|Lord Mayor||Klaus Jensen (SPD)|
|Area||117.14 km2 (45.23 sq mi)|
|Elevation||124 m (407 ft)|
|Population||103,888 (18 March 2010)|
|- Density||887 /km2 (2,297 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
|Postal codes||54290, 54292, 54293, 54294, 54295, 54296|
Trier (German pronunciation: [ˈtʁiːɐ]; French: Trèves, IPA: [tʁɛv]; Luxembourgish: Tréier; Latin: Augusta Treverorum; the Latin adjective associated with Trier is Treverensis) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. It is the oldest city in Germany, founded in or before 16 BC. Trier is not the only city claiming to be Germany's oldest, but it is the only one that bases this assertion on having the longest history as a city, as opposed to a mere settlement or army camp.
Trebeta was the legendary founder of Trier according to the Gesta Treverorum (and possibly other sources). He was the son of Ninus, King of Assyria, by a wife prior to his marriage to Queen Semiramis. His stepmother, Semiramis, despised him and when she took over the kingdom after the death of his father, Ninus, Trebeta left Assyria and went to Europe. After wandering for a time, he led a group of colonizers to settle at Trier around 2000 BC in what is now Germany. Trebeta is also reputed to have been at Strasbourg, France. Upon his death, his body was cremated on Petrisberg by the people of Trier.
Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the German border with Luxembourg and within the important Mosel wine-growing region.
Trier is the oldest seat of a Christian bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop of Trier was an important ecclesiastical prince, as the Archbishopric of Trier controlled land from the French border to the Rhine. He was also one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire.
With an approximate population of 100,000 Trier was, until 2005, ranked fourth alongside Kaiserslautern among the state's largest cities; after Mainz, Ludwigshafen and Koblenz. The nearest large cities in Germany are Saarbrücken, some 80 km southeast, and Koblenz, about 100 km northeast. The closest city to Trier is the capital of Luxembourg, some 50 km to the southwest.
Trier is home to the University of Trier, the administration of the Trier-Saarburg district and the seat of the ADD (Aufsichts- und Dienstleistungsdirektion), which until 1999 was the borough authority of Trier. It is one of the five "central places" of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Along with Luxembourg, Metz and Saarbrücken, fellow constituent members of the QuattroPole union of cities, it also forms a central place of the greater region encompassing Saar-Lor-Lux (Saarland, Lorraine and Luxembourg), Rhineland-Palatinate and Wallonia.
Trier sits in a hollow midway along the Moselle valley, with the most significant portion of the city on the east bank of the river. Wooded and vineyard-covered slopes stretch up to the Hunsrück plateaux in the South and the Eifel in the North. The border with the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg is some 15 km distant.
Listed in clockwise order, beginning with the northernmost; all municipalities belong to the Trier-Saarburg district
Schweich, Kenn and Longuich (all part of the Verbandsgemeinde Schweich an der Römischen Weinstraße), Mertesdorf, Kasel, Waldrach, Morscheid, Korlingen, Gutweiler, Sommerau and Gusterath (all in the Verbandsgemeinde Ruwer), Hockweiler, Franzenheim (both part of the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land), Konz (Verbandsgemeinde Konz), Igel, Trierweiler, Aach, Newel, Kordel (Eifel), Zemmer (all in the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land)
The Trier urban area is divided into 19 city districts. For each district there is an Ortsbeirat (local council) of between 9 and 15 members, as well as an Ortsvorsteher (local representative). The local councils are charged with hearing the important issues that affect the district, although the final decision on any issue rests with the city council. The local councils nevertheless have the freedom to undertake limited measures within the bounds of their districts and their budgets.
The districts of Trier with area and inhabitants (July 2007):
|Official district number||District with associated sub-districts||Area in km²||Inhabitants|
|12||Nord (Nells Ländchen, Maximin)||3.769||14,256|
|13||Süd (St. Barbara, St. Matthias or St. Mattheis)||1.722||9,409|
|42||Kürenz (Alt-Kürenz, Neu-Kürenz)||5.825||8,578|
|52||Heiligkreuz (Alt-Heiligkreuz, Neu-Heiligkreuz, St. Maternus)||2.036||6,766|
|53||Mariahof (St. Michael)||7.040||3,212|
Trier is a common surname for a group of traveling gypsies around the southern-half of Russia, who settled in Russia in the 18th century.
