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—  Comune  —
Comune di Trieste
A collage of Trieste showing the Piazza Unità d'Italia (formerly known as Piazza Grande; top left), the Castello Miramare, the Teatro Giuseppe Verdi and the Trieste Stock Exchange

Coat of arms
Trieste is located in Italy
Location of Trieste in Italy
Coordinates: 45°38′N 13°48′E / 45.633°N 13.8°E / 45.633; 13.8Coordinates: 45°38′N 13°48′E / 45.633°N 13.8°E / 45.633; 13.8
Country Italy
Region Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Province Trieste (TS)
Frazioni Banne (Bani), Barcola (Barkovlje), Basovizza (Bazovica), Borgo San Nazario, Cattinara (Katinara), Conconello (Ferlugi), Contovello (Kontovel), Grignano (Grljan), Gropada (Gropada), Longera (Lonjer), Miramare (Miramar), Opicina (Opčine), Padriciano (Padriče), Prosecco (Prosek), Santa Croce (Križ), Servola (Škedenj), Trebiciano (Trebče), Trieste (Trst)
 - Mayor Roberto Dipiazza (PdL)
 - Total 84 km2 (32.4 sq mi)
Elevation 2 m (7 ft)
Population (April 30, 2009)
 - Total 205,374
 Density 2,444.9/km2 (6,332.3/sq mi)
 - Demonym Triestini
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 34100
Dialing code 040
Patron saint San Giusto
Saint day November 3
Website Official website

Trieste About this sound listen (Italian: Trieste, pronounced [triˈɛste]; Slovene: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and seaport in north eastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of land lying between the Adriatic Sea and Italy's border with Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south, east and north of the city. Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Germanic, Latin and Slavic cultures. In 2009 it had a population of about 205,000[1] and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trieste province.

Trieste was part of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century it was the most important port of one of the Great Powers of Europe. As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (after Vienna, Budapest, and Prague). In the fin-de-siecle period, it emerged as an important hub for literature and music. However, the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Trieste's annexation to Italy after World War I led to a decline of its economic and cultural importance and, throughout the Cold War, Trieste was a peripheral city.

Today, Trieste is a border town. The population is an ethnic mix of the neighbouring regions. The dominant local dialect of Trieste is called Triestine language ("Triestin" - pronounced [triɛsˈtin]), a form of Venetian. This dialect and the official Italian language are spoken in the city centre, while Slovene is spoken in several of the immediate suburbs. The Triestin and the Slovene languages are considered autochthonous of the area. There are also small numbers of Serbian,[2] Croatian, German, and Hungarian speakers.[citation needed]

The economy depends on the port and on trade with its neighbouring regions. Trieste is a lively and cosmopolitan city, with more than 7.7% of its population being from abroad, and it is rebuilding some of its former cultural, economic and political influence. The city is a major centre in the EU for trade, politics, culture, shipbuilding, education, transport and commerce. Trieste is also Italy and the Mediterranean's leading coffee port, the hometown of "Illy Caffè" and the supplier of more than 40% of Italy's coffee[3]. The city is part of the "Corridor 5", which aims at ensuring a bigger transport connection between countries in Western Europe and Eastern European nations, such as Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, Ukraine and Bosnia[4]. This will be also a great impetus for a further boost to the economy of Trieste[3]. Trieste is also home to some Italian mega-companies, such as Assicurazioni Generali, which was in 2005, Italy's 2nd and the world's 24th biggest company by revenue, after Hitachi and Carrefour[5].



Satellite view of Trieste.

Trieste is situated on the extreme limit of the Italian northeast, near the border with the Slovenia, in the more northern part of high Adriatic and lies on the Gulf of Trieste. The urban territory is mostly built upon a hill side that becomes a mountain: it is situated at the foot of an imposing escarpment that from the Kras Plateau comes down abruptly towards the sea. The Kras heights, close to the city, reach an altitude of 458 meters (1,502 ft) above sea level. The territory of Trieste is composed of several different climatic zones according to the distance from the sea and/or elevation. The average temperatures are 6 °C (43 °F) in January and 24 °C (75 °F) in July. The climate can be severely affected by the Bora, a northern to north-eastern katabatic wind that can reach speeds of up to 200 kilometers per hour. Trieste also has the smallest province in Italy.


Remains of a Roman arch in Trieste's old town.

Ancient era

The area of what is now Trieste was settled by the Carni, an Indo-European tribe (hence the name Carnia) in about the 3rd millennium BC. Subsequently the area was populated by the Histri, an Illyrian people, who remained the main civilization until the 2000 BC, when the Veneti arrived.

From 177 BC Tergeste was under the Romans. It was granted the status of colony under Julius Caesar, who recorded its name as Tergeste in his Commentarii de bello Gallico (51 BC). The name Tergeste derived from the Venetic trg and este; Tergeste was defined an "Illyrian city" by Artemidorus of Ephesus, a Greek geographer, and "Carnic" by Strabo.

In imperial times the border was moved from Timavo to Formione (today Risano). The Roman Tergeste lived a flourishing period due to its position as a crossroad from Aquileia, the main Roman city in the area, and Istria, and as a port as well, some ruins of which are still visible. Augustus built a line of walls around the city in 33-32 BC.

In the Early Christian era it remained a flourishing center, and after the end of the Western Roman Empire (in 476), Trieste was a Byzantine military outpost. In 567 AD the city was destroyed by the Lombards, in the course of their invasion of northern Italy. In 788 it became part of the Frankish kingdom, under the authority of their count-bishop. From 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia, developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century.

Habsburg Empire

Trieste in the 17th century, in a contemporary image by the Carniolan historian Janez Vajkard Valvasor.

After two centuries of war against the nearby major power, the Republic of Venice (which occupied it briefly from 1369 to 1372), the burghers of Trieste petitioned Leopold III of Habsburg, Duke of Austria to become part of his domains. The agreement of cessation was signed in October 1382, in St. Bartholomew's church in the village of Šiška (apud Sisciam), today one of the city quarters of Ljubljana. The citizens, however, maintained a certain degree of autonomy up until the 17th century.

