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.The Christian doctrine of the Trinity teaches the unity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three persons in one Godhead.^ Father, Son and Spirit are not names but Jesus is.
  • HSHicksLucadoShelly 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.piney.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A treatise of the Holy Trinity in unity .
  • English Dissenters: Socinians 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC exlibris.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The three persons of the Trinity always work inseparably, for their work is always the work of the one God.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[1] .Personhood in the Trinity does not match the common Western understanding of "person" as used in the English language—it does not imply an "individual, self-actualized center of free will and conscious activity."^ This workshop presents the basic concepts of RFT. The workshop also shows how these concepts can be used to understand common psychological problems and give directions for clinical interventions.

^ God three distinct consciousnesses , spiritual vitalities , centers of activity, and so on.
  • HSHicksLucadoShelly 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.piney.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unitarianism is similar to Modalism in that it teaches that God is one individual person, but it differs in that Unitarianism does not teach that God has different modes in which He manifests Himself.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

[2]:pp. .185-6. To the ancients, personhood "was in some sense individual, but always in community as well."^ Whatever any of the three persons does respecting the rest of reality, the other two in some sense do as well, and they are not capable of disagreeing.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is fundamentally impossible for it to confer a particular advantage on some of the individuals who constitute the community without inflicting a greater damage on the entire community.

^ Specifically, the ancient Jews very much understood the Word of YHWH to be both distinct from YHWH in some sense and also as the very YHWH who appeared to Abraham and Moses, etc.

[2]:p.186 .The doctrine states that God is the Triune God, existing as three persons, or in the Greek hypostases,[3] but one being.^ One impersonal God with three conscious personalities!
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christians definitely do not believe that the Trinity doctrine is three gods in one.

^ There are three divine persons but one God.
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Each person is understood as having the one identical essence or nature, not merely similar natures.^ The one essence is simultaneously three persons, and the three persons are one essence.
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Two Natures; two Natures , in one Divine Person!
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each of the persons is understood as having the one identical essence or nature, not merely similar natures.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Since the beginning of the third century[5] the doctrine of the Trinity has been stated as "the one God exists in three Persons and one substance, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit."[6] Trinitarianism, belief in the Trinity, is a mark of Oriental and Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism and all the mainstream traditions arising from the Protestant Reformation, such as Anglicanism, Methodism, Lutheranism and Presbyterianism. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church describes the Trinity as "the central dogma of Christian theology".[6]
.This doctrine contrasts with Nontrinitarian positions which include Binitarianism (one deity/two persons), Unitarianism (one deity/one person), the Oneness belief held by certain Pentecostal groups, Modalism, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' view of the Godhead as three separate beings who are one in purpose rather than essence.^ Persons and groups espousing this position generally do not refer to themselves as "Nontrinitarians".
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Who is a liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ?
  • Binitarianism and Trinitarianism (No. 76) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.ccg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Latter-day Saints see "God is one" and think Godhead, united in purpose, because that is what we believe.

.The New Testament does not have a formal doctrine of the Trinity and nowhere discusses the Trinity as such.^ The doctrine of the Trinity is peculiarily a New Testament revelation.
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The New Testament is dependent throughout on the doctrine of a Trinity within the Godhead.
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In this composite fact the New Testament gives us the doctrine of the Trinity.

However, Southern Baptist theologian Frank Stagg emphasizes that the New Testament does repeatedly speak of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit to "compel a trinitarian understanding of God."[7] The doctrine developed from the biblical language used in New Testament passages such as the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19 and took substantially its present form by the end of the 4th century as a result of controversies in which some theologians, when speaking of God, used terms such as "person", "nature", "essence", "substance", terms that had never been used by the Apostolic Fathers, in a way that the Church authorities considered to be erroneous.[6][8][9][10]
.Some deny that the doctrine that developed in the fourth century was based on Christian ideas, and hold instead that it was a deviation from Early Christian teaching on the nature of God[11] or even that it was borrowed from a pre-Christian conception of a divine trinity held by Plato.^ Christians definitely do not believe that the Trinity doctrine is three gods in one.

^ Christians believe in one God: the Trinity.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some deny that the doctrine that developed in the fourth century was based on Christian ideas, and hold instead that it was a deviation from early Christian teaching on the nature of God [ 10 ] or even that it was borrowed from a pre-Christian conception of a divine trinity held by Plato (428/427 – 348/347 BC).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[12]

Contents

Etymology

The "Shield of the Trinity" or "Scutum Fidei" diagram of traditional Western Christian symbolism.
.The English word Trinity is derived from Latin Trinitas, meaning "the number three, a triad".[13] This abstract noun is formed from the adjective trinus (three each, threefold, triple),[14] as the word unitas is the abstract noun formed from unus (one).^ The English word Trinity is derived from Latin Trinitas , meaning "the number three, a triad".
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This abstract noun is formed from the adjective trinus (three each, threefold, triple), [ 13 ] as the word unitas is the abstract noun formed from unus (one).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The corresponding word in Greek is Τριάς , meaning "a set of three" or "the number three".
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The corresponding word in Greek is Τριάς, meaning "a set of three" or "the number three".[15]
The first recorded use of this Greek word in Christian theology (though not about the Divine Trinity) was by Theophilus of Antioch in about 170. He wrote:[16][17]
."In like manner also the three days which were before the luminaries, are types of the Trinity [Τριάδος], of God, and His Word, and His wisdom.^ In like manner also the three days which were before the luminaries, are types of the Trinity, of God, and His Word, and His wisdom.

^ In like manner also the three days which were before the luminaries, are types of the three of God, and His Word, and His wisdom.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "In like manner also the three days which were before the luminaries, are types of the Trinity [ Τριάδος ], of God, and His Word, and His wisdom.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.And the fourth is the type of man, who needs light, that so there may be God, the Word, wisdom, man."^ There is one God, but there are three who are God.
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Is there anything in God’s Word as inane as this!
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the sun is a type of God, and the moon of man.

[18]
Tertullian, a Latin theologian who wrote in the early third century, is credited with using the words "Trinity",[19] "person" and "substance"[20] to explain that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are "one in essence—not one in Person".[21]
About a century later, in 325, the First Council of Nicaea established the doctrine of the Trinity as orthodoxy and adopted the Nicene Creed, which described Christ as "God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance (homoousios) with the Father".

References used from Scripture

The Holy Trinity, c. 1300 - 1350. English or Spanish. Alabaster. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
.The New Testament does not use the word "Τριάς" (Trinity) nor explicitly teach it, but provides the material upon which the doctrine of the Trinity is based.^ The doctrine of the Trinity is peculiarily a New Testament revelation.
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Sculptural group from the Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc , Czech Republic , 18th century The New Testament does not use the word "Τριάς" (Trinity) nor explicitly teach it, but provides the material upon which the doctrine of the Trinity is based.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The New Testament is dependent throughout on the doctrine of a Trinity within the Godhead.
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

[22] .It required reflection by the earliest Christians on the coming of Jesus and of what they believed to be the presence and power of God among them, which they called the Holy Spirit; and it associated the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit in such passages as the Great Commission: "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit"[Matt. 28:19] and Paul the Apostle's blessing: "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all,"[2 Cor.^ To the same effect note the Pauline benediction: The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost be with you all.
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He wants to bless us, and to make us a blessing to the nations.
  • :: Trinity Christian Centre :: 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.trinity.net [Source type: General]

^ For Jesus Christ to receive revelation from God?
  • Binitarianism and Trinitarianism (No. 76) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.ccg.org [Source type: Original source]

13:14]
while at the same time not contradicting the Jewish Shema Yisrael: "Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God, the Lord is one."[Deuteronomy 6:4][1] Apart from the passages that speak of Father Son and Holy Spirit, there are many passages that refer to God and Jesus without also referring to the Spirit.[23]
According to Christian tradition the Trinity was introduced by the Gospels and Jesus Christ[24] "Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you."[Matt. 28:19-20] Jesus thus mentions the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in a phrase that may suggest that there is one name that encompasses all three.
.The Old Testament refers to God's word,[25] his spirit,[26] and Wisdom.^ God, then, having His own Word internal within His own bowels, begat Him, emitting Him along with His own wisdom before all things.

^ Philo also refers to the logos as “firstborn” ( protogonon ), “archangel,” “Name of God,” and “governor and administrator of all things,” stating that the “divine Word” ( theios logos ) is the “chief” of God’s powers.

^ God's dealings with man in the Old Testament made it unnecessary for this doctrine to be revealed then.
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

[27] .These have been interpreted as foreshadowings of the doctrine of the Trinity,[28] as have been also narratives such as the appearance of the three men to Abraham.^ The narrative has the LORD appearing to Abraham, who was visited by three men.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These have been interpreted as foreshadows of the doctrine of the Trinity, as have been also narratives such as the appearance of the three men to Abraham .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Attempts have been made recently to apply the more extreme theories of comparative religion to the doctrine of the Trinity, and to account for it by an imaginary law of nature compelling men to group the objects of their worship in threes.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[Gen. 18][6] .Some Church Fathers believed that a knowledge of the mystery was granted to the prophets and saints of the Old Dispensation, and that they identified the divine messenger of Genesis 16:7, 21:17, 31:11, Exodus 3:2 and Wisdom of the sapiential books with the Son, and "the spirit of the Lord" with the Holy Spirit.^ This sort of modalist simply identifies God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The act of consecration was the invocation over them of the Father, Son , and Holy Spirit .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We in the Living Church of God believe in the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit--but as the Bible, and not any council of men defines them.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[29]
.However, it is generally agreed that it would go beyond the intention and spirit of the Old Testament to correlate these notions directly with later Trinitarian doctrine.^ However, it is generally agreed that it would go beyond the intention and spirit of the Old Testament to correlate these notions directly with later Trinitarian doctrine.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the end, nothing is lacking concerning the Trinitarian doctrine in the Old Testament.

^ The Old Testament and rabbinical Jews recognized these facts also.

[29][30]
.The Gospel of John opens by declaring, as usually translated: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.^ The Hebrew word translated as 'God' is 'elohim .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the New Testament, John begins by making the initial duality of God clear when he wrote, .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (See Exodus 7:1; Psalm 82:6; John 10:34) When the word “god” is used in that sense, then there are hundreds and thousands of gods.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

He was with God in the beginning. .Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made."^ Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made (John 1:1-3).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had this Word as a helper in the things that were created by Him, and by Him He made all things.

.The rest of John 1 makes it clear that "the Word" refers to Jesus Christ.^ The rest of John Chapter 1 makes it clear that "the Word" refers to Jesus Christ.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus Christ Himself made it very clear to John that He was dead.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, this denies that Jesus came fully in the flesh and INCARNATED His Word as "spirit and life" to reveal the Holy Spirit which is The Mind of Christ (1 Cor.
  • HSHicksLucadoShelly 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.piney.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus John introduces a seemingly impossible contradiction, that Jesus both "was with God" and "was God" at the same time, and that was true from the beginning of creation.^ The same was in the beginning with God.
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The same thing is true with God.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus John introduces a seemingly impossible contradiction, that Jesus both "was with God" and "was God" at the same time, and that was true from the beginning of creation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

John also portrays Jesus Christ as the creator of the Universe, such that "without him nothing was made that has been made."[John 1:3]
.The Apostle John is identified as the "one whom Jesus loved" thus perhaps being the closest Apostle to Jesus.^ The Apostle John is identified as the "one whom Jesus loved" thus perhaps being the closest Apostle to Jesus.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, this is not because they are one being as we see from John 5:20: “ For the Father loves the Son, and shows him all things that He himself does; and He will show Him greater works than these, that you may marvel”.
  • Binitarianism and Trinitarianism (No. 76) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.ccg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Using his common sense again, he states that Jesus is not really equivalent with God, because he doesn't see how man and God can exist in one being.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jesus also instructed John to adopt Jesus' mother Mary as John's own in Mary's old age[Jn 19:26] such that John would have had the entire knowledge of Jesus' family when writing his Gospel.^ Jesus also instructed John to adopt Jesus' mother Mary as John's own in Mary's old age [ John 19:26 ] such that John would have had the entire knowledge of Jesus' family when writing his Gospel.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, Jesus' statement of 'destroy this temple and I will raise it in three days', which referred to his body tells us that Jesus claimed that he himself would raise his own body.

^ The same Gospel also suggests that Jesus' use of the term "Son of God" inferred essential equality and unity of Father and Son—"…making himself equal to the Father" [ John 5:18 ] [ 19:7 ] and saying "I and the Father are one."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some scholars question this, however, as the gospel of John is believed to have been written no earlier than the last decade of the first century (ca.^ Some scholars question this, however, as the gospel of John is believed to have been written circa AD 85-90.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus says the LORD , the King of Israel And his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: “I am the first and I am the last, and there is no God besides Me” (Isaiah 44:6).
  • The Trinity: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit — Why Creeds and Confessions? 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Paul shed light on this question when he wrote, “I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

96 CE, according to Catholic tradition).[31]
.Jesus frequently referred to the "Father" as God as distinct from himself, but also discussed "The Holy Spirit" as a being distinct from either God the Father or Jesus himself.^ Jesus frequently referred to the "Father" as God as distinct from himself, but also discussed "The Holy Spirit" as a being distinct from either God the Father or Jesus himself.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ God’s Word says that the Son proceeded from the holy spirit and the Father.
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God is the same being as the Father.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These things I have spoken to you while abiding with you.^ These things I have spoken to you while abiding with you.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

^ These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God; that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son of God."
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

.But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, he will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I said to you.^ The second thing you have to deal with is the persons of the Godhead, namely the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.

^ Since it is impossible to send yourself , the Father can't be the Holy Spirit.

^ The three persons of the Godhead are enumerated again and again in John’s writings: “But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost , whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things …” (John 14:26).
  • The Trinity: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit — Why Creeds and Confessions? 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]

John 14:25-26

.In this passage, Jesus portrays the Father sending the Holy Spirit—that is the Father and the Holy Spirit are two distinctly different persons, and portrays both the Father and the Holy Spirit as distinct from Jesus himself.^ He's a separate and distinct person from the Father.

^ Since it is impossible to send yourself , the Father can't be the Holy Spirit.

^ For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, another of the Holy Spirit.
  • The Trinity: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit — Why Creeds and Confessions? 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus even apart from whether Jesus was God, Jesus declares that the Father and the Holy Spirit are two different persons, both of them divine.^ This God subsists in three Divine Persons.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God and His spirit are both given as the Father of our Lord.
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They believe that the Holy Spirit is God .

.In the same way, the Old Testament frequently refers to "the Spirit of God" as something slightly different from God himself.^ In the same way, the Old Testament frequently refers to "the Spirit of God" as something slightly different from God himself.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ God called "Father" in the Old Testament .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The God of the Old Testament does the same thing.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The fourth Gospel also elaborates on the role of Holy Spirit, sent as an advocate for believers.^ They believe that the Holy Spirit is God .

^ The fourth Gospel also elaborates on the role of Holy Spirit, sent as an advocate for believers.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fourth Gospel also elaborates on the role of the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete sent to be an advocate for the believers (John 14:15 -26).

[32] .The immediate context of these verses was providing "assurance of the presence and power of God both in the ministry of Jesus and the ongoing life of the community"; but, beyond this immediate context, these verses raised questions of relationship between Father, Son and the Holy Spirit, especially as concerns their distinction and their unity.^ Therefore the Holy Spirit must be God .

^ Father, Son and Spirit are not names but Jesus is.
  • HSHicksLucadoShelly 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.piney.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Holy Spirit” is not a name, but a description of the Spirit of God.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.These questions were hotly debated over the ensuing centuries, and mainstream Christianity resolved the issues by drawing up creeds.^ These questions were hotly debated over the ensuing centuries, and mainstream Christianity resolved the issues by drawing up creeds.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This issue is debated over the following centuries and is only resolved by agreement and exclusion during the christological disputes and creedal councils of the fourth century and beyond.

[32]
.However, some scholars dispute the authenticity of the Trinity and argue that the doctrine is the result of "later theological interpretations of Christ's nature and function."^ However, the doctrine of the Trinity slipped in which scholars were trying to defeat the view that Christ was not deity: .
  • HSHicksLucadoShelly 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.piney.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, some scholars dispute the authenticity of the Trinity and argue that the doctrine is the result of "later theological interpretations of Christ's nature and function" (Harris 427-28) argued in debate and treatises.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, any attempt to explain the mystery to some extent must break down, and has limited usefulness, being designed, not so much to fully explain the Trinity, but to point to the experience of communion with the Triune God within the Church as the Body of Christ.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[33][34] .The concept was expressed in early writings from the beginning of the second century forward.^ The concept was expressed in early writings from the beginning of the second century forward.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Apostles’ Creed, or a profession close to the one we have today, appeared at the end of the first century or the beginning of the second century.
  • The Trinity: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit — Why Creeds and Confessions? 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such proto-Arian concepts are also expressed in the writings of the ancient Jewish philosopher Philo.

.Some believe the concept was introduced in the Old Testament book of Isaiah written around 700 years before Jesus, copies of which were preserved from 300 years before Jesus in the Dead Sea Scrolls.^ Some believe the concept was introduced in the Old Testament book of Isaiah written around 700 years before Jesus, copies of which were preserved from 300 years before Jesus in the Dead Sea Scrolls .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Where do you meet, in the New Testament, the phraseology which abounds in Trinitarian books and which necessarily grows from the doctrine of two natures in Jesus?
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some critics have pointed to various passages in the Book of Mormon as evidence that Latter-day Saints are confused about the Trinity, that Joseph Smith (who they believe wrote the book, of course) didn't develop his concept of the Godhead until after he had written the Book of Mormon.

