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Tilla Jogian, second highest peak in Pothohar

The Potohar plateau, or sometimes pronounced Pothohar Plateau (Urdu: سطح مرتفع پوٹھوہار), is a large region of plateau situated in northern Punjab, Pakistan. It is bounded on the east by the Jhelum River, on the west by the Indus River, on the north by the Kala Chitta Range and the Margalla Hills, and on the south by the Salt Range[1]. The terrain is undulating. The Kala Chitta Range rises to an average height of 450-900 metres (3,000 ft) and extends for about 72 kilometres (45 mi). The Swaan River starts from nearby Murree and ends near Kalabagh in the Indus river. Sakesar is the highest mountain of this region.

The region roughly covers the modern day Punjab districts of Attock, Chakwal, Jhelum and Rawalpindi and the Islamabad Capital Territory.

Contents

Tribes of the region

The Pothohar region is home to a number of tribal groupings, many of whom occupy distinct tracts. The author of the Jhelum District Gazetteer gave the following account of the tribal groupings at the beginning of the 20th Century.

The population is generally clearly sub-divided into tribes (quoms or zats), having a common name and generally supposed to be descended from a traditional common ancestor by agnatic descent, i.e through males only. Some of the tribes are very homegenous, as for instance the Awans, who number 16 percent of the total population. Others again, such as the Jat, who are returned as numbering 12 percent of the population, are a loose congeries of clans than a compact tribe [2]

The author further goes on to say:

Almost every tribe is again sub-divided into clans (muhi), or smaller groups of agnates, distinctly recognized as descended from a somewhat remote ancestor and usually bearing a common name."[2]

More recent works by the British anthropologist Pnina Werbner have confirmed the continuing strength of tribal feelings among emigrant Pothoharis in the United Kingdom.[3] This region was and still is an important source of recruitment into the old colonial British Indian army, and its successor, the Pakistan Army.[4] Official recruitment policies have also encouraged the sense of tribal belonging among the Pothoharis.[5]

According to the 1931 Census of India,[6] the last to collect data on castes, the largest tribes of the Rawalpindi Division, starting with the largest numerically, were the Rajput, Awan, Jat, Gujjar and Kashmiri. Here is a list of the major tribes:

Tribe Attock District Jhelum District Rawalpindi District Total
Aheer 173 173
Awan 204,295 61,321 46,627 312,243
Dhanyal
Dhund Abbasi 29, 423 29, 423
Gakhar 437 11,507 13,849 25,793
Gujar 13,246 20,526 27,485 61,257
Jasgam
Jat 10,429 85,459 15,772 112,261
Kashmiri 7,517 9,730 19,529 36,776
Kethwal
Khattar 4,548 445 4,993
Maliar 10,521 21,348 17,295 49,164
Mughal 6,459 18,830 16,446 41,735
Paracha 1,117 1,142 2,259
Pathan 47,589 14,722 6,675 68,986
Qureshi 2,965 10,522 9,053 22,540
Rajput 36,192 78,013 212,418 326,623
Satti 15,343 15,343
Sayyid 14,935 14,832 14,578 44,345

Please Note: The present Chakwal District was created out of the merger Talagang Tehsil of Attock District and Chakwal Tehsil of Jhelum District in 1985. The Islamabad Capital Territory was carved out of Rawalpindi District in 1959.[7][8][9]

Distribution

The Plauteau portion of the Pothohar region is held by the Rajput, Jat, Maliar, Gujar and Mughal. The Salt Range is held entirely by the Awan tribe. While the Murree Hills are held by the Dhund Abbasi, Dhanyal, Kethwal and Jasgam. Along the Indus river, the Pathan hold the Chhachh illaqa, and the Makhad region, where the Kala Chita mountains meet the Indus river.

Awan

In terms of the general distribution, the Awan are perhaps the most widely distributed of the tribes, found in almost every district of the Pothohar region.[10]. The western portion of the Salt Range is in fact referred to as the Awankari, or country of the Awans.

Gakhar

The Gakhar or Kayani are a tribe local to the Pothohar region, found only in Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Mirpur.

Gujar

The Pothohar Gujar are found mainly in Taxila, Rawalpindi and Gujar Khan tehsils of Rawalpindi District.[11]. In Jhelum District, they are found in the east district, along the Jhelum river valley, where they hold eighty villages, Kala Gujran being the most important.[12]. In Attock District, they are found mainly in Attock Tehsil and Fateh Jang Tehsil. They are almost absent in Chakwal District.

Jat

The Pothohar Jat, are found mainly in the Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District, with a few also found in Rawalpindi Tehsil. In Attock District, they are found mainly in Fateh Jang Tehsil and Pindigheb Tehsil, mainly along the border with Rawalpindi District.[13] In Chakwal and Jhelum, they form an important element of the population.

Murree Hills and Birote tribes

The plateau is bordered in the east by the Murree Hills. Unlike the tribes settled on the Plateau, for the tribes of the Murree Hills and Birote, paternity is not the only fact worth considering. The author of the Rawalpindi District Gazetteer wrote the following:

" The family bulks much less largely. Family pride is much weaker and more uncommon. Every family is split with feuds which generally have their origin in the domestic disputes to which polygamy gives rise. All the hillmen are democratic and no respect is paid to family pretensions."[14]

The northern half of the Murree Tehsil is held entirely by the Dhund, who claim to be Abbasi Arabs, claiming descent from the Prophet Mohammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abdul Mutalib. The Satti tribe, which claims Rajput ancestry is found confined to the hilly Kotli Sattian Tehsil. In between these two tribes, are wedged the Kethwal, who claim descent from the Greek general Alexander the Great. The Dhanyal hold the western half of the Murree Tehsil, known as the Karor illaqa, as well as villages in the Islamabad Capital Territory. Like the Awan, the Dhanyal claim descent from the Prophet Mohammed's son in-law Ali. The small of the Murree Hill tribes are the Jasgam, who hold several villages in the hilly portion of the Kahuta Tehsil. Like the Dhund, they claim to be Abbasi Arabs.

Rajput

The Rajputs are found in greatest numbers in the Rawalpindi, Kahuta and Gujra Khan tehsils of Rawalpindi District, Fateh Jang and Pindi Gheb tehsils of Attock District, and found through out Jhelum and Chakwal districts

Principal tribes

Here is a brief description of the main tribes of this region.

Aheer

The Aheer have been referred to as "an ordinary Musalman peasents, like their neighbours."[15] They are essentially a tribe of the Thal region, with villages in Khushab, Sargodha and Mianwali districts. They are differing and conflicting theories about their origin, as is the case with many other Punjab tribes. One of the tradition connects them to Qutab Shah, the ancestor of the Awan and Khokhar tribes. According to another tradition, they are Yaduvanshi Rajputs, and descended from the Krishna. In the Pothohar region, the Aheer have a small presence, with just two villages, Bher Ahir and Ahir in the Gujar Khan Tehsil.

Alpial

The Alpial are a Rajput tribe, found mainly in Attock District. According to 1931 census of India, their approximate population was 4,500.[16]

The Alpials claim descent from the Manj Rajputs, and their claim to Rajput origin is generally admitted. They appear to have settled in their present locality about the same time as the Jodhras and Ghebas, that is about the 15th Century, having first wandered through the country now contained in the Khushab and Chakwal districts before settling down in the southern corner of Fateh Jang.[16] The author of the 1929 Attock District Gazetteer had this to say about them:

Hard-working and excellent cultivators, generally tilling their own land and working laboriously on their wells, they have taken only a small part in the more lurid history of the district. Socially they rank high, intermarrying freely with the Mughals. They are a bold, lawless set of men, of fine physique, much given to violent crime, sturdy, independent and wonderfully quarrelsome.[17]

The Alpials occupy a compact block of villages on both banks of the Swaan River, in Rawalpindi Tehsil, Rawalpindi District and the in the Sil Sohan circle of the Fateh Jang Tehsil,Attock District. They own 32 villages in all. The main Alpial villages are Adhwal, Chak Beli Khan, Chakri, Dinal, Dhullial, Dinal, Khilri, Mala Kal, Parial and Raika Maira, all in Fateh Jang Tehsil.

Awan

Awan soldier in uniform

Most Awans maintain (and have always maintained) they are descended from an individual named Qutb Shah, a ruler of Herat and a general in the army of Mahmud of Ghazni, who himself was a Hashemite descendant of the Prophet Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali (but by a wife other than the Prophet's daughter, Fatimah).

It is asserted that Qutb Shah and six of his sons accompanied and assisted Mahmud in his early eleventh century conquests of what today forms parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northern India. It is claimed that in recognition of their services and valour, Mahmud bestowed upon Qutb Shah and his sons (who, according to tribal traditions, settled primarily in the Salt Range) the title of Awan, meaning "helper".[18]

The Awan, more than any of other tribes referred to are a Pothohar tribe. In numbers, they came only second to the Rajputs.[6] In Rawalpindi District, they are two be found in every tehsil. In the Islamabad Capital Territory, almost all the villages around the town of Golra Sharif are held by the Awan. In Gujar Khan Tehsil, they hold almost all the villages along the Grand Trunk Road, north of the town of Gujar Khan, Pandar Kala being the most important.The Budhal muhi (clan) occupies several villages in this tehsil.[19] They are also found in numbers in villages between Kahuta and Kallar Syedan. The Golra Awans, historically gave great trouble to the British colonial authorities, and permanent police post was maintained in their territory. The recent building of the new capital, Islamabad, and has some impact on this once fearsome tribe. Other important Awan villages are Banda and Rawat, both in Rawalpindi District.

In Jhelum District, they are found along the start of the Salt Range, in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, where the village of Nurpur has been the centre of the tribe. Isolated Awan villages are found through out Jhelum District, but there is no compact territory held by the tribe.

In Chakwal District, the Awan hold the whole of the Talagang Tehsil, the western Salt Range and the Thal Desert, and extend in the neighbouring Khushab District. Indeed this region is referred to as the Awankari or Awan country. Their main muhi or clans in the district are the Mumnal, Saghral, Shial, Gang and Mund. Important Awan villages include Tamman, who headmen are seen as the chiefs of the tribe, in the district. Other villages include Lawa, Trap, Dhermund, Pihra Fattial, Thoa, Chinji, Jhatla, Sangwala, Saghar, Dhaular, Bhudial, Patwali, Multan, Pachnand, Nila, Dhurnal and Danda Shah Bilawal.[20]

In Attock District, their villages dominate the centre Pindigheb Tehsil in a strip from the Swaan River to the Kala Chita mountains. In Fateh Jang Tehsil, almost all the villages in the Swaan River valley are held by the Awans.[21] In Attock Tehsil, they share the Chhachh illaqa with the Pathans and the Sarwala, with the Khattars. The principal muhis found in Attock are the Qutubshahi, Sadkal, Bugdial, Chajji, Saidan, Parbar and Ballial. Like the Golra Awan of Rawalpindi District, the Trer Awan of Attock Tehsil gave some difficulty to the British colonial authorities.Important Awan villages in the district, include Dhak, Jalwal, Maira, Jand, Jangla and Narwara in Pindigheb Tehsil, and Jhan and Bathu in Fateh Jang Tehsil, and Shamsabad and Bhallar Jogi in Attock Tehsil.[22] The village of Shamsabad is another important centre of the Awan tribe, and the chiefs of Shamsabad also wield considerable influence in Attock District.

Baghial

The Baghial are a Rajput tribe.[23]

The Baghial are closely related to the Bangial tribe. The tribe claims descent from a Bangash Khan, a Parmar Rajput, who also seen as an ancestor by the Bangial tribe. They describe themselves as being Parmar Rajput origin, as do the Bhakral and Hon Rajputs, all four being found mainly in the Potohar region and Azad Kashmir.

The tribe is not to be confused with the Bugial section of the Gakhars with whom they have no connection.[24]

They are is found chiefly in the Rawalpindi District, where they occupy five villages in the Gujar Khan Tehsil. They also to be a found in the Jhelum, Gujrat and Gujranwala districts of the Punjab and Mirpur and Kotli Districts of Azad Kashmir. Pind Dara and Supiyali Baghial are important Baghial villages in Rawalpindi District.

Malik clan

Malik clan was found in potohar village bhadana.

Bains

The Bains Jat claim descent from the Janjua Rajputs, who are also a major clan of the region. They abound in Gujar Khan Tehsil, where the village of Bains and neighbouring hamlets are held by them. In Kahuta Tehsil, they occupy several villages, includinng Pind Bhainso,along the border of Kahuta Tehsil and Kotli District of Azad Kashmir. Across the Jhelum river, they form an important tribe in Mirpur and Kotli districts.

They are the only Jat tribe of any consequence in Attock District, and the Maliks (lords) of the village of Bains in Fateh Jang Tehsil, are the only Jat landowners of any importance in that district.

In Jhelum District , the village of Bains Qassim is an important centre of the tribe.

Bangial

The Bangial are a Rajput tribe.

The Bangial are closely related to the Baghial tribe. Members of the tribe in the Rawalpindi District are identify themselves as Rajputs, while those in Gujrat, Gujranwala, Jhelum, and Mirpur refer to themselves as Jats. Their first ancestor to convert to the Islamic faith was a Bangash Khan, who also seen as an ancestor by the Baghial tribe. They describe themselves as being of Panwar Rajput origin, as do the Baghial, Bhakral and Hon Rajputs, all four being found mainly in the Potohar region of Punjab and Azad Kashmir.[25]

Changa Bangial, Harchiari Bangial, Pharwal Bangial, Wasla Bangial and Dhok Bangial are important Bangial villages in Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. In Rawalpindi Tehsil, Pind Dara, Darihala Bangial, Bura Bangial, Kala Bangial and Marri Bangial are important villages. In Kahuta Tehsil, Suhot Bangial is an important village.

Jhanga Bangial and Bora Bangial are two Bangial villages in the Islamabad Capital Territory.

Gora Bangial is a major Bangial village in Attock District.

Bhakral

The Bhakral are a large Rajput tribe found in the Gujar Khan and Kahuta tehsil of Rawalpindi District, as well as Jhelum and Chakwal districts.