Trieste became an important port and trade hub. In 1719, it was made a free port within the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI, and remained a free port until 1 July 1891. The reign of his successor, Maria Theresa of Austria, marked the beginning of a flourishing era for the city.

In 1768 the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann was murdered by a robber in Trieste, while on his way from Vienna to Italy.

Trieste was occupied by French troops three times during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1797, 1805 and in 1809. Between 1809 and 1813, it was annexed to the Illyrian Provinces, interrupting its status of free port and losing its autonomy. The municipal autonomy was not restored after the return of the city to the Austrian Empire in 1813. Following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the Free Imperial City of Trieste (Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest), a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government. The city's role as main Austrian trading port and shipbuilding centre was later emphasized with the foundation of the merchant shipping line Austrian Lloyd in 1836, whose headquarters stood at the corner of the Piazza Grande and Sanità. By 1913 Austrian Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of 236,000 tons.[6] With the introduction of the constitutionalism in the Austrian Empire in 1860, the municipal autonomy of the city was restored, with Trieste became capital of the Adriatiches Kustenland, the Austrian Littoral region.

The Stock Exchange Square in 1854.

The particular Friulian dialect, called Tergestino, spoken until the beginning of the 20th century, was gradually overcome by the Triestine (the local variant partially similar of the Venetian dialect) and other languages, including German grammar, and standard Slovene and Italian languages. While Triestine was spoken by the largest part of the population, German was the language of the Austrian bureaucracy and Slovene was predominant in the surrounding villages. From the last decades of the 19th century, Slovene language speakers grew steadily, reaching 25% of the overall population of Trieste in 1911 (30% of the Austro-Hungarian citizens in Trieste)[citation needed]. A small number of the population spoke Croatian (around 1% in 1911), and the city also counted several other smaller ethnic communities, namely Czechs, Serbs and Greeks, which mostly assimilated either to the Italian or Slovene-speaking community.

A view of Trieste in 1885.

The modern Austro-Hungarian Navy used Trieste's shipbuilding facilities for construction and as a base. The construction of the first major trunk railway in the Empire, the Vienna-Trieste Austrian Southern Railway, was completed in 1857, a valuable asset for trade and the supply of coal.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Trieste was a buzzing cosmopolitan city frequented by artists and pholisophes such as James Joyce, Italo Svevo, Sigmund Freud, Dragotin Kette, Ivan Cankar, Scipio Slataper, and Umberto Saba. The city was the major port of the Austrian Riviera, an enclave, the only one very real part of Mitteleuropa on the south of Alps. Viennese architecture and coffeehouses still dominate the streets of Trieste to this day.

Annexation, fall to Italy

Ethnic distribution in Istria and Trieste in 1910/1911:      Italians      Croats and Serbs      Slovenes      Istro-Romanians.
The Narodni dom, Slovene Hall of Trieste, burned down by the Fascist squads in 1920.

Together with Trento, Trieste was a main focus of the irredentist movement, which aimed for the annexation to Italy of all the lands they claimed were inhabited by an Italian speaking population. After the end of World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved, and many of its border areas, including the Austrian Littoral, were disputed among its successor states. On November 3, 1918, Trieste was occupied by the Italian Army, but was officially annexed to the Kingdom of Italy only with the Treaty of Rapallo in 1920. The region was reorganized under a new administrative unit, known as the Julian March (Venezia Giulia).

The fall to Italy , however, brought a loss of importance for the city, with the new state border depriving it of its former hinterland. The Slovene ethnic group (around 25% of the population according to the 1911 census) suffered persecution by rising Italian Fascism. The period of violent persecution of Austrian and Slovenes began on April 13, 1920, when a group of filo-Italian Fascists burnt the Narodni dom ("National House"), the community hall of Trieste's Slovenes. After the emergence of the Fascist regime in 1922, a policy of Italianization began: public use of Slovene language was prohibited, all Slovene associations were dissolved, names and surnames of Slavic and German origin were Italianized. Several thousand Slovenes from Trieste, especially intellectuals, emigrated to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and to South America, where many became prominent in their field. Among the notable Slovene emigés from Trieste were the writers Vladimir Bartol and Josip Ribičič, the legal theorist Boris Furlan, and the architect Viktor Sulčič.

In the late 1920s, Yugoslav irredentism started to appear, and the Slovene militant anti-fascist organization TIGR carried out several bomb attacks in the city centre. In 1930 and 1941, two trials against hundreds of Slovene activists were held in Trieste by the Special Tribunal for the Security of the State.

Despite the decline of the city's economic importance, the demise of its traditional multicultural and pluri-linguistic character, and emigration of many Slovene and big percentage of Austrian/German speakers, the overall population continued to grow. The Fascist Regime built several new infrastructures and public buildings, including the almost 70 m (229.66 ft) high Victory Lighthouse (Faro della Vittoria), which became one of the city's landmarks. The University of Trieste was also established in this period.

Several artistic and intellectual subcultures continued to swarm under the repressive Fascist regime. In the 1920s, the city was home to an important avant-gardist movement in visual arts, centred around the futurist Tullio Crali and the constructivist Avgust Černigoj. In the same period, Trieste consolidated its role as one of the centre of modern Italian literature, with authors such as Umberto Saba, Biagio Marin, Giani Stuparich, and Salvatore Satta. Among the non-Italian authors and intellectuals that remained in Trieste, the most notable were Julius Kugy, Boris Pahor and Stanko Vuk. Intellectuals were frequently associated with Caffè San Marco, a cafè in the city which remains open today.

World War II and its aftermath

Foibe memorial in Basovizza neighborhood.

After the constitution of the Italian Social Republic, on 23 September 1943, Trieste was nominally absorbed into this entity. The Germans, however, annexed it to the Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral, which included the whole Julian March, Friuli, the Province of Ljubljana, Gorski Kotar and the islands of Krk and Rab. The new administrative entity was headed by Friedrich Rainer. Under the Nazi occupation, the only concentration camp on Italian soil was built in a suburb of Trieste, at the Risiera di San Sabba, on 4 April 1944. The city saw a strong Italian and Yugoslav partisan activity, and suffered from Allied bombings.