.Isaiah 9:6 prophesies "For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon his shoulder.^ Isaiah 9 prophesies "6 For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon his shoulder.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son.
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

^ And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God."
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

.And his name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace."^ The great third-century theologian Origen, for example, pressed a bishop named Heraclides to define the relationship of Christ to God the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The orthodox Trinity doctrine denies the Sonship of Christ, for if Christ, the Son of God, was some type of projection from the one God and part of the being of God, then He could not properly be called a Son of the Father.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Heavenly Father calls Jesus The God says the Greek.

.Thus a son who will be born at a particular point in history (to a virgin or young woman[Isa. 7:14] is also "Mighty God, Everlasting Father". This is the Christian teaching that God exists simultaneously as the Eternal God and also as a Son (Jesus) born to a virgin.^ Furthermore, since a son is the same species its father, Jesus is God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Father, Son and Spirit are not names but Jesus is.
  • HSHicksLucadoShelly 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.piney.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Was the Son of God begotten of the Father from eternity?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

Isaiah refers to the Son as "Mighty God, Everlasting Father".
.Various passages from the Christian and Hebrew scriptures have been cited as supporting this doctrine, while other passages are cited as opposing it.^ Scriptural texts cited as implying support .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Various passages from both the Christian and Hebrew scriptures have been cited as supporting this doctrine, while other passages are cited as opposing it.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Still others may look to church tradition and say that there has always been a Christian tradition that faithfully followed Jesus without such a doctrine.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Scriptural texts cited as implying support

"Dogmatic Sarcophagus", 350 A.D., Earliest known depiction of the Trinity[35] Vatican Museum, Rome, Italy.
.The diverse references to God, Jesus, and the Spirit found in the New Testament were later systematized into a Trinity—one God subsisting in three persons and one substance—to combat heretical tendencies of how the three are related and to defend the church against charges of worshiping two or three gods.^ It is the "Church of God" mentioned specifically twelve times in the New Testament.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One impersonal God with three conscious personalities!
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now this is referred to in the New Testament in Hebrews 3:9.

[32] .The doctrine was not explicitly stated in the New Testament and no New Testament writer expounds on the relationship among the three in the detail that later writers do.^ "While the New Testament writers say a great deal about God, Jesus, and the Spirit of each, no New Testament writer expounds on the relationship among the three in the detail that later Christian writers do.

^ The doctrine itself was not explicitly stated in the New Testament and no New Testament writer expounds on the relationship among the three in the detail that later writers do.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The paper examines a series of logical inconsistencies developed from Trinitarian exposition that are framed in terms of questions arising from Trinitarian contradiction of New Testament doctrine arising from key Scripture.
  • Binitarianism and Trinitarianism (No. 76) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.ccg.org [Source type: Original source]

Thus, while Matthew records a special connection between God the Father and Jesus the Son,[Matt. 11:27] he falls short of claiming that Jesus is equal with God[Matt. 24:36][32] although John is more explicit and writes that Jesus Christ told the Jews: "I and the Father are one".[John 10:30]
.The most influential New Testament text was the reference to the three Persons in the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19.^ Now this is referred to in the New Testament in Hebrews 3:9.

^ Ephesians 4:4-6 ; 1 Peter 1:2-3 ) But apart from passages such as these, where there is express mention of the Three Persons , the teaching of the New Testament regarding Christ and the Holy Spirit is free from all ambiguity.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The mistake of so many writers on the New Testament lies in treating this saying as a liturgical formula (which it later became), and not as a description of what baptism accomplished.

.Other passages also were seen as having Trinitarian overtones, such as the Pauline benediction of 2 Cor.^ Other passages also were seen as having Trinitarian overtones, such as the Pauline benediction of 2 Cor.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And it's also shown that the Holy Spirit does teach in other verses as well such as 1 Cor.

^ In other passages, YHWH and the angel of YHWH are seen interacting and speaking to and about one another.

13:14.[6]
The Gospel of John starts, as generally understood and translated,[36] with the affirmation that in the beginning Jesus as Word "was with God and ...was God",[John 1:1] and ends with Thomas's confession of faith to Jesus, "My Lord and my God!"[John 20:28][32] There is no significant tendency among modern scholars to deny that these two verses identify Jesus with God.[37] The same Gospel also suggests that Jesus' use of the term "Son of God" inferred essential equality and unity of Father and Son—"…making himself equal to the Father"[John 5:18] [19:7] and saying "I and the Father are one."[10:30] John also suggests a hierarchy when Jesus is quoted as saying, "The Father is greater than I,"[14:28] a statement appealed to by Marcionism, Valentinianism, Arianism who held non-trinitarian views.[citation needed]
Summarizing the role of scripture in the formation of Trinitarian belief, Gregory Nazianzen argues in his Orations that the revelation was intentionally gradual:
The Old Testament proclaimed the Father openly, and the Son more obscurely. The New manifested the Son, and suggested the deity of the Spirit. Now the Spirit himself dwells among us, and supplies us with a clearer demonstration of himself. For it was not safe, when the Godhead of the Father was not yet acknowledged, plainly to proclaim the Son; nor when that of the Son was not yet received to burden us further.[38]

References to Father, Son, and Holy Spirit

A few verses directly reference the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit at the same time:
.
  • "As soon as Jesus Christ was baptized, he went up out of the water.^ "As soon as Jesus Christ was baptized, he went up out of the water.
    • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jesus did not know the tree had no fruit until he went up to the tree and found nothing but leaves.
    • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave to him to show his servants what must soon take place.
    • Binitarianism and Trinitarianism (No. 76) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.ccg.org [Source type: Original source]

    .At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and landing on him.^ At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and landing on him.
    • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him.
    • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the synoptic Gospels the baptism of Jesus himself is often interpreted as a manifestation of all three persons of the Trinity: "And when Jesus was baptized, he went up immediately from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened and he saw the spirit of God descending like a dove, and alighting on him; and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, 'This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.
    • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .And a voice from heaven said, 'This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.^ And a voice from heaven said, 'This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.
    • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the synoptic Gospels the baptism of Jesus himself is often interpreted as a manifestation of all three persons of the Trinity: "And when Jesus was baptized, he went up immediately from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened and he saw the spirit of God descending like a dove, and alighting on him; and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, 'This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.
    • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And he said unto Him, I heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked, and I hid myself.

    '"[Matt. 3:16–17] .[Mark 1:10–11] [Luke 3:22] [John 1:32]
  • "The angel answered and said to her, 'The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason the holy Child shall be called the Son of God.^ And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God."
    • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Mark 1:10–11 ] [ Luke 3:22 ] [ John 1:32 ] "The angel answered and said to her, 'The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason the holy Child shall be called the Son of God .
    • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That is why God’s Spirit is sometimes called, the Holy Spirit.
    • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

    '"[Luke 1:35]
  • .
  • "How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!"^ But be sure that it is God Himself Who is speaking !
    • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ More specifically, the use of ACT may: .

    ^ Eternity -- Hebrews 9:14 "How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?"
    • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

    [Heb. 9:14]
  • .
  • "But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God."^ God caused Jesus to ascend to a place at his (God's) right hand.
    • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They believe that the Holy Spirit is God .

    ^ "But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God."
    • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [Acts 7:55]
  • This passage contains many complex formulations of the relationship between God, Christ, and Spirit, including "the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead,"[Rom. 8:11] "all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God,"[8:14-17] and "the Spirit intercedes for the saints according to the will of God."[8:26-27]
Some even reference these as part of a single formula:
.
  • "Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit"[Matt. 28:19] (see Trinitarian formula).^ Therefore the Holy Spirit must be God .

    ^ Father, Son and Spirit are not names but Jesus is.
    • HSHicksLucadoShelly 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.piney.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Holy Spirit” is not a name, but a description of the Spirit of God.
    • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It has been claimed that writings of Eusebius show the mention of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit to have displaced a request by Jesus that his disciples baptize people in his name,[39] but all manuscripts of the Gospel of Matthew contain, without any variation, the mention of the Trinity.^ So these verses show that the Holy Spirit is omniscient or all-knowing.

    ^ God’s Word says that the Son proceeded from the holy spirit and the Father.
    • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The act of consecration was the invocation over them of the Father, Son , and Holy Spirit .
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    [40]
  • .
  • "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with all of you."^ To the same effect note the Pauline benediction: The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost be with you all.
    • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He never called the Holy Spirit God.
    • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Corinthians 13:14 "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, [be] with you all.
    • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

    [2 Cor. 13:14]

Comma Johanneum

In addition to these, 1 John 5:7, which is found in the King James Version but not in modern English translations nor in the official Latin text (a revision of the Vulgate) of the Roman Catholic Church,[41] states: "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one." However, this Comma Johanneum is not considered to be part of the genuine text.[42] .It is commonly found in Latin manuscripts, but is absent from the Greek manuscripts, except for a few late examples, where the passage appears to have been back-translated from the Latin.^ It is commonly found in Latin manuscripts, but is absent from the Greek manuscripts, except for a few late examples, where the passage appears to have been back-translated from the Latin.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Erasmus , the compiler of the Textus Receptus , on which the King James Version was based, noticed that the passage was not found in any of the Greek manuscripts at his disposal and refused to include it until presented with an example containing it, which he rightly suspected was a gloss after the fact.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The word trias (of which the Latin trinitas is a translation) is first found in Theophilus of Antioch about A.D. 180.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Erasmus, the compiler of the Textus Receptus, on which the King James Version was based, noticed that the passage was not found in any of the Greek manuscripts at his disposal and refused to include it until presented with a manuscript containing it, while still suspecting, as is now agreed, that the phrase was a gloss.^ Erasmus , the compiler of the Textus Receptus , on which the King James Version was based, noticed that the passage was not found in any of the Greek manuscripts at his disposal and refused to include it until presented with an example containing it, which he rightly suspected was a gloss after the fact.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Erasmus had basically five more-or-less complete manuscripts at his disposal to create this first Greek Textus Receptus .

^ However, because he did end up including it in the Textus Receptus , it ended up eventually in the King James Bible we use today.

[43] .Although the Latin Church Father, Saint Cyprian, alone among early writers, is thought to have referred to the passage,[44] it is now considered not to be part of the original text.^ It is plain that these Fathers would have rejected no less firmly than the Latins the later Photian heresy that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father alone.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now in Isaiah 44:24, and also in Job 9:8, it says God alone created the universe.

^ So too, the passages referring to the dependence of the Son upon the Father do but express what is essential to Trinitarian dogma , namely, that the Father is the supreme source from Whom the Divine Nature and perfections flow to the Son .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Jesus as God

.In the New Testament, the Gospel of John has been seen as aimed at emphasizing Jesus' divinity, presenting Jesus as the Logos, pre-existent and divine, from its first words, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God";[John 1:1] and "The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us.^ Thus Jesus was not fully God (though God in the flesh) when He became a human.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the New Testament, John begins by making the initial duality of God clear when he wrote, .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Word was made flesh in order that we might be enabled to be made gods....

.We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth."^ We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Theophilus is not the only one who has been mistranslated.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[1:14][45] .Other passages of John's Gospel interpreted in this sense include "before Abraham was born, I am!",[8:58] "I and the Father are one",[10:30] "The Father is in me, and I in the Father",[10:38] and "Thomas said to him, 'My Lord and my God!^ Jesus said to them: Amen, amen I say to you, before Abraham was made, I am (John 8: 58).
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jewish Shema Yisrael : "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ John 1:13...No doctrine of the Trinity in the Nicene sense is present in the New Testament...There is no doctrine of the Trinity in the strict sense in the Apostolic Fathers...
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

'"[20:28] .[46] John is also seen to identify Jesus as the Lord whom Isaiah saw,[Jn. 12:34-45] [Isa. 6:1-10] while other texts[Heb. 1:1-12] are also understood as referring to Jesus as God.^ He was referring to God, the Father, and Jesus knew it.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John 12:40-41; Isa.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John 1:34 "And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God."
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

[47][48][49]
.Expressions also in the Pauline epistles have been interpreted as attributing divinity to Jesus.^ Expressions also in the Pauline epistles have been interpreted as attributing divinity to Jesus.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

They include Colossians 1:16 ("For by him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him") and 2:9 ("For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form"), and in Paul the Apostle's claim in Galatians 1:1 to have been "sent not from men nor by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father".[50]
.Another biblical demonstration of Jesus as God comes from English abolitionist and philanthropist Granville Sharp who noticed the following Greek idiom, which is now called Granville Sharp's rule:[51] when two nouns that are personal, singular, and not proper names are connected in a TSKS pattern (The—Substantive—Kai—Substantive, where 'kai' is Greek for 'and') then the two nouns refer to the same person.^ Notice that the subject of this conversation was who Jesus is.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus being called God , but we see the same in the book of Revelation.

^ He was referring to God, the Father, and Jesus knew it.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

Obviously this idiom does not apply to proper names—the phrase "The Pope and Mr. Gorbachev" refers to two separate people.[52] .Passages like Titus 2:13 and 2 Peter 1:1 fit this pattern.^ Passages like Titus 2:13 and 2 Peter 1:1 fit this pattern.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Therefore, when Paul says:[Titus 2:13] "The great God and savior, Jesus Christ" he is grammatically identifying Jesus Christ as the great God.^ Hence Paul says that the Son is God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So therefore, it is believed, Christ must be God.

^ Therefore, when Paul says: [ Titus 2:13 ] "The great God and savior, Jesus Christ" he is grammatically identifying Jesus Christ as the great God.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Proper nouns are not used in this phrase.^ It is not accurate to object that proper nouns are used in this phrase.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Capitalized in English, the word God in Greek grammar is not a proper noun.^ Although God is capitalized in English in Greek grammar it is not a proper noun, and while 'Jesus Christ' here is a proper noun it is the word 'savior' that is in the TSKS construction.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The distinction can easily be made in Greek by leaving the article ("the") off of the noun "God", but this doesn't help in English, of course.

^ The Greek grammar rule known as The Grandville Sharp Greek Grammar Rule teaches that Jesus is called God in Titus 2:13 and 2 Pet.

.While 'Jesus Christ' here is a proper noun it is the word 'savior' that is in the TSKS construction.^ Although God is capitalized in English in Greek grammar it is not a proper noun, and while 'Jesus Christ' here is a proper noun it is the word 'savior' that is in the TSKS construction.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ How did the Word, which was "in the beginning" (John 1:1) come to be "made flesh" (John 1:14) as the "one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus" (1 Tim.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The central and crucial affirmation of Christian faith is that there is one savior, God, and one salvation, manifest in Jesus Christ, to which there is access only because of the Holy Spirit.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[53] .In his review of over 1,000 years of Greek literature, Christopher Wordsworth confirmed that early church Fathers had this same understanding of the text.^ In his exhaustive review of over 1,000 years of Greek literature Christopher Wordsworth confirmed that early church Fathers had this same understanding of the text.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And so this Greek idiom shows that both the New Testament authors and the early church Fathers considered Jesus to be God.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In what has been called "the oldest complete Christian sermon that has survived" (Holmes M.W. The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations, 2nd ed.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.He writes, "I have observed…some hundreds of instances of the 'The great God and savior';[Titus 2:13] and no fewer than several thousand of the form 'The God and savior'"[2 Pet.^ He writes, "I have observed…some hundreds of instances of the 'The great God and savior'; [ Titus 2:13 ] and no fewer than several thousand of the form 'The God and savior'" [ 2 Pet.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The decrees of God can be regarded in two ways: subjectively - they do not differ from God himself and are no other than God himself decreeing objectively - they do differ because they may be conceived as many and various .
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (See Exodus 7:1; Psalm 82:6; John 10:34) When the word “god” is used in that sense, then there are hundreds and thousands of gods.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.1:1] and in every case (when it could be determined) they spoke "only of one person."
^ Rather, three persons are numbered in the creeds, but they are said to be only one God.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In our world, each person is one person, and each person is different in some way from every other person.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only problem is that one could not believe in Allah, on the same grounds.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[54] This Greek idiom shows that both the New Testament authors and the early church Fathers considered Jesus to be God.
.It is agreed that the Bible also refers to Jesus as a man, which is in line with the Trinitarian theological concept of kenosis.^ It is agreed that the Bible also refers to Jesus as a man, which is in line with the Trinitarian theological concept of kenosis .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (Note: Jesus is specifically referred to twice in the New Testament as "One like the Son of Man", Revelation 1:13;14:14).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "However, the Bible clearly states that there is one God and one mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus;" Man and God in one.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Claims of Old Testament prefigurations

.Genesis 18–19 have been interpreted by Christians as a Trinitarian text.^ Genesis 18–19 have been interpreted by Christians as a Trinitarian text.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The usual Orthodox representation of the Trinity was through the "Old Testament Trinity" of the three angels visiting Abraham - said in the text to be "the Lord" ( Genesis :18.1-15).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The golden text of Trinitarianism is Matthew 28:19: "Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."
  • TRINITARIANISM OUTLINE WITH SCRIPTURE VERSES 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC bartimaeus.us [Source type: Original source]

[55] .The narrative has the LORD appearing to Abraham, who was visited by three men.^ The narrative has the LORD appearing to Abraham, who was visited by three men.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With it we bless the Lord and Father, and with it we curse men, who are made in the likeness of God.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The usual Orthodox representation of the Trinity was through the "Old Testament Trinity" of the three angels visiting Abraham - said in the text to be "the Lord" ( Genesis :18.1-15).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[Gen. 18:1-2] .Then in Genesis 19, "the two angels" visited Lot at Sodom.^ Then in Genesis 19 , "the two angels" visited Lot at Sodom.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then in Genesis 19 , two of the visitors were addressed by Lot in the singular: "Lot said to them, 'Not so, my lord.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The usual Orthodox representation of the Trinity was through the "Old Testament Trinity" of the three angels visiting Abraham - said in the text to be "the Lord" ( Genesis :18.1-15).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The interplay between Abraham on the one hand, and the LORD/three men/the two angels on the other was an intriguing text for those who believed in a single God in three persons.^ One impersonal God with three conscious personalities!
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christians definitely do not believe that the Trinity doctrine is three gods in one.