The Bhakral claim to be, by origin Panwar Rajputs. They are said to have come from across the Jhelum River, from Jammu. According to some other sources, the Bhakrals are in fact are branch of the Manhas Rajputs. The tribe is considered Rajput and historically appeared to hold a high place in the social scale in the Pothohar region.[26] They are known to be good cultivators, of fine physique, with a tradition of military service, as are many other Potohar tribes of Rajput status.[25].

The Bhakral are closely connected with other tribes of Panwar origin in the Potohar region such as the Baghial, Bangial and Hon Rajputs, as well as the Budhal section of the Awan.

In Rawalpindi District, Bhakral villages are found in every tehsil, barring the mountainous tehsils of Murree and Kotli Sattian.

Their villages in Rawalpindi Tehsil include Aujariala, Chak Bhakral, Dhala, Kartal Bhakral, Ghari Kalan, Sihala, Thatha, Sohawa, Sagri Khurd, Kirpal Bhakral and Meda Halim in Rawalpindi Tehsil. Their villages in Kahuta Tehsil, include Bakhral, Chak Begwal, Jocha Mamdor, and Nathot.

They are also number of Bhakral settlements around the village of Bhakral, in Kallar Syedan Tehsil.

In Gujar Khan Tehsil Chakrali Budhal, Dhok Bakhral ,Devi, Sang ,Kamtrila and Mastala are important centres of the tribe.

In Jhelum District, their main villages are Langar Bhakral and Gagi Bhakral.

Janda Bhakral, Hardo Sabah and Sabah Mohra are important centres of the tribe in Chakwal District.

Bhatti

The Bhati / Bhatti (Hindi: भाटी (Bhati), Urdu: بھٹی, Punjabi: ਭੱਟੀ (Bhatti / भटटी)), is a Rajput Yaduvanshi clan and is one of the largest tribes among Rajputs.

Krishna from Yadu Dynasty

The clan traces its descent from the mythical king Yadu (Yaduvansh means the family of Yadu)</ref>[27]

Rawal Jaisal Singh was the Bhatti Rajput who founded "The Golden City" of Jaisalmer in 1156 AD. The new fort that he built was on a hill called Trikuta.[28]

The state of Jaisalmer was positioned right on the route from Afghanistan to Delhi. Taking advantage of this strategic position, the Bhattis levied taxes on the passing caravans. The Bhatti are then said to have spread to the Punjab,Sindh and beyond, to Afghanistan. The City of Ghazni was named after a brave Bhatti warrior. The exact date of the migration of the Bhatti, into the Pothohar region is unknown. They now are found in every district, barring the hill tehsil of Murree and Kotli Sattian.

In Attock District, they own two villages in the Nala circle of Attock Tehsil, in Fateh Jang they own seven villages on the Rawalpindi district border, Bhottral and Hattar being the main ones. They also own several villages in Pindigheb Tehsil, the main ones being Rajar and Marwal. Their main clans in Attock being the Mehra, Kanjal, Jangle, Badhuer and Shaikh.

In Chakwal District, they hold seven villages in Talagang Tehsil, three of which (Chinji,Kotera and Bilomar) lie below the Salt Range, and the rest in the north east corner of the tehsil. In Chakwal Tehsil, they own several villages near the Rawalpindi District border.

In Jhelum District, they hold two villages in Pind daden khan, one is pindi said pur, other is noor pur.

In Rawalpindi District, the villages of Bhakhar Akku and Bhakkar Fateh Shah are held by the Bhattis.

Budhal

The Budhal are a clan of the Awan tribe, but is closely associated with the Bhakral Rajputs. Both clans are said to come across the Jhelum River, from Jammu and Kashmir. They occupy a block of villages, in Gujar Khan Tehsil.

Chatha

The Chatha are a large Jat tribe, found mainly in Gujranwala, Sialkot, and Gujrat districts. In the Pothohar region, there are several villages of the Chatha Jat. In Jhelum District, the villages of Chatha and Chak Chatha are centres of the tribe. In Rawalpindi District, the village of Hakim Chatha is an important centre of the tribe, as is Chatha Bakhtawar in the Islamabad Capital Territory.

Chauhan

The Chauhan is perhaps the most famous of the Gurjar[29] Rajput clans, for Prithvi Raj, the last Hindu ruler of North India, belonged to the Chauhan clan. According to their bardic traditions, the Chauhan are one of the four Agnivanshi or 'fire sprung' tribes who were created by the gods in the Agni kund or 'fountain of fire' on Mount Abu to fight against the Asuras or demons.According a number of scholars Chauhan was a prominent clan of Gurjars.[30][31] Chauhan is also one of the thirty six ruling races of the Rajputs.[32]

The Chauhan dynasty flourished from the 8th to 12th centuries AD. It was one of the four main Agnikula dynasties of that era, the others being Gurjara Pratiharas, Paramaras, and Solankis or Chalukyas. The Chauhan also established dynasties in several places in North India and in the state of Gujarat in Western India. They were also prominent at Sirohi in the southwest of Rajasthan, and at Bundi and Kota, RajasthanKota in the east of that state.

Little is known of the migration of the Chauhan into the Pothohar region, and the Chauhans never established any principalities in the region. Nevertheless, there are several Chauhan settlements in the region. What is known is that the settlements are usually identified with the Chauhan's if the settlements are predominantly Chauhan.

The most important are Chauhan family is that of Khaur, in Pindigheb Tehsil of Attock. In addition to Khaur, there are three other villages owned and occupied by the Chauhan in that tehsil.

In Rawalpindi District, the main Chauhan settlements are at usman Zada Adra where the village is owned by the Hadi Rai Chohans and there is a similar settlement in Sadar Rawalpindi at Adra others are smaller settlements at Panjgran, Sihala and Sahib Dhamial, the last of which they share with the Dhamial (Rajput)s.[33]

In Jhelum District, their main settlement is Gurra Uttam singh, and the neighbouring dhoks.

In Chakwal District, there are two clans of the Chauhans, the Chauhan Taubl whose villages include Thanil Fattuhi, Ghazial, and Chumbi, and the Khandoya, whose main settlement is the village of Khandoya, and the neighbouring hamlets.

Cheema

The Cheema are a well-known Jat clan, found mainly in Gujranwala and Sialkot districts. In the Pothohar region, they occupy a lone village, Sui Cheemian in Gujar Khan Tehsil.

Chhina

The Chhina Jat claim common descent from the Wattu tribe. Their common ancestor was a Uchchir, who had two sons, Jaipal, the ancestor of the Chhina, and Rajpal, the ancestor of the Wattu.[10] Pheru, 18th in descent from Jaypal, was converted to Islam by the famous Sufi, Baba Farid.

The Chhina at times are confused with the Cheema, another famous Jat clan, but the two clans are entirely distinct.

In Gujar Khan Tehsil, the village of Chhina and nearby hamlets (dhoks) are almost entirely inhabited by the Chhina.

In Kahuta Tehsil, the following villages are held by the Chhina; Duberan Kalan,Sakote, Ghul and Saintha.

Chib

The Chib are a Rajput tribe.

They trace their ancestry to Partab Chand, a Katoch Rajput of Kangra, in what is now Himachal Pradesh, India. He is said to have founded a principality in Bhimber, and the greatest concenteration of the Chib remains Bhimber and the adjoining Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District. In the Pothohar region, the Chib hold a few river villages, above Jhelum.[34]

Dhamial (Jat) and Dhamial (Rajput)

The Dhamial (Jat) and Dhamial (Rajput) both claim to be Janjua Rajputs, by origin. They should not be confused with the Dhanyal, who are entirely distinct tribe.

In the early thirteenth century, the Janjua chieftain, Raja Mal Khan rose to prominence. He increased his dominion over Hazara (later renamed Amb) through his son Raja Tanoli, Jhelum through his son Raja Jodh, parts of Kashmir through Raja Khakha, Rajghar (later renamed Malot) Chakwal through his eldest Raja Bhir and what is today known as the Kahuta district through Raja Kala Khan. Tarikh-e-Alfi of the Ghorids makes a mention of the rise to power of Raja Mal.

According to Lepel H. Griffin, in Chiefs and Families of note in the Punjab (Lahore, 1910, ii, p254),:

"On the death of their father, they determined to divide the country called, from Raja Mal, the Maloki Dhan between them. Jodh took the Salt Range near about the Makrach, and captured the town of Makshala from a colony of Brahmins (Mohyals)...He changed its name to Makhiala and built a fort there and two tanks for rain water..... Wir Khan (also spelt Bhir), took the possession of Khura (also spelt Khewra) near modern Pind Dadan Khan."

The descendants of Raja Jodh continued to rule this region through various interruptions until the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Raja Bhir meanwhile took over the Malot (Rajghar) state from his father.

It was in this tradition that Raja Bhir's later descendant, Raja Malu Khan, allying his cousin Raja Mubarak Khan who was the descendant of Raja Jodh Khan, gained control of the region of Dhamial and Ranial.

The Dhamial of Rawalpindi Tehsil consider themselves to beRajput, and are accepted as such by their neighbours. They are found in the Kharora Circle, with the villages of Dhamial,Takht Pari, Traya, Khail Dhamyal and Sher Dhamial villages. In Kallar Syedan Tehsil, Sahib Dhamial is an important village.

In Jhelum and Gujar Khan, the Dhamial consider themselves to beJats, and intermarry with other Jat tribe, such as the Chhina, Cheema and Sandhu of the region.

In Jhelum District, Dhamial Jats are found in Mamuri Dhamial, Dheri Dhamial and Rakha Dhamial. The town of Dhamiak remains a centre of the tribe in Jhelum.

In Gujar Khan Tehsil, they are found in Dolmi Dhamial and Dhamial, and neighbouring hamlets (dhoks).

Dhanyal

The Dhanyal occupy the Karor illaqa of Murree Tehsil, as well as the adjoining areas of the Islamabad Capital Territory.[35] They have thirteen villages in the Karor Ilaqa, and twelve in the Islamabad Capital Territory.

The Dhanyal claim descent from Ali, the nephew and son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammad, and the name 'Dhanyal' is said to be derived from Mohazzam Shah a Sufi saint, who shifted from Dhan (old name of Chakwal) in the late 12th century to the Lower Himalayas . This Moazzam Shah came from an Alvis, and settled in Multan, coming originally from Iraq. Mohazzam Shah had supported Mohammad Ghori to curb the activities of the Rajputs, who were involved in attacks the Muslim armies of Shahbuddin Ghouri.Mohazzam Shah is also known as Hazrat Baba Dhani Pir, and according to the traditions of the tribe, was killed in battle in Kashmir.

Their main villages are Angori, Ariary, Kala Basand, Karore, Kiyah, Nanyah, Penahattee and Dakhain in Murree Tehsil, and Jandgran, Garathian, Darkalai, Chakka Begwal, Pind Begwal and Chiraj in the Islamabad Capital Territory.

Dhund

The Dhund are the most prominent of the Muree Hill tribes, and make up the bulk of the population of the Murree Tehsil.[36] Their tribal tradition is that they are descended from Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet Mohammad. They own sixty villages in Murree Tehsil, and four in the Islamabad Capital Territory.

There are therefore different traditions as to the origin of this tribe. It is only found in Murree and the neighbouring parts of Azad Kashmir and the Hazara Division. Uniquely, they speak a particular dialect of Pothohari, which is referred to as Dhundi-Kairali.[37]

Dulal

The Dulal are a small tribe, confined to the Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. They claim to be Qureshi Arabs, and occupy a number of villages near the town of Mandrah, the main ones being Hachari Dulal, Nathu Dulal, Noor Dulal, Pharwala Dulal,Narali, Bhattian and Kuri Dulal.[38] They should not be confused, by the Dulal branch of the Janjua, who are entirely distinct.

Gakhar

The Gakhar or Kayani are perhaps the most prominent tribe of the Pothohar region, and the history of the region in many ways is the history of the tribe.

The best ancient sources for the Gakhars are Ferishta's history completed in 1606 and the Gakhar history "Kaygawharnāma" by Rāyzāda Dunīchand Bālī which was written in 1725.[39]

The "Kaygawharnāma" claims the Gakhars were Sassanian Persian nobles who, with their knights, went beyond the northeast frontier of the Sassanian empire, seeking lands in China, Tibet and Kashmir. Gakhars therefore use the ancient royal Persian title "Kay or "Kayani as did the Sassanian aristocracy as they claim descent from the semi-mythological Kayani Kings of ancient Iran. Eventually after centuries of wandering, the Gakhars joined forces with the Mahmud of Ghazni in his invasion of 1008 and were rewarded with the kingdom of Potohar, which has since been the territory of the clan.

However in Ferishta's view, the Gakhars were a Indian tribe who resisted Mahmud of Ghazni invasion of India. Anandapal, son of Jayapala Maharaja of Punjab, "...with the Gakhars, and other warlike tribes..." forght a critical battle against the Muslim invader Mahmud of Ghazni in the Punjab in the year 1008. "Mahmud, having thus secured himself, ordered six thousand archers to the front to endeavour to provoke the enemy to attack his entrenchments. The archers were opposed by the Gakhars, who, in spite of the King's (Mahmud of Ghazni) efforts and presence, repulsed his light troops, and followed them so closely, that no less than 30,000 Gakhars with their heads and feet bare, and armed with various weapons, penetrated into the Muslim lines, where a dreadful carnage ensured, and 5000 Muslims in a few minutes were slain."

The Gakhars most likely left the Sassanian Empire after 565 AD when Khosrau I in coalition with the Western (Oghuz) Turks invaded north west India, maintaining weak Sassanian control over it until the 10th century, long after the fall of the last Sassanian ruler Yazdgerd III in 651 AD to Arab invaders. Most likely it would have been as exiles - the Kaygawharnāma records many years of wandering - from the fall of the Sassanian Empire possibly as late as 682 AD which is when Ferishta records that the Raja of Lahore submitted to terms from the Gakhars. "This treaty included the cession of certain territories in perpetuity to the Gakhars... that they should protect the Indian frontier from the Muslim invasions." In these lands they would have likely formed a small feudal aristocracy controlling many Hindu villages. Despite forced conversion in 1204, according to Ferishta, the Gakhars maintained a largely successful resistance to the Muslim kingdoms that followed before the coming of Babar.