According to the Gesta Treverorum, the city was founded by Trebeta, an Assyrian prince, centuries before ancient Rome. The Roman Empire subdued the Treveri in the 1st century BC and established Augusta Treverorum (Lit: August (Regal, noble) [City] of the Treveri) in 30 BC. The name is likely to be taken from the title Augustus held by the Princeps or head of state at the time, Augustus Caesar. The city later became the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Belgica, as well as the Roman prefecture of Gaul. The Porta Nigra counts among the Roman architecture of the city. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose. In 395 the Roman administration abandoned the city, leaving the locals to their own defense; this marked the end of the effective authority of the Empire in Gaul.
The Franks occupied Trier from the Roman administration in 459 AD. In 870 it became part of Eastern Francia, which developed into the Holy Roman Empire. Relics of Saint Matthias brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages. The bishops of the city grew increasingly powerful, and the Archbishopric of Trier was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier was founded in the city in 1473.
In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, and the War of the Polish Succession. France succeeded in finally claiming Trier in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, and the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, Trier passed to the Kingdom of Prussia. Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818.
As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier developed economically during the 19th century. The city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, although the rebels were forced to concede. It became part of the German Empire in 1871.
Through the month of June, 1940, over 60,000 British prisoners of war, captured at Dunkirk and Northern France were marched (many died along the way) to Trier which became a staging-post for miss-treated British soldiers heading for German Prisoner-of-War camps. The population of the once great city, poured scorn; jeered at the unfortunate men as they were paraded through the once proud streets to the taunts of Trier's inhabitants. Where once slaves had left Germany destined for Rome, now a vast new slave army was heading eastward into the heart of Europe's newest empire, the Third Reich (Dunkirk, the men left behind, Sean Longden, ISBN 978 1 84529 977 4. Trier was heavily bombed and bombarded in 1944 during World War II. The city became part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate after the war. The university, dissolved in 1797, was restarted in the 1970s, while the Cathedral of Trier was reopened in 1974. Trier officially celebrated its 2,000th anniversary in 1984.
Cathedral of St. Peter
and Church of Our Lady in Trier*
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||i, iii, iv, vi|
|Region**||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1986 (10th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
Trier is well known for its well-preserved Roman and medieval buildings, which include:
Trier is home to the University of Trier, founded in 1473, closed in 1796 and restarted in 1970. The city also has the Trier University of Applied Sciences. There are various Kindergärten, primary schools and secondary schools in Trier, such as the Humboldt Gymnasium Trier, Max Planck Gymnasium and the Pestalozzi-Hauptschule.
Trier has direct railway connections to many cities. The nearest cities by train are Cologne, Saarbrücken and Luxembourg. Via the motorways A 1, A 48 and A 64 Trier is linked with Koblenz, Saarbrücken and Luxembourg. The nearest commercial (international) airports are in Luxembourg (0:40 h by car), Frankfurt-Hahn (1:00 h), Saarbrücken (1:00 h), Frankfurt (2:00 h) and Cologne/Bonn (2:00 h). The Moselle River is an important waterway and is also used for river cruises.
Major sports clubs in Trier include:
Trier is twinned with:
There are several airports in the vicinity with reasonable access to Trier.
Trains leave hourly from Trier to Saarbuecken, Koblenz and Cologne. Timetable and ticket information could found at 
Trier is connected by the European motorway E44 from Luxembourg city (~50 km) via Trier to Koblenz (~100 km), E422 from Trier to Saarbrücken (~100 km).
Trier is connected to the Autobahn A6. This city is about one hour from Kaiserslautern or two hours from Mannheim.
There are some cruise trips from Koblenz to Trier. However: they are expensive.
Walking is the best way to travel around the city, though a vehicle is good when visiting the stadium. Also there is a scenic overview up the hill by the stadium where you can see the entire city. The city tours take you up there.
Trier is rich in ruins from the Roman Empire (protected by UNESCO), such as the
The Fachhochschule is in sight of the city. The first buildings where build in 1944 and where used by the Nazis to educate the next generation of soldiers. After the war, the complex was not officially used as a school. In the 1970's the university of Trier was re-grounded and stayed there, until the new university complex on the other side of the Mosel valley. Since then the Fachhochschule is using the complex.
Inexpensive and tasty meals such as pizza (with your choice of toppings), casseroles, salads etc. can be found in the formerly student-owned Astarix next to the theater, in the south-west of the inner city.
There are many Kebab stores, located all over the city. The best you will find in the Judengasse, the Ke-Pasta.
There is a McDonalds and a SubWay in the market square and a Burger King near the main station.
Apart from the standard wines - Trier is in a wine-growing area - and beers (Trier - Löwenbräu, Cologne - often Gaffel Kölsch, Bitburg - Bitburger), one should definitely try Viez or Viez/Limo. Viez is an apple wine, which is often served with a splash of lemonade. But be carefull: there is sweet and sour Viez don't order a big glass, if you are only testing.