^ Christians believe in one God: the Trinity.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Justin Martyr, and John Calvin similarly, interpreted it such that Abraham was visited by God, who was accompanied by two angels.^ Justin appropriated the god who visited Abraham to Jesus, the second person of the Trinity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Justin Martyr , and John Calvin similarly, interpreted it such that Abraham was visited by God, who was accompanied by two angels.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ God planned that those who repent of their sins and are baptized shall receive God’s Spirit (Acts 2:38-39; John 3:16).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[56] .Justin supposed that the god who visited Abraham was distinguishable from the god who remains in the heavens, but was nevertheless identified as the (monotheistic) god.^ Justin supposed that the god who visited Abraham was distinguishable from the god who remains in the heavens, but was nevertheless identified as the (monotheistic) god.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Justin appropriated the god who visited Abraham to Jesus, the second person of the Trinity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, too, would it have been with Adam; for not as one who grudged him, as some suppose, did God command him not to eat of knowledge.

Justin appropriated the god who visited Abraham to Jesus, the second person of the Trinity.
.Augustine, in contrast, held that the three visitors to Abraham were the three persons of the Trinity.^ Augustine, in contrast, held that the three visitors to Abraham were the three persons of the Trinity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The depiction of the Trinity as three identical persons is rare, because each Person of the Trinity is considered to have distinct attributes.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Christian doctrine of the Trinity teaches the unity of Father , Son , and Holy Spirit as three persons in one Godhead .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[56] .He saw no indication that the visitors were unequal, as would be the case in Justin's reading.^ He saw no indication that the visitors were unequal, as would be the case in Justin's reading.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Then in Genesis 19, two of the visitors were addressed by Lot in the singular: "Lot said to them, 'Not so, my lord.^ Then in Genesis 19 , two of the visitors were addressed by Lot in the singular: "Lot said to them, 'Not so, my lord.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then in Genesis 19 , "the two angels" visited Lot at Sodom.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Notice the that Jesus was clearly called God after the resurrection: "And Thomas answered and said to Him, "My Lord and my God!"
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

'"[56] .Augustine saw that Lot could address them as one because they had a single substance, despite the plurality of persons.Some Christians see indications in the Old Testament of a plurality and unity in God, an idea that is rejected by Judaism, which interprets the New Testament also as not including the doctrine.^ If Jesus is God, then no one saw him because God is invisible...
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For nowhere in the Old Testament do we find any clear indication of a Third Person .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God called "Father" in the Old Testament .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[57][58]
.Some Christians interpret the theophanies or appearances of the Angel of the Lord as revelations of a person distinct from God, who is nonetheless called God.^ In particular, some Christians interpret the theophanies or appearances of the Angel of the Lord as revelations of a person distinct from God, who is nonetheless called God.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ God also appeared in the form of the "Angel of the Lord."
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God who is tri-personal.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] .This interpretation is found in Christianity as early as Justin Martyr and Melito of Sardis, and reflects ideas that were already present in Philo.^ This interpretation is found in Christianity as early as Justin Martyr and Melito of Sardis , and reflects ideas that were already present in Philo .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trinity in Christian Science is found in the unity of God, Christ, and the Holy Ghost or—"God the Father-Mother; Christ the spiritual idea of sonship; divine Science or the Holy Comforter."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Justin Martyr , and John Calvin similarly, interpreted it such that Abraham was visited by God, who was accompanied by two angels.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[60] The Old Testament theophanies were thus seen as Christophanies, each a "preincarnate appearance of the Messiah".[61]
Theophanies
Genesis 12:7 and Genesis 18:1—God appeared to Abraham
Genesis 26:2 and Genesis 26:24—God appeared to Isaac
Genesis 35:1, Genesis 35:9 and Genesis 48:3—God appeared to Jacob
Exodus 3:16 and Exodus 4:5—God appeared to Moses
Exodus 6:3—God appeared to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob
Leviticus 9:4 and Leviticus 6:2—God appeared to Aaron
Deuteronomy 31:15—God appeared to Moses and Joshua
1 Samuel 3:21—God appeared to Samuel
1 Kings 3:5, 1 Kings 9:2 and 1 Kings 11:9—God appeared to Solomon
2 Chronicles 1—God appeared to David
2 Chronicles 7:12—God appeared to Solomon
The angel (messenger) of the Lord:
Genesis 16:7–14
Genesis 22:9–14
Exodus 3:2
Exodus 23:20,21
Numbers 22:21–35
Judges 2:1–5
Judges 6:11–22
Judges 13:3

God called "Father" in the Old Testament

Deuteronomy 32:6 (Moses' time)
Isaiah 63:16,64:8 (pre-exile)
Malachi 2:10 (post-exile)

Old Testament passages claimed to refer to the Son

God in the person of the Son confronts Adam and Eve
.God is not directly identified as "the Son" in the Old Testament.^ God in the person of the Son confronts Adam and Eve God is not directly identified as "the Son" in the Old Testament.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ God called "Father" in the Old Testament .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This sort of modalist simply identifies God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Israel (and, poetically Ephraim) are called God's first born son, representing an aspect of the Jewish nation's relationship with God.^ Israel (and, poetically Ephraim) are called God's first born son, representing an aspect of the Jewish nation's relationship with God.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ John 14:16-18 "The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son , and they will call him Immanuel " —which means, ' God *with us*.'
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may be objected that any kind of modalism which makes the Father and/or the Son a mode of God is hard to square with the New Testament, where the Father and Son are represented as enjoying a close, loving personal relationship, and where the Son mediates between God and humankind.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are, however, what many Christians believe are foreshadowings of Jesus as God the Son.^ Christians believe in one God: the Trinity.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They believed Jesus was God, but not man.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are, however, three persons in God.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Psalm 2 is widely considered a Messianic psalm prophetically describing the Lord's "Anointed One" (verse 2).^ Psalm 2 is widely considered a Messianic psalm prophetically describing the Lord's "Anointed One" (verse 2).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the parable of the wicked husbandmen, He describes Himself as the son of the householder, while the Prophets , one and all, are represented as the servants ( Matthew 21:33 sqq.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Isaiah 9 , also considered a Messianic prophecy, describes the coming Messiah as "Mighty God" (verse 6).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It contains in verse 7 the divine decree: "You are my son, today I have become your Father."^ It contains in verse 7 the divine decree: "You are my son, today I have become your Father."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You are not your own father.

^ And I usually say, well you're right, it was given to him but tell me, Who has all of the authority and all of the power in heaven, the Father or the Son, according to this verse?

.Verse 12 contains the words "Kiss the son". While in verse 7 the Hebrew word for son is used, in verse 12 a Chaldean word is used.^ Hebrew letters used in the words and .

^ Verse 12 contains the words "Kiss the son".
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While in verse 7 the Hebrew word for son is used, in verse 12 a Chaldean word is used.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Support for the translation of the Chaldean word as "son" is found in its other appearances.^ Support for the translation of the Chaldean word as "son" is found in its other appearances.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The word trias (of which the Latin trinitas is a translation) is first found in Theophilus of Antioch about A.D. 180.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two churches, with two foundations—one founded on the truth that Christ is the literal Son of God, and the other founded on the lie that He is not the literal Son of God.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

cf.[Ezra 5:2] .This psalm denotes a Father—Son relationship between God and "the Anointed One", one who would receive the nations as his heritage (verse 8).^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Father is said to be "one God" (1 Cor.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.Isaiah 9, also considered a Messianic prophecy, describes the coming Messiah as "Mighty God" (verse 6).^ Isaiah 9 , also considered a Messianic prophecy, describes the coming Messiah as "Mighty God" (verse 6).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In Isaiah 44:6 God said, “Beside me there is no God,” and in verse 8 He continued, “Is there a God beside me?
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Theophanies might be considered precursors (along with verses such as Isaiah 9:6 and Micah 5:2) of the incarnation of the Messiah Jesus, the Son of God.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Psalm 110 describes the LORD (understood as God the Father) sharing his eternal glory with the psalmist's Lord (understood to be the Son, the Messiah).
.In Daniel 7 the prophet records his vision of "one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven", who "was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him" (v.^ He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him .

^ They worshiped the one that's called Son of Man.

^ Then to Him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, That all peoples, nations, and languages should serve Him.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

14). .Christians believe that worship is only properly given to God, and that considering other Bible passages this "son of man" can be identified as the second person of the Trinity.^ God is not a man, nor the son of Man and cannot be tempted.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ God can be seen only in His Son.
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christians definitely do not believe that the Trinity doctrine is three gods in one.

.Parallels may be drawn between Daniel's vision and Jesus' words to the Jewish high priest that in the future those assembled would see "the son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven."^ Parallels may be drawn between Daniel's vision and Jesus' words to the Jewish high priest that in the future those assembled would see "the son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus is the mediator between man and God.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was watching in the night visions, And behold, One like the Son of Man, Coming with the clouds of heaven!
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[Matt. 26:64-65] .Jesus was immediately accused of blasphemy, as at other times when he had identified his oneness with God.^ Jesus was either one or the other.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Was he referring to Jesus as the one God?
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Using his common sense again, he states that Jesus is not really equivalent with God, because he doesn't see how man and God can exist in one being.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[John 10:33] Christians also believe that John saw the resurrected, gloried Jesus and described him as "One like the Son of Man."[Rev. 1:13]

The Spirit of the Lord in the Old Testament

1 Samuel 10:10
1 Samuel 19:20
1 Samuel 19:23
2 Samuel 23:2
1 Kings 22:24
Nehemiah 9:30
Psalms 51:11
Isaiah 63:10-11
Micah 2:7
Deity of the Spirit in the Old Testament:
Job 33:4
Psalms 104:30
Psalms 139:7
Words of the Holy Spirit called the words of God:
1 Samuel 10:10
2 Samuel 23:2
Zechariah 2:10
Zechariah 7:12

Possible pre-Christian trinitarian references in the apocryphal/deuterocanonical books

In the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, and Baruch, the personifications of wisdom have been seen in the Christian traditions as prefigures for Christ. The most explicit reference to the Trinity is in Wisdom of Solomon:
.
Who has learned your counsel, unless you have given wisdom and sent your holy spirit from on high?^ Do you pray to and worship the Holy Spirit?
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What areas might you come up with to learn to improve your practice of ACT? A great place to start is to just pick one action, commit to it, and get started on it.

^ It helps if you have someone locally who is running ACT workshops as Russ did, but if you don’t have that, then ask visiting ACT trainers to publicize your group at their workshops.

And thus the paths of those on earth were set right, and people were taught what pleases you, and were saved by wisdom.

History

Pope Clement I prays to the Trinity, in a typical post-Renaissance depiction by Gianbattista Tiepolo.

Origin of the formula

.The basis for the doctrine of the Trinity is found in New Testament passages that associate the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.^ The act of consecration was the invocation over them of the Father, Son , and Holy Spirit .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Son and Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Son and the Holy Spirit, but to idols.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

[62] Two such passages[62] are Matthew's Great Commission: "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit"[Matt 28:19] and St Paul's: "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all."[2 Cor. 13:14]
.In 325, the Council of Nicaea adopted a term for the relationship between the Son and the Father that from then on was seen as the hallmark of orthodoxy; it declared that the Son is "of the same substance" (ὁμοούσιος) as the Father.^ In 325, the Council of Nicaea adopted a term for the relationship between the Son and the Father that from then on was seen as the hallmark of orthodoxy; it declared that the Son is "of the same substance" ( ὁμοούσιος ) as the Father.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Son is not the same person as the Father.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About a century later, in 325, the First Council of Nicaea established the doctrine of the Trinity as orthodoxy and adopted the Nicene Creed that described Christ as "God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance ( homoousios ) with the Father".
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This was further developed into the formula "three persons, one substance". The answer to the question "What is God?"^ One impersonal God with three conscious personalities!
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was further developed into the formula "three persons, one substance".
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This God subsists in three Divine Persons.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

indicates the one-ness of the divine nature, while the answer to the question "Who is God?" indicates the three-ness of "Father, Son and Holy Spirit".[63]
.Saint Athanasius, who was a participant in the Council, stated that the bishops were forced to use this terminology, which is not found in Scripture, because the Biblical phrases that they would have preferred to use were claimed by the Arians to be capable of being interpreted in what the bishops considered to be a heretical sense.^ I consider it one of the major crimes of the church that, not content with inventing their own vocabulary, they actually use one of God’s words, distort it out of all recognition in their usage, and then claim for it all the sanctity of a divine revelation.
  • biblical studies: The Doctrine of the Triune God 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC concordant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is they, however, rather than it, who, to speak strictly, would have the divine properties of omnipotence, omniscience, etc….
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even today, those who use Greek as their main language would never use monogenes to mean “unique” because they know it only refers to born children.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

[64] They therefore "commandeered the non-scriptural[65] term homoousios ('of one substance') to safeguard the essential relation of the Son to the Father that had been denied by Arius."[66]
.The Confession of the Council of Nicaea said little about the Holy Spirit.^ The Confession of the Council of Nicaea said little about the Holy Spirit.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Holy Spirit is said to be proceeding from the Father.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of accepting what accepting what Melito taught about the Godhead and Holy Spirit as related to the original faith, at least trinitarian scholar (who is also an Anglican priest) wrote: .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[62] .The doctrine of the divinity and personality of the Holy Spirit was developed by Athanasius (c 293–373) in the last decades of his life.^ Is the Holy Spirit a divine person, distinct from the Father and the Son?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The doctrine of the divinity and personality of the Holy Spirit was developed by Athanasius ( c 293–373) in the last decades of his life.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The doctrine as to the Holy Spirit is equally clear.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[67] .He defended and refined the Nicene formula.^ He both defended and refined the Nicene formula.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[62] .By the end of the 4th century, under the leadership of Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus (the Cappadocian Fathers), the doctrine had reached substantially its current form.^ By the end of the 4th century, under the leadership of Basil of Caesarea , Gregory of Nyssa , and Gregory of Nazianzus (the Cappadocian Fathers ), the doctrine had reached substantially its current form.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The doctrine developed from the biblical language used in New Testament passages such as the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19 and took substantially its present form by the end of the 4th century as a result of controversies in which some theologians, when speaking of God, used terms such as "person", "nature", "essence", "substance", terms that had never been used by the Apostolic Fathers , in a way that the Church authorities considered to be erroneous.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Augustine of Hippo has been noted at the forefront of these formulations; and he contributed much to the speculative development of the doctrine of the Trinity as it is known today, in the West; the Cappadocian Fathers ( Basil the Great , Gregory of Nyssa , and Gregory Nazianzus ) are more prominent in the East.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[62]

Formulation of the doctrine

.The most significant developments in articulating the doctrine of the Trinity took place in the 4th century, with a group of men known as the Church Fathers.^ Attempts have been made recently to apply the more extreme theories of comparative religion to the doctrine of the Trinity, and to account for it by an imaginary law of nature compelling men to group the objects of their worship in threes.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John 1:13...No doctrine of the Trinity in the Nicene sense is present in the New Testament...There is no doctrine of the Trinity in the strict sense in the Apostolic Fathers...
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The orthodox Trinity doctrine denies the Sonship of Christ, for if Christ, the Son of God, was some type of projection from the one God and part of the being of God, then He could not properly be called a Son of the Father.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