These are six main muhi (clans) of the Gakhars:[40]

Clan Ancestor Villages
Admal descended from Sultan Adam Pharwala, Mandla, Chaneri, Kaniat, Manianda and Nara
Sarangal Sultan Sarang Saidpur
Firuzal Malik Firoz Sang
Bugial Malik Bugas Shakarparian
Hathial Sultan Hathi
Sikandral Malik Sikandar

In addition to these six clans, the following are also Gakhar clans, the Paharial, Johdial, Mangral ( not to be confused with the Rajput clan, of the same name), Kainswal, Farmsial, Sunal, Kul-Chandral and Jandial.

In Rawalpindi District, the Gakhar are found in every tehsil, barring Murree. The fort, and village of Pharwala, in Kahuta Tehsil, is home to the Admal family. Other Admal villages in include Nara and Kaniat. Other Gakhar villages include Saidpur, Malpur, Parian, Pindora, Pindori, Harakka, Jhatta Hathial, Bassali, Gurra Rajgan, Bangial Swana, Ratial, Banian,Mohri Gakhran, Manianda, Narala, Jabbi Gakhran, Rupa, Sambhal Kharak, Nara, Admal, Choa Khalsa, Bijnial, Sheikhpur and Sohawa Mirza.

In Jhelum District, the Gakhar are found mainly in Dina Tehsil. They hold the most of the Khuddar circle, and in addition the clans already referred to, the Tulial have five villages, near Dina. Their principal villages in the district are Sultanpur (Admal), Lehri and Bakrala (Sikandral), Domeli, Padhri and Baragowah (Bugial), Bheth and Salihal (Tulial). Other villages include Beli Budhar, Adranana, Sanghoi Malhu, Baral and Badagran.

In Attock District, there are only few settlements of the Gakhars in Fateh Jang Tehsil.

Gungal

The Gungal are a tribe, that claims Chandravanshi Rajputs. In Attock District, the village of Gangal in Fateh Jang Tehsil is an important village.

In Rawalpindi District, the villages of Gungal and Sood Gungal, in Rawalpindi Tehsil, are important centres of the tribe. Gungal is Gujar Khan Tehsil, and Bimma Gungal in Kahuta Tehsil are also important villages.

The Gungal in Jhelum District consider themselves to be Jats, and their main village is Gungal. Mohra Gungal near Kallar Syden and Mak village is also important centres of Gungal tribes.They claims the gangal is Bhatti Rajput.

Gheba

The Gheba are a tribe found in the Attock District.

The tribe claim to be Mughal. The Ghebas have either given their name, or received it, from the Gheb ( a region forming the south east of Attock District) , they explain it as the latter reason and prefer to be known as Mughals. A not improbable conjecture is that they were a small band of broken Rajput families, fleeing from the central Punjab, who joined the Jodhras and settled down on their borders. The tribe rose to independence and in social status in the later years of Sikh rule. They are now considered equal in rank with the Jodhras and Alpials.[41] They have three main muhi, the Rawal, Bhandial and Sihal.

The Ghebas are found in the western portion of the Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District, where they occupy solid block of villages reaching to the Kala Chita on the north, to Fateh Jang and Sagar to the east, and almost to the Sil in the south.

The main Gheba villages are Kot Fateh Khan, Manjia, Dhurnal, Gullial, Malal, Mari, Shahr Rai Saidullah and Sikhwal all in Pindi Gheb Tehsil of Attock District.

Gondal

The Gondal are a Jat tribe, and found in great numbers in the region known as the Gondal Bar, comprising the districts of Mandi Bahauddin, Gujrat and Sargodha. The Gondal claim to have been Chauhan Rajputs, who were converted to Islam, by the famous Sufi saint, Baba Farid.

In the Pothohar region, there are in fact two distinct branches of the Gondal tribe. There is a cluster of Gondal villages in the Jhelum District, along the Jhelum River, between the Jalap and Lilla villages and the Gujjars of Kala Gujran. They are closely connected with the Gondal Bar Gondals, across the Jhelum River. A second group of Gondal villages are found in the Rawalpindi District, around the town of Gondal, and they extend into Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District. Their main villages are Pindi Gondal in Rawalpindi Tehsil and Gondal in Fateh Jang Tehsil. These Gondals in custom, habit and speech are similar, to other Rajput tribes of the region, and often consider themselves to be Rajputs.

Gujjar

The origins of the Gujjars are uncertain.[42]. The Gujjar clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna invasions of northern India. Some scholars, such as V. A. Smith,believed that the Gujjars were foreign immigrants, possibly a branch of Hephthalites ("White Huns").[43] Devadatta Ramakrishna Bhandarkar|D. B. Bhandarkar (1875-1950) believed that Gujjars came into India with the Hunas, and the name of the tribe was sanskritized to "Gurjara".[44] He also believed that several places in Central Asia, such as "Gurjistan", are named after the Gujars and that the reminiscences of Gujar migration is preserved in these names.[44] General Cunningham identified the Gujjars with Yuezhi or Tocharians.[45]

In the past, Gujjars and Khatris have also been hypothesized to be descended from the nomadic Khazar tribes, although the history of Khazars shows an entirely different politico-cultural ethos[46] In Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, the British civil servant James M. Campbell identified Gujars with Khazars.

Some Gujjars also claim that the Gujjar tribe is related to the Chechens and the Georgians, and argue that Georgia was traditionally called "Gujaristan" (actually Gorjestan).[47][47][48] However, there is little evidence for such claims. The word "Georgia" derived from the Arabic and Persian word Gurj, and not Gujjar or Gurjar.[49][50]

However "Gujjar" has come from "Gurjar" which is a sanskrit word which has been explained thus: Gur+Ujjar; 'Gur' means 'enemy' and 'ujjar' means 'destroyer'. The word means "Destroyer of the enemy" . [51] The word "Gurjar" predicts the qualities of a warrior community.[52]

The Gujjar form an tribal element in the Pothohar region. The writer of the Jhelum District Gazetteer wrote the following about the Pothohar Gujar:

" Throughout the Salt Range tract, and probably under the eastern hills also, they are the oldest inhabbitants among the tribes settled here. It is not possible to go much further than this with certainty, but this may be added, whatever the country from which they originally migrated, the first settlers district are an offshoot of the Gujjars of the neighbouring district of Gujrat."[53]

The author further goes on to state:

" The Gujjars of Jhelum differ entirely in character from that idle, theivish and cowardly race, their fellow Gujjars of the southern districts: here undoubtedly the best all-round cultivators which the district can boast."[54]

The Gujjar are split into several clans, the mains one are the Gorsi, Kasana, Bargat, Khatana, Chechi, Chauhan, Sidh, Barra, Gajgahiya, Amrane, and Bhalot.

IIn Jhelum District, they hold 80 villages, they arechiefly found in the plains north of Jhelum, a few scattered villages in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil. Their main clans in the district are the Gorsi, Paswal, Chauhan, Kalas, Khatana and Kasana. The Khatana are the most numerous, afterwards the Paswal, Chauhan, and Kalas. Their main villages are Kala Gujran, Jakkar and Muftian.

In Rawalpindi District, they are absent from the hill tehsils of Murree and Kotli Sattian, as well as the hilly portion of Kahuta Tehsil. In Gujar Khan, they are found all over the tehsil, their strongest colony being in the south-west, close along the Chakwal - Mandrah road. In Rawalpindi Tehsil, they abound on the line of the Swaan River. They own 124 villages in this district. Their main villages are Raman in Gujar Khan Tehsil, Mankiala in Rawalpindi Tehsil, and Bulakhar in Kahuta Tehsil.

In Chakwal District, they own a small block of villages in north-east of Chakwal Tehsil.

In Attock Tehsil, they own three villages in the Chhachh illaqa, seven in Sarwala and twenty three villages in the north east corner under gandgarh, along the North West Frontier Province border and on the Haro. In Fateh Jang, they own fifteen villages, which are found in different parts of the tehsil, including a small block of villages in the extreme south-west corner of the Sil - Swaan circle. Their most important villages are that of Bhalot and Hissar.

Hafyal

The Hafyal is small clan found in the village of Hafyal, and neighbouring hamlets in Gujar Khan Tehsil. The Hafyal claim to be Chughtai Mughals.

Hattar

The Hattar are a Chandravanshi Rajput clan,

According to their traditions, the tribe claims descent from a Bhatti Rajput nobleman, a Rana Rajwadhan. The Rana lived in Ghazni, in what is now Afghanistan and then moved to Delhi in India. After sometime, he moved to Bhatner. In the 13th Century, the Rana moved to Chanb Kalyar, in what is now the Lodhran District, in Punjab, Pakistan. The ruler of the area was a Raja Bhutta. The Raja wanted to marry the daughter of Rajwadhan, who refused. As a result a battle took place, and the Raja was slain. The tract was then divided by Rajwadhan, and his five sons, Kalyar, Utera, Kanju, Noon and Hattar.[10]

The descendents of Hattar are said to have left the Multan region, and moved to north west Punjab, where they are a now found as a Rajput tribe.

Their main villages in Chakwal District are Hattar and Assami Hattar, in Attock District, their main village is Hattar, in Gujrat District, Hattar is their main village.

In Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, their main villages are Dhok Hattar and Hattar.

Hon

The Hon or Hun or sometimes also pronounced as Hoon are a Rajput tribe.

The Hun or Hoon are Panwar Rajputs, claiming descent from a Raja Judgeo. The tribe is a very small one. According to 1931 Census of India, they numbered just under 500 (census 1931). They are a closely related to a number of Rajput septs residing in Rawalpindi District, such as the Baghial and Bhakral, all of whom claim descent from the Panwar Rajputs.[55]

They are found chiefly in Rawalpindi, Attock and Jhelum districts of the Punjab. In addition, a few are also found in the old Hazara Division of the North West Frontier Province.

Important Hoon villages are Hoon Dhamial, in Rawat Union Council, Islamabad Capital Territory, Katheel Hoon and Shahpur in Kahuta Tehsil, of Rawalpindi District, and Hoon Bhattian in Kotli Sattian Tehsil of Rawalpindi District.

In Jhelum District, Hon Kalyal and Hon are important villages. The village of Hon in Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District, is also an important centre of the tribe, in that district.

Jalap

The Jalap are a Rajput . They are the predominant tribe in the Jalap Illaqa, the rich well tract between the Jhelum River and the Salt Range. According to the 1931 Census of India, they numbered 400.

The Jalaps claim to be Khokhar Rajputs, and claim descent from Jalap, who according to traditions was a holy man, and is buried in Sargodha. Jalap is said to be buried at Ramdiani in Sargodha District. Sidharan, who was several generations in descent from Jalap led the tribe to its present location. The Pind Dadan Khan plain was at that time held by the Janjua Rajputs, whom the Jalap ousted.[10]

According to another tradition, at the time of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, they were settled along the banks of the Chenab river. Jalap was the chief of the tribe, and the Emperor asked him to give his daughter in marriage, as other Rajputs had done. Jalap agreed, but the rest of the clan disapproved, and when he came home, they set upon him and killed him. Shah Jahan then sent ab army to punish them, and being driven from their home they crossed the Jhelum, and after many fights with the Janjua established themselves where they are found.

The Jalap are closely connected with the Bharat and Khiwa clans, that also reside in the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil.

The tribe is met with chiefly in the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of the Jhelum district, there are also a few small villages in the Bhera tehsil of Sargodha District.[56]

The best known families reside at Chak Sadi and Pinnanwal.[55] Other Jalap settlements include Dharyala Jalap and Khotian Jalap, all of which are in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District.

They are the predominant tribe in the Jalap Illaqa, the rich well tract between the Jhelum River and the Salt Range. Their main villages are Chak Shadi, Chak Janni and Pinnanwal, all in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil.

Janhal

The Janhal another small clan, they claims to be Mughal (tribe). They occupy a compact little block of villages around Boer in the north of the Kahru circle, in Kahuta Tehsil.

Janjua

The Janjua are a Rajput tribe found in every district of the Pothohar region, barring the hill tehsils of Murree and Kotli Sattian.

According to their traditions, Arjun's great grandson, Maharaja Janamejaya, is an ancestor of the Janjuas. Janamejaya was later the ruling Emperor of the Kingdom of Hastinapur, the capital of which was Indraprasta (modern day Delhi). Regarding the Janjuas descent from the Pandavas dynasty, the Bali and Bhimwal generals of Raja Dhrupet Dev of Mathura, recorded that the Janjua Raja Dhrupet Dev was the descendant of Emperor Janamejaya of the Pandava dynasty of Prince Arjun. This reference was recorded in 1195 AD.[57] Sir Lepel H Griffin K.C.S.I. also recorded in the early 1900s that the Janjua were Pandavas in origin.[58]

Alexander and the wounded King of the Pauravas

The Pandava princes ruled the region of Punjab and specifically Jhelum[59][60] during the era of Alexander the Great. The Janjua Rajputs claim that an ancestor, Rai Por is the Porus who fought Alexander in Punjab in 326BC.[61] There is no source to confirm Porus' ancestry.

Rai Dhrupet Dev was the father of a famous rebellious king Rai Ajmal Dev Janjua[62] who embraced Islam in the 12th century due to his love for Sufi art, poetry and teachings. Rai/Raja Mal followed the Islamic tradition of change of name after conversion and was then known as Raja Mal Khan. He was among the first Muslim Rajputs. This conversion was done before the armies of Shahabudin Ghauri entered into the Indian Plateau to conquer whilst he was very young in his teens and inclined towards Islamic philosophy of the Sufis[63], whose missionary efforts were gaining popularity in Northern India.[64][65][66][67]

Conquering for himself a kingdom in the Koh-i-Jud he settled his capital at Rajgarh which he later renamed Malot. He re-conquered the Salt Ranges of Punjab to re-establish the dominion which his tribe lost almost two centuries earlier to the Ghaznavids.[68] (Malot was originally called Shahghar or Rajghar - meaning home of the Shahis/Kings but was later changed to Malot in recognition of its founder.)