On April 30, 1945, the Italian anti-Fascist National Liberation Committee (Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale, or CLN) of don Marzari and Savio Fonda, constituted of approximately 3,500 volunteers, incited a riot against the German occupiers. On May 1, Allied forces of the Yugoslav Partisans' 8th Corps arrived and took over most of the city, except for the courts and the castle of San Giusto, where the German garrisons refused to surrender to any force other than New Zealanders. The 2nd New Zealand Division continued to advance towards Trieste along Route 14 around the northern coast of the Adriatic sea and arrived in the city the next day (see official histories The Italian Campaign and Through the Venetian Line). The German forces capitulated on the evening of May 2, but were then turned over to the Yugoslav forces.

The Yugoslavs held full control of the city until June 12, a period known in the Italian historiography as the "forty days of Trieste"[7] During this period, hundreds of locals were arrested by the Yugoslav authorities, and some of them disappeared.[8] These included former Fascists and Nazi collaborators, but also Italian nationalists, and any other real or potential opponents of Yugoslav Communism. Some were interned in Yugoslav concentration camps (mostly in Borovnica, Slovenia), while others were allegedly murdered and thrown into the potholes ("foibe") on the Kras plateau.[9]

After an agreement between the Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito and the British Field Marshal Harold Alexander, the Yugoslav forces withdrew from Trieste, which came under a joint British-U.S. military administration. The Julian March was divided between Anglo-American and Yugoslav military administration until September 1947, when the Paris Peace Treaty established the Free Territory of Trieste.

This particular political condition is still preview from U.N.O. treaty, every Nation of U.N.O. can ask for reintegration of "T.L.T."

Zone A of the Free Territory of Trieste (1947-54)

Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste (1947–1954).
Boundary between Free Territory of Trieste and Italy west of Duino.

In 1947, Trieste was declared an independent city state under the protection of the United Nations as the Free Territory of Trieste. The territory was divided into two zones, A and B, along the Morgan Line, established in 1945.

From 1947 to 1954, the A Zone was governed by the Allied Military Government, composed of the American "Trieste United States Troops" (TRUST), commanded by Major General Bryant E. Moore, the commanding general of the American 88th Infantry Division, and the "British Element Trieste Forces" (BETFOR), commanded by Sir Terence Airey, who were the joint forces commander and also the military governors. Zone A covered almost the same area of the current Italian Province of Trieste, except for four small villages south of Muggia which were given to Yugoslavia after the dissolution of the Free Territory in 1954. Zone B, which remained under the military administration of the Yugoslav People's Army, was composed of the north-westernmost portion of the Istrian peninsula, roughly between the coastal towns of Ankaran and Novigrad.

In 1954, the Free Territory of Trieste was dissolved. The vast majority of Zone A, including the city of Trieste, was ceded to Italy. Zone B became part of Yugoslavia, along with four villages from the Zone A - (Plavje, Spodnje Škofije, Hrvatini, and Jelarji), and was divided among the Socialist Republic of Slovenia and Croatia. The annexation of Trieste to Italy was officially announced on 26 October 1954.

The final border line with Yugoslavia, and the status of the ethnic minorities in the areas, was settled in 1975 with the Treaty of Osimo. This line is now the border between Italy and Slovenia.


During the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Trieste became a leading European city in economy, trade and commerce, and was the fourth largest and most important centre in the Empire, after Vienna, Budapest and Prague. The economy of Trieste, however, fell into huge decline after the city's annexation to Italy after World War I and was a mainly peripheral city during the Cold War. However, since the 1970s, Trieste has had a huge economic boom, thanks to a significant commercial shipping business to the container terminal, steel works and an oil terminal. Trieste is also Italy, Mediterranean's and one of Europe's greatest coffee ports, as the city supplies more than 40% of Italy's coffee[3]. Coffee brands, such as Illy, were founded and are headquartered in the city. Currently, Trieste is one of Europe's most important ports and centres for trade and transport, with Trieste being part of the "Corridor 5" plan, to create a bigger transport connection between Western and Eastern European countries[4]. Also, nowadays, the Italian worldwide insurance company Assicurazioni Generali, is headquartered in the city, being in 2005 Italy's second biggest corporation after Eni, and the world's 24th greatest conglomerate for revenue[5], and 47th according to the Fortune Global 500 in 2009[10].


Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1921 239,558
1931 250,170 4.4%
1936 248,307 −0.7%
1951 272,522 9.8%
1961 272,723 0.1%
1971 271,879 −0.3%
1981 252,369 −7.2%
1991 231,100 −8.4%
2001 211,184 −8.6%
2009 Est. 205,507 −2.7%
Source: ISTAT 2001
ISTAT 2007 [1]
Trieste,FVG Italy
Median age 46 years 42 years
Under 18 years old 13.8% 18.1%
Over 65 years old 27.9% 20.1%
Foreign Population 6.2% 5.8%
Births/1000 people 7.63 b 9.45 b

As of April 2009, there were 205,507 people residing in Trieste, located in the province of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, of whom 46.7% were male and 53.3% were female. Trieste had lost roughly 1/3 of its population since the 1970s, due to the crisis of the historical industrial sectors of steel and shipbuilding, a dramatic drop in fertility rates and fast population aging. Minors (children aged 18 and younger) totalled 13.78 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 27.9 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Trieste residents is 46 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Trieste declined by 3.5 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.85 percent. However, in the last two years the city shown signs of stabilizing thanks to growing immigration fluxes. The crude birth rate in Trieste is only 7.63 per 1,000 one of the lowest in eastern Italy, while the Italian average is 9.45 births.

At the end of 2009, ISTAT estimated that there were 15,795 foreign born residents in Trieste, representing 7.7% of the total city population. The largest autochthonous minority are Slovenes, but there is also a large immigrant group from other Balkan nations (particularly nearby Croatia, Albania and Romania): 4.95%, Asia: 0.52%, and sub-saharan Africa: 0.2%. Serbian community consists of both autochthonous[11] and immigrant groups.[12] Trieste is predominantly Roman Catholic, but also has large numbers of Orthodox Christians due to the city's large migrant population from Eastern Europe and its Balkan influence.