[68] .Although the earliest Church Fathers had affirmed the teachings of the Apostles, their focus was on their pastoral duties to the Church under the persecution of the Roman Empire.^ Although the earliest Church Fathers had affirmed the teachings of the Apostles, their focus was on their pastoral duties to the Church under the persecution of the Roman Empire.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the Bible teaches that God, the Father, suffered tremendously when His Son was suffering under the weight of our sins.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The belief that Jesus was G-d and did away with the commandments was due to the influence of the apostle Paul, and later, the political authority of Constantine and the Roman Empire.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[68] .Thus the early Fathers were largely unable to compose doctrinal treatises and theological expositions.^ Thus the early Fathers were largely unable to compose doctrinal treatises and theological expositions.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The early Fathers were persuaded that indications of the doctrine of the Trinity must exist in the Old Testament and they found such indications in not a few passages.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the doctrine of appropriation was unknown to them, and thus the value of this conclusion was obscured by a traditional theology implying the distinct activities of Father, Son , and Holy Spirit .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the relaxing of the persecution of the church during the rise of Constantine, the stage was set for ecumenical dialogue.^ With the relaxing of the persecution of the church during the rise of Constantine, the stage was set for ecumenical dialogue.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[68]
.Trinitarians believe that the resultant councils and creeds did not discover or create doctrine, but rather, responding to serious heresies such as Arianism, articulated in the creeds the truths that the orthodox church had believed since the time of the apostles.^ Trinitarians believe that the resultant councils and creeds did not discover or create doctrine, but rather, responding to serious heresies such as Arianism , articulated in the creeds the truths that the orthodox church had believed since the time of the apostles .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Churches of the Anglican Communion should consider omitting the Filioque from the Nicene Creed, and that the Anglican-Orthodox Joint Doctrinal Commission through the Anglican Consultative Council should assist them in presenting the theological issues to their appropriate synodical bodies and should be responsible for any necessary consultation with other Churches of the Western tradition.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In opposition to the Nicene doctrine, for many years after the Council of Nicaea the majority of Christians believed that Christ was truly a born Son of God.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

[68]
.The Ante-Nicene Fathers, although likely foreign to the specifics of Trinitarian theology because they were not defined until the 4th century, nevertheless affirmed Christ's deity and referenced "Father, Son and Holy Spirit". Trinitarians view these as elements of the codified doctrine.^ The Son's will cannot be different from the Father's because it is the Father's.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The act of consecration was the invocation over them of the Father, Son , and Holy Spirit .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Son and the Holy Spirit, but to idols.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

[69]
Depiction of Trinity from Saint Denis Basilica in Paris.
.The Trinitarian view has been affirmed as an article of faith by the Nicene (325/381) and Athanasian creeds (circa 500), which attempted to standardize belief in the face of disagreements on the subject.^ The Trinitarian view has been affirmed as an article of faith by the Nicene (325/381) and Athanasian creeds (circa 500), which attempted to standardize belief in the face of disagreements on the subject.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, his readings are not the overall best interpretations of the Nicene and “Athanasian” creeds (471–3).
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Father only or from the Father and the Son the Greeks held the former; the Latins the latter the Greeks accuse the Latins of adding to the Nicene Creed the word filioque the Latins charge the Greeks with inserting the word monou in Article 7 of the Athanasian Creed .
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.These creeds were formulated and ratified by the Church of the third and fourth centuries in reaction to heterodox theologies concerning the Trinity and/or Christ.^ These creeds were formulated and ratified by the Church of the third and fourth centuries in reaction to heterodox theologies concerning the Trinity and/or Christ .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a difference in conception of the salvation connected with Christ that drives all reactions, either favorable or unfavorable, to the doctrine of the Holy Trinity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The great third-century theologian Origen, for example, pressed a bishop named Heraclides to define the relationship of Christ to God the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, revised in 381 by the second of these councils, is professed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and, with one addition (Filioque clause), the Roman Catholic Church, and has been retained in some form in the Anglican Communion and most Protestant denominations.^ Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Protestant distinctions .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Protestant groups that use the creed also include the Filioque clause.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, revised in 381 by the second of these councils, is professed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and, with one addition ( Filioque clause ), the Roman Catholic Church, and has been retained in some form in the Anglican Communion and most Protestant denominations .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Nicene Creed, which is a classic formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity, uses "homoousios" (Greek for "of the same essence") of the relation of the Son's relationship with the Father.^ Therefore, although the Son is of the same essence with the Father, he is rightly said not be the Father.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nicene Creed , which is a classic formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity, uses " homoousios " ( Greek for "of the same essence") of the relation of the Son's relationship with the Father.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The doctrine that the Spirit is the image of the Son , as the Son is the image of the Father, is characteristic of Greek theology .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.This word differs from that used by non-Trinitarians of the time, "homoiousios" (Greek for "of similar essence"), by a single Greek letter, "one iota", a fact proverbially used to speak of deep divisions, especially in theology, expressed by seemingly small verbal differences.^ This word differs from that used by non-Trinitarians of the time, "homoiousios" (Greek for "of similar essence"), by a single Greek letter, "one iota ", a fact proverbially used to speak of deep divisions, especially in theology, expressed by seemingly small verbal differences.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One way Satan has confused people is by having different people use the same word with different meanings.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The translators of the Bible excuse this deletion by their supposed discovery that the Greek word monogenhV (monogenes), that was translated “only begotten,” really means “unique” or “one of a kind” and has nothing to do with begotten.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.One of the (probably three) Church councils that in 264–266 condemned Paul of Samosata for his Adoptionist theology also condemned the term "homoousios" in the sense he used it.^ One of the (probably three) Church councils that in 264–266 condemned Paul of Samosata for his Adoptionist theology also condemned the term "homoousios" in the sense he used it.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (In theology “modalism” used as a label for a heretical theory described below, but as used here the term implies neither heresy nor orthodoxy.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the word “god” is used in its absolute sense, to denote “the most high God,” “the Sovereign of the universe,” or “the only true God,” then there is only one God; God, the Father, beside which there is no God.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.Fourth-century Christians who objected to the Nicene trinity made copious use of this condemnation by a reputable council.^ Fourth-century Christians who objected to the Nicene trinity made copious use of this condemnation by a reputable council.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was introduced into the church in the fourth century and made part of dogma during the Council of Nicea.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the (probably three) Church councils that in 264–266 condemned Paul of Samosata for his Adoptionist theology also condemned the term "homoousios" in the sense he used it.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[70]
.Moreover, the meanings of "ousia" and "hypostasis" overlapped then, so that the latter term for some meant essence and for others person.^ Moreover, the meanings of "ousia" and " hypostasis " overlapped at the time, so that the latter term for some meant essence and for others person .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Person, on the other hand, can have several different meanings in theological circles, which we will discuss in more detail later in this study.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In our world, each person is one person, and each person is different in some way from every other person.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Athanasius of Alexandria (293–373) helped to clarify the terms.^ Athanasius of Alexandria (293–373) helped to clarify the terms.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The doctrine of the divinity and personality of the Holy Spirit was developed by Athanasius ( c 293–373) in the last decades of his life.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[71]
.Because Christianity converts cultures from within, the doctrinal formulas as they have developed bear the marks of the ages through which the church has passed.^ Even though the Nicene doctrine achieved, through threat of banishment, a favorable vote at the Council of Nicaea, it was not the most commonly held belief among Christians, and could only be considered the orthodox belief because it had been voted upon in council.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They develop an analogy between the Christian God and material objects.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once one denies the Trinity within an alleged Christian framework, they almost always reject other central doctrines, too.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The rhetorical tools of Greek philosophy, especially of Neoplatonism, are evident in the language adopted to explain the church's rejection of Arianism and Adoptionism on one hand (teaching that Christ is inferior to the Father, or even that he was merely human), and Docetism and Sabellianism on the other hand (teaching that Christ was an illusion, or that he was identical to God the Father).^ The Father is said to be "one God" (1 Cor.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This implied that there were two Christs: one divine, the other human.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The rhetorical tools of Greek philosophy, especially of Neoplatonism , are evident in the language adopted to explain the church's rejection of Arianism and Adoptionism on one hand (teaching that Christ is inferior to the Father, or even that he was merely human), and Docetism and Sabellianism on the other hand (teaching that Christ was an illusion, or that he was identical to God the Father).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Augustine of Hippo has been noted at the forefront of these formulations; and he contributed much to the speculative development of the doctrine of the Trinity as it is known today, in the West; the Cappadocian Fathers (Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory Nazianzus) are more prominent in the East.^ Another man who had a great deal of influence in formulating the Trinity doctrine was Augustine.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Augustine of Hippo has been noted at the forefront of these formulations; and he contributed much to the speculative development of the doctrine of the Trinity as it is known today, in the West; the Cappadocian Fathers ( Basil the Great , Gregory of Nyssa , and Gregory Nazianzus ) are more prominent in the East.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Tretyakov Gallery , Moscow ) Direct representations of the Trinity are much rarer in Eastern Orthodox art of any period—reservations about depicting the Father remain fairly strong, as they were in the West until the high Middle Ages.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The imprint of Augustinianism is found, for example, in the western Athanasian Creed, which, although it bears the name and reproduces the views of the fourth century opponent of Arianism, was probably written much later.^ The imprint of Augustinianism is found, for example, in the western Athanasian Creed , which, although it bears the name and reproduces the views of the fourth century opponent of Arianism, was probably written much later.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These creeds were formulated and ratified by the Church of the third and fourth centuries in reaction to heterodox theologies concerning the Trinity and/or Christ .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trinitarian view has been affirmed as an article of faith by the Nicene (325/381) and Athanasian creeds (circa 500), which attempted to standardize belief in the face of disagreements on the subject.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These controversies were for most purposes settled at the Ecumenical councils, whose creeds affirm the doctrine of the Trinity.^ These controversies were for most purposes settled at the Ecumenical councils , whose creeds affirm the doctrine of the Trinity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These creeds were formulated and ratified by the Church of the third and fourth centuries in reaction to heterodox theologies concerning the Trinity and/or Christ .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All theologians admit that the doctrine of the Trinity is of the number of these.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

According to the Athanasian Creed, each of these three divine persons is said to be eternal, each almighty, none greater or less than another, each God, and yet together being but one God, "So are we forbidden by the Catholic religion to say: 'There are three Gods or three Lords.'"—Athanasian Creed, line 20.
.Modalists attempted to resolve the mystery of the Trinity by holding that the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost are modes, aspects or roles, of God.^ This sort of modalist simply identifies God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modalists attempted to resolve the mystery of the Trinity by holding that the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost are modes, aspects or roles, of God.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Was the Son of God begotten of the Father from eternity?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.This anti-Trinitarian view contends that the three "persons" are not distinct persons, but titles which describe how humanity has interacted with or experienced God.^ This anti-Trinitarian view contends that the three "persons" are not distinct persons, but titles which describe how humanity has interacted with or experienced God.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Further, the view that God isn't a person .
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This God subsists in three Divine Persons.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the role of the Father, God is the provider and creator of all.^ In the role of the Father, God is the provider and creator of all.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not necessary that God should exercise a good will to all for salvation by an antecedent will, nor is it necessary that if he wills to pour out his goodness on the creature by the blessing of creation and providence, that he ought to exercise good will to it unto salvation.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the mode of the Son, man experiences God in the flesh, as a human, fully man and fully God.^ Thus Jesus was not fully God (though God in the flesh) when He became a human.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God is not a man, nor the son of Man and cannot be tempted.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mode of the Son, man experiences God in the flesh, as a human, fully man and fully God.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.God manifests as the Holy Spirit by his actions on Earth and within the lives of Christians.^ He never called the Holy Spirit God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Holy Spirit” is not a name, but a description of the Spirit of God.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God manifests himself as the Holy Spirit by his actions on Earth and within the lives of Christians.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This view is known as Sabellianism, and was rejected as heresy by the Ecumenical Councils although it is still prevalent today among those denominations known as "Oneness" and "Apostolic" Pentecostal Christians, the largest of which is the United Pentecostal Church International (see below, under "Nontrinitarianism").^ This view is known as Sabellianism , and was rejected as heresy by the Ecumenical Councils although it is still prevalent today among those denominations known as " Oneness " and "Apostolic" Pentecostal Christians, the largest of which is the United Pentecostal Church International (see below, under "Nontrinitarianism").
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Among large Christian groups, only the theology of the United Pentecostal Church (a.k.a.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is one thing to disagree honestly with Christianity; quite another to redefine it from the outset according to one's rhetorical goals, by referring to those who reject traditional Christianity as "modern Christian scholars."
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Trinitarianism, on the other hand, insists that the Father, Son and Spirit simultaneously exist as three persons in one essence, each fully the same God.^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the beginning of the third century [ 4 ] the doctrine of the Trinity has been stated as "the one God exists in three Persons and one substance , Father, Son, and Holy Spirit."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The doctrine developed into its present form precisely through this confrontation with alternatives; and refinement continues in the same way.^ The doctrine developed into its present form precisely through this kind of confrontation with alternatives; and the process of refinement continues in the same way.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because Christianity converts cultures from within, the doctrinal formulas as they have developed bear the marks of the ages through which the church has passed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (RSV) It is true that the doctrine developed historically (as all doctrines do), but all essentials necessary for it are clearly present in Scripture.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even now, ecumenical dialogue between Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic, the Assyrian Church of the East, Anglican and Trinitarian Protestants, seeks an expression of Trinitarian and Christological doctrine which will overcome the extremely subtle differences that have largely contributed to dividing them into separate communities.^ Even now, ecumenical dialogue between Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox , Roman Catholic, the Assyrian Church of the East , Anglican and Trinitarian Protestants, seeks an expression of Trinitarian and Christological doctrine which will overcome the extremely subtle differences that have largely contributed to dividing them into separate communities.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Protestant distinctions .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, revised in 381 by the second of these councils, is professed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and, with one addition ( Filioque clause ), the Roman Catholic Church, and has been retained in some form in the Anglican Communion and most Protestant denominations .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The doctrine of the Trinity is therefore symbolic, paradoxically, of division and unity.^ The doctrine of the Trinity is therefore symbolic, somewhat paradoxically, of both division and unity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Christian doctrine of the Trinity teaches the unity of Father , Son , and Holy Spirit as three persons in one Godhead .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In contrast, Louis Berkhof describes the doctrine of the Trinity requiring belief in a "simplex unity" and not a complex (or composite) being.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Trinitarian theology

Baptism as the beginning lesson

Baptism of Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 15th century
Baptism is generally conferred with the Trinitarian formula, "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."[Matt. 28:19] Trinitarians identify this name with the Christian faith into which baptism is an initiation, as seen for example in the statement of Basil the Great (330–379): "We are bound to be baptized in the terms we have received, and to profess faith in the terms in which we have been baptized." "This is the Faith of our baptism", the First Council of Constantinople also says (382), "that teaches us to believe in the Name of the Father, of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. According to this Faith there is one Godhead, Power, and Being of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."
.Matthew 28:19 may be taken to indicate that baptism was associated with this Trinitarian formula from the earliest decades of the Church's existence.^ The form is first found in the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19 ; Did., 7.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Matthew 28:19 may be taken to indicate that baptism was associated with this Trinitarian formula from the earliest decades of the Church's existence.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The most influential New Testament text was the reference to the three Persons in the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19 .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some groups, such as Oneness Pentecostals, demur from the Trinitarian view on baptism.^ Some groups, such as Oneness Pentecostals , demur from the Trinitarian view on baptism.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some groups espousing Binitarianism such as the Living Church of God claim that Binitarianism was the majority view of those that professed Christ in the second century.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Oneness Pentecostals deny traditional Trinitarian doctrine, while affirming their belief that God took on flesh in the man Jesus Christ.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For them, the omission of the formula in Acts outweighs all other considerations, and is a liturgical guide for their own practice.^ For them, the fact that Acts does not mention the formula outweighs all other considerations, and is a liturgical guide for their own practice.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are a few other psychologists at the internship site with varying knowledge on ACT. In addition, there are opportunities to learn more about and practice DBT in other areas of the internship.

^ Participants will practice experiential exercises and have the opportunity to practice case conceptualization and developing their own ACT consistent interventions, exercises, and metaphors using clinical examples from their own practices.

.For this reason, they often focus on the baptisms in Acts, citing many authoritative theological works.^ For this reason, they often focus on the baptisms in Acts, citing many authoritative theological works.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who place great emphasis on the baptisms in Acts often likewise question the authenticity of Matthew 28:19 in its present form.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, Kittel is cited where he is speaking of the phrase "in the name" ( Greek : εἰς τὸ ὄνομα ) as used in the baptisms recorded in Acts: .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

For example, Kittel is cited where he is speaking of the phrase "in the name" (Greek: εἰς τὸ ὄνομα) as used in the baptisms recorded in Acts:
The distinctive feature of Christian baptism is that it is administered in Christ (εἰς Χριστόν), or in the name of .Christ (εἰς τὸ ὄνομα Χριστοῦ).^ The distinctive feature of Christian baptism is that it is administered in Christ ( εἰς Χριστόν ), or in the name of Christ ( εἰς τὸ ὄνομα Χριστοῦ ).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The formula ( εἰς τὸ ὄνομα ) seems rather to have been a tech.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, Kittel is cited where he is speaking of the phrase "in the name" ( Greek : εἰς τὸ ὄνομα ) as used in the baptisms recorded in Acts: .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

(Gerhard Kittel, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977), 1:539.)
The formula (εἰς τὸ ὄνομα) seems to have been a tech. term in Hellenistic commerce ("to the account"). .In both cases the use of the phrase is understandable, since the account bears the name of the one who owns it, and in baptism the name of Christ is pronounced, invoked and confessed by the one who baptises or the one baptised[Acts 22:16] or both.^ In both cases the use of the phrase is understandable, since the account bears the name of the one who owns it, and in baptism the name of Christ is pronounced, invoked and confessed by the one who baptises or the one baptised [ Acts 22:16 ] or both.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So, too, he who both believes in the Father and receives the Son, but sets aside the Majesty of the Spirit, has "denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel," and belies the name of Christ which he bears (Gregory of Nyssa.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He who had a right to use it was invested with vast authority: for he wielded the supernatural powers of Him whose name he employed.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

(Kittel, 1:540.)
.Those who place great emphasis on the baptisms in Acts often likewise question the authenticity of Matthew 28:19 in its present form.^ The form is first found in the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19 ; Did., 7.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who place great emphasis on the baptisms in Acts often likewise question the authenticity of Matthew 28:19 in its present form.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What areas might you come up with to learn to improve your practice of ACT? A great place to start is to just pick one action, commit to it, and get started on it.

