Kirjath-sepher, or Debir. Gradually the Jerahmeelites were also incorporated in the tribe of Judah. Their habitat appears to have been in the Negeb (1Sam 27:10), and as Jerahmeel is said to be Caleb's brother, perhaps they also were of Edomitish origin. A branch of the Kenites from the Sinaitic peninsula added another element to Judah's complex character. This large admixture of foreign blood in the tribe of Judah is probably the reason why the Judahites were so loosely connected with the other tribes of Israel. A consciousness existed on both sides that Judah stood apart in origin and in sentiment.

The prophets of Judah framed the Deuteronomic law which led to Josiah's reform. This reform accentuated the uniqueness of Israel's religion; and it was this that held the inhabitants of the Judean kingdom together in exile, that revived their state, and that made them the world's teachers of monotheism. But the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom were absorbed by the people among whom they were scattered, because their religion lacked this uniqueness. It was this uniqueness, furthermore, which caused the name of the tribe of Judah to be perpetuated in one of the great religions of the world.

Bibliography: Stade, Gesch. des Volkes Israel, i. 157-160, Berlin, 1889; Luther, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxi. 55-60; Barton, Semitic Origins, pp. 271-286, New York, 1902. On the history of the kingdom of Judah, see the histories of Israel, by Stade, Wellhausen, Kittel, H. P. Smith, etc.

This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
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