The Tarikh-e-Alfi of the Ghorids mentions the rebellious behaviour of Rai Mal towards the Delhi Sultanate. It records that he excited a rebellion against them and intercepted communications between Lahore and Ghazni.[69] He then led the revolt to Multan with his Gakhar allies, defeating the Ghorid Governor of Multan before progressing to plunder Lahore and blockading the strategic road between Punjab and Ghazni.[70][71] There are today remnants of an ancient fort in Malot, Chakwal which was initially built by the Shahis and later rebuilt and fortified by Raja Mal Khan. It is also inscribed that the last Hindu Shahi prince Raja Mal embraced Islam at this place.[72]

Raja Mal Khan was also the first ruler to begin the mining of salt in the Salt Ranges of Kallar Kahar and in the Khewra Salt Mines of Punjab which is currently the world's second largest salt mine.[73] Raja Mal is said to have had five sons. Three settled in Rawalpindi and Hazara, two Vir and Jodh remained in Jhelum.

In Rawalpindi District, the Janjua are confined to the Kahuta Tehsil. There are several sub-divisions, of which the most important are the Dulal and Gaharwal. The Dulal Janjua hold Kahuta itself and a few villages around it, but the Gaharwal are the most important section. Their headquarters are at Mator, and they own the greater part of the Kahru Circle, which takes its name from the name of the clan, which is sometimes written Karhwal. They own 34 villages in Kahuta Tehsil. Their main villages being Maira, Mator, Chamba Kirpal, Thoa Khalsa, Doberan, Barish and Dera Khalsa, all in Kahuta Tehsil

In Attock District, they own Jangal and two other villages in Fateh Jang Tehsil.

In Chakwal District, they own Kot Sarang and an adjoining village in Talagang Tehsil, and Dhrabi in Chakwal Tehsil.

In Jhelum District, their main villages are Darapur, Chakri and Nara in Jhelum Tehsil, Makhiala, Dalwal, Malot, Kusak, Pindi saidpur, Sherpur, Dharyala Kahun and Saloi.

Jasgam

The Jasgam or sometime pronounced Jaskham are a small tribe, occupying villages in the hilly portion of the Kahuta Tehsil, in the vicinity of the town of Panjar. the Kahuta Tehsil .[55]

The Jasgam claim decent from the Abbasi family, the former Caliphs of Baghdad. According to their traditions, they are descended from Jasgam, who belonged to the Dhund Abbasi tribe, and some Jasgam claim, that they are simply a clan of the Dhund tribe. Jasgam was said to be have come originally come from Murree on raiding expedition to Kahuta. He said to have had twelwe sons, who each founded a village in the Kahuta Tehsil. The Jasgam initially settled in Panjar, Bara, Saroha, Daberan, Manyand, Phagwari Gala, Salitha, Sarai Kharbuza and Rajrot, all villages in the present Kahuta Tehsil.[74]

The tribe now occupies thirteen villages in the Kahuta Tehsil, including Panjar, Bara, Saroha, Daberan, Manyand, Phagwari Gala, Salitha, Sarai Kharbuza and Rajrot.[55] A small number are also found in the town of Mandrah in the Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District.

Jat

The Jat are the principal tribe of Central Punjab, but in the Pothohar region, they take third place, after both the Rajput and Awan. The author of the Jhelum District Gazetteer wrote the following about the Pothohar Jat:

in this district there is no Jat tribe of common descent and with common traditions: the word is applied to any cultivator who does not claim foreign or Rajput origin, and does not belong to any other great agriculture tribes of the tracts.[75]

In Jhelum and Chakwal, the Jat form an important element in the agriculture population. In Rawalpindi District, they are only found in numbers in Gujar Khan Tehsil. A few are found in Rawalpindi Tehsil, none in the hill tehsils of Kotli Sattian, Kallar Syedan and Murree, and only very few in Kahuta.

In Attock District, the Jat presence is slight, with only a few villages in Fateh Jang and Pindigheb tehsils.

These were the main Jat clans in Rawalpindi District, as enumerated for the 1911 Census of India:[76]

Tribe Rawalpindi Tehsil Gujar Khan Tehsil Murree Tehsil Kahuta Tehsil Total
Aura 380 230 610
Baghial 72 3 21 96
Bangial 727 445 32 1,204
Boria 30 16 46
Chhina 9 4 13
Dhamial (Jat) 513 635 286 68 1,502
Dhamtal 520 520
Gondal 424 303 89 816
Hindan 262 279 541
Kalyal 9 120 129
Kanyal 149 149
Khatril 49 1,729 219 2,004
Magical 66 3 69
Mial 25 25
Sial 420 420
Sudhan 104 71 175
Thathaal 53 53

These were the main Jat clans in Jhelum District, as enumerated for the 1911 Census of India:[77]

Tribe Jhelum Tehsil Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil Chakwal Tehsil Total
Bains 275 34 309
Bhakral 982 2 1,163 2,147
Bangial 64 3 1,802 1,869
Bhans 788 400 1,188
Bhatta 141 28 463 632
Bhatti 99 191 2,856 3,146
Chadhar 304 101 196 601
Dhamial (Jat) 332 59 3,979 4,730
Dhudhi 142 384 526
Gungal 75 401 573 1,049
Ghogha 238 442 30 710
Gondal 2,574 1,155 2,820 6,549
Gujjral 26 762 788
Hariar 573 6 579
Haral 437 7 56 500
Jandral 14 410 194 618
Jangal 216 1 355 572
Jhammat 31 366 1,074 1,471
Jatal 433 254 23 710
Kalyal 574 7 2,458 3,039
Kanyal 145 2 2,456 2,603
Khanda 24 363 347 734
Khingar 902 3 241 1,146
Khatarmal 12 1 1,171 1,184
Khokhar 64 460 79 603
Khoti 68 12 566 646
Minhas 64 393 457
Mathyal 1,147 1,147
Mekan 741 311 177 1,229
Magical 43 5 1,782 1,830
Phaphra 57 271 355 663
Serwal 572 572
Sial 441 252 432 1,125
Tama 155 462 617
Tarar 197 79 469 745
Thathaal 24 1,729 1,206 1,230
Raya 602 766 422 1,790

The following is a brief description of the Jat tribes, not already separately noticed:

Aura

The Aura are a small Jat clan, found in Rawalpindi and Gujar Khan tehsils. The village of Balakhar in Rawalpindi is an important centre of the tribe. Abdullahpur is also a major centre of this tribe in Jhelum District.

Bhin

The Bhin are a small clan, found mainly in Chakwal District, with a few villages in neighbouring Sargodha District. Their main villages are Bhin, Dhudhial and Jawand, all in Chakwal Tehsil.

Boria

The Boria are a small clan of Jats, who may or may not be connected with another tribe of the same name found in Bikaner District of Rajasthan India. They are found in a number of Awan villages, along the Grand Trunk Road, north of the town of Gujar Khan as tenants.

Dhamtal

Another small Jat clan, found mainly in Rawalpindi Tehsil. In Jhelum District, the village of Dhamtal is their sole presence in that district.

Ghogha

The Ghogha are another clan found entirely in Jhelum and Chakwal districts. The village of Ghogha in Chakwal District is an important centre of the tribe.

Ranyal

The Ranyal are found mainly in Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir. However, they have a single village, Ranial Phulan in Jhelum District.

Jatal

The Jatal are a tribe of both Jat and Rajput status,

Like many clans found in the Pothohar region of Punjab, some members consider themselves as Rajputs, while others identify themselves as Jats.[24] They claim to be Suryavanshi Rajputs.

Lakho, Mohraian and Jatal are important villages in Gujar Khan Tehsil. Jatal, Jatal Sukhroo and Jatal Durab are important villages of the tribe in Rawalpindi Tehsil. The Jatal are also found in Jhelum District, where tend to identify themselves as Jats.

Jethal

The Jethal are Rajput clan.[78]

The Jethal claim Bhatti Rajput descent, but its pedigree is traced to a Bhutta, who some 12 or 14 generations ago, married the sister of a Ghori Sultan. The king, however, drove Bhutta with his 21 sons in the Kirana Bar. Bhutta eventually crossed the Jhelum River, and settled at Ratta Pind, now a mound near the town of Kandwal.[78] According to other traditions, they are in fact Bhutta Jat by origin.

They are also said to be originally settled at Ucch Shah Jalal, the modern town of Uch in Bahawalpur.

They are only found in the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District, where they hold four villages. In addition, the lone village of Jethal in Chakwal District, also belongs to this tribe.

Jodhra

The Jodhra are a Rajput tribe

The Jodhras account for themselves as being of Rajput origin, and derive their name from Jodhra who was converted to Islam by Mahmud of Ghazni, and who settled in Kashmir.

They appear, however, to have come to the Attock District about the end of the 16th century as a small band of military adventurers. They possessed themselves of the Sohan and Sill " illaquas " and much of Talagang. The Awans, the original owners, were not evicted but remained as tenants under the conquering Jodhras, who never themselves cultivated.

The Jodhras became independent chiefs keeping up a large body of armed retainers. Their power was recognised by the Mughals, and Malik Aulia Khan, their first chief known to history, held a revenue assignment of Pindigheb, Talagang and parts of Chakwal.

Owing to family feuds and other causes the tribe has lost much of its original prosperity and is now much less well-to-do than its neighbours, the Ghebas, who have been their ancient rivals and enemies. The two tribes now inter-marry and are on friendly terms.[79]

The Jodhras inhabit the south-eastern portion of the Pindi Gheb Tehsil and the valley of the Swaan River extending, on the south, to the border of Talagang of Chakwal District.

Almost all the Jodhra villages are found in Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District and Pindi Gheb Tehsil of Attock District. Their main villages are Ahmadal, Khunda, Dandi, Chauntra, Ganda Kas, Kamlial, Langrial, Kharauba, Kamalpur, Kanat, Mirwal and Saura in Attock District.

Kahut

In the Pothohar region, the Kahut are confined almost entirely to Chakwal District. Indeed, together with the Mair-Minhas and Kassar, they are referred to as the Chakwal tribes. Out side the Pothohar region, there are a few Kahut villages in Sargodha and Mandi Bahauddin. The author of the Jhelum District Gazetteer gave said the following about their origin:

They were originally located in Arabia and are Qureshis, the present tribal name being merely that of their common ancestor: 24 generations ago, about the year A.D 1359, their ancestor Said Nawab Ali, migrated to Delhi, in the reign of "Firuz Shah Ghauri, (Firuz Shah Tughlaq, son of Mohammed Tughlaq, is no doubt meant; he reigned from 1351 1388 A.D): on the way to Delhi they fought and conquered a pagan king of Sialkot, named Sain Pal, who was, they say probably a Dogra prince. On reaching Delhi they paid their respect to the king, who ordered them to hold the Dhanni and Salt Range on his behalf under the leadership of Kahut, the son of Nawab Ali, they accordingly retraced their steps to district and settled at Gagnelpur of which the ruined site is shown in Mauza Wariamal near the foot of the Salt Range: here they remained for sometime, realising revenue from the Janjuas of the hills and the Gujar graziers of the Dhanni, and remitting it to Delhi " [80]

The Kahut are essentially a Salt Range tribe, their villages situated on the northern slopes of the range. The village of Nikka Kahut in Talagang Tehsil is an isolated Kahut village, surrounded by the Awans. Most their villages are in the south of Chakwal Tehsil, the territory known as Dhanni. The most important are Chakora, Dhok Daraz, Dullah, Janga, Karyala, Langah and Sadwal. There are some villages of the tribe located on both banks of Swan river in Chakwal district. The important villages are Warwal and Hasil.

Kalyal

The Kalyal, or sometimes spelt Kalial, are one of the largestJat clans of the Pothohar region.

The tribe claims decent from a common ancestor named Kal, a Sombansi (Chandravanshi) Rajput,who settled in Rawalpindi in the 15th Century. The tribe then spread all over the Potohar (including Mirpur District) region, as well as neighbouring Gujrat District.[56]

Some Kalyals in Rawalpindi District considered themselves to be Muslim Rajputs, and claim to be a clan of the Bhatti Rajputs.

The Kalyal form a large part of the emigrant British Pakistani community, as Gujar Khan and Mirpur have been a major source of immigration to the United Kingdom.

In Jhelum, they own several villages near the city of Jhelum, such as Tajpur Alia. Other settlements in that district include Sohawa town, Janjil (in Jhelum Tehsil), Dhok Rajju (in Jhelum Tehsil), Kalyal in (Jhelum Tehsil, Kahana (in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil), Hon Kalyal (in Jhelum Tehsil). In Chakwal District, Kotla Kalyal is an important village.

But the greatest concenterations of Kalyal, however is in Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District, where they own several villages.These include Bher Kalial, Guda Kalyal, Mohra Kalyal, Dhok Kalial, Harchiari Kalyal, Teriala Kalyal and Notheh Kalial. In addition to these villages in Gujar Khan, the following villages are found in Rawalpindi Tehsil, Kalial and Top Kalyal and Kalyal in Kahuta Tehsil

Kanyal

Kanyal or sometimes spelt Kanial, are tribe of both Jats and Rajputs status.

According to their tradition, the Kanyal originate from Jammu,India and trace their descent to Jambu Loachon, the founder of the city of Jammu.He had a son named Raja Puran Karan, from whom the tribe claims descent. They are thus descended from the Manhas Rajput tribe.

There are various stories about the emergence of the Kanyal or Kanial tribes, in the Rawalpindi District and they have always been considered as a high ranking clan of the Rajput tribe. They have been settled for hundreds of years in Rawalpindi District, and gained a reputation as being one of the major tribes in the whole of the eastern part of the Pothohar region.