The city's most spoken language is Italian though there are many Slovene, Venetian and Friulian language speakers. There are also groups of German and Hungarian speakers.

Main sights

Trieste seafront.
Piazza Unità d'Italia by night


The Trieste Cathedral dedicated to Saint Justus.
Trieste City Hall.
The old city stock exchange.

Miramar Castle

The Schloß Miramar was built between 1856 and 1860 from a project by Carl Junker working under Archduke Maximilian. The Castle gardens provide a setting of beauty with a variety of trees, chosen by and planted on the orders of Maximilian, that today make a remarkable collection. Features of particular attraction in the gardens include two ponds, one noted for its swans and the other for lotus flowers, the Castle annexe ("Castelletto"), a bronze statue of Maximilian, and a small chapel where is kept a cross made from the remains of the "Novara", the flagship on which Maximilian, brother of Emperor Franz Josef, set sail to become Emperor of Mexico. During the existence of the Free Territory of Trieste, the castle served as headquarters for the United States Army's TRUST force.

Castle of San Giusto

Designed on the remains of previous castles on the site, it took almost two centuries to build. The stages of the development of the Castle's defensive structures are marked by the central part built under Frederick III (1470-1), the round Venetian bastion (1508-9), the Hoyos-Lalio bastion and the Pomis, or "Bastione fiorito" dated 1630.[citation needed]

Places of worship

  • The St. Justus Cathedral.
  • The Serb-Orthodox Temple of Holy Trinity and St. Spyridon (1869). The building adopts the Greek-Cross plan with five cupolas in the Byzantine tradition.
  • The Basilica of St. Silvester (11th century)
  • The Church of Santa Maria Maggiore (1682)
  • The Church of San Nicolò dei Greci (1787). This church by the architect Matteo Pertsch (1818), with bell-towers on both sides of the facade, follows the Austrian late baroque style.
  • The Synagogue of Trieste (1912)

Archaeological remains

  • Arch of Riccardo (33 BC). It is a Roman gate built in the Roman walls in 33. It stands in Piazzetta Barbacan, in the narrow streets of the old town. It's called Arco di Riccardo ("Richard's Arch") because is believed to have been crossed by King Richard of England on the way back from the Crusades.
  • Basilica Forense (2nd century)
  • Palaeochristian basilica
  • Roman Age Temples" : one dedicated to Athena, one to Zeus, both on the S.Giusto hill.

The temple dedicated to Zeus ruins is next to the Forum , the Athenas is under the basilica, visitors can see his basement .

Roman theatre

Trieste or Tergeste, which probably dates back to the protohistoric period, was enclosed by walls built in 33–32 BC on Emperor Octavian’s orders. The city developed greatly during the 1st and 2nd centuries.

The Roman theatre lies at the foot of the San Giusto hill, facing the sea. The construction partially exploits the gentle slope of the hill, and much of the theatre is made of stone. The topmost portion of the amphitheatre steps and the stage were supposedly made of wood.

The statues that adorned the theatre, brought back to light in the 1930s, are now preserved at the Town Museum. Three inscriptions from the Trajan period mention a certain Q. Petronius Modestus, someone closely connected to the development of the theatre, which was erected during the second half of the 1st century.


In the whole Trieste province, there are 10 speleological groups out of 24 in the whole Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. The Trieste plateau (Altopiano Triestino), called Kras or the Carso and covering an area of about 200 km² within Italy has approximately 1500 caves of various sizes. Among the most famous are the Grotta Gigante, the largest tourist cave in the world, with a single cavity large enough to contain St Peter's in Rome, and the Cave of Trebiciano (350 m (1,148.29 ft) deep) at the bottom of which flows the Timavo River. This river dives underground at Škocjan Caves in Slovenia (they are on UNESCO list and only a few kilometres from Trieste) and flows about 30 km before emerging about 1 km from the sea in a series of springs near Duino, reputed by the Romans to be an entrance to Hades.




The University of Trieste main building.

The University of Trieste is a medium-size state supported institution that consists of 12 faculties, boasts a wide and almost complete range of university courses and currently has about 23,000 students enrolled and 1,000 professors. It was founded in 1924.


Many famous authors lived and created their major works in Trieste. They include:

Italian language authors

Slovene language authors

Monument to James Joyce.

German language authors

Authors of other languages


Trieste is notable for having had two soccer clubs participating in the championships of two different nations at the same time during the period of the Free Territory of Trieste. Triestina played in the Italian Serie A. Although it faced relegation after the first season after the Second World War, the FIGC changed the rules to keep it in, as it was seen as important to keep a club of the city in the Italian league, while [Yugoslavia] had its eye on the city. In the championship of next season the club played its best seaon with a 3rd place finish.

Meanwhile, Yugoslavia bought A.S.D. Ponziana, a small team in Trieste, which under a new name, Amatori Ponziana Trst, played in the Yugoslavian league for 3 years.[13] Triestina went bancrupt in the 1990s, but after being re-founded regained a position in the Italian second division Serie B in 2008. Ponziana was renamed as "Circolo Sportivo Ponziana 1912" and currently plays in Friuli-Venezia Giulia Group of Promozione, who is 7th level of Italian league.

Trieste also boasts a famous basketball team Pallacanestro Trieste which reached its zenith in the 90's when, with large financial backing from sponsors Stefanel, it was able to sign players such as Dejan Bodiroga, Fernando Gentile and Gregor Fučka, all stars of European basketball.