.A. Ploughman, apparently following F. C. Conybeare, has questioned the authenticity of Matthew 28:19, but most scholars of New Testament textual criticism accept the authenticity of the passage, since there are no variant manuscripts regarding the formula, and the extant form of the passage is attested in the Didache[72] and other patristic works of the first and second centuries: Ignatius,[73] Tertullian,[74] Hippolytus,[75] Cyprian,[76] and Gregory Thaumaturgus.^ A. Ploughman, apparently following F. C. Conybeare , has questioned the authenticity of Matthew 28:19 , but the majority of scholars of New Testament textual criticism accept the authenticity of the passage, since there are no variant manuscripts regarding the formula, and the extant form of the passage is attested in the Didache [ 64 ] and other patristic works of the first and second centuries: Ignatius , [ 65 ] Tertullian , [ 66 ] Hippolytus , [ 67 ] Cyprian , [ 68 ] and Gregory Thaumaturgus .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Regarding the New Testament, even a trinitarian scholar has admitted: .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most influential New Testament text was the reference to the three Persons in the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19 .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[77] The Acts of the Apostles only mentions believers being baptized "in the name of Jesus Christ"[Acts 2:38] [10:48] and "in the name of the Lord Jesus."[8:16] [19:5] There are no biblical references to baptism in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit outside of Matthew 28:19, nor references, biblical or patristic, to baptism in the name of (the Lord) Jesus (Christ) outside the Acts of the Apostles.[78]
Commenting on Matthew 28:19, Gerhard Kittel states:
This threefold relation [of Father, Son and Spirit] soon found fixed expression in the triadic formulae in 2 Cor. 13:14 and in 1 Cor. 12:4-6. .The form is first found in the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19; Did., 7. 1 and 3....[I]t is self-evident that Father, Son and Spirit are here linked in an indissoluble threefold relationship.^ The form is first found in the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19 ; Did., 7.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ [I]t is self-evident that Father, Son and Spirit are here linked in an indissoluble threefold relationship.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This threefold relation [of Father, Son and Spirit] soon found fixed expression in the triadic formulae in 2 Cor.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[79]
.In the synoptic Gospels the baptism of Jesus is often interpreted as a manifestation of all three persons of the Trinity: "And when Jesus was baptized, he went up immediately from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened and he saw the spirit of God descending like a dove, and alighting on him; and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, 'This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.^ Hence Paul says that the Son is God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This God subsists in three Divine Persons.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God in three persons .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

'"[Matt. 3:16–17]

One God

.Christianity is a monotheistic religion.^ The fundamental issue is what is distinctive in the Christian conception of God, as opposed to the gods of other monotheistic religions.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Never in the New Testament does the trinitarian concept become a "tritheism" (three Gods) nor even two.^ Regarding the New Testament, even a trinitarian scholar has admitted: .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Where do you meet, in the New Testament, the phraseology which abounds in Trinitarian books and which necessarily grows from the doctrine of two natures in Jesus?
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The basis of this doctrine, like the two preceding ones, is contained in the New Testament .
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[7] God is one, and that the Godhead is a single being is strongly declared in the Bible:
  • The Shema of the Hebrew Scriptures: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one."[Deut. 6:4]
  • The first of the Ten Commandments—"Thou shalt have no other gods before me"[5:7]. (A statement of Monolatrism, it is frequently cited as if it promotes Monotheism)
  • and "Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel and his redeemer the LORD of hosts: I am the first and I am the last; and beside me there is no God."[Isa. 44:6]
  • In the New Testament: "The Lord our God is one."[Mk. 12:29]
.In the Trinitarian view, the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost share the one essence, substance or being.^ For there is one person of the Father: another of the Son: another of the Holy Ghost.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Trinitarian view, the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost share the one essence, substance or being.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is much more to the Trinity than just believing in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.The central and crucial affirmation of Christian faith is that there is one savior, God, and one salvation, manifest in Jesus Christ, to which there is access only because of the Holy Spirit.^ To: vladimir998 There is only one God: the Trinity.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christians believe in one God: the Trinity.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is one God; God is one.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The God of the Old Testament is still the same as the God of the New.^ It is the "Church of God" mentioned specifically twelve times in the New Testament.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the New Testament, John begins by making the initial duality of God clear when he wrote, .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A desire to do justice to the New Testament idea of Christ as a personal mediator between God and humankind.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Christianity, statements about a solitary God are intended to distinguish the Hebraic understanding from the polytheistic view, which see divine power as shared by several beings, beings which can and do disagree and have conflicts with each other.^ In Christianity, it is understood that statements about a solitary God are intended to distinguish the Hebraic understanding from the polytheistic view, which see divine power as shared by several beings, beings which can, and do, disagree and have conflicts with each other.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't see that it requires "every last ounce" and "all [God's] power" to become a man.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One way around this problem is to take one or more of the aforementioned as being numerically identical to the one God, and say that the others are not further gods, but only “modes” of it—roughly, ways that the one God is.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

God in three persons

.According to the Trinity doctrine, God exists as three persons, or hypostases, but is one being, that is, has but a single divine nature.^ The orthodox Trinity teaches that there is one being called God who is composed of three persons.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This God subsists in three Divine Persons.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God in three persons .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[80] .ChalcedoniansRoman Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Anglicans and Protestants—hold that, in addition, the second person of the Trinity—God the Son, Jesus—assumed human nature, so that he has two natures (and hence two wills), and is really and fully both true God and true human.^ Hence Paul says that the Son is God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus Jesus was not fully God (though God in the flesh) when He became a human.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By being fully God and fully man; having two natures.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Oriental Orthodox theology, the Chalcedonian formulation is rejected in favor of the position that the union of the two natures, though unconfused, births a third nature: redeemed humanity, the new creation.^ In the Oriental Orthodox theology, the Chalcedonian formulation is rejected in favor of the position that the union of the two natures, though unconfused, births a third nature: redeemed humanity, the new creation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These creeds were formulated and ratified by the Church of the third and fourth centuries in reaction to heterodox theologies concerning the Trinity and/or Christ .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Where do you meet, in the New Testament, the phraseology which abounds in Trinitarian books and which necessarily grows from the doctrine of two natures in Jesus?
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The members of the Trinity are said to be co-equal and co-eternal, one in essence, nature, power, action, and will.^ The members of the Trinity are said to be co-equal and co-eternal, one in essence, nature, power, action, and will.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the 1980s, some evangelical theologians have come to the conclusion that the members of the Trinity may be economically unequal while remaining ontologically equal.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, Biblical Unitarians see Jesus as the son of God, but not as part of a trinity, co-equal with God.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As stated in the Athanasian Creed, the Father is uncreated, the Son is uncreated, and the Holy Spirit is uncreated, and all three are eternal with no beginning.^ Son and the Holy Spirit, but to idols.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Did the Holy Spirit proceed from the Father and the Son?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (Father-Son-Spirit modalism) The Father is identical to God, and the Son and Holy Spirit are modes of God/the Father.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] .The Roman Catholic Church teaches that, in the sense of the Latin verb procedere, but not in that of the Greek verb ἐκπορεύεσθαι, the Spirit "proceeds" from the Father and the Son (see Filioque).^ Did the Holy Spirit proceed from the Father and the Son?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church teaches that, in the sense of the Latin verb procedere , but not in that of the Greek verb ἐκπορεύεσθαι, the Spirit "proceeds" from the Father and the Son (see Filioque ).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While this phrase is still used unaltered both in the Eastern Churches, including the Eastern Catholic Churches , and, when the Nicene Creed is recited in Greek , in the Latin Church , it became customary in the Latin -speaking Church, beginning with the provincial Third Council of Toledo in 589, to add "and the Son" (Latin Filioque ).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It has been stated that because three persons exist in God as one unity,[82] "The Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit" are not three different names for different parts of God but one name for God,[83] because the Father can not be divided from the Son or the Holy Spirit from the Son.^ Although the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are three numerical persons, still they are not three numerical God because the partake of the same divine essence.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Holy Spirit” is not a name, but a description of the Spirit of God.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The three persons of the Trinity always work inseparably, for their work is always the work of the one God.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.God has always loved, and there has always existed perfectly harmonious communion between the three persons of the Trinity.^ This God subsists in three Divine Persons.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet there are not three Gods; but one God… .
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is one God, not three.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.One consequence of this teaching is that God could not have created man to have someone to talk to or to love: God "already" enjoyed personal communion; being perfect, he did not create man because of a lack or inadequacy he had.^ One consequence of this teaching is that God could not have created man in order to have someone to talk to or to love : God "already" enjoyed personal communion; being perfect, he did not create man because of any lack or inadequacy he had.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ B. God created man.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ D. God created man in His own image.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Another consequence, according to Rev. Fr. .Thomas Hopko, an Eastern Orthodox theologian, is that if God were not a Trinity, he could not have loved prior to creating other beings on whom to bestow his love.^ Thomas Hopko, an Eastern Orthodox theologian, is that if God were not a Trinity, he could not have loved prior to creating other beings on whom to bestow his love.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One consequence of this teaching is that God could not have created man in order to have someone to talk to or to love : God "already" enjoyed personal communion; being perfect, he did not create man because of any lack or inadequacy he had.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lucifer’s wisdom about God’s love became so corrupted that he thought he could do a better job of ruling the universe than God Himself.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus God says, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.^ D. God created man in His own image.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus God says, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them."^ So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ B. God created man.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ D. God created man in His own image.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[Gen. 1:26-27] .For Trinitarians, emphasis in Genesis 1:26 is on the plurality in the Deity, and in 1:27 on the unity of the divine Essence.^ For Trinitarians, emphasis in Genesis 1:26 is on the plurality in the Deity, and in 1:27 on the unity of the divine Essence.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And to make sure the plurality of God was known, Genesis 1:26 states, .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.A possible interpretation of Genesis 1:26 is that God's relationships in the Trinity are mirrored in man by the ideal relationship between husband and wife, two persons becoming one flesh, as described in Eve's creation later in the next chapter.^ Christians believe in one God: the Trinity.
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A possible interpretation of Genesis 1:26 is that God's relationships in the Trinity are mirrored in man by the ideal relationship between husband and wife, two persons becoming one flesh, as described in Eve 's creation later in the next chapter.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Two Natures; two Natures , in one Divine Person!
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[2:22]

Mutually indwelling

.A useful explanation of the relationship of the distinct divine persons is called "perichoresis", from Greek going around, envelopment (written with a long O, omega—some mistakenly associate it with the Greek word for dance, which however is spelled with a short O, omicron).^ A useful explanation of the relationship of the distinct divine persons is called " perichoresis ", from Greek going around , envelopment (written with a long O, omega—some mistakenly associate it with the Greek word for dance, which however is spelled with a short O, omicron).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But some offended the Semi-Arians (however, those associated with the true Church of God were not really associated with the Greco-Roman confederation at this time--they remained separate from them).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, they suggest, the persons of the Trinity are constituted by the same stuff (or something analogous to a stuff), albeit an immaterial stuff, which they call “the divine essence”.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This concept refers for its basis to John 14–17, where Jesus is instructing the disciples concerning the meaning of his departure.^ This concept refers for its basis to John 14–17 , where Jesus is instructing the disciples concerning the meaning of his departure.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ John 14:16-18 "The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son , and they will call him Immanuel " —which means, ' God *with us*.'
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Note: Jesus is specifically referred to twice in the New Testament as "One like the Son of Man", Revelation 1:13;14:14).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.His going to the Father, he says, is for their sake; so that he might come to them when the "other comforter" is given to them.^ His going to the Father, he says, is for their sake; so that he might come to them when the "other comforter" is given to them.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Then, he says, his disciples will dwell in him, as he dwells in the Father, and the Father dwells in him, and the Father will dwell in them.^ At that time, he says, his disciples will dwell in him, as he dwells in the Father, and the Father dwells in him, and the Father will dwell in them.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, it says at least thirty times that the Father raised Him from the dead.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, Galatians 1:1 says, “Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is so, according to the theory of perichoresis, because the persons of the Trinity "reciprocally contain one another, so that one permanently envelopes and is permanently enveloped by, the other whom he yet envelopes". (Hilary of Poitiers, Concerning the Trinity 3:1).^ This is so, according to the theory of perichoresis, because the persons of the Trinity "reciprocally contain one another, so that one permanently envelopes and is permanently enveloped by, the other whom he yet envelopes".
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The depiction of the Trinity as three identical persons is rare, because each Person of the Trinity is considered to have distinct attributes.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Christian doctrine of the Trinity teaches the unity of Father , Son , and Holy Spirit as three persons in one Godhead .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.This co-indwelling may also be helpful in illustrating the Trinitarian conception of salvation.^ This co-indwelling may also be helpful in illustrating the Trinitarian conception of salvation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Granting that it's possible for there to be group minds, Leftow argues that this concept will be no help to the social trinitarian.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first doctrinal benefit is that it effectively excludes the idea that God has parts.^ The first doctrinal benefit is that it effectively excludes the idea that God has parts.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The orthodox Trinity doctrine denies the Sonship of Christ, for if Christ, the Son of God, was some type of projection from the one God and part of the being of God, then He could not properly be called a Son of the Father.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This belief in a three-part god is a basic doctrine of Christianity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Trinitarians affirm that God is a simple, not an aggregate, being.^ Trinitarians affirm that God is a simple, not an aggregate, being .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tkach-era WCG had a booklet called God Is which essentially took the trinitarian position that you can never understand the nature of God, but that God was one being with three hypostases.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oneness Pentecostals deny traditional Trinitarian doctrine, while affirming their belief that God took on flesh in the man Jesus Christ.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The second doctrinal benefit is that it harmonizes well with the doctrine that the Christian's union with the Son in his humanity brings him into union with one who contains in himself, in St. Paul's words, "all the fullness of deity" and not a part. (See also: Theosis). .Perichoresis provides an intuitive figure of what this might mean.^ Perichoresis provides an intuitive figure of what this might mean.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Son, the eternal Word, is from all eternity the dwelling place of God; he is the "Father's house", just as the Son dwells in the Father and the Spirit; so that, when the Spirit is "given", then it happens as Jesus said, "I will not leave you as orphans; for I will come to you."^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I will not leave you as orphans; I will come to you .
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[John 14:18]
.Some forms of human union are considered to be not identical but analogous to the Trinitarian concept, as found for example in Jesus' words about marriage: "For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife; And they twain shall be one flesh: so then they are no more twain, but one flesh."^ "Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall become one flesh" (Genesis 2:24).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ C. Man has the attribute of existence in human form.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some forms of human union are considered to be not identical but analogous to the Trinitarian concept, as found for example in Jesus' words about marriage: "For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife; And they twain shall be one flesh: so then they are no more twain, but one flesh."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[Mark 10:7–8] .According to the words of Jesus, married persons are in some sense no longer two, but joined into one.^ For the word are is not said of one person, but it refers to two persons, and one power...
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two Natures; two Natures , in one Divine Person!
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So then, they are no longer two but one flesh.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

Therefore, Orthodox theologians also see the marriage relationship as an image, or "icon" of the Trinity, relationships of communion in which, in the words of St. Paul, participants are "members one of another". As with marriage, the unity of the church with Christ is similarly considered in some sense analogous to the unity of the Trinity, following the prayer of Jesus to the Father, for the church, that "they may be one, even as we are one".[John 17:22]

Eternal generation and procession

.Trinitarianism affirms that the Son is "begotten" (or "generated") of the Father and that the Spirit "proceeds" from the Father, but the Father is "neither begotten nor proceeds". The argument over whether the Spirit proceeds from the Father alone, or from the Father and the Son, was one of the catalysts of the Great Schism, in this case concerning the Western addition of the Filioque clause to the Nicene Creed.^ Was the Son of God begotten of the Father from eternity?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The argument over whether the Spirit proceeds from the Father alone, or from the Father and the Son, was one of the catalysts of the Great Schism , in this case concerning the Western addition of the Filioque clause to the Nicene Creed .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ante-Nicene Fathers, although very likely foreign to the specifics of Trinitarian theology because they were not defined until the 4th century, nevertheless affirmed Christ's deity and referenced "Father, Son and Holy Spirit".
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This language is often considered difficult because, if used regarding humans or other created things, it would imply time and change; when used here, no beginning, change in being, or process within time is intended and is excluded.^ This language is often considered difficult because, if used regarding humans or other created things, it would necessarily imply time and change; when used here, no beginning, change in being, or process within time is intended and is in fact excluded.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (In theology “modalism” used as a label for a heretical theory described below, but as used here the term implies neither heresy nor orthodoxy.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ God he must be infinite, because an infinite good is better than a finite the perfections in created things are included within certain limits beyond which they are not extended, and all their activity has a certain sphere beyond which they cannot go, this is not so with God .
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Son is generated ("born" or "begotten"), and the Spirit proceeds, eternally.^ The acceptance of the doctrine of eternal generation by the Catholic Church was an attempt to reconcile the plain statements of the Bible that declare Jesus Christ to be “the only begotten Son of God” (John 3:18), with the new view that He did not have an origin.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ''filioque'' clause states that the Holy Spirit, "proceeds from the Father and the Son ".
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Son is generated ("born" or "begotten"), and the Spirit proceeds, eternally.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Augustine of Hippo explains, "Thy years are one day, and Thy day is not daily, but today; because Thy today yields not to tomorrow, for neither does it follow yesterday.^ People attending in these early days tended to have one of the following two responses.