Trier is a relatively safe city (very safe compared to most US cities). Standard travel safety applies.
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TRIER (French treves), an ancient city of Germany, formerly the capital of an archbishopric and electorate of the empire, and now the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and the chief town of a governrnental department in the Prussian province of the Rhine. Pop. (1885) 33,019, (1905) 46,709 (86% Roman Catholics). It is situated on the right bank of the Moselle, about 6 m. from the frontier of Luxemburg and 69 m. S.W. of Coblenz, on the main lines of railway from Coblenz to Metz and from Cologne to Saarbriicken. The city lies in a fertile valley shut in by vine-clad hills, and the picturesque red sandstone buildings of the old town are interspersed with orchards and gardens. On the north, east and south boulevards with gardens follow the line of the medieval walls, which have mostly disappeared. The Roman city extended much farther south and east.
Trier contains more important Roman remains than any other place in northern Europe. Perhaps the oldest remains are some of the piers -and buttresses of the bridge over the Moselle, which may date from about 28 B.C. The well-preserved amphitheatre just outside the modern town to the south-east was probably built in the reign of Trajan or Hadrian. Its eastern side is built into the hill, its longer diameter is 76 yds., and it accommodated seven or eight thousand spectators. In 306 the emperor Constantine the Great caused multitudes of Frankish prisoners to be thrown to the beasts here, and in 313 made a similar spectacle of the captive Bructeri. The most remarkable Roman building in Trier is the Porta Nigra, the north gate of the city, a huge fortified gateway, 115 ft. long, 75 to 93 ft. high and 29 ft. deep, built of sandstone blocks blackened with age (whence the name), and held together with iron clamps. The age of this building is very uncertain; it has been assigned to dates ranging from the 1st to the 4th century A.D. It is also called the Simeonstor, after a Greek hermit who inhabited it. On his death in 1035 Archbishop Poppo converted the gate into two churches, one above the other, but all the additions except the apse have now been removed. In the south-east corner of the city are the picturesque ruins of the Roman imperial palace, and near the bridge are the extensive substructures of the 4thcentury Roman baths, 660 ft. in length. On the Constantins platz stands the magnificent brick basilica, probably of the age of Constantine, though the south and east walls are modern. Having been converted into a palace for the Frankish kings and their deputies, it passed in 1197 to the archbishops, and was restored (1846 7 1856) and turned into a Protestant church. The adjoining barracks were formerly the elector's palace. Another Roman basilica forms the nucleus of the cathedral. Built under the emperors Valentinian I. and Gratian as a quadrilateral hall with four huge granite columns (now removed) in the centre, it was converted into a church about the close of the 4th century, and restored by Bishop Nicetius about 550. It is the most important pre-Carolingian church in Germany. Archbishop Poppo and his successors in the i 1 th and 12th centuries extended the cathedral westwards and added an apse at each end. The vaulting of the nave and aisles and the beautiful cloisters were added in the 13th century. In the vaults are buried twenty-six archbishops and electors. Among the monuments are those of the electors Richard von Greiffenklau (d. 1531) and Johann von Metzenhausen (d. 1540), fine examples of German Renaissance work. The most famous of the relics preserved in the cathedral is the "Holy Coat of Trier," believed by the devout to be the seamless robe of the Saviour, and said to have been discovered and presented to the city by the empress Helena. Since 1512 it has been periodically exhibited. The exhibition of 1844, which was attended by more than a million pilgrims, aroused protests, resulting in the formation of the sect of German Catholics. In 1891 nearly two million pilgrims viewed the coat, and eleven miraculous cures were claimed.
The cloisters connect the cathedral with the church of Our Lady (Liebfrauenkirche), a beautiful building in the form of a circle intersected by a cross, with a lofty vault, built 1127-1143, and said to be the oldest Gothic church in Germany.
In the market-place is the market cross, said to date from 958, and a beautiful Renaissance fountain, the Petersbrunnen, erected in 1595. Close by are the Steipe or Rotes Haus, formerly the town hall, of the 15th century, and the Frankenturm or propugnaculum, of the 10th century, said to be the oldest stone domestic building in Germany.
The Provincial Museum (1885-1889) contains many Roman and medieval antiquities. The town library contains about 100,000 volumes, including some valuable examples of early printing. Among its most treasured MSS. are the codex aureus, a copy of the gospels presented to the abbey of St Maximin by Ada, a reputed sister of Charlemagne, and the codex Egberti of the 10th century.