The Porto Vecchio, also showing Trieste Centrale railway station
Trieste Centrale railway station
A car of the Opicina Tramway

Maritime transport

Trieste's maritime location and its former long term status as part of the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian empires made its dock the major commercial port for much of the landlocked areas of central Europe. In the 19th century, a new port district known as the Porto Nuovo was built northeast to the city centre.[14]

In modern times Trieste's importance as a port has declined, both due to the annexation to Italy, for Italy's wider choice of better located ports, and the competition with the nearby new port of Koper in Slovenia. However, there is significant commercial shipping to the container terminal, steel works and oil terminal, all located to the south of the city centre. After many years of stagnation, a change in the leadership placed the port on a steady growth path, recording a 40% increase in shipping traffic as of 2007.[14]

Rail transport

Railways came early to Trieste, due to its port and the need to transport people and goods inland. The first railroad line to reach Trieste was the "Sudbahn" in 1857. This railroad stretched for 1400 km to Lviv, Ukraine, via Ljubljana, Slovenia; Sopron,Hungary; Vienna, Austria; and Kraków, Poland, crossing the backbone of the Alps mountains through the Semmering Pass near Graz. This railroad approaches Trieste through the village of Villa Opicina, a few kilometres from the big city but over 300 metres higher in elevation. Due to this, the line takes a 32 kilometer detour to the north, gradually descending before terminating at the Trieste Centrale railway station.[14]

A second trans-Alpine railway was dedicated in 1906, with the opening of the Transalpina Railway from Vienna, Austria via Jesenice and Nova Gorica. This railway also approached Trieste via Villa Opicina, but it took a rather shorter loop southwards towards Trieste's other main railway station, the Trieste Campo Marzio railroad station, south of the central station. This line no longer operates, and the Campo Marzio station is now a railway museum.[14]

To facilitate freight traffic between the two stations and the nearby dock areas, a temporary railway line known as the Rivabahn was built along the waterfront in 1887.[citation needed] This railway survived until 1981, when it was replaced by the Galleria di Circonvallazione, a 5.7 kilometer railway tunnel route, to the east of the city. Freight services from the dock area now include container services to northern Italy and to Budapest, Hungary, together with truck piggyback services to Salzburg, Austria and Frankfurt, Germany.[14]

Passenger rail service to Trieste now mostly consists of trains to and from Venice, Italy, connecting there with trains to Rome and Milan at Mestre. These trains reach the Trieste central station via bypassing the Gulf of Trieste, connecting with the Sudbahn's northern loop. International trains between Italy and Slovenia now pass through Villa Opicina, bypassing Trieste.[14]

Air transport

Trieste is served by Friuli Venezia Giulia Airport, located at Ronchi near Monfalcone at the head of the Gulf of Trieste.

Local transport

Local public transport in Trieste is operated by Trieste Trasporti, which operates a network of around 60 bus routes and two boat services. They also operate the Opicina Tramway, a the only hybrid between tramway and funicular railway in the world that provides a more direct link between the city centre and Villa Opicina.[15]

Other notable people

Architects, designers, and visual artists

Actors, musicians and performance artists


Journalists and authors

Politicians and public servants

  • Joseph Fouché, duke of Otranto, spent his last 5 years exiled in Trieste.
  • Engelbert Besednjak, Slovene politician
  • Josip Ferfolja, Slovenian social-democratic politician and human rights activist
  • Aurelia Gruber Benco, politician
  • Riccardo Illy, Italian politician
  • Otokar Keršovani, Croatian left wing political activist
  • Mitja Ribičič, Slovenian Communist leader, President of the Yugoslav Government (1969–1971)
  • Fulvio Suvich, Italian diplomat
  • Vittorio Vidali (aka Enea Sormenti, Jacobo Hurwitz Zender, Carlos Contreras), Communist agent
  • Joža Vilfan, Yugoslav diplomat
  • Josip Wilfan, Slovene jurist, politician, and human rights activist
  • Boris Ziherl, Slovene Communist leader and Marxist philosopher

Religious figures

  • Pietro Bonomo, humanist and bishop, supporter of the Protestant reform
  • Edoardo Marzari, priest
  • Primož Trubar, Slovene Protestant reformer
  • Jakob Ukmar, Roman Catholic priest
  • Virgil Ščerk, Roman Catholic priest, author and politician

Scholars, scientists and intellectuals



  • Maximilian of Habsburg, Emperor of Mexico, Archduke of Austria (Schönbrunn 1832 - Querétaro 1867) built the white castle and park on the riviera. He planted plants in the park from his travels around the world.
  • Lidia Bastianich, Italian-American chef and TV cooking show host whose family lived in a Triestian refugee camp after their escape from Istria
  • Mathilde Bonaparte, Napoleon's niece, daughter of his brother Jerome Bonaparte, was born here in 1820
  • Demetrio Carciotti, (Dimitrios Karitsiotis), Greek merchant and important patron of Greece
  • Marcos, a European transsexual rights advocate for the LGBT community
  • Leo Castelli, New York art dealer who established one of the world's leading vanguard galleries in the 20th century
  • Louis Antoine Debrauz de Saldapenna, Austrian diplomat, journalist and author
  • Gottfried von Banfield (1890–1986), top Austrian Empire fighter ace in World War I
  • Anton Füster, Austrian revolutionary activist, author and pedagogue
  • Edvard Rusjan, Slovene aircraft constructor and pilot
  • Pinko Tomažič, Slovenian resistance fighter and national hero
  • Tone Tomšič, partisan hero
  • Jules Verne, French author, lived in Trieste and wrote the novela " La Congiura di Trieste".
  • Sigismund Zois, Slovene mecenate and natural scientist

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Trieste is twinned with:

See also


  1. ^ official ISTAT estimates
  2. ^ "Jason Cowley". Jason Cowley. 2000-06-25. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  3. ^ a b c
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ Hubmann, Franz, & Wheatcroft, Andrew (editor), The Habsburg Empire, 1840–1916, London, 1972, ISBN 0-7100-7230-9
  7. ^ Refugees in the age of total war by Anna Bramwell, p. 138
  8. ^ A tragedy revealed by Arrigo Petacco, Konrad Eisenbichler p. 89
  9. ^ ibidem, p. 90
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ "Calcio.". Harper Perennial. Retrieved June 13, 2008. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f Ammann, Christian; Juvanec, Maj (May 2007). "Discovering Trieste". Today's Railways (Platform 5 Publishing Ltd): pp. 29–31. 
  15. ^ "Trieste Trasporti S.p.A.". Trieste Trasporti S.p.A.. Retrieved April 27, 2007. 
  16. ^ "Twin Towns - Graz Online - English Version". Retrieved 2010-01-05. 