Generally in Rawalpindi, the tribe is considered Rajput, while in the other districts they are considered Jats, and have historically intermarried with neighbouring tribes such as the Thathaal and Bangial.[81]

They are found mainly in Gujrat, Jhelum and Rawalpindi Districts of Punjab, basically through out the eastern half of the Pothohar region.

In Pothohar region, they are found mainly in Gujar Khan Tehsil and Jhelum District.

Dhera Kanial and Mohra Kanial are important villages in Rawalpindi Tehsil.

Habib Kanial, Kanial, Arif Kanial, Dhera Kanial, Mohra Kanial, Sahot Kanyal, Dhok Kanyal, Atit Kanial, Dhaia Kanial and Dhok Manna are part of a cluster of Kanial villages in Gujar Khan Tehsil. It is Gujar Khan and neighbouring Dadyal, which has the highest concenteration of the tribe

Mohra Kanial and Dhok Kanial is are important villages in Jhelum District.

Kashmiri

Kashmiris from the Kashmir valley began to immigrate to the Pothohar region in the 18th century, and formed settlements in Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Attock districts. They use the title Khwaja or Shaikh prior to thei given name, and their main tribes in the region are the Butt, Malik, Lone and Dar. Please note, the term Kashmiri in the region does not refer to immigrants from the Jammu, Mirpur and Poonch region of Jammu and Kashmir, who are generally referred to by their tribal names.

Kassar

Kassar or Mughal Kassar (Urdu: مغل کسر / مغل قصر ) are a Mughal tribe and one of the three major land owning tribes in the Dhani country of Chakwal District.[82] In the Punjab settlement report of 1862, it is mentioned that they had come from Jammu along with the Mair-Minhas tribe and had been settled in this area by the Mughal Emperor, Zaheerudin Babur.

They occupy the northern part of Dhani, called Babial and Chaupeda. Kassar villages include. Farid Kasar, Bal Kassar, Balo Kassar, Fim Kassar, Bhagwal,Karsal, Saral, Miswall, Doray,Chauli,Mangwal, Dingi,Munwall,Bikhari Kalan, Sarkal Kassar, Dhok Peeli, Dhudhial, Tattral, Dhalal ,etc

Khatarmal

The Khatarmal are a Jat tribe.

The tribe claims descent from Khatarmal, a Gakhar nobleman.[10]

Khatarmal's descendants contracted marriage with neighbouring Jat clans, as such also became Jat.

They are found mainly in Chakwal District, with a few villages in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil.

Kethwal

The Kethwals are a tribe found mainly in the Murree Hills, and neighbouring Hazara Division. They are wedged in between the Dhund on the west, and the Sattis on the east. They own only three villages, of which one, Charihan in the Murree Tehsil.[83]

Like many other tribes in the region, there a number of theories as to the origin of the Kethwal tribe. According to one of their traditions, they are believed to originate from Kerman in Iran. They had travelled eastwards and settled the Murree Hills and established their rule over the Murree region. According to another tradition, they are of Rajput origin, and embraced Islam in 1402, at the hands of the great Sufi, Syed Ali Hamdan. Mian Qadir Bakhsh, the son of Raja Chandu of the Murree Hills was the first Muslim of the Kethwal tribe, who is said to have embraced Islam in 1402 at Patan of Kohala. The word Kethwal derived from the name of a tribal chief Mian Katho Khan, who was born in 1560 and is said to have ruled over the Muree region for approximately fifty years. Whatever the exact origin of this tribe, the Kethwal are the oldest of the Murree tribes.[84] The main muhi (clans) of the of Kethwal are the Badwal, Jogeal and Janjual.

There main villages in Murree Tehsil are Sanj, Charihan, Ghel and Ban. In Kotli Sattian Tehsil, there main villages are Dhirkot Kethwalan, Challawara, Balawara, Perchan, Phofandi, Karl, Dornoian, Saanth Anwali, Saanth Sarrullah, Burhad, Badnian, Kamra, Thoon, Kolyari, Dera Danoi, Andralian, Gola, Cela Saydan, and Karor. In Kahuta Tehsil, they share Punjar, and Manyand with the Jasgam tribe, while Lehtrar and Narr are predominant Kethwal villages, while in Rawalpindi Tehsil Shakrial and Chah Sultan are Kethwal villages.

In the Islamabad Capital Territory, there main villages are Kuri Shar, Nilore, Chirrah, Ali Pur,Sohan, Pind Begwal, Jang Kethwal, Bhara Kau, Dhoke Mango, Shakar Parian, Poona Fiqran, Ogrian Kurd and Kalan.

Khamb

The Khamb are tribe of mixed Turkish and Mongol extraction, found mainly in Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts.[85].

According to their traditions, the ancestors of the Khamb arrived from Kathiawar, in what is now the modern state of Gujerat in India.

The Khamb were settled in their present abode, by a Hashmat Khan, a chief of the Thathaal tribe, who are natives of the Pothohar region. This Hashmat Khan was appointed as a garrison commander of Khambhat in Kathiawar, by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. When Hashmat returned to the Pothohar region, he was accompanied by members of the garrison at Khambait. These troops were of a mixed origin and included troopers of Mongol and Afghan origin from Badakshan. He ordered that a village be built and named it Khanpur, and the Khamb tribe was granted lands in and around the new town. The tribe is still mainly found in Khambi.[86]

The Khamb, being of at least partly Turkic extraction are now considered to be a clan of the Mughal tribe.

The Khamb are now found mainly in compact territory covering Sargodha,Jhelum and Gujrat, roughly following the course of the Jhelum River from Bhalwal to Jhelum city. There are also a few isolated villages in Rawalpindi and Chakwal districts as well.

Their villages in Pothohar include, Khambi and Chak Jalilpur in Jhelum District and Khamb in Rawalpindi District

Khattar

The Khattar are perhaps the most interesting in terms of their exact origin.

According to the traditions of the tribe, the Khattar were an Arab tribe that enetered in Spain with Tariq ibn Ziyad. The head of the tribe, Abu Al-Khattar was popular governor of al-Andalusia, Spain. After the downfall of Moorish government in Spain, the tribe left it and moved to Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, India and north west of Pakistan.[87] Other theories of their descent include:

The Khattars are generally credited with a Hindu origin,from Khatris but they are divided in belief as to their descent .Some admit Hindu origin , while those who deny it claim an Arab descent , alleging they are closely connected with Awans .[88]
Inorder to meet the generally accepted belief that they were originally Hindus , even those who claim a Mussalman origin admit that while at Bagh Nilab they became Hindu and were reconverted .[88]
Khattar wedding rites used to closely resemble those of Hindus , Brahmans even being present , but they are now solmnised according to strict Muhammadan rules .[88]

This confussion, as to the origin, is not unknown in this region, where many tribes, have multiple theories as to their origin. The Khattars occupy a stretch of land, known as Khattar, on both sides of the Kala Chita Range, and runs in a narrow strip east and west from the Indus, and across the district, in Rawalpindi, where they own, fourteen villages. They own twenty nine villages in Attock Tehsil, forty-three in Fateh Jang Tehsil, and a fair number in Pindigheb Tehsil. Their main villages in Attock District are Dhrek, Bahtar, Thatha , Kutbal and Pind Sultan. The town Wah, was historically an Khattar settlement.

In Rawalpindi District, there villages are mostly in the Kharora Circle, in the present Taxila Tehsil. Their main villages are Dhok Phor, Pind Nosheri, Garhi Sikander and Usman Khattar.

Khatril

The Khatril are a tribe found almost exclusively in Rawalpindi District.

According to some sources Khatrils claims descent from Manaf, and as such claim to be descended from Abbasi dynasty, a claim also made by neighbouring tribes, such as Dhund Abbasi and Jasgam.[25] They also claim that the land they now occupy was under Gakhar rule, and historically were tributaries of the Gakhars. Historically they intermarried both with the Jasgams and Dhund Abbasi's.[25]

They were included among the Dhund Abbasi in the 1921 census of India, while in the 1911 Census of India, they were classified as Jats.[89] They are not unlike many other tribes in the Pothohar region, where claims to Arab ancestry have become increasingly frequent since the start of the last century.

They are found mainly in Gujar Khan Tehsil, especially around the town of and Mandrah. Mohri Khatril, Dhok Khatril and Dulmi Khatril are important villages of this tribe.

Khichi

The Khichi are a major tribe in central Punjab, and particularly in the districts of Sargodha, Vehari and Sahiwal. They claim to be by origin, Chauhan Rajputs, descendants of Khichi Khan. There are two Khichi villages in Chakwal District, both called Khichi, one near Choa Syedan Shah and other in Talagang Tehsil.

Khingar

The Khinger are a gotra (clan) of Jats.

The Khingar are found mainly in Jhelum District, and Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District.[90] Like many other Potohar tribes, they claim to both of Jat and Rajput status. The Jhelum branch tend generally calls itself Jat, while in Gujar Khan, some members claim to be Rajput, while other Jat. There are also several Khingar villages in the Thal portion of Mianwali District. The tribe claims descent from Khingar, who was said to be a Suryavanshi Rajput.

Like other Potoharis, many Khinger have emigrated to Europe, particularly Britain and Norway.

There are several Khingar villages in Gujar Khan Tehsil, the important ones are Sandal Khingar, Supiyal Khingar, Sihal Khinger, Kahali Khinger, Mamdal Khinger and Bhangali Khinger. In Rawalpindi Tehsil, Maira Khinger, Khinger Khurd and Khinger Kalan are important villages. Khinger in Attock District, is a centre of the tribe in that district. There are also several villages of Khingar in Chakwal District, all of whom consider themselves to be Jats.

Khokhar

The Khokhar are a tribe of Rajput status.But many Muslim Khokhars maintain (and have always maintained) they are descended from an individual named Qutb Shah[91][92], a Governor of Herat and a general in the army of Mahmud of Ghazni, Qutub Shah was a Hashemite descendant of the Prophet Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali (but by a wife other than the Prophet's daughter, Fatimah).[93]

It is asserted that Qutb Shah and six of his sons accompanied and assisted Mahmud in his early eleventh century conquests of what today forms parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northern India. It is claimed that in recognition of their services and valour, Mahmud bestowed upon Qutb Shah and his sons (who, according to tribal traditions, settled primarily in the Salt Range) the title of Awan, meaning "helper".[94]

Tribal history holds that Qutb Shah and his sons married local women who converted to Islam from Hinduism. Qutb Shah’s sons are said to have settled in different regions of the Punjab and to a lesser extent, what now constitutes parts of the North West Frontier Province; Gauhar Shah or Gorrara, settled near Sakesar, Kalan Shah or Kalgan, settled in Kalabagh, Chauhan colonized the hills close to the Indus, Mohammad Shah or Khokhar, settled by the Chenab, and Tori ‏and Jhajh settled in Tirah. Their descendants not only came to heavily populate these regions, but a number of Awan sub-clans that trace their origins to these six individuals, give their names to various localities such as Golera in Rawalpindi, Khewra in Jhelum, Banjara in Sialkot and Jand in Attock. Some of Qutub Shah’s sons are supposed to have assumed names that reflected the Hindu heritage of their mothers and the Khokhar sub-clans that trace their origins to these particular individuals, bear the names of their eponyms.[95]

The Awans are divided into numerous clans....

The following are the best known of these clans :—

Khokhar Rehan Darhal Saghral Chajji Mumnal Jand Gulshahi Shial Saidan Khattar Babkal Kang Sudkal Parbal Kalgan Khurana Chohan Bugdial Ballial [96]

The individual Qutb Shah appears in relation to Khokhars, Awans and other clans in various records, sometimes as a Military General in the army of Ghazni and at other times as a saint. Some Pakistani and western scholars such as Syed Abdul Quddus, Ahmed Abdulla and J M Wikely; who quotes Pandit Harikishan Kaul in his report on the census of 1911, attribute the conversion of Khokhars to Qutb Shah during the invasions of Ghazni rather than his having an ancestral relation to Khokhars or Awans.

in the Pothohar region, the Khokhars are confined to the Jhelum and Chakwal districts. The Khokhars of Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, have had considerable influence in this tehsil. The author of the Jhelum District Gazetteer wrote the following about them:

In the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, the Khokhar are found in Ahmadabad, Vand, Churan, Kot Sultan and Kot Sahib Khan.(Last two are the mohallahs of Pind Dadan Khan city)

In addition to this family, there are several Khokhar villages in Chakwal District and the Jhelum Tehsil.

Khoti

The Khoti are a found mainly in Chakwal District, and neighbouring Pind Dadan Khan.

According to the traditions of the tribe, the Khoti are descendent from a Raja Kang. Sohi, the grandson of the Raja, moved from Ludhiana and settled in Sialkot, and from him descend the Sohi tribe of the Jats.

Khoti, a descendant of Sohi settled in Chakwal, where the bulk of the tribe is still found.They occupy several villages, Chak Hamid and Khotian being the main ones, in the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, at a distant from Jhelum river, in Jhelum District. They are also the main Jat clan of Chakwal District, with the villages of Khotian, near Chakwal and Khotian near Choa Syedan Shah are centres of the tribe. The village of Khotian, in Chakwal is incindently also home to the famous Sahgal family, who have remained it Saigalabad.

Langrial

The Langrial is a tribe of both Jat and Rajput status.

The Langrial are found through out Punjab, the tribe has different traditions to its origin, depending on the region it inhabits.

The Multan Langrial, claim descent from a Brahmin of Bikaner. According to another tradition, they are Quraishi Arab, who held sawy over Thatta in Sindh under one Ghiasudin, who from the lavishness of his public kitchen (langar in Sindhi and Seraiki) obtained the title Langrial.[10] Ghiasudin was said to be a contemporary of Mohammed of Ghor, the 12th Century Muslim conqueror of North India. He is said to have gone to Delhi with him. The Langrial are then said to have travelled to Kashmir, then to Shahpur in Punjab, and eventually Goryala, near Jhang in the same province. From there they went to Kamalia, but from there migrated to Kamannd, and outsted the *Hans who held this country.

They also say that their ancestor was Brahman Charan from Bikaner who was converted by Sultan Smran. They originally settled in Rawalpindi; then they moved to Jhang and took some country from the Sial.