^ Although the Son may be said to be begotten by the Father, it does not follow that the Son is the Son of himself because the essence does not generate an essence, but a person.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rabbi Dr. H. Freedman, translator, does not explain why a Christian would ask the Pharisee about Jesus , but he interprets this passage as follows: .

.Thy today is eternity; therefore Thou begat the Co-eternal, to whom Thou saidst, 'This day have I begotten Thee."^ Thy today is eternity; therefore Thou begat the Co-eternal, to whom Thou saidst, 'This day have I begotten Thee."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although time coexists with the whole of eternity, it is not therefore eternal.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God said to him, “Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee.” (Ezekiel 28:15) Lucifer means “Light Bearer,” and was the name of Satan before he fell.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

[Ps. 2:7]

Son begotten, not created

.Because the Son is begotten, not made, the substance of his person is that of the deity.^ Because the Son is begotten, not made, the substance of his person is that of Yahweh , deity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the beginning of the third century [ 4 ] the doctrine of the Trinity has been stated as "the one God exists in three Persons and one substance , Father, Son, and Holy Spirit."
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That this procession differs from the generation of the Son cannot be denied because they are different persons who stand related to each other in origin.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.The creation is brought into being through the Son, but the Son himself is not part of it except through his incarnation.^ The orthodox Trinity doctrine denies the Sonship of Christ, for if Christ, the Son of God, was some type of projection from the one God and part of the being of God, then He could not properly be called a Son of the Father.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This prompted Russ to suggest that the group ‘morph’ into a peer supervision group which he led through 2005 and part of 2006.

^ The Father reveals himself in the giving of the law or the Old Testament economy (not in the creation also, which in his view precedes the trinitarian revelation); the Son, in the incarnation; the Holy Ghost, in inspiration.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

The church fathers used several analogies to express this thought. St. Irenaeus of Lyons was the final major theologian of the second century. .He writes "the Father is God, and the Son is God, for whatever is begotten of God is God."^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Was the Son of God begotten of the Father from eternity?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Is the Son of God’s life derived from the Father?
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

(Compare Spinoza's philosophy of God)
Extending the analogy, it might be said, similarly, that whatever is generated (procreated) of humans is human. .Thus, given that humanity is, in the words of the Bible, "created in the image and likeness of God", an analogy can be drawn between the Divine Essence and human nature, between the Divine Persons and human persons.^ This God subsists in three Divine Persons.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God has but a single divine nature.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Two Natures; two Natures , in one Divine Person!
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

However, given the fall, this analogy is far from perfect, even though, like the Divine Persons, human persons are characterized by being "loci of relationship". For Trinitarian Christians, this analogy is important with regard to the Church, which St. Paul calls "the body of Christ" and whose members are, because they are "members of Christ", also "members one of another".
.However, an attempt to explain the mystery to some extent must break down, and has limited usefulness, being designed, not so much to fully explain the Trinity, but to point to the experience of communion with the Triune God within the Church as the Body of Christ.^ However, any attempt to explain the mystery to some extent must break down, and has limited usefulness, being designed, not so much to fully explain the Trinity, but to point to the experience of communion with the Triune God within the Church as the Body of Christ.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This has caused many people to ignore the subject of knowing God, and settle for some unknowable mystery in His place.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God he must be infinite, because an infinite good is better than a finite the perfections in created things are included within certain limits beyond which they are not extended, and all their activity has a certain sphere beyond which they cannot go, this is not so with God .
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.The difference between those who believe in the Trinity and those who do not, is not an issue of understanding the mystery.^ APA CE rules require that we only issue credits to those who attend the entire workshop.

^ Athanasius and Augustine, the two men who did more to formulate the doctrine of the Trinity than anyone else, admitted that they did not understand it and could not define it.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The confusion regarding this subject is heightened by the often-repeated saying that the Trinity is a mystery beyond our understanding, and should not be investigated.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.The difference is primarily one of belief concerning the personal identity of Christ.^ Rather, the difference is primarily one of belief concerning the personal identity of Christ.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In our world, each person is one person, and each person is different in some way from every other person.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unitarianism is similar to Modalism in that it teaches that God is one individual person, but it differs in that Unitarianism does not teach that God has different modes in which He manifests Himself.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is a difference in conception of the salvation connected with Christ that drives all reactions, either favorable or unfavorable, to the doctrine of the Holy Trinity.^ Ally is welcome to refute all the hundreds of evidences to the contrary, that I have compiled in my papers, Jesus is God: Biblical Proofs , and The Holy Trinity: Biblical Proofs .
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The doctrine of the Trinity, then, is construed as the claim that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are the same God , but are not the same person .
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But then again, "trinity" is un-Biblical, can't be found there, and is a demonic inspired doctrine spread by men that denies that Christ came in the flesh."
  • A brief survey of anti-Trinitarianism 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As it is, the doctrine of the Trinity is directly tied up with Christology.^ As it is, the doctrine of the Trinity is directly tied up with Christology .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Economic and ontological Trinity

.
  • Economic Trinity: This refers to the acts of the triune God with respect to the creation, history, salvation, the formation of the Church, the daily lives of believers, etc.^ Living Church of God, March 2004).
    • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Economic Trinity: This refers to the acts of the triune God with respect to the creation, history, salvation, the formation of the Church, the daily lives of believers, etc.
    • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, any attempt to explain the mystery to some extent must break down, and has limited usefulness, being designed, not so much to fully explain the Trinity, but to point to the experience of communion with the Triune God within the Church as the Body of Christ.
    • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    and describes how the Trinity operates within history in terms of the roles or functions performed by each Person of the Trinity—God's relationship with creation.
  • Ontological (or essential or immanent) Trinity: This speaks of the interior life of the Trinity[John 1:1–2]—the reciprocal relationships of Father, Son and Spirit to each other without reference to God's relationship with creation.
.Or more simply—the ontological Trinity (who God is) and the economic Trinity (what God does).^ Or more simply—the ontological Trinity (who God is) and the economic Trinity (what God does).
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Economic and ontological Trinity .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the 1980s, some evangelical theologians have come to the conclusion that the members of the Trinity may be economically unequal while remaining ontologically equal.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Most Christians believe the economic reflects and reveals the ontological.^ Most Christians believe the economic reflects and reveals the ontological.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you believe in the Trinity?” is one of the most common questions asked to determine orthodoxy within Christianity.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps it should be noted that even what is believed to be the most ancient Christian complete sermon ever found, teaches that Jesus was Spirit and became flesh: .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

Catholic theologian Karl Rahner went so far as to say "The 'economic' Trinity is the 'immanent' Trinity, and vice versa."[84]
.The ancient Nicene theologians argued that everything the Trinity does is done by Father, Son, and Spirit working together with one will.^ The ancient Nicene theologians argued that everything the Trinity does is done by Father, Son, and Spirit working together with one will.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Does the Holy Spirit have a spirit of his own like the Father and the Son?
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is much more to the Trinity than just believing in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.The three persons of the Trinity always work inseparably, for their work is always the work of the one God.^ This God subsists in three Divine Persons.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet there are not three Gods; but one God… .
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is one God, not three.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because of this unity of will, the Trinity cannot involve the eternal subordination of the Son to the Father.^ The Son's will cannot be different from the Father's because it is the Father's.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of this unity of will, the Trinity cannot involve the eternal subordination of the Son to the Father.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is much more to the Trinity than just believing in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.Eternal subordination can only exist if the Son's will is at least conceivably different from the Father's.^ No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hippolytus, on the contrary, stood uncompromisingly for a real difference between the Son (Logos) and the Father, but so as to represent the Former as a Divine Person almost completely separate from God (Ditheism) and at the same time altogether subordinate to the Father (Subordinationism).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The different names Father, Son, and Spirit, merely describe different forms of revelation; the Son revealed the Father as a ray reveals the sun.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

But Nicene orthodoxy says it is not. .The Son's will cannot be different from the Father's because it is the Father's.^ Although the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are three numerical persons, still they are not three numerical God because the partake of the same divine essence.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The attributes of God cannot really differ from his essence or from one another because God is most simple and perfect.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Father is said to have begotten the Son necessarily and voluntarily; necessarily because he begat by nature, as he is God by nature voluntarily because he begat not by coaction, but freely .
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.They have but one will as they have but one being.^ One God who consists of three separate beings who are called “one” because they are one in purpose and character .
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, they may be strictly sequential (non-overlapping): first the being has only one, then only another, then only another.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will notice that with this usage of the words “person” and “being” they cannot mean the same thing, because it takes three “persons” to make up this one being.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.Otherwise they would not be one God.^ Otherwise they would not be one God.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather, three persons are numbered in the creeds, but they are said to be only one God.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When God is said to be from himself, this must be understood to mean that he is from one, he is self-existent, and not to mean that he is the cause of himself, because he would then be before and after himself.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.If there were relations of command and obedience between the Father and the Son, there would be no Trinity at all but rather three gods.^ There's a timeless “generation” relation between strand 1 of God's life, and strand 2 of his life.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Was the Son of God begotten of the Father from eternity?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If there were relations of command and obedience between the Father and the Son, there would be no Trinity at all but rather three gods.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[85] On this point St. Basil observes "When then He says, 'I have not spoken of myself,' and again, 'As the Father said unto me, so I speak,' and 'The word which ye hear is not mine, but [the Father’s] which sent me,' and in another place, 'As the Father gave me commandment, even so I do,' it is not because He lacks deliberate purpose or power of initiation, nor yet because He has to wait for the preconcerted key-note, that he employs language of this kind. His object is to make it plain that His own will is connected in indissoluble union with the Father. .Do not then let us understand by what is called a 'commandment' a peremptory mandate delivered by organs of speech, and giving orders to the Son, as to a subordinate, concerning what He ought to do.^ Christ is called the firstborn of every creature, not because he is the first of creatures, but because he was begotten before creatures we must not understand here a ranking with creatures, but a going before and a preexistence, for if he is before every creature, he ought not to be reckoned among creatures and so must be eternal .
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John declared, “Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?” (1 John 5:5) My brethren, let us diligently consider the biblical statements concerning the Son of God, and refuse to accept teachings which are not founded upon Scripture.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God truly loves us, yet this love can only be comprehended by understanding that God gave His only begotten Son.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.Let us rather, in a sense befitting the Godhead, perceive a transmission of will, like the reflexion of an object in a mirror, passing without note of time from Father to Son.."^ There was a time when there was no Son and no sin, when God was neither Father nor Judge.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Christian doctrine of the Trinity teaches the unity of Father , Son , and Holy Spirit as three persons in one Godhead .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ How He was begotten is not for us to know, but God wants us to realize that He and His Son have a close, genuine, father-son relationship that is not just a role or an act.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

[86]
.In explaining why the Bible speaks of the Son as being subordinate to the Father, the great theologian Athanasius argued that scripture gives a "double account" of the son of God—one of his temporal and voluntary subordination in the incarnation, and the other of his eternal divine status.^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Father is said to be "one God" (1 Cor.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

[87] .For Athanasius, the Son is eternally one in being with the Father, temporally and voluntarily subordinate in his incarnate ministry.^ For Athanasius, the Son is eternally one in being with the Father, temporally and voluntarily subordinate in his incarnate ministry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In explaining why the Bible speaks of the Son as being subordinate to the Father, the great theologian Athanasius argued that scripture gives a "double account" of the son of God – one of his temporal and voluntary subordination in the incarnation, and the other of his eternal divine status.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such human traits, he argued, were not to be read back into the eternal Trinity.^ Such human traits, he argued, were not to be read back into the eternal Trinity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Like Athanasius, the Cappadocian Fathers also insisted there was no economic inequality present within the Trinity.^ Like Athanasius, the Cappadocian Fathers also insisted there was no economic inequality present within the Trinity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is much more to the Trinity than just believing in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the word “god” is used in its absolute sense, to denote “the most high God,” “the Sovereign of the universe,” or “the only true God,” then there is only one God; God, the Father, beside which there is no God.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.As Basil wrote: "We perceive the operation of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit to be one and the same, in no respect showing differences or variation; from this identity of operation we necessarily infer the unity of nature."^ The Son's will cannot be different from the Father's because it is the Father's.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A few verses directly reference the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit at the same time: .
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Son and the Holy Spirit, but to idols.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

[88]
.Augustine also rejected an economic hierarchy within the Trinity.^ Once one denies the Trinity within an alleged Christian framework, they almost always reject other central doctrines, too.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.He claimed that the three persons of the Trinity "share the inseparable equality one substance present in divine unity".[89] Because the three persons are one in their inner life, this means that for Augustine their works in the world are one.^ There are (exactly) three divine Persons.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are three divine Persons in one divine Being.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trinitarians traditionally teach God is one who shows Himself in three modes (or hypostases ), Father, Son, and Holy Spirit all of the same substance.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.For this reason, it is an impossibility for Augustine to speak of the Father commanding and the Son obeying as if there could be a conflict of wills within the eternal Trinity.^ There is much more to the Trinity than just believing in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a time when there was no Son and no sin, when God was neither Father nor Judge.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The orthodox Trinity doctrine denies the Sonship of Christ, for if Christ, the Son of God, was some type of projection from the one God and part of the being of God, then He could not properly be called a Son of the Father.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

John Calvin also spoke at length about the doctrine of the Trinity. .Like Athanasius and Augustine before him, he concluded that Philippians 2:4-11 prescribed how scripture was to be read correctly.^ Through the Epistle to the Philippians, then Paul has taught us how the hypostasis of the Son is like the hypostasis of the Father (Epiphanius.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Scripture the former when it places man before the tribunal of God and either accuses him or excuses him in good and evil deeds (Rom.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Notice how Paul likened the spirit of man to the Spirit of God in 1 Corinthians 2:11: “For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him?
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

.For him the Son's obedience is limited to the incarnation and is indicative of his true humanity assumed for human salvation.^ Again, it is all over Scripture, which shows Him with human limitations, but simultaneously with divine characteristics.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only concept of a Son of God would have to be limited to God revealing a manifestation of Himself, pretending to be His own Son, such as they suppose happened at the incarnation of Christ.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

[90]
Much of this work is summed up in the Athanasian Creed. .This creed stresses the unity of the Trinity and the equality of the persons.^ One in number substantively as to essential unity cannot be three in the same respect; but it can be three adjectively and personally as to the personal Trinity.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trinity is contained in the Symbol (Apostles' Creed) if not in the signified act, at least in the exercised inasmuch as we seal our faith in the three persons.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.It ascribes equal divinity, majesty, and authority to all three persons.^ There are (exactly) three divine Persons.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there are three divine persons, it does not follow that there are three infinites.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, the omniscience and omnipotence of the three divine persons would necessarily prevent any clash of wills, rendering Swinburne's postulation of a kind of governing authority exercised by the Father unnecessary (467–70).
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All three are said to be "almighty" and "Lord" (no subordination in authority; "none is before or after another" (no hierarchical ordering); and "none is greater, or less than another" (no subordination in being or nature).^ And in this Trinity none is before or after another: none is greater or less than another.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We maintain that no one can utterly cast out of his heart all sense of deity anymore than he divest himself of conscience.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That Christ is said to have been born of a virgin, suffered and died, not to be everywhere present and to be less than the Father, show indeed that he was a true man like to us in all things, but does not deny him to be God.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, since the divine persons of the Trinity act with one will, there is no possibility of hierarchy-inequality in the Trinity.^ There are (exactly) three divine Persons.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are three divine Persons in one divine Being.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ God can be granted in the latter sense, there can because among the things willed by him, some may be the cause of others there is an order and causality among the things willed by God (so that one may be for another), but not in the divine volition which recognizes no cause out of itself .
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.Since the 1980s, some evangelical theologians have come to the conclusion that the members of the Trinity may be economically unequal while remaining ontologically equal.^ If the Holy Spirit was a co-equal member of the trinity, could this possibly be blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Mark 3:28-29)?
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.This theory was put forward by George W. Knight III in his 1977 book The New Testament Teaching on the Role Relationship of Men and Women, states that the Son of God is eternally subordinated in authority to God the Father.^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Was the Son of God begotten of the Father from eternity?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

[91] This conclusion was used to support the main thesis of his book: that women are permanently subordinated in authority to their husbands in the home and to male leaders in the church, despite being ontologically equal. .Subscribers to this theory insist that the Father has the role of giving commands and the Son has the role of obeying them.^ How He was begotten is not for us to know, but God wants us to realize that He and His Son have a close, genuine, father-son relationship that is not just a role or an act.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Father reveals himself in the giving of the law or the Old Testament economy (not in the creation also, which in his view precedes the trinitarian revelation); the Son, in the incarnation; the Holy Ghost, in inspiration.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Inspiration warns us of accepting false theories about the Father and the Son.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Protestant distinctions