Further reading

  • Hametz, Maura (December 2001). "The Carabinieri stood by: The Italian state and the "Slavic Threat" in Trieste, 1919–1922". Nationalities Papers 29 (4): 559–574. doi:10.1080/00905990120102093. 
  • Cary, Joseph (1993). A Ghost in Trieste. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226095282. 
  • Novak, Bogdan (1970). Trieste 1941–1954: the ethnic, political and ideological struggle. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226596214. 
  • Marengo Vaglio, Carla (1994). "Trieste as a linguistic melting pot". La Revue des Lettres Modernes (1173): 55–74. 
  • Sluga, Glenda (1994). "Trieste: ethnicity and the Cold War, 1945–1954". Journal of Contemporary History 29 (2): 285–304. 

External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Trieste [1] (Triest in German, Trst in Slovenian and Croatian) is a city in North-East Italy.

Palazzo del Municipio at Piazza Unità, Trieste
Palazzo del Municipio at Piazza Unità, Trieste


Trieste is the capital of the autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia and has 260,000 inhabitants. It is situated on the crossroads of several commercial and cultural flows: German middle Europe to the north, Slavic masses and the Balkans to the east, Italy and then Latin countries to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.

Its artistic and cultural heritage is linked to its singular "border town" location. You can find some old Roman architecture (a small theater near the sea, a nice arch into old city and an interesting Roman museum), Austrian empire architecture across the city centre (similar to stuff you can find in Vienna) and a nice atmosphere of metissage of Mediterranean styles, as Trieste was a very important port during the 18th century.

Get in

By Air

National flights via Milan, Rome and Genoa. International flights via Milan and Rome (Alitalia [2]); direct flights from Copenhagen with Sterling [3],Munich (Air Dolomiti - Lufthansa [4]); direct flights from London and Bristol (Ryanair [5]); direct flights from Belgrade (Jat [6]); direct flights from Prague (SkyEurope [7]).

The International Airport of Ronchi dei Legionari [8] is 33km north of the city centre. A bus service (number 51) runs to the airport from Trieste's bus station (next to the railway station). Weekdays buses leave at 5 minutes and 35 minutes past the hour however on Sundays the service is every 1 to 2 hours. The bus takes about 55 minutes, a taxi (around 50 euro) takes 30-35 minutes. Tickets can be bought from a machine in the airport terminal. You can also take a train from Trieste station to Monfalcone (approximately 25 minutes) and take a short bus / taxi ride to the airport.

By Bus

Three (or so) buses a day to Koper/Capodistria and Piran/Pirano in Slovenia, Pula/Pola, to Rijeka/Fiume in Croatia[9], and to Sezana in Slovenia. Local routes include Udine, Grado, San Candido/Innichen[10]

By Car

A4 Venice-Trieste, toll-gate Monfalcone-Lisert, exit point "Sistiana" (SS 14 "Costiera" ). The town is 24 km from the motorway.

SS 202 Triestina: Motorway A4, toll-gate Lisert, Carso Plateau, Opicina, Padriciano, Trieste

SS 15 Via Flavia: Koper (Slovenia) - Rabuiese border

SS 58, Carniola highway: Ljubljana (Slovenia) - Fernetti border - Opicina, where the highway joins to SS 202, Trieste

By Train

Lots of trains from Venice and Udine, Eurostar from Milan and Rome and Cisalpino from Basel at the Central Railway Station. Trains from Ljubljana, Maribor, Budapest and also Zagreb (Euronight) at the Villa Opicina Station, from where you can travel to central Trieste by the tram or by bus #42. If you arrive by train, the last 15 minutes of travel you have a beautiful sight, because the railway goes along the sea and if the weather is good it should be very striking.

Get around

Coach tour of Trieste 040 308536, (040 311529,, [11]. Saturday 2-4:30pm. Sightseeing tour starts outside the railway station (Piazza Libertà 8). Booking and ticket purchase (5,20 Euro) at the Eurostar office of Trieste Centrale Railway Station.

Walking Like most of Europe, a stroll through the town to admire its ancient architecture is a very popular activity. You get to travel at your own pace and even get some coffee along the way. Trieste is not particularly big and for if you do not have luggage with you there is no need to take bus.

Bus Trieste has a network of buses running on a strict schedule. This can often be checked on the web [12]. Routes are very frequent through the day but rarer after 9pm in the evening, on Sundays and holidays. Strikes occasionally affect buses but Trieste is a small city and most places of interest can easily be reached on foot. Tickets can be bought from tobacconists. They cost €1.05 each. Tickets can be bought from tobacconists and from machines which are found at some of the busier bus stops.

  • Museo Revoltella [13] - This museum was donated to the city in 1869 by Baron Pasquale Revoltella, a great patron of the arts who liked to surround himself with precious and avant-garde works. In a building restored and extended by architect Carlo Scarpa, the museum today houses one of Italy’s finest collections of 19th-century, modern and contemporary art.
  • Museo di Storia, Arte e Orto Lapidario (Museum of History and Art and Lapidary Garden)

Archaeological, historical and art collections. Prehistoric and protohuman findings of local origin; Roman and medieval sculptures and epigraphs. Egyptian, Greek, Roman and pre-Roman antiques. Numismatic collection. Photograph and book libraries.