At Igel near Trier is a very remarkable Roman column, 83 ft. high, adorned with sculptures. It dates from the 2nd century, and was the family monument of the Secundini. At Nennig is a fine Roman mosaic pavement.
The industries of Trier include iron-founding, dyeing and the manufacture of machinery. There is a school of viticulture and a very considerable trade in Moselle wines, especially during the annual auctions.
Trier had had two periods of greatness, firstly as the favourite residence of Constantine the Great and his successors in the west, and secondly as the capital of a powerful spiritual electorate.
The Treveri or Treviri, from whom the city derived its name, were one of the most powerful tribes among the Belgae, and according to Julius Caesar, who conquered them in 56 B.C., possessed the best cavalry. in Gaul. Attempts have been made to show that they were of German origin (see Belgae), but although they were doubtless subject to Germanic influences, they spoke a Celtic language. Their chiefs, Indutiomarus, who raised a rebellion against the Romans in 54 B.C., and his successor Cingetorix have. Celtic names, and St Jerome, who had lived in Trier, declares that their language in his day (c. 370) resembled that of the Galatians. An insurrection under Julius Florus in A.D. 21 was soon quelled. The Roman city, Augusta Treverorum, was probably fortified by Augustus about 14 B.C., and organized as a colony about A.D. 50 in the reign of Claudius, but is not mentioned before the war of Civilis in 69 (Tacitus, Hist. iv.). At first the Treveri resisted the appeal of Civilis and his Batavi to join the revolt, and built a defensive wall from Trier to Andernach, but soon after the two Treverans, Tutor and Classicus, led their fellow tribesmen, aided by the Lingones (Langres), in the attempt to set up a "Gallic empire." After a brief struggle the rebels were overthrown at Trier by Cerealis, and 113 senators emigrated to Germany (70). Towards the end of the 3rd century, the inroads of the Franks having been repelled by the emperor Probus, the city rapidly acquired wealth and importance. Mainly on account of its strategic position, Diocletian on his reorganization of the empire made Trier the capital not only of Belgica Prima, but of the whole "diocese" of Gaul. For a century, from Maximian to Maximus (286-388), it was (except under Julian, who preferred to reside in Paris) the administrative centre from which Gaul, Britain and Spain were ruled, so that the poet Ausonius could describe it as the second metropolis of the empire, or "Rome beyond the Alps." Constantine the Great, who generally resided here from 306 to 331, and his successors also, beautified the city with public works, and villas arose upon the hill-sides.
The Church added a lustre of a different kind. Legend associated Trier with the martyrdom of part of the Theban legion (c. 286) and with the relics found by St Helena in the Holy Land. St Agritius (d. 332) is the first historical bishop. Four great saints of the 4th century are connected with the city. It was the scene of the first banishment of St Athanasius in 336. A baseless legend relates that he composed the Quicunque Vult while hiding here in a cistern. St Ambrose, one of the greatest sons of Trier, was born here about 340. St Jerome's mind was first seriously directed to religion while studying at Trier about 370, and St Martin of Tours came in 385 to plead with the tryant Maximus for the lives of the heretic Priscillian and his followers.
The Franks, who had thrice previously sacked the city, gained permanent possession of it about 455. Although some Frankish kings resided here, it gradually yielded place to Metz as a Frankish capital. The great bishop St Nicetius (528-566), who was banished for rebuking the vices of king Clotaire I. and eulogized by the poet Venantius Fortunatus, repaired the cathedral, and built a splendid castle for himself. The city passed to Lorraine in 843, and to the East Frankish kingdom in 870. It was sacked by the Northmen in 881. Hetti, who occupied the see from 814 to 847, is said to have been the first archbishop of Trier, and Radbod acquired the rights of the counts of Trier in 8 9 8, thus founding the temporal power of the see. Robert claimed in vain the right to crown the German king Otto I. in 936, on the ground of the priority of his see, and in the 10th century Archbishop Dietrich I. obtained the primacy over Gaul and Germany.
The temporal power of the archbishops was not gained without opposition. The German kings Otto IV. and Conrad IV. granted charters to the city, which however admitted the jurisdiction of its archbishop, Baldwin of Luxemburg, in 1308. This prince, a brother of the emperor Henry VII., ruled from 1307 to 1354, and was the real founder of the power of Trier. His predecessor Diether III. of Nassau had left his lands heavily encumbered with debt. Baldwin raised them to great prosperity by his energy and foresight, and chiefly as a result of the active political and military support he rendered to the emperors Henry VII., Louis the Bavarian and Charles IV. enlarged his dominions almost to their ultimate extent. He assumed the title of archchancellor of Gaul and Arles (or Burgundy), and in 1315 admitted the claim of the archbishop of Cologne to the highest place of ter the archbishop of Mainz among the spiritual princes of the empire. Thenceforward the elector of Trier held the third place in the electoral college. After Baldwin's death the prosperity of Trier was checked by wars and disputes between rival claimants to the see, and in 1456 the estates united for the purpose of restoring order, and secured the right of electing their archbishops.