In Sialkot Langrial claim descent through Rai Daram from Langrial. Jasu, 15th in descent from the Rai Daram turned Muslim. They settled in Sialkot in the time of Shah Jahan.

In Rawalpindi District, the Langrial consider themselves Rajputs. They occupy several villages near the town of Kallar Syedan including Phlina, Choa Saidan, Mandrah, Makh, Darkali, Daryal, and Mohra Bani Wala.

In Attock District, the village of Langrial, and hamlets nearby are held by the Langrial. Like the Rawalpindi Langrials, the Attock Langrial consider themselves to be Rajputs.

Lilla

The Lilla tribe is a small tribe of Jat status, which claims Quraishi descent.

According to their traditions, the tribe was originally settled in Arabia, being relations of the Prophet Mohammad, on his mother's side. Their ancestor Haras, arrived in India with Mahmud of Ghazna ( circa 10th Century). The tribe originally settled in Masnad in India. After seven generations, their forefathers moved to Multan, where a well known Pir gave one Ghaus Shah to be their spiritual Pir. Accompanied by Ghaus Shah, the tribe settled in Shahidiwalian, near present day Gujranwala.[10] The local governor was ordered to expel them and succeeded in dividing the tribe into two factions, which fought a pitched battle. The defeated party dispersed and its descendants are now found near the Chenab, while the others, weakened by the struggle, migrated to the Pind Dadan Khan plain, led by Lilla Buzurg.

The tribe claims descent from Lilla Buzurg. The tract was then occupied a tribe of Hal Jats. The Lillas exterminated this tribe, barring one pregnant woman, who had managed to escape. From her some are descended families of Hal Jats that reside with the Lillas.[56]

The tribe holds about 40 square miles of territory between Pind Dadan Khan town and the Salt Range in the Jhelum District of Punjab, Pakistan.[56]

The form the majority in the villages of Lilla Handwana, Lilla Goj and Lilla Bhera in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil.

Mair-Minhas and Minhas

The Minhas are Rajput clan.

Minhas or Manhas or Minhas-Dogra ( Urdu: منہاس) is a Suryavanshi Rajput clan and claim descent from Rama a legendary king of Ayodhya. It is an off-shoot of Jamwal-Dogra Rajputs, the founders of the city and state of Jammu and its rulers from ancient times to 1948 C.E. In antiquity of rule, which is generally considered a benchmark of royalty, they are second to none, but the great Katoch Rajputs of Trigarta and Kangra. Paying tribute to the antiquity of their royal lineage, Sir Lepel Griffin says, “These royal dynasties may have been already ancient when Moses was leading the Israelites out of Egypt, and the Greeks were steering their swift ships to Troy.”

They trace their ancestry to the Ikshvaku dynasty of Northern India (The same clan in which Lord Rama was born. He, therefore is the 'kuldevta'(family deity) of the Hindu Minhas Rajputs). Specifically, they claim descent from Kusha younger of the twin sons of Rama, hero of the Ramayana, to whom patrilineal descent from Surya is in turn ascribed.

Chakwal District is home to the Mair-Minhas (also spelt Maair) clan, named after their ancestor, Raja Mair, a Jamwal prince who converted to Islam in 1190 C.E. According to the legend, Raja Mair (whose name before conversion was Raja Bhagir Dev) was son of the Raja of Jammu and had come to the Dhanni area (present day Chakwal) for hunting. He fell in love with a local Muslim Gujjar woman, converted to Islam and married her.

The city of Chakwal is named after their Chief, Chaku Khan whose father, Raja Sidhar ruled the area at the time of Mughal King Babar's invasion. The Mughal emperor Zaheerudin Babur conferred upon Raja Sidhar, the title of Chaudhry and made him the Taluqdar (area administrator) over 84 villages of the Dhani country, which since then has been known as Dhan 84. The Mair-Minhas tribe rose to further prominence during the short rule of Sher Shah Suri who handed them the control over the adjoining territories, as far as Swan River in Potohar and Kahoon in the South.

The 'Chaudhrials' or the Talukdars reside in Kot Sarfraz Khan, [[Kot Choudrain|,Behkri, Dhudial, Badsahan, Bhoun, Murid, Punjain Shariff, Sarkal-Mair, Chakral, Oudherwal,Dab]],Mohra Sheikhan, Mohra Korechisham, Kotha Abdal, Chatal, Sutwal, Karhan, Chak Malook, Chak Norang and Bhagwal.

In addition the Mair-Minhas, there are several communities of Minhas Rajputs in Gujar Khan Tejsil, where the village of Sagri is an important centre of the tribe. They are also found in Rawalpindi Tehsil, in and around the village of Traiya, and Talagang Tehsil, where the village of Minhas and neighbouring hamlets, held by them.

Maliar

The Maliar are a major tribe of the Pothohar, and have often been confused with the Arain tribe of central Punjab, with whom they have no connection.[97]

The term Maliar is said to from the Sanskrit word Malakara or makers of garland. According to their traditions, their ancestor Mahbub accompanied Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna to India. The Sultan assigned him gardening as a vocation, and as such the community became horticulturists.[98] There is no consensus as to the ethnic identity of this Mahbub. If we accept this account, the community thus settled in India at the start of the 11th Century. Historically, the community was at a disadvantage, particularly in the Peshawar valley, where it suffered at the hands of Pashtun landlords.[99]

Unlike other tribes found in the Potohar region, military recruitment was not open to them, because they were deemed not to be a martial race.

They are found through the Potohar region, with especial concenterations in the Attock District. They also extend into the neighbouring Peshawer valley. There are also a few villages in the Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir.

They are found in just about every village in the Pothohar region, barring the Murree Hills tehsils, as tenants. There are, however a few villages which they occupy as the dominant tribe. In Jhelum District, Dheri Malliaran, Maliar, Kazi Hussain and Rajjo Pindi are two important Maliar villages.

Batala, Chahal, Maniand are important Maliar villages with in Kahuta Tehsil, in Gujar Khan Tehsil Bhatta Maliar and Kant Maliar are important villages and in the Rawalpindi Tehsil, Dhalla, Dughal, Khasala Kalan, Gulidana Maliar, and Salargarh are important villages.[100] In Attock District, Dhok Maliaran in Fateh Jang Tehsil is a major Maliar village.

In Chakwal District, Marjan Maliran is an important village.

Mangral

Lord Krishna with Radha, as painted by Raja Ravi Varma

Mangrals are a Chandravanshi Rajput clan descended from Raja Mangar Pal son of Hani Dev who migrated to present day Sialkot from the Jangladesh region of northern Rajastan in the Twelfth century A.D. Hani Dev's brother Nirmal Dev continued to live in Jangladesh. Prior to the mid 15th Century Jangladesh was a wild barren area. It was subsequently conquered by Rao Bika a Rathore Rajput and since then has been known as Bikaner.

There three Mangral villages in Kahuta Tehsil of Rawalpindi District, namely Galli, Marigala Mangral and Nandna Mangral. Mangral of Kotli Mangralan

Mangwal

The Mangwal are a small clan, claiming to be Mughal, found in the villages of Mangwal in Chakwal District and the village of Mangwal, in Khushab District.

Mughal

The term Mughal (Persian: مغول) is simply the Persian form of the word Mongol, and large number of groups use the name Mughal in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

In theory, all those who claim Mughal ancestry, are descendents of various Mongol armies that invaded South Asia under Genghis Khan, Timur and Babar. But the term has always had a wider meaning. According to Bernier, a French traveller who visited India during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb wrote:

The court itself does not now consist, as originally of real Mongols, but a medley of Uzbeks, Persians, Arabs and Turks, or descendents of all these clases; known, as said before by the general appelation Mughal.[101]

So as early as the 17th century, the term Mughal covered a large number of groups. Generally, all Central Asian immigrants to India, whether they be Uzbek, Chughtai, Tajik, Barlas, Kipchak or Mongol were referred to as Mughal. The term was also added to latter immigrants from Iran and Turkey, such as the famous Qizilbash community. The principal subdivision among the Mughals are the Barlas and Chughtai.

In the Pothohar region, several tribal groupings have now started to call themselves Mughal. The author of the Rawalpindi District Gazetteer wrote following:

It is a curious fact that it has lately become a fashion amon certain tribes, even of high social rank, to call themselves Mughal. Sattis, Ghebas and others do so, and it said that even Gakhars have been known to, but it is very doubtful whether any true Gakhar who could prove his descent would ever do so.[102]

This was written about the start of the last century, and Mughal descent is now a well established fact for many tribes of the region. In Rawalpindi District, several clans now claim to be Mughal, for example the Hafyal of Gujar Khan Tehsil, and Janhal of Kahuta Tehsil. In addition to these two clans, there are a number of Mughal families in the district. The Mughal of the large village of Mughal near the city of Rawalpindi, have always been influential. Other Mughal villages in clude Turkwal and Sarral in Gujar Khan Tehsil. The later, the Mughal share with the Sarral Rajputs.

In Jhelum District, the Kaks of Lehr Sultanpur in the eastern Salt Range, is a small Mughal clan, which historically wielded some influence in this district. There are also a cluster of Mughal villages around Chautala, in Jhelum District. In addition, the Phaphra and Khamb tribes also claims to be Mughal.

In Chakwal District, the Kassar tribe of the Dhanni claims to be Mughal, and so do the Mangwal,a small clan of found in Talagang. Another notable village of Mughals is Mulhal Mughlan.

In Attock District, the Ghebas are the principal Mughal clans. Other than the Gheba, the Mughal own one village in the Sarwala, and two in the Chhachh illaqa.

Nagyal

Nagyal or Nagial or sometimes pronounced Nangyal are a tribe which considers itself to both Rajput and Jat. They are distinct from Nagrial and Nagrwal, who are clans of the Bhatti Rajputs.

The tribe claims originally to have been ManhasRajputs.[56] Nagyals are originally Suryavanshi Rajput clan from the Punjab region and Jammu and Kashmir in India and Pakistan.It is an off-shoot of Jamwal-Dogra Rajputs, the founders of the city and state of Jammu and its rulers from ancient times to 1948 C.E.

The are through the eastern part of the Pothohar region, the Jhelum and Mirpur branch considers itself to be Jat, while those of Gujar Khan and Rawalpindi consider themselves, as Rajputs.

Mohra Nagial in the Islamabad Capital Territory is an important village. They are found through out Rawalpindi District, except the mountanous tehsil of Murree. In Rawalpindi Tehsil, their villages are Banda Nagial, Mohra Nagyal and Maira Nagyal, in Kahuta Tehsil the village of Nagial and in Gujar Khan Tehsil the villages of Bhatta, Nagial Umer, Mohra Nagial, Nagial Sohal and Nagial Pahlwan.

In Jhelum District, Dhok Kanial Nagyal, Dhok Nagial and Gora Nagial are important villages.

Narma

The Narma are a Rajput tribe.

Their tradition connects them with Puran, said to be a son of Raja Salvahan from whom also come the Bhattis and Manj Rajputs. They also connect themselves with the Solhan Rajput with whom they intermarry.

According to another tradition, the Narma trace their descent to a Raja Karan, who is considered the founder of Ujjain. The tribe arePanhwar Rajputs. Naru Khan, 8th in descent from Raja Karan is said to have accepted Islam, and the tribe is named after him. Pahar Khan, 7th in descent from Naru Khan arrived in Gujrat, and founded two villages, Puran and Fatehpur.

In the Pothohar region, they are found in Kahuta Tehsil, where the village of Sudh Budhana, is an important centre of the tribe. in Rawalpindi very famous are Nagial nowadays, and many street names are on their names already.

Panwar

The Panwar are an Agnivanshi Rajput tribe.

The name is said to mean one that strikes the enemy, from Sanskrit para ‘alien’, ‘enemy’ mara ‘strike’, ‘kill’ in Sanskrit . The Parmars ruled in Malwa, which is now part of Madhya Pradesh. They consider themselves one of the Agnikulas or ‘Fire Tribes' [103].

The most widely accepted school of thought is that the Paramaras – along with the Chauhans, the Pratiharas (Parihars) and the Solankis (Chalukyas) – were one of the four Agni kula ("fire-born") clans of the Rajputs.

In the Pothohar region, many clans claim to Panwar by ancestry. The tribe itself only occupy two villages in Jhelum Pabbi, Sahsral and Jandot. There are also several villages found across the Jhelum river in Mirpur District.

Paracha

The Paracha own a couple of villages in Rawalpindi Tehsil, and in Taxila Tehsil, the village of Khuram Paracha is an important centre of this tribe. In Attock District, there are two distinct settlements of the tribe, those of Attock and those of Makhad. The Makhad Parachas claim their original home was the village of Dangot in Bannu District, and they moved to Makhad in the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan.

Like other Punjab tribes, there are various theories as to the origin of the Piracha. According to one of their traditions, they are the descendents of Hazrat Aziz Yemani, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. Hazrat Aziz used to act as “Farash” to the Holy Prophet. Farash in Arabic means “one who spreads a carpet, an attendant, a valet etc. etc.” Hazrat Aziz Yemeni’s descendents were known as “Farasha” after him. During the Arab conquest of Persia (640-644 AD), Abul Aas, the son of Hazrat Aziz Yemeni, was commanding the Yemeni contingent. After the conquest of Iran, he settled down and married a Persian Princess. The Persians transcribed his surname “Farasha” into “Paracha” according to the usage of their own language. His successors were, thereafter, known as “Paracha” in Persia and later in Afghanistan and the Indus Valley after the Arabs conquered these areas.

Other traditions make them out to be Mughals, while colonial British historians claimed that they were in fact members of the famous Khatri tribe, who had converted to Islam[104]

Pashtun/Pathan

The Pashtun, or as they are referred to in the Pothohar region, Pathans, are found principally in the Attock District and belongs to Qais Abdur Rashid(father of all pashtuns). There are two Pathan settlements in that district, one in the south-west of Pindigheb Tehsil at Makhad and in the Narrara hills , the other in the Attock Tehsil, chiefly in the Chhachh illaqa.[105] In addition, there are also a few scattered villages, in Rawalpindi District.