  • Museo di Storia Naturale - Zoological, botanical, geological, palaeontological and mineralogical collections. Vivarium. Specialised scientific library.
  • The Roman Theatre - Trieste or Tergeste, which probably dates back to the protohistoric period, was enclosed by walls built in 33-32 BC on Emperor Octavius’s orders. The city developed greatly during the 1st and 2nd century AD. The Roman Theatre lies at the foot of the San Giusto hill, and faces the sea. The construction partially exploits the gentle slope of the hill, and most of the construction work is in stone. The topmost portion of the amphitheatre steps and the stage were presumably made of wood. The statues that adorned the theatre (which was brought to light in the '30s) are now preserved at the Town Museum. Three inscriptions from the Trajan period mention a certain Q. Petronius Modestus, a person who was closely connected with the development of the theatre, which was erected during the second half of the 1st century.
  • Il Faro della Vittoria - Victory Lighthouse - The Lighthouse of the Victory, an impressive work of the Triestine architect Arduino Berlam (1880-1946) and of the sculptor Giovanni Mayer (1863-1943), has two important functions. Besides lighting the gulf of Trieste, in order to help navigation, it also serves as a commemorative monument dedicated to the fallen of the first Worid War. The lighthouse is topped by an embossed copper statue of Victory sculpted by Giovanni Mayer. Under this statue is affixed the anchor of the torpedo-boat Audace (the first Italian ship that entered the port of Trieste on November 3,1918),
  • Arco di Riccardo - The "Arco di Riccardo" is an Augustan gate built in the Roman walls in 33 A.D. It stands in Piazzetta Barbacan, in the narrow streets of the old town.
  • Museo della Comunità Ebraica di Trieste "Carlo e Vera Wagner" ("Carlo e Vera Wagner" Museum of the Jewish Community of Trieste) - Collection of ritual art of the Jewish community of Trieste, mainly silverware and fabrics.
  • Synagogue - It's one of the largest in Europe, and was built in 1912. Open on Sundays 10÷12 and on Thursdays 15.30÷17.30, guided tours only, info Key Tre Viaggi tel. +39 040 6726736
  • Museo della Risiera di San Sabba (Risiera di San Sabba Museum) - A national monument - a testimonial of the only Nazi extermination camp in Italy.
  • Railway Museum Trieste Campo Marzio - Housed in the former railhouse, the museum features drawings, models and fullsized train engines and railcars as well as horse-drawn trams from Trieste's past [14].

San Giusto - Cathedral and Castle

A walk on the Castle ramparts and bastions gives a complete panorama of the city of Trieste, its hills and the sea.

  • Museum
  • Capitoline Temple
  • Church of San Giovanni
  • San Michele al Carnale
  • WWI Alter
  • Roman forum and civic building
  • Castle of San Giusto.
  • Park of Remembrance World War I commemorative park,
  • Lapidary Garden. Contains Roman and Medieval relics discovered in Trieste. In it stands a Cenotaph to the archaeologist Johann Winckelmann, father of neoclassicism, who died in Trieste in 1769.
The Miramare Castle
The Miramare Castle

[15] -

  • Maximilian's chambers and those of his consort, Carlota of Belgium; the guest rooms; the information room telling the history of the Castle and the Park's construction;
  • Duke Amadeo of Aosta's apartment with furnishings from the 1930's in the Rationalist style.
  • Throne room
  • The park offers the public a chance for an interesting stroll among botanical species and an important collection of sculptures dotted along its numerous paths.
  • the Stables, a building which was recently restored and is now used for temporary exhibitions;
  • the Old Greenhouses
  • Little Castle


Take the tram #2 from Piazza Oberdan to Opicina. Alight at the Obelisco, and take a walk along the pedestrian Strada Vicentina to Prosecco. The views are superb. The tram has been recently fixed and is doing the entire route again. Do not miss it if you come to Trieste!

  • Ghetto and Piazza Unità. for Biedermeier and Liberty furniture, Bohemian glassware and Austrian silverware, and other fine antiques.
  • Glassworks from France and Venice.
  • Paintings
  • Prints and antique engravings as well as books, postcards, and historical photographs.


The cuisine of Trieste reflects the living traditions of the many populations that have passed through the city over the centuries. In the city's restaurants, called "buffets", you can find delicious examples of the local Austrian and Slavic tradition.

  • Caldaia Traditional dish of boiled pork.
  • Jota a soup prepared with pork, potatoes, cabbage, and finely-ground beans
  • Gnocchi in the style of Austrian dumplings, made with everything from ham to stuffed with plums.
  • Brodetto Fish soup
  • Risotto Creamy rice dish
  • Sardoni in savor flavored pilchards
  • Salads common favorites here include chicory and rocket
  • Bruscandoli
  • Farmers of the plateau who had been allowed by an imperial decree to sell their own products during a period of 8 days, organized the so-called osmizze, where it is possible to taste local wines and products, such as Monrupino's tabor cheese and honey from San Dorligo.
  • The pastry shops in Trieste offer delicious local varieties of the most famous Austrian cakes: Sacher torte, krapfen, strucolo cotto and strucolo de pomi (local varieties of strudel), chiffeletti (cookies made with flour, eggs and potatoes and fried in oil)
  • During Easter you can taste the pinza, a sweet leavened bread that many women still prepare at home and take to the bakery to be cooked. Richer variants of this are the titola, decorated with a hard-boiled egg, putizza and presnitz. Fritole, pancakes stuffed and fried in oil and fave, small round cookies made with almonds and aromas are typical during Carnival.


Some local specialties include:

  • Frambua - from framboise - mint and tamarind
  • Grappa
  • Terrano wine other popular local wines include the Rosso, Malvasia, and the white Vitovska Garganja.


Coffee has been an important part of Trieste since the 1700s. Some of the most famous caffè, know as much for their famous patrons as their food and drink, include:

  • Caffè Tommaseo, Riva 3 Novembre
  • Caffè San Marco, via Battisti, 18. Open since 1914, San Marcho is as popular with today's students and tourists as it was in the days of Saba and Giotti.
  • Caffè Pasticceria Pirona One of the few remaining petesserias (cake shop that also sells coffee and liqueur, as well as beverages made from ) to have retained its Viennese charm. One of its most devoted customers was none other than James Joyce.
  • Caffè degli Specchi, Piazza Unità d'Italia
  • Chocolat via Cavana 15 It's a must for hot chocolate in wintertime and chocolate icecream in summertime.


The helpful tourist information in Piazza Unita can provide you with a list of accommodation and will even make bookings for you. They also have free maps.