.The Western (Roman Catholic) tradition is more prone to make positive statements concerning the relationship of persons in the Trinity.^ Traditional Roman Catholics' believe: .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, neither of the two earliest sources of the word trinity, according to the Roman Catholics, actually clearly taught the concept the way it is now taught.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A concern to preserve the interpersonal relationships between the members of the Trinity, particularly the Father and the Son.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Explanations of the Trinity are not the same thing as the doctrine; nevertheless, the Augustinian West is inclined to think in philosophical terms concerning the rationality of God's being, and is prone on this basis to be more open than the East to seek philosophical formulations which make the doctrine more intelligible, while recognizing that these formulations are only analogies.^ God is the same being as the Father.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same thing is true with God.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He suggests that Swinburne's real error lies in his attempt to make the doctrine intelligible at all, which robs the doctrine of its mystery, turning it into “something that any bright philosophy or theology student can clearly grasp here and now”, rather than something that will be understood only “when we see the Triune God face to face” (56; cf.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eastern Christianity, for its part, correlates ecclesiology and Trinitarian doctrine, and seeks to understand the doctrine of the Trinity via the experience of the Church, which it understands to be "an icon of the Trinity". Therefore, when St. Paul writes concerning Christians that all are "members one of another", Eastern Christians in turn understand this as also applying to the Divine Persons.
.The principal disagreement between Western and Eastern Christianity on the Trinity has been the relationship of the Holy Spirit with the other two hypostases.^ There is much more to the Trinity than just believing in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
  • Gods Love On Trial html 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Father and the Son breathe the Holy Spirit not as two diverse principles, but as two self-existent concur in that procession by the same power.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rejecting the Trinity, the Unitarians rejected much other Christian doctrine.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The original credal formulation of the Council of Constantinople was that the Holy Spirit proceeds "from the Father". While this phrase is still used unaltered both in the Eastern Churches, including the Eastern Catholic Churches, and, when the Nicene Creed is recited in Greek, in the Latin Church, it became customary in the Latin-speaking Church, beginning with the provincial Third Council of Toledo in 589, to add "and the Son" (Latin Filioque).^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We in the Living Church of God believe in the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit--but as the Bible, and not any council of men defines them.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Son and the Holy Spirit, but to idols.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although this insertion into the Creed was explicitly rejected by Pope Leo III (who no less explicitly approved the doctrine it expressed) it was finally used in a Papal Mass by Pope Benedict VIII in 1014, thus completing its spread throughout Western Christianity.^ No eye can see Him, nor thought apprehend Him, nor language describe Him; and those who love Him speak of Him thus: `Father, and God of Truth" (Melito.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a classic case of someone who no longer believes in Christianity, trying to dishonestly co-opt the name, while thoroughly redefining it beyond all recognition.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The question is whether we are bound to stick so tenaciously to the words of Scripture that in the explication of doctrines no others but them can be devised and used.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Eastern Orthodox Churches object to it on ecclesiological and theological grounds.^ To the best of my knowledge, all of my theological writing is "orthodox" and not contrary to the official dogmatic and magisterial teaching of the Catholic Church.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dallas is also home to three Eastern Orthodox Christian churches.

The 1978 Anglican Lambeth Conference requested:
that all member .Churches of the Anglican Communion should consider omitting the Filioque from the Nicene Creed, and that the Anglican-Orthodox Joint Doctrinal Commission through the Anglican Consultative Council should assist them in presenting the theological issues to their appropriate synodical bodies and should be responsible for any necessary consultation with other Churches of the Western tradition.^ One of the major doctrinal issues that caused the schism that resulted in the Eastern Orthodox (sometimes called the Greek, or Greek Orthodox, Church) Church to break from the Roman Catholic Church in 1054 A.D. was the so-called ''filioque'' clause added to the original Nicene Creed.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Concern that traditional or Western trinitarian theology has made the doctrine irrelevant to practical concerns such as politics, gender relations, and family life.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eastern Orthodox writers (like Timothy Ware), and others, have suggested that this clause is supportive of binitarianism, and thus should not be accepted by the Roman Catholic Church who insisted on this addition to the original Nicene Creed.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[92]
None of the member Churches has implemented this request; but the Church of England, while keeping the phrase in the Creed recited in its own services, presents in its Common Worship series of service books a text of the creed without it for use "on suitable ecumenical occasions".[93]
.Most Protestant groups that use the creed also include the Filioque clause.^ The creed was formulated in response to the claims of various early Christian groups, and so includes clauses that deny the beliefs of those groups.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the issue is usually not controversial among them because their conception is often less exact than is discussed above (exceptions being the Presbyterian Westminster Confession 2:3, the London Baptist Confession 2:3, and the Lutheran Augsburg Confession 1:1–6, which specifically address those issues).^ The power of God cannot be convicted of impotence for not being able to do things impossible anymore than the vision because it cannot see sounds or the hearing because it cannot hear colors.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, I think your criticism (which I appreciate, as I do all articulate criticisms) is a bit off the mark, because of the exact nature of what I was trying to accomplish in that discussion.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The proportion of such trainings that address child, adolescent or parenting issues, however, is quite small.

.The clause is often understood by Protestants to mean that the Spirit is sent from the Father, by the Son,[citation needed] a conception which is not controversial in either Catholicism or Eastern Orthodoxy.^ The trinitarians traditionally teach God is one who shows Himself in three modes (or hypostases ), Father, Son, and Holy Spirit all of the same substance.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Binitarians believe that since Roman Catholics acknowledge that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, that this clearly shows that the Holy Spirit is not a separate divine Being as the Father and the Son are.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are three numerical persons, still they are not three numerical God because the partake of the same divine essence.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.A representative view of Protestant Trinitarian theology is more difficult to provide, given the diverse and decentralized nature of the various Protestant churches.^ Abstract on Binitarianism : Was either unitarianism or trinitarianism the original view of the New Testament Church?
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How then can the Greco-Romans and Protestants claim then that the trinity was the original view of the church?
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Something else is needed that is empirically based, that provides relief for clinicians, and that allows for a new, more powerful approach to difficult cases.

Questions of logical coherency

.Recently, there have been philosophical attempts to defend the logical coherency of Trinity, by Richard Swinburne and by Peter Geach et al.^ Leftow explores the answer, found in some twentieth century theologians, but not much defended in recent philosophical theology, that the three persons are one God because “the Trinity has or is a divine mind composed of the Persons' minds” (1999, 221).
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While modalism hasn't been explicitly defended in recent analytic philosophical theology, it haunts many recent discussions of the Trinity by philosophers and theologians, and seems important to non-philosophical thinking about the Trinity.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no logical impossibility in #3; nor is there for the Incarnation or the Trinity.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

The formulation suggested by Swinburne is free from logical incoherency, but it is debatable whether this formulation is consistent with historical orthodoxy. Regarding the formulation suggested by Geach, not all philosophers would agree with its logical coherency. Swinburne has suggested that "the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit be thought of as numerically distinct Gods". Geach suggested that "a coherent statement of the doctrine is possible on the assumption that identity is "always relative to a sortal term".[94]
.Some Messianic groups, the Branch Davidian, and even some scholars within (but not necessarily representing) denominations such as Southern Baptist Convention view the Trinity as being comparable to a family, hence the familial terms of Father, Son, and the implied role of Mother for the Holy Spirit.^ Son and Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Father-Son-Spirit modalism) The Father is identical to God, and the Son and Holy Spirit are modes of God/the Father.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence they attribute to the Holy Ghost the same relation to the Son as to the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Hebrew word for "God", Elohim, which has an inherent plurality, has the function as a surname as in Yahweh Elohim.^ The Hebrew word translated as 'God' is 'elohim .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So the first time God is mentioned in the Bible, the indication is that God is mentioned as plural ("indication" because in some places 'elohim can refer to singular).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps it should be noted that it is also true that the word translated as 'god' (in both the Hebrew and the Greek) is sometimes used of pagan gods and humans.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The seeming contradiction of Elohim being "one" is solved by the fact that the Hebrew word for "one", echad, can describe a compound unity, harmonious in direction and purpose; unlike yachid which means singularity.^ Hebrew word "Ehad" which means .

^ This means that they needn't be, but in fact are “numerically the same” without being identical.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One can only repeat the words, but cannot grasp the meaning of the required belief.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[95]
.An argument against the logical coherency of an idea of the Trinity as composed of parts is the following: If God has compositional parts, they are either finite or infinite parts.^ (Leftow 2004, 327) While Leftow is trying to develop a positive account of the Trinity, he also wants to show what is wrong with the following argument (2004, 305–6; cf.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We must pray that God grant such people grace, not scold their logic as if they were just dim bulbs, not bright enough to -get it-.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is impossible for Jesus to have been perfect man and perfect God at the same time, for this would mean that he was finite and infinite at the same time, that he was fallible and infallible at the same time.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

If finite, then God is finite. If infinite, then there are multiple infinities. Each case becomes a denial of monotheism. The belief in compositional parts has therefore been regarded as a heresy since the establishment of the Nicene Creed, a condemnation reaffirmed in Protestant Creeds such as the Westminster Confession of Faith and 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith which state "God has no parts."[96] Louis Berkhof describes the doctrine of the Trinity requiring belief in a "simplex unity" and not a complex (or composite) being. ."There is in the Divine Being but one indivisible essence" and "The whole undivided essence of God belongs equally to each of the three persons."^ This God subsists in three Divine Persons.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is (exactly) one God.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is one God, not three.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[97]

The Trinity in art

Holy Trinity, fresco by Luca Rossetti da Orta, 1738-9 (St. Gaudenzio Church at Ivrea, Torino).
.The Trinity is most commonly seen in Christian art with the Spirit represented by a dove, as specified in the Gospel accounts of the Baptism of Christ; it is nearly always shown with wings outspread.^ Perhaps it should be noted that even what is believed to be the most ancient Christian complete sermon ever found, teaches that Jesus was Spirit and became flesh: .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the Holy Spirit is shown as something given to true Christians.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First published Thu Jul 23, 2009 The traditional Christian doctrine of the Trinity is commonly expressed as the claim that the one God “exists as” Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, or as the claim that there are three divine persons “in” God, or as the claim that God “exists in three Persons”.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However depictions using three human figures appear occasionally in most periods of art.[98]
.The Father and the Son are usually differentiated by age, and later by dress, but this too is not always the case.^ We believe Jesus was always God and forever with the Father, but once begotten, became the Son.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The usual depiction of the Father as an older man with a white beard may derive from the biblical Ancient of Days, which is often cited in defense of this sometimes controversial representation.^ The Ancient of Days, who in the New Testament, seems to be called the Father (Matthew 6:9) and the one like the Son of Man which is a term that Jesus referred to Himself as (Matthew 20:18).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sabellian and other ancient modalists are sometimes called “monarchians” because they upheld the sole monarchy of the Father, or “patripassians” for their (alleged) acceptance of the view that the Father (and not only the Son) suffered in the life of the man Jesus.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, what may be the oldest preserved sermon (which can be found in its entirety at Ancient "Christian" Sermon ) says to think of Jesus as God and that the Father is God, but it never indicates that the Holy Spirit is God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, in Eastern Orthodoxy the Ancient of Days is usually understood to be God the Son, not God the Father (see below)—early Byzantine images show Christ as the Ancient of Days,[99] but this iconography became rare.^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Was the Son of God begotten of the Father from eternity?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

When the Father is depicted in art, he is sometimes shown with a halo shaped like an equilateral triangle, instead of a circle. .The Son is often shown at the Father's right hand.^ On the one hand, it expresses the Procession of the Holy Ghost from both Father and Son as one Principle; on the other, it was the occasion of the Greek schism (Maas A.J. Filioque, 1909).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[Acts 7:56] .He may be represented by a symbol—typically the Lamb or a cross—or on a crucifix, so that the Father is the only human figure shown at full size.^ Jesus is a person who is represented by a square and only a square (humanity).
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:14).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Something must be premised concerning its nature, not that it can be conceived or explained by us; but only that it may be distinguished from human generation and be explained negatively rather than positively.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.In early medieval art, the Father may be represented by a hand appearing from a cloud in a blessing gesture, for example in scenes of the Baptism of Christ.^ The great third-century theologian Origen, for example, pressed a bishop named Heraclides to define the relationship of Christ to God the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The area's art scene began to grow in the early 2000s with the opening of Southside on Lamar, an old Sears warehouse converted into lofts, studios, and retail.

Later, in the West, the Throne of Mercy (or "Throne of Grace") became a common depiction. .In this style, the Father (sometimes seated on a throne) is shown supporting either a crucifix[100] or, later, a slumped crucified Son, similar to the Pieta (this type is distinguished in German as the Not Gottes)[101] in his outstretched arms, whilst the Dove hovers above or in between them.^ And the Son may truly say “I was crucified nearly 2000 years ago”, but the Father may not (Craig 2005, 82–3).
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This subject continued to be popular until the eighteenth century at least.
.By the end of the fifteenth century, larger representations, other than the Throne of Mercy, became effectively standardised, showing an older figure in plain robes for the Father, Christ with his torso partly bare to display the wounds of his Passion, and the dove above or around them.^ The great third-century theologian Origen, for example, pressed a bishop named Heraclides to define the relationship of Christ to God the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That Christ is said to have been born of a virgin, suffered and died, not to be everywhere present and to be less than the Father, show indeed that he was a true man like to us in all things, but does not deny him to be God.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Near the end of the second century, Melito of Sardis (whom Catholics and others consider to be a saint) wrote .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.In earlier representations both Father, especially, and Son often wear elaborate robes and crowns.^ And he stated that both, the Father and the Son (the term in English refers to two), are both united and distinct--this is a binitarian view .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the one hand, it expresses the Procession of the Holy Ghost from both Father and Son as one Principle; on the other, it was the occasion of the Greek schism (Maas A.J. Filioque, 1909).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One may think that a trinitarian doctrine inconsistently identifies both the Son and the Father with God, but not with each other.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sometimes the Father alone wears a crown, or even a papal tiara.

Eastern Orthodox tradition

.
Old Testament Trinity icon by Andrey Rublev, c.
^ TWENTY-SIXTH QUESTION - Can the mystery of the Trinity be proved from the Old Testament, and was it known under it?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Can the mystery of the Trinity be proved from the Old Testament, and was it known under it?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the mystery of the Trinity was more obscure under the Old than under the New Testament, it does not follow that it was then altogether unknown.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

1400 (Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow)
.Direct representations of the Trinity are much rarer in Eastern Orthodox art of any period—reservations about depicting the Father remain fairly strong, as they were in the West until the high Middle Ages.^ Orthodox belief about the Trinity, Anderson holds, involves one in believing for example, that Jesus is identical to God, the Father is identical to God, and that Jesus and the Father are not identical.
  • Trinity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Second Council of Nicea in 787 confirmed that the depiction of Christ was allowed because he became man; the situation regarding the Father was less clear.^ That Christ is said to have been born of a virgin, suffered and died, not to be everywhere present and to be less than the Father, show indeed that he was a true man like to us in all things, but does not deny him to be God.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As Tish'a Be'av (day of fasting in memory of destruction of first and second temple) nears, every man is responsible for not allowing extremists to destroy the third temple".