According to the 1901 Census of India, these were the main sub-divisions of the Pathans in Attock District.[106]

Tribe Attock Tehsil Pindigheb Tehsil Fateh Jang Tehsil Talagang Tehsil Total
Akhund Khel 722 722
Alizai 4,415 4,415
Babar 615 615
Babi 581 581
Barakzai 578 578
Dilazak 1,070 3 43 1,116
Jamal Khel 579 579
Lodhi 727 1 5 733
Manduri 864 864
Piru Khel 594 594
Saddo Khel 801 801
Sagri Khattak 4,759 4,759
Tareen 658 658

Sagri Khattak Pathans

The Pindigheb Pathans are practically all Sagri Pathans, a branch of the Bulaki Khattaks. The Babar family of Bhangi Khel Khattaks is also represented in the Narara hills. Another branch of the Khattaks, the Jamal Khel also have a presence in settlements near the town of Makhad.

Accoding to their traditions, the khattaks came across the Indus river from the neighbourhood of Kohat, and drove out the Awan, whom they found in possession. The khattaks look up to the Khans of Makhad" Sher Ahmed Khattak", as their headmen. They own seven villages, of which Makhad and Narara are the largest. The village of Hadowali is their boundary to the east, where the Awan are their neighbours. Throughout the tract they occupy, they have completely dispossed all other tribes. Their speech is the soft or western dialect of Pashto.[107]

Chhachh Pathans

The Attock Pathans are found in two parts of the tehsil, those of Sarwala, and those of Chhachh. The Chhachh Pathans have very little in common with the Sagri khattaks, as they are separated by the Kala Chita mountains.The chhachhies are also known as Chhachi (Pashtun). The Chhachh have Hindko and pushto speaking community, and have much in common with the Pashtun tribes settled in the neighbouring North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Chhachh have pukhtun culture and peoples are following Pashtunwali code of conduct strictly like in NWFP. Mostly pathans in chhachh came with Ghaznavi from Afghanistan.[108]

The largest clan are the Alizai, who include the Tahirkheli, one of three main septs of the Alizai. The Tahirkheli inhabit villages along the Haro river. The other tribe along the Haro are the Sadozai, and both they and the Alizai, are branches of the Durrani-tareens tribe. Together with the Manduri and Barahzai, who are also found in numbers in the district, they are all sections of the great Yousafzai tribe. By far the greater proportion of the Attock Pathans are Yousafzai, allied to the Yousafzai of Swabi and Mardan districts and other tribes are kakar, nasozai, barakzai,khattaks, lodhi, Bangash, ismail khel, utmanzai, sadozai and many others

The Attock District Gazetteer gives the following description regarding Pathan settlement in the district:

The connection of Pathans with the tahsil is not very ancient. The earliest comers may have been the Lodhis, who are a section of the Ghilzai nation, and accompanied Mahmud Ghaznavi as mercenaries on his invasions of India. Their numbers are inconsiderable. Next after a long interval came the Dilazak who were gradually driven from the Safed Koh by the Yousafzai. About the end of the 16th Century they crossed the river, and found the Chhachh, then a swamp being slowly recovered from the Indus, in possession of the Gujars. Apparently they never settled down and in consequence of the turmoil caused by their constant attempt to recover Mardan illaqa of Peshawar from the Yousafzais, were finally deported by Jahangir and scattered over the India Peninsula. "A Gazetteer of Attock District 1929 Part A page 91</ref>
The great Pathan invasion of the Chhachh took place much latter. About the end of the 17th Century the Khattaks, pushing up from Kohat at the south,began to press on the flanks of the Yousafzai between Attock and Peshawer of which they had been put in charge. At the same time too the Gujars of Hazara has summoned the Yousafzais across the river to help against the Tareen, a tribe of original Afghans of Jewish and Arab origin, who had fallen on the Haripur plain. Later in the middle of the 18th Century the Piro Khels who are Afridis and Pathans proper, came with Nadir Shah perhaps from Persia, and remained behind when he returned.By the end of the 18th Century Dilazaks, Tareens, Yousafzais and Afridis had settled down in the Tahsil, with the Yousafzai numerically immensely superior. Since then no immigration has taken place. The chief accretion to Pathan strength has been that of the Akhund Khel. Akhund is the title given to any chief of special sanctity, and Akhundzada is the title of his descendants. Many Akhund Khel are by origin Gujar and Awan. , perform no priestly functions, and live like ordinary Pathans. The Tahirkheli Pathans who inhabit the north-east of the Tahsil below the main wall of the Gandgarh Hills and along the line of the Haro by tradition and sentiment have little to with Attock. They live or own land in the Hazara District, and many are Jagirdars.[109]

The Chhachh ilaqa is almost entirely held by the Pathans, as is the Nala estates, along the Haro river valey. The Attock Pathans were the earliest group of Pothoharis to start emigrating to Europe and North America.There are now large communities of Chhachh Pathan settled in British cities, such as Bradford and Manchester[110]

Pathans in Rawalpindi District

There are very few Pathan settlements in this district. The only exception are the Pathans of Ghazanabad inj Kahuta Tehsil, who are Yousafzai Pathans. In Gujar Khan Tehsil, there are also a few Pathan villages, all of whom claim to be Mohmand. The most important Pathan village in that tehsil is Kazrani, and the proprietors, the Qazi family historically were of some influence in the Gujar Khan region.[111]

Phaphra

Phaphra is small tribe of Mughal status,

The tribe claims to be Mughals, but British ethnographers writing at the beginning of the 20th century expressed doubts.[10] According to their tradition, the tribe came from the direction of Faridkot in Indian East Punjab, and settled in the district as traders and agriculturists. The tribe claims descent from a Phaphra, who settled in the district in the 15th century.

They occupy a compact area of about 25 square miles at the foot of the Salt Range, east of Pind Dadan Khan in Jhelum District in Pakistan.

The main Mughals Phaphra villages are Kaslian, Rawal, Dhudi Phahpra, Sadowal, Warra Phaphra, Saowall, Samun and Ghareebwal, all in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District. Mohra Phaphra is a lone Phaphra village in Rawalpindi District.

Qureshi

The name originally signified ancestry from the Arab tribe of Quraish.[112] The Quraish were the tribe of the Prophet Mohammed.

In Rawalpindi district, the Dulal Qureshis of Gujar Khan, already separately mentioned, own a clusters of villages, Narali being the main one. The other important Qureshi clan in the district, is that of the Siham, who occupy several villages in Rawalpindi Tehsil. In addition to these two families, the villages of Anwari and Fatot are home to Qureshi families.

In Jhelum District, the most important Qureshi villages are Chak Misri, Karuli and Pir Khara. In Khushab District,the most important Qureshi villages is Pail Piran. In Attock District, they own a few villages in Fateh Jang Tehsil and Pindigheb Tehsil, but are absent from Attock Tehsil.

Rajput

File:Rajpoots 2.png
An 1876 engraving of rajputs, from the Illustrated London News.


The Rajputs are large caste cluster, found in North India and Pakistan. They regard themselves as being descended from the vedic warrior class known as the Kshatriyas. The word Rajput, it is claimed is a corruption of the word Rajputra, which literally means "son of a King." Rajputs belong to one of three great patrilineages, which are:

  • The Suryavanshi lineage, claiming descent from Surya. The Sun Dynasty is oldest among Kshatriyas. The first person of this dynasty was "Vivaswan," who by the meaning of his name is considered to be "Surya." Ikshvaku was the first important king of this dynasty. Other important kings were Kakutsth Harishchandra, Sagar, Dileepa, Bhagiratha, Raghu Dashratha and Rama. The poet Kalidasa wrote the great epic Raghuvamsa about the dynasty of Raghu including the great king born in the Sun Dynasty.
  • The Chandravanshi lineage, claiming descent from Som which literally means "Moon." This Lunar Dynasty is also old but younger than the Sun Dynasty. Som was the first king of this dynasty. Other important kings were Pururawa, Nahush, Yayati, Dushyant, Bharata, Kuru, Shantanu and Yudhishthir. Yadu was the eldest son of Yayati and Yadavs claim descent from Yadu. Krishna was also born in this dynasty of Yadu. Harivamsa gives details of this dynasty.
  • The Agnivanshi lineage claims descent from four persons who were born from fire or by the influence of Ved Mantras." According to Puranic legend, as found in Bhavishya Purana, a yagna was held at Mount Abu, at the time of emperor Ashoka's sons. From the influence of Mantras of the four Vedas, four Kshatriyas were born. They were: 1. Pramar (Paramara), 2.Chaphani (Chauhan); 3.Chu (Chalukya); 4.Pariharak (Pratihara). But since fire cannot produce warriors, it should be understood that these four persons were either reconverted into Hinduism or revitalized to fight against invaders. They could not be of foreign origin because India was fighting against Indo-Greek kings at that time. Pusyamitra Sunga and his son Agnimitra were Brahmins. They are known for reviving Hinduism. This theory of origin has produced much controversy; however, only four clans out of many Rajput clans are considered to be Agnivanshi. Some scholars also count Nagavanshi and Rishivanshi. The Yaduvanshi lineage, claiming descent from the Hindu god Krishna, are in fact a major sect of the Chandravanshi.

The aforementioned three patrilineages (vanshas) sub-divide into 36 main clans (kulas), which in turn divide into numerous branches (shakhas), to create the intricate clan system of the Rajputs. The principle of patrilineage is staunchly adhered to in determining one's place in the system and a strong consciousness of clan and lineage is an essential part of the Rajput character. As the 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica states, this tradition of common ancestry permits an indigent Rajput yeoman to consider himself as well-born as any powerful landholder of his clan, and superior to any high official of the professional classes. Authoritative listings of the 36 Rajput clans are to be found in the Kumārpāla Charita of Jayasimha and the Prithvirāj Rāso of Chandbardai.

Among the legends mentioned above, the one which addresses the origin of the Agnivanshi Rajputs is particularly disputed not least because they were the earliest to rise to political prominence. This legend begins with the puranic legend wherein the traditional kshatriyas of the land were exterminated by Parashurama, an avatara of Vishnu. Later, the legend says, sage Vasishta performed a great Yajna, or fire-sacrifice, to seek from the Gods a provision for the defense of righteousness on earth. In answer to his prayer, a youth arose from the very flames of the sacrifice—the first Agnivanshi Rajput. According to Bhavishya Purana an yagna was held at Mount Abu during the time of Ashoka's sons. This produced four warriors and an elephant. The Agnikunda legend is explained in Agnivansha. Ashoka and his sons were Buddhists but the general of last Mauryan empereor was a staunch Brahmin.

The Pothohar Rajputs have almost all converted to Islam[113] Their reasons for conversion are complex and controversial, but all that can be said with certainty, is towards the middle of the 16th century, all the Rajput clans had converted to Islam, and indeed the Janjua say they converted much earlier. Rawalpindi District is seen as the home of the Rajput clans, and the district is home to innumerable number of clans. Many are muhi of larger tribes, for example the Hattar and Kural of Attock District are Bhatti, while the Ratial are a clan of the Katoch. The threefold division of Agnivanshi, Suryavanshi and Chandravanshi is less important here them among the Hindu Rajput clans of North India.

The main Rajput clans in Rawalpindi District, were enumerated for the 1911 Census of India, and are as follows:[114]

Rao Noman Danish

Tribe Rawalpindi Tehsil Gujar Khan Tehsil Murree Tehsil Kahuta Tehsil Total
Adrah 314 450 28 792
Baghial 1,491 3,264 7 1,953 6,715
Bhakral 1,657 2,359 1,263 5,279
Bhatti 3,300 11,526 100 4,552 19,488
Bains 24 524 548
Chatha 390 30 420
Chauhan 1,581 1,846 17 567 4,011
Dhanyal 3,511 205 4,001 192 7,909
Dhamial (Rajput) 2,656 2,356 2 959 5,973
Ghangar 159 863 1,002
Gaharwal 37 30 2,002 2,069
Hon 808 3 808
Janjua 2,948 214 25 1,998 4,285
Jatal 1,195 115 808 1,310
Kahial 133 1,257 808 3,198
Kanyal 620 1,006 691 2,317
Kural 32 37 892 961
Kethwal 101 541 642
Manhas 1,183 943 19 1,125 3,270
Mangral 854 1,031 133 291 2,309
Mattal 1,058 1 288 1,347
Mial 110 707 817
Mughal 324 220 544
Nagyal 780 427 831 2,038
Nagral 1,393 827 2,220
Nagrawal 609 534 1,143
Ramal 550 570 1,120
Ratial 89 72 388 549
Sarral 680 18 698
Thathaal 690 874 54 1,618

Other Rajput clans in the district include the Mathyal,, Sehngral, Sohlan, Langrial, Khingar, Chib, Dhudhi, Ghik, Malal, Bhutial, Jamsral, Sainswal, Bijnial, Ramial, Hayal, Janjil, Tharjial, Khumbal, Bharial, Hafyal, Gungal, Salhal,Hattar and Toor.

These were the main Rajput clans in Jhelum District, as enumerated for the 1911 Census of India:[115]

Tribe Jhelum Tehsil Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil Chakwal Tehsil Total
Bhakral 460 1 4 465
Bhatti 285 1,578 4,723 6,586
Chauhan 1,082 1,222 2,090 4,394
Chauhan Taubl 1,229 1,229
Gondal 7 7
Jalap 17 1,155 3 1,172
Janjua 2,100 6,956 1,517 10,572
Khokhar 383 175 212 770
Mair-Minhas 173 233 14,679 15,075
Minhas 378 951 1,329
Panwar 251 22 245 518
Ranjha 573 6 866
Sohlan 606 606

These were the main Rajput clans in Attock District, as enumerated for the 1911 Census of India:[116]

Tribe Attock Tehsil Pindigheb Tehsil Fateh Jang Tehsil Talagang Tehsil Total
Alpial 5 9,175 9,180
Bhatti 3,553 3,553
Chatha 1,327 433 3,575 5,335
Chauhan 2 394 105 1 502
Janjua 133 477 543 1,153
Jodhra 371 935 384 1,690

Other Rajput clans of the district include the Hon, Dhamial, Bhakral, Kahut, Khingar, Chib, Minhas, Mangeal, Johad, Adhial, Kurar, Jhottial, Mair-Minhas, Tuh, Hattar, Chanial, Bhatti-Mehra, Bhatti-Kanjal, Bhatti-Jangle, Bhatti-Badhuer and Bhatti-Shaikh.