  • The Tergeste Youth Hostel, Viale Miramare, 331, (Take line 36 from Oberdan Square to Grignano. Journey takes between 10 and 20 minutes depending on traffic and passes the railway tracks and beach of Barcola. Get off at the Miramare junction, two minutes walk to the hostel.) +39 40 224102 (, [16]. 74 beds, Restaurant indoors and a snack-bar and restaurant on the panoramic terrace The youth hostel is easily reached by bus. It should be noted that this hostel is in a fantastic location with the Adriatic sea just a few metres infront of the hostel.
  • Hotel Porta Cavana, Via Felice Venezian, 14, tel. +39 4030 1313;, [17]. Close to the beautiful Piazza Unità, its rooms have a CD-player, cable TV and VCR. Staff is friendly and speaks English. Singles/Doubles min/max € 36 - 130
  • B&B Adria, Sistiana, 59/V, tel. +39 328 09 77 182;, Close to the beautiful Castle Duino, the Rilke Promenade above the Natural reserve of Duino's Cliffs and the beaches of Sistiana Bay, very good connections with public transport to Airport and Downtown. Staff is very friendly and helpful.. Double Rooms min/max € 22/24 per Person/Night, Breakfast is always included
  • Hotel Roma, Via Ghega 7, +39 040 370040 ([18]), [19]. 3 star hotel in the town centre. 19th century building, hotel bar and even business facilities. Not a bad idea for a base from which to drive around the region or into Slovenia.
  • NH Jolly Trieste, Corso Cavour, 7, +39 040 7600055 [20]. The hotel is the ideal place for discovering the rich history and culture of this city. Important sights include: Palazzo Gopcevich, the historical cafés, the picturesque harbour and the Verdi theatre.
  • Greif Maria Theresia (Greif Maria Theresia), Viale Miramare 109, Trieste, +39-040 410115. Elegant hotel few minutes by car from the center of Trieste, with indoor swimming pool." €120-€250.  edit

Get out

Across the countryside you can find small beautiful farms where you will find beautiful different kinds of home-made salami, cheese and ham, and a characteristic red wine. And maybe along the Riviera ( Muggia, Sistiana,Duino)you can find some nice places to sleep, too.

The pretty island of Grado just to the west makes a good half day boat trip (ticket retour 6 €) [21].

Venice and Ljubljana are also major nearby destinations.

Grotta Gigante - The Giant cave claims to be the biggest tourist cave in the world (since 1997 in the Guinness'book of records). 15 km by city bus #42 or the tram of Opicinathen 1 hour walking along the path #26. The enormous hall is 107 metres high, 280 metres long and 65 metres large. The multi-lingual guided tour takes about 45 minutes. You can also visit the Museum of Speleology is near the cave and besides the various speleological, geological and paleontological finds it also includes some valuable archeological pieces and a poster collection of the cave. Two wide parking lots are available on the outside.

The Slovenian coastal cities of Koper and Piran are about 30 minutes away (1 hour by bus) and make a great day trip. Buses departs from the bus station (EURO 5.30 one way). The twin cities of Gorizia (in Italy) and Nova Gorica (in Slovenia) are around 45 minutes by train from Trieste.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Proper noun

Wikipedia has an article on:



  1. Province of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy.
  2. A city, the capital of Trieste.


The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.
  • Latin: Tergeste



Proper noun


  1. Trieste (province)
  2. Trieste (town)



Proper noun

Italian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia it


  1. Trieste (all senses)

Related terms



Proper noun


  1. Trieste (town)


Proper noun


  1. Trieste (town)

Simple English

The Porto Vecchio of Trieste

Trieste is a city in the north-east of Italy in the region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.



Trieste was a Roman city that in the Middle Ages was under the control of the Republic of Venice. Later was under austrian domination until the first years of the XX century, when Italian irredentism was very strong in Trieste.

The Austrians tried to erase the Italian roots of the population, even promoting the immigration of many Slovenes inside the city, but this created a strong support for the irredentism's ideal of "Union to Italy" from most of the Italian speaking inhabitants of Trieste.

Indeed, together with Trento, Trieste was the main focus of the Italian irredentist movement, which aimed for the annexation to Italy of all the lands they claimed were inhabited by an Italian speaking population. Many local Italians enrolled voluntarily in the Royal Italian Army during WWI (a notable example is the writer Scipio Slataper).[1]

The population of Trieste, practically nearly all Italian, promoted this union of the city to Italy in 1918, and since the end of WWI the city has been the capital of the Italian region called Venezia Giulia.

The population is 207.069 ab. (2004). It was nearly 300,000 after WWII because many Italian refugees flooded the city as a consequence of the Istrian-Dalmatian exodus.

Actually Trieste is important because of its shipbuilding industry, science parks, universities and "history on the border of western Europe". Trieste will be connected to the Italian "TAV railway" (High Speed) network: a 300 km/hour fast train route is going to connect Trieste with Venice in the next years.


During the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Trieste became a leading European city in economy, trade and commerce, and was the fourth largest and most important center in the Empire, after Vienna, Budapest and Prague. However the economy of Trieste fell into a small decline after the city's annexation to Italy following World War I, because was cut off from the "Mittleurope".

But Fascist Italy promoted a huge development of Trieste in the 1930s, with new manufacturing activities related even to naval and armament industries (like the famous "Cantieri Aeronautici Navali Triestini (CANT)"). Allied bombings during WWII destroyed the industrial section of the city (mainly the shipyards).

As a consequence Trieste was a mainly peripheral city during the Cold War. However, since the 1970s, Trieste has had a huge economic boom, thanks to a significant commercial shipping business to the container terminal, steel works and an oil terminal.

Trieste is also Italy's and Mediterranean's (and one of Europe's) greatest coffee ports, as the city supplies more than 40% of Italy's coffee. Coffee brands, such as Illy, were founded and are headquartered in the city. Currently, Trieste is one of Europe's most important ports and centres for trade and transport, with Trieste being part of the "Corridor 5" plan, to create a bigger transport connection between Western and Eastern European countries.


Other pages


  • Angelo Ara, Claudio Magris. Trieste. Un'identità di frontiera. Einaudi Editore. Torino, 2000 ISBN 88-06-59823-6
  • Fabio Cusin. Appunti alla storia di Trieste. Del Bianco Editore. Udine, 1983.


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