Throughout the middle ages the sancta civitas Trevirorum abounded in religious foundations and was a great seat of monastic learning. The university, founded in 1473, existed until 17 9 7. The elector Richard von Greiffenklau (1467-1531) successfully opposed the Reformation, and inaugurated the exhibitions of the holy coat, which called forth the denunciations of Luther, but have continued since his day to bring wealth and celebrity to the city. In the latter half of the 16th century the direction of education fell into the hands of the Jesuits.
During the Thirty Years' War the elector Philip Christopher von Sotern favoured France, and accepted French protection in 1631. The French in the following year expelled both Spaniards and Swedes from his territories, but in March 1635 the Spaniards recaptured Trier and took the elector prisoner. He remained in captivity for ten years, but was reinstated by the French in 1645 and confirmed in his possessions by the peace of Westphalia. The French again temporarily took Trier in 1674 and 1688.
The last elector and archbishop, Clement Wenceslaus (1768-1802), granted toleration to the Protestants in 1782, established his residence at Coblenz in 1786, and fled from the French in 1794. By the peace of Luneville in 1801 France annexed all the territories of Trier on the left bank of the Rhine, and in 1802 the elector abdicated. A new bishopric was created for the French department of the Sarre, of which Trier was the capital. The Treveran territories on the right bank of the Rhine were secularized and given to Nassau-Weilburg in 1803, and in 1814 nearly the whole of the former electoral dominions were given to Prussia. A bishopric was again founded in 1821, with nearly the same boundaries as the old archbishopric, but it was placed under Cologne. The area of the former electoral principality was 3210 sq. m., and its population in the 18th century was from 250,000 to 300,000. Roughly speaking, it was a broad strip of territory along the lower Saar and the Moselle from its confluence with that river to the Rhine, with a district on the right bank of the Rhine behind Ehrenbreitstein. The chief towns in addition to Trier were Coblenz, Cochem, Beilstein, Oberwesel, Lahnstein and Sayn. Far more extensive was the territory under the spiritual authority of the archbishop which included the bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun, and after 1777 also those of Nancy and St Die.
See E. A. Freeman's article "Augusta Treverorum" in the British Quarterly Review for July 1875; Hettner, Das romische Trier (Trier, 1880); J. N. von Wilmowsky, Der Dom zu Trier in seinen dreg Hauptperioden (Trier, 1874); S. Beissel, Geschichte der trierer Kirchen (Trier, 1888); "Gesta Treverorum" (ed. G. Waitz), in Mon. Germ. Kist. viii., xxiv.; J. N. von Hontheim. Historia trevirensis diplomatica et pragmatics (3 vols., Augsburg, 1750); Marx, Geschichte des Erzstifts Trier (5 vols., Trier, 1858-1864); Leonardy, Geschichte des trierischen Landes and Volkes (Saarlouis, 1871); Woerl, Fiihrer durch die Stadt Trier (8th ed., Leipzig, 1898). (A. B. Go.)
|File:Lage der kreisfreien Stadt Trier in|
|Lord Mayor||Klaus Jensen (SPD)|
|Area||117.14 km2 (45.23 sq mi)|
|Elevation||124 m (407 ft)|
|Population||103,518 (26 February 2011)|
|- Density||884 /km2 (2,289 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
|Postal codes||54290, 54292, 54293, 54294, 54295, 54296|
The districts of Trier with area and inhabitants (July 2007):
|District with official numbers and their associated sub-districts||Area in km²||Inhabitants|
|12 Nord (Nells Ländchen, Maximin)||3.769||14,256|
|13 Süd (St. Barbara, St. Matthias or St. Mattheis)||1.722||9,409|
|32 Euren (Herresthal)||13.189||4,116|
|33 Zewen (Oberkirch)||7.496||3,695|
|42 Kürenz (Alt-Kürenz, Neu-Kürenz)||5.825||8,578|
|52 Heiligkreuz (Alt-Heiligkreuz, Neu-Heiligkreuz, St. Maternus)||2.036||6,766|
|53 Mariahof (St. Michael)||7.040||3,212|
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