Here is a brief description of some of the Rajput clans, which have not been already noticed:

Dogar or Dogra

A Rajput clan found in Kallar Syedan Tehsil and Kahuta Tehsil of Rawalpindi District .Their main villages are Jameri,Gulla, and Sehar.

Kahial

The Kahial are found mainly in Gujar Khan Tehsil, where the occupy several villages, the main one being Kahial Dara.

Khambal

The Khambal are a small sept, chiefly found in the village of Sadda Khambal, in Kahuta Tehsil. They claim to be Suryavanshi.

Kurar

The Kurar are a small Rajput sept, found mainly in the village of Kurar in Fateh Jang Tehsil.

Mial

Mial or more correctly Miyal, are a small Rajput clan found in Attock Chakwal and Rawalpindi. The village of Mial in Fateh Jang Tehsil and the villages of Mial and Mial in near Choa Syeddan Shah are important centres of the tribe.

Nagral & Nagrawal

These two are clans of the Bhatti Rajputs, found mainly in Gujar Khan Tehsil. Maira Nagral is their principal village.

Ramal

The Ramal or Ramial are a small sept, found mainly in Rawalpindi Tehsil, where they are found mainly in the village of Ramial.

Ranial

The Ranial are another tribe, that claims Janjua Rajput ancestry.

According to their traditions, two Janjua Rajput noblemen, Raja Malu and Raja Mubarak took over respectively, the area of Hayal Ranial and the Dhamial plain. Interestingly, Raja Malu's offspring were known as the Rajas of Ranial and Raja Mubarak's offspring likewise, were known as the Rajas of Dhamial. This later culminated in the recognition of these two branches as simply Ranial Rajas and Dhamial Rajas.

The Ranial live in the Kharora circle in Rawalpindi Tehsil, and occupy the villages of Ranial and Nanbhal.

Ratial

The Ratial are Rajput tribe.

There are two traditions as to the origin of the Ratial tribe.

According to a tradition, the tribe are descended from Khattar Khan, the ancestor of the Khattar tribe. Khattar Khan had six sons, Jand Khan,Isa Khan, Sarwar Khan, Firoz Khan, Sehra Khan and Pehru Khan. About three generations after his death, the tribe lost Nilab but they took possession of the open country between Rawalpindi and the Indus which became known by thename of Khattar. The descendents of Jand Khan took possession of the district called after them Jandal between Khushhalghar and Nara. From Feroz Khan has the Drek family descended. His great- grandson was Ratnah from whom have descended the clan known as Ratial.[10]

Another tradition makes Ratnah out to be a Katoch Rajput, who left Kangra in the 15th Century and settled in Potohar region, and converted to Islam. His descendents are known the Ratial.[10]

The Ratial were for sometime overlords of a large part of the present Rawalpindi District known as Ratala. They were displaced from Ratala by a Janjua chief Raja Abdullah Khan , being himself displaced by the upheaval of the Sikh conquest of Garjaak and Darapur[117] took his remaining army and conquered the region of Ratyal from a Ratial chief who was loyal to the Sikh empire. His domain was over seven large villages consisting of Mughal Kayanis, Jatts and Gakhars. He defeated the Ratial Chief and renamed it Ratala. The Ratial are still make up the bulk of the population of this part of what is now the Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District.

Their principle villages are Ratial and Darapur in Jhelum District, and Ratial, Bher Ratial and Jairo Ratial, in the Gujar Khan Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. There are also number of Ratial villages in Attock District.

Sandhu

The Sandhu are one of the largest Jat tribes, of central Punjab. The village of Mohra Sandhu, and neighbouring hamlets near the town of Bewal, Gujar Khan Tehsil are held by the Sandhu Jats, whose ancestors settled in the region in the 18th century.

Satti

The Satti make up almost all the population of Kotli Sattian Tehsil, and share the hilly portion of Kahuta Tehsil, with the Jasgam.[118]

There a number of traditions as to the origin of the Satti tribe. According to one of the traditions, the phrase Jatti Satti means worldly and heavenly in the local Pothohari language. The name Satti, according to this tradition, grew out the characteristics of a particular ancestor. According to another tradition, Kalu Rai, one of the ancestor of the Dhund tribe had an illegitimate son from a slave girl. He was born at the foot of the Narar mountains and abandoned by his parents who had lost their way, and was found three days afterwards by a Brahman, who called satt or penance.

Before the creation of Kotli Sattian as a separate Tehsil from Murree - the Satti were the second largest tribe in that tehsil. Now they form a much smaller proportion of the population of Murree Tehsil, limited mainly to the 'Gehl Sattian' areas and a few groups living in Circle Bakote.

The Satti's villages in Kotli Sattian include Burhad, Gola , Jawa (Burhad), Mateel, Dournayan, Karal, Kahuti (Sangri) Kohas (Sangri), Bhattian, Kamra, Ghanuyan, Chaint, Dhanda, Chahjana, Whagal, Dhir Kot Sattian, Sari, Bhan Sarmandal, Balawara, Perchan, Santhanwali Santh, Sarrullah Boochal, Mallot Sattian, Mirzapur,Java, Aziz Abad,Jhangla Gala,Kalari,Navala,Kari Basi, Runnatie, Kalaparh, Braverrah, Harindah Evinachovana, Kayyd, Kabbotta, Donga Kheter, Dhand, Parile, Pathwerah, Barhian, Nakharah, Kathola. Dhundi, Narrat, Ojana Qurie, Harrh, Rakkh, Singolre Saamriat, Darramirahan, Dimmat, Muimtazabad, Janmere, Runnatre and Thoon.

They share the following villages in Kahuta Tehsil with the Jasgam and Kethwal; Lehtrar, Jewra, Narr, Panjar, Jameerie and Hothla Kalyal, also in Kahuta Tehsil with the Kalyals.

Sarral

The Sarral are a Rajput tribe, claiming to be Suryavanshi. They are found in through out the south-eastern part of the Pothohar region. In Jhelum District, there main village is Maira, which they share with the Gakhars. In Rawalpindi District, there main villages are Aujri Bakhshi, Kotha Kalam and Siri Sarral. In Chakwal District, their main villages are Sarral and Kotha Bafinda.

Sohlan

The Sohlan are a Rajput tribe connected with the Narma. They are said to be of Panhwar Rajput descent which is a sub-branch of the Paramara Raputs.[55]

They occupy a few villages along the Jhelum River, north of the city of Jhelum, the main one being Sohan.

Syed

Sayyid (Arabic: سيد‎) (plural sādah) is an honorific title that is given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, who were the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib.

The Sayyid clans each descend from one of the twelve Shia Imams. If a person is descended from more than one notable ancestor or Shi'a Imam, they will use the title of the ancestor from whom they are most directly descended.

Ancestor Arabic Title Arabic Clan Name Persian Surname South Asian clan Name
Ali ibn Abu Talib Alawi2 Allawi2 or Alawi3 Alavi2 علوى Alavi

2 or Awan

Hasan ibn Ali al-Hashimi or al-Hassani al-Hashimi or al-Hassani Hashemi, Hassani, or Tabatabai حسنى Hassani or Hashmi
Husayn ibn Ali al-Hussaini al-Hussaini1 Hosseini حسينى Hussaini or Shah
Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al Abidin al-Abidi al-Abidi Abedi عابدى Abidi
Zayd ibn Ali ash-Shahid az-Zaidi al-Zaidi Zaidi زيدي Zaidi
Muhammad al-Baqir al-Baqiri al-Baqiri Bagheri باقرى Baqri
Jafar as-Sadiq al-Ja'fari al-Ja'fari Jafari or Jafri جعفرى Jafri, Jafry or Jaffery
Musa al-Kadhim Al Mosawi al-Mousawi or al-Kadhimi Musavi or Kazemi موسوى / كاظمى Kazmi or Mosavi
Ali ar-Rida ar-Radawi al-Ridawi or al-Radawi Rezavi or Razavi رضوى Rizvi
Muhammad at-Taqi at-Taqawi al-Taqawi Taghavi تقوى Taqvi or Taqwi
Ali al-Hadi an-Naqawi al-Naqawi Naqavi نقوى Naqvi
Fatima Zahra Ashraf Al-Quraishi Al-Husaini or Al-Fatimi Fatemi Fatmi or Qureishi

NOTE: (For non-Arabic speakers) When transliterating Arabic words into English there are two approaches.

  • 1. The user may transliterate the word letter for letter, e.g. "الزيدي" becomes "a-l-z-ai-d-i".
  • 2. The user may transliterate the pronunciation of the word, e.g. "الزيدي" becomes "a-zz-ai-d-i". This is because in Arabic grammar, some consonants (n, r, s, sh, t and z) cancel the l (ل) from the word "the" al (ال) (see Sun and moon letters). When the user sees the prefixes an, ar, as, ash, at, az, etc... this means the word is the transliteration of the pronunciation.
  • An i, wi (Arabic), or vi (Persian) ending could perhaps be translated by the English suffixes ite or ian. The suffix transforms a personal name, or a place name, into the name of a group of people connected by lineage or place of birth. Hence Ahmad al-Hashimi could be translated as Ahmad of the lineage of Hassan and Ahmad al-Harrani as Ahmad from the city of Harran. For further explanation, see Arabic names.

1Also, El-Husseini, Al-Husseini, Husseini, and Hussaini.

2Those who use the term sayyid for all descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib regard Allawis or Alavis as sayyids. However Allawis are not descendants of Muhammad, as they are descended from the children of Ali and the women he married after the death of Fatima Zahra, such as Umm al Baneen/Fatima bint Hizam. Those who limit the term sayyid to descendants of Muhammad through Fatima Zahra, will not consider Allawis/Alavis to be sayyids.

3This transliteration is usually reserved for Alawi sect.

In the Pothohar region, they are true caste, marying only among themselves. In Rawalpindi District, they have twenty four villages in Rawalpindi Tehsil, two in Gujar Khan Tehsil, seven in Kahuta Tehsil and three in Murree Tehsil. Important Sayyid families those of the village of Sang Jani in Rawalpindi Tehsil, Ratta Hotar and Jhang Syedan. Other important Syed villages in the district include, Nurpur Shahan, Shah Chiragh, Suban, Dheri Shahan all in Rawalpindi Tehsil. There are only two Syed villages in Murree, Tret and Dohala. In Gujar Khan Tehsil, the following are Syed villages, Dharkhali Khurd and Syed.

In Jhelum District, prominent Syeds include those of the village of Jalapur. In Chakwal District, prominent Syed families are those of the villages of Chohan and Danda Wilayat Shah.[119]

In Attock District, the Syed own eight villages in Attock Tehsil, seven in Fateh Jang Tehsil and five in Pindigheb Tehsil. The family of the Pirs of Makhad have always exercised great influence in Attock District. The shrine in Makhad is to the memory of Pir Nuri Shah Badshah Gilani, an historic figure that links the famous Sufi saint of Baghdad, Abdul Qadir Gilani.

Sudhan

Azad Kashmir Map
Typical Sudhan Member

The Sudhan are really a tribe found in Azad Kashmir, where the Sudhnati District, across the Jhelum river is a stronghold of the tribe. However, five Sudhan villages, Ranial being the largest, are located in the hilly portion of Kahuta Tehsil, near the Azad Pattan crossing. As to their origin,there are two different theories; some Sudhan claim a Afghan ancestry, while others claim a Brahmin ancestry.

Afghan ancesty or Rajput ancestry

According to Major (Retd) Tilla Mohammad, now deceased, a political leader in Peshawar, in his books on the Sudhan tribe stated:

"Sudhans had immigrated to Azad Kashmir from Ghazni and Kandahar, Afghanistan, during the 14th century."

Major (Retd) Tilla Muhammad was himself from Rehara, Kashmir and his ancestors had immigrated to Peshawar from Kashmir.

There are few Sudhans who have adopted the name Sadozai, after the publication of the articles by Major (Retd) Tila Muhammad.

Brahmin ancestry

According to another Sudhan tribal historian, Col. (Rtd) Dr. Khalil Khan now deceased, a Dermatologist from Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, stated that the "Sudhans were converted to Islam by Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir the sixth Mughal ruler".[120]

By origin the Mohyals are certainly Saraswat and still take wives from that group in Gujarat, while in Rawalpindi the five superior sections (Sudhan, Sikhan, Bhaklal, Bhog and Kali) of the Bunjahi Sarsuts used to give daughters Bhimwal(Bhibhal) Mohyal Sarsuts and occasionally to other Mohyal sections.[121]

The name Sudhan also occurs in the Mahabharata, as a descendant of the vedic rishi Angiras.

What ever the origin of the Sudhan tribe, in the Pothohar region they are a small compact tribe, which had a history of military recruitment in the colonial British Indian army.[122]

Thathaal

Thathaal (also referred to as Thothaal) is a Jat or gotra.

The Thathaals claim to be Suryavanshi Rajput ancestry.[123] They are said to be descendants of legendary Raja Karan of the Mahabharata. Raja Thathoo, the ancestor of the Thathaals was said to be a son Raja Karan. In the Potohar region, it is not uncommon for tribes to claim both Rajput and Jat origins.The Thathaal tribe is said to have converted to Islam during period of Mehmood of Ghazna.

They are found in the area between Salt Range and Kharian Pubbi.

There villages include, Dheri Thathaal, Chaphar, Rawat, Jatli in Rawalpindi District and Tarlai Kalan in the Islamabad Capital Territory.

See also

References

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  3. ^ The Migration Process: Capital, Gifts and Offerings among British Pakistanis (Berg 1990 and 2002).
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