^ The Son of God is not called Christ because he was sanctified by the Father (John 10:36) - he was sanctified because he was the Son.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.The usual Orthodox representation of the Trinity was through the "Old Testament Trinity" of the three angels visiting Abraham—said in the text to be "the Lord"[Genesis 18:1-15].^ TWENTY-SIXTH QUESTION - Can the mystery of the Trinity be proved from the Old Testament, and was it known under it?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ JUDGES 6:12,14 And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him, and said unto him, The Lord {is} with thee, thou mighty man of valour .
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ GENESIS 18:1 And the Lord appeared unto him in the plains of Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.However scholars generally agree that the direct representation of the Trinity began in Greek works from the 11th century onwards, where Christ is shown as an infant sitting on the Father's lap, with the Dove of the Holy Spirit also present.^ The great third-century theologian Origen, for example, pressed a bishop named Heraclides to define the relationship of Christ to God the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Father and the Son breathe the Holy Spirit not as two diverse principles, but as two self-existent concur in that procession by the same power.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of accepting what accepting what Melito taught about the Godhead and Holy Spirit as related to the original faith, at least trinitarian scholar (who is also an Anglican priest) wrote: .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

Such depictions spread to the West and became the standard type there, though with an adult Christ, as described above. This type later spread back to the Orthodox world where post-Byzantine representations similar to those in the West are not uncommon outside Russia.[102] .The subject long remained sensitive, and the Russian Orthodox Church at the Great Synod of Moscow in 1667 finally forbade depictions of the Father in human form.^ G. Therefore, God can so exist as well (while simultaneously and necessarily remaining God), since He created the human form, and made the human form in His own image, and even assumed it in the Theophanies (and in angelic forms).
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

The canon is quoted in full here because it explains the Russian Orthodox theology on the subject:
.Chapter 2, §44: It is most absurd and improper to depict in icons the Lord Sabaoth (that is to say, God the Father) with a grey beard and the Only-Begotten Son in His bosom with a dove between them, because no-one has seen the Father according to His Divinity, and the Father has no flesh, nor was the Son born in the flesh from the Father before the ages.^ No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence Paul says that the Son is God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

And though David the prophet says, "From the womb before the morning star have I begotten Thee"[Psalm 109:3], that birth was not fleshly, but unspeakable and incomprehensible. .For Christ Himself says in the holy Gospel, "No man hath seen the Father, save the Son".cf.[John 6:46] And Isaiah the prophet says in his fortieth chapter: "To whom have ye likened the Lord?^ The trinitarians traditionally teach God is one who shows Himself in three modes (or hypostases ), Father, Son, and Holy Spirit all of the same substance.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a time when there was no Son and no sin, when God was neither Father nor Judge.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are three numerical persons, still they are not three numerical God because the partake of the same divine essence.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

and with what likeness have ye made a similitude of Him? Has not the artificier of wood made an image, or the goldsmiths, having melted gold, gilt it over, and made it a similitude?"[Isa. 40:18-19] In like manner the Apostle Paul says in Acts[Acts 17:29] "Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold or silver or stone, graven by art of man's imagination." And John Damascene says: "But furthermore, who can make a similitude of the invisible, incorporeal, uncircumscribed and undepictable God? It is, then, uttermost insanity and impiety to give a form to the Godhead" (Orthodox Faith, 4:16). In like manner St. Gregory the Dialogist prohibits this. .For this reason we should only form an understanding in the mind of Sabaoth, which is the Godhead, and of that birth before the ages of the Only-Begotten-Son from the Father, but we should never, in any wise depict these in icons, for this, indeed, is impossible.^ J. Ergo, the Incarnation is not only not logically impossible ; is quite plausible from reason alone, and an actuality , based on reason and revelation and historical argument.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And while true Christians will understand that Christ is God and accepts the Son being under the authority of God the Father, we do not accept that He had a beginning (see Hebrews 7:3).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is important to note that Ignatius referred to both the Father and the Son as God in both places (and I verified that it is in the original Greek), but he never called the Holy Spirit 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.And the Holy Spirit is not in essence a dove, but in essence he is God, and "No man hath seen God", as John the Theologian and Evangelist bears witness[John 1:18] and this is so even though, at the Jordan at Christ's holy Baptism the Holy Spirit appeared in the likeness of a dove.^ He never called the Holy Spirit God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The trinitarians traditionally teach God is one who shows Himself in three modes (or hypostases ), Father, Son, and Holy Spirit all of the same substance.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Holy Spirit was not before the glorification of Christ (John 7:39) - not simply and absolutely, but relatively, by reason of the more copious outpouring about to take place afterwards, upon the apostles and others.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.For this reason, it is fitting on this occasion only to depict the Holy Spirit in the likeness of a dove.^ Since God had the written the ten commandments Himself (Exodus 31:18), this shows that Melito only considered the Holy Spirit to be the power of God, not a separate person.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like Paul, Peter also made the duality of God clear in the introduction of his two books (I Peter 1:3; II Peter 1:2), where he too left out the Holy Spirit .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, a careful reading of the above rendering simply says that the God and Christ live, but it does not say that about the Holy Spirit--this is because the Holy Spirit is not a being like the Father or the Son.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.But in any other place those who have intelligence will not depict the Holy Spirit in the likeness of a dove.^ The Holy Spirit was not before the glorification of Christ (John 7:39) - not simply and absolutely, but relatively, by reason of the more copious outpouring about to take place afterwards, upon the apostles and others.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God because they are the temples of the Holy Spirit who dwells in them (1 Cor.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Father who spoke from heaven; the Son who ascended from the Jordan; and the Spirit who descended from heaven in the form of a dove and rested upon the Son.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.For on Mount Tabor, He appeared as a cloud and, at another time, in other ways.^ One way or another, time will tell us all the .

Furthermore, Sabaoth is the name not only of the Father, but of the Holy Trinity. .According to Dionysios the Areopagite, Lord Sabaoth, translated from the Jewish tongue, means "Lord of Hosts". This Lord of Hosts is the Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit.^ Hence they attribute to the Holy Ghost the same relation to the Son as to the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Father and the Son breathe the Holy Spirit not as two diverse principles, but as two self-existent concur in that procession by the same power.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ TWENTY-FIFTH QUESTION - In the one divine essence are there three distinct persons: the Father, Son and Holy Spirit?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.And although Daniel the prophet says that he beheld the Ancient of Days sitting on a throne, this should not be understood to refer to the Father, but to the Son, Who at His second coming will judge every nation at the dreadful Judgment.^ There was a time when there was no Son and no sin, when God was neither Father nor Judge.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ancient of Days, who in the New Testament, seems to be called the Father (Matthew 6:9) and the one like the Son of Man which is a term that Jesus referred to Himself as (Matthew 20:18).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[103]

Oriental Orthodox traditions

.The Coptic Orthodox Church never depicts God the Father in art although he may be identified by an area of brightness within art such as the heavenly glow at the top of some icons of the baptism of the Lord Jesus Christ.^ Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The great third-century theologian Origen, for example, pressed a bishop named Heraclides to define the relationship of Christ to God the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But some offended the Semi-Arians (however, those associated with the true Church of God were not really associated with the Greco-Roman confederation at this time--they remained separate from them).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

The Syrian, Armenian, Indian and British Orthodox Churches appear to follow the same practice[citation needed].
.In contrast, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has many ancient icons depicting the Holy Trinity as Three distinct Persons.^ Dallas is also home to three Eastern Orthodox Christian churches.

[104][105] .These icons often depict all Three Persons sitting upon a single Throne to infer unity.^ Sabellius taught the strict unity of the godhead: "one Person ( hypostasis ), three names."
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To us there is One God, for the Godhead is One, and all that proceedeth from Him is referred to One, though we believe in Three Persons.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church follows the same practice.

Scenes that depict the Trinity

Trefoil and triangle interlaced.
Only a few of the standard scenes in Christian art normally included a representation of the Trinity. .The accounts in the Gospels of the Baptism of Christ were considered to show all three persons as present with a separate role.^ Since God had the written the ten commandments Himself (Exodus 31:18), this shows that Melito only considered the Holy Spirit to be the power of God, not a separate person.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The trinitarians traditionally teach God is one who shows Himself in three modes (or hypostases ), Father, Son, and Holy Spirit all of the same substance.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This clearly shows that Melito considered Christ to be God, as well as the Father (though a God without some signs of His deity).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sometimes the other two persons are shown at the top of a crucifixion.^ The problem with this position is that it implies the existence of two persons occupying the one body of Jesus: one perfect, the other imperfect.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is simply not a contradiction because it is one person having two natures, one of which is finite and the other infinite.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

The Coronation of the Virgin, a popular subject in the West, often included the whole Trinity. .But many subjects, such as Christ in Majesty or the Last Judgement, which might be thought to require depiction of the deity in the most amplified form, only show Christ.^ It is this last form of Qabbala that is most .

^ Jesus the Christ the Creator is the ONLY way, that this tainted corruption can be cleansed by faith to as many as believe, Only by his PURE untainted Blood.

^ When we started, the psychologists were the only professionals who were trained in ACT. Meanwhile, the other professionals are more aware of ACT, although most of them have not yet followed any form of training.

.There is a rare subject where the persons of the Trinity make the decision to incarnate Christ, or God sending out the Son.^ The Son is another numerical person, but not another numerical God.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a time when there was no Son and no sin, when God was neither Father nor Judge.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God is not under any moral duty outwardly because he is a debtor to no one, and there is no cause out of him which can place him under obligation.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even more rarely, the Angel of the Annunciation is shown being given the mission.^ Furthermore, the implication of one or more angels being part of Elohim in Genesis 1 suggests that one or more angels, and not necessarily God, created all things and that humans are in the image of angels.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[106]

Less common types of depiction

.Especially in the 15th century, and in the less public form of illuminated manuscripts, there was experimentation with many solutions to the issues of depicting the three persons of the Trinity.^ Although there are three divine persons, it does not follow that there are three infinites.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One in number substantively as to essential unity cannot be three in the same respect; but it can be three adjectively and personally as to the personal Trinity.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ TWENTY-FIFTH QUESTION - In the one divine essence are there three distinct persons: the Father, Son and Holy Spirit?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

The depiction of the Trinity as three identical persons is rare, because each Person of the Trinity is considered to have distinct attributes. .Nonetheless, the earliest known depiction of God the Father as a human figure, on the 4th century Dogmatic Sarcophagus, shows the Trinity as three similar bearded men creating Eve from Adam, probably with the intention of affirming the consubstantiality recently made dogma in the Nicene Creed.^ The cardinal affirmation is the doctrine of the Trinity, as affirmed in the Nicean and Chalcedon creeds of the 4th century.

^ Earliest Christian worship specifies two figures, God and Jesus, as recipients (Hurtado Larry.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The great third-century theologian Origen, for example, pressed a bishop named Heraclides to define the relationship of Christ to God the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

There are many similar sarcophagi, and occasional images at intervals until a revival of the iconography in the 15th century.[107] .Even rarer is the depiction of the Trinity as a single anthropoid figure with three faces (Latin "Vultus Trifrons"), because the Trinity is defined as three persons in one Godhead, not one Person with three attributes (this would imply Modalism, which is defined as heresy in traditional Christian orthodoxy).^ If the doctrine of the trinity is so critical to being a "Christian" than why did not even the Roman bishops misunderstand it so much?
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No full answer can be given, because the incarnation, like the Trinity, is a mystery, and will remain so (Brown HOJ. Heresies: Heresy and Orthodoxy in the History of the Church.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Relational Frame Theory defines the self in terms of responding verbally to one's own behavior and predicts that relational responding give rise to three distinct senses of self.

.Such "Cerberus" depictions of the Trinity as three faces on one head were mainly made among Catholics during the 15th to 17th centuries, but were condemned after the Catholic Council of Trent, and again by Pope Urban VIII in 1628,[108] and many existing images were destroyed.^ "And these three are one, each equally in itself the whole work, whereof none can exist without [the] other: and this is the image of the Trinity."
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ G. Therefore, God can so exist as well (while simultaneously and necessarily remaining God), since He created the human form, and made the human form in His own image, and even assumed it in the Theophanies (and in angelic forms).
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps it should be noted that although Catholics and Protestants now freely use the expression "three hypostases" even Jerome of the late 4th century was so unsure what was meant by it that he stated in a letter to the Roman Pope as follows: .
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Trinity may also be represented abstractly by symbols, such as the triangle (or three triangles joined together), trefoil or the triquetra—or a combination of these.^ The Trinity is contained in the Symbol (Apostles' Creed) if not in the signified act, at least in the exercised inasmuch as we seal our faith in the three persons.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

Sometimes a halo is incorporated into these symbols. The use of such symbols are often found not only in painting but also in needlework on tapestries, vestments and antependia, in metalwork and in architectural details.

Gallery

Different depictions

Four 15th century depictions of the Coronation of the Virgin show the main ways of depicting the persons of the Trinity.

Depictions using two different human figures and a dove

Other depictions

Ambivalence to Trinitarian doctrine

.Some Protestant Christians, particularly some members of the restoration movement, are ambivalent about the doctrine of the Trinity.^ If the doctrine of the trinity is so critical to being a "Christian" than why did not even the Roman bishops misunderstand it so much?
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No matter what one may feel about the truthfulness of the trinity, how can any say that the acceptance of this doctrine is necessary for Christians as it was not the apparent belief of the majority of church leaders in the early fourth century?
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the doctrine of the trinity was true from the beginning (which it was not), why do Protestant scholars feel the need to credit the heretical Sabellian for insisting that the Holy Spirit is itself God?
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.While not specifically rejecting Trinitarianism or presenting an alternative doctrine of the Godhead and God's relationship with humanity, they are neither dogmatic about the Trinity nor hold it as a test of true Christian faith.^ I would suggest that the early Christians were careful about avoiding the charge of ditheism because they were reinforcing the binitarian position that God is one family , currently consisting of the Father and the Son--a family relationship, in which the Father is greater than the Son (John 14:28)--but that the true saints will be part of.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John 1:13...No doctrine of the Trinity in the Nicene sense is present in the New Testament...There is no doctrine of the Trinity in the strict sense in the Apostolic Fathers...
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But some offended the Semi-Arians (however, those associated with the true Church of God were not really associated with the Greco-Roman confederation at this time--they remained separate from them).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some, like the Society of Friends (Quakers) and Christian Unitarians, may reject all doctrinal or creedal tests of true faith, though not necessarily reject Trinitarian language.^ Rejecting the Trinity, the Unitarians rejected much other Christian doctrine.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While its major branches, splinters, and independents are binitarian, it may be possible that it may contain some confused unitarians, though this may be doubtful (see Acts 4:12).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No; they reject it because they are more "modern" than "Christian" and because they have forsaken the historic Christian faith.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Others with a distinctive understanding of "Scripture alone", like some members of the restorationist Churches of Christ, say that since the doctrine of the Trinity is not clearly articulated in the Bible, it cannot be required for salvation.^ Rejecting the Trinity, the Unitarians rejected much other Christian doctrine.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The workhop aims at giving people some basic understanding of ACT, which will help understanding other workshops at the world conference with more ease.

^ In other words, neither of the two earliest sources of the word trinity, according to the Roman Catholics, actually clearly taught the concept the way it is now taught.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Still others may look to church tradition and say that there has always been a Christian tradition that faithfully followed Jesus without such a doctrine.^ And while this also has something to do with governance, this may also be distinguishing the fact that the true portion of the Philadelphia church never denies Jesus' deity (perhaps, unlike some who might be part of other eras).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Divine Person is such that (unlike a merely human person) He can remain Divine while incorporating also a human nature (the Christian doctrine of the Incarnation; literally, "taking on flesh").
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No matter what one may feel about the truthfulness of the trinity, how can any say that the acceptance of this doctrine is necessary for Christians as it was not the apparent belief of the majority of church leaders in the early fourth century?
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

Non-orthodox Trinitarianism

.The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) identify the Trinity (or Godhead) as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, but with a different intention than the Nicene faith.^ Jesus is clearly stating that on this point He had a different will than the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence they attribute to the Holy Ghost the same relation to the Son as to the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John 1:13...No doctrine of the Trinity in the Nicene sense is present in the New Testament...There is no doctrine of the Trinity in the strict sense in the Apostolic Fathers...
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.They regard these three as individual members of a heavenly triumvirate, completely united with one another in purpose—each member of the Godhead being a distinct being of physical form (God the Father, Jesus Christ) or spiritual form (The Holy Ghost.^ The Father is said to be "one God" (1 Cor.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus is one with God the Father as He expects His people to be one.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But from their essential being, they are not able to transgress the Will of God.

)[109] .Mormons draw their understanding of the Godhead primarily from the First Vision of Joseph Smith, Jr., who claimed to have seen God the Father and Jesus Christ and recounted seeing "two personages," one of which referred to the other as His "Beloved Son."^ No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mormons also cite Biblical script to support their position that God the Father, Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost are three distinct beings.^ We believe, then that Christ is one mind, one being, and, I add, a being distinct from the one God.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ally is welcome to refute all the hundreds of evidences to the contrary, that I have compiled in my papers, Jesus is God: Biblical Proofs , and The Holy Trinity: Biblical Proofs .
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.See Matt 3, Mark 1, Luke 3, John 17, John 20:17, Acts 7:55-56. In this respect Mormon theology is more closely related to John Ascunages' early Tritheistic sect than to Orthodox Christianity.^ No; they reject it because they are more "modern" than "Christian" and because they have forsaken the historic Christian faith.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He acts as if "orthodox" Christianity is self-evidently inferior to the "modern" versions of "revised Christianity."
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the glory which You gave Me I have given them, that they may be one just as We are one (John 17:20-23).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

The primary author of this Monophysite group was John Philoponus. .He taught that there are three partial substances and one comon substance in the trinity.^ There is one God, not three.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "And these three are one, each equally in itself the whole work, whereof none can exist without [the] other: and this is the image of the Trinity."
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[110]
The Trinity in Christian Science is found in the unity of God, Christ, and the Holy Ghost or—"God the Father-Mother; Christ the spiritual idea of sonship; divine Science or the Holy Comforter." The same in essence, the Trinity indicates "the intelligent relation of God to man and the universe".[111]

Nontrinitarianism

.Some Christian traditions either reject the doctrine of the Trinity or consider it unimportant.^ Rejecting the Trinity, the Unitarians rejected much other Christian doctrine.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once one denies the Trinity within an alleged Christian framework, they almost always reject other central doctrines, too.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the doctrine of the trinity is so critical to being a "Christian" than why did not even the Roman bishops misunderstand it so much?
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Persons and groups espousing this position generally do not refer to themselves as "Nontrinitarians". They can vary in both their reasons for rejecting traditional teaching on the Trinity, and in the way they describe God.^ What would our treatments look like if they were vetted in a persistent and iterative way by both real world providers as well as by behavioral scientists?

^ The decrees of God can be regarded in two ways: subjectively - they do not differ from God himself and are no other than God himself decreeing objectively - they do differ because they may be conceived as many and various .
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Interestingly even the Roman Catholics admit, "That "the Father" and "the Son" are distinct Persons follows from the terms themselves, which are mutually exclusive" (The Blessed Trinity, 1912)--this admission is more supportive of the "binitarian" position than the trinitarian position they now hold.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

Nontrinitarian groups

Since Trinitarianism is central to so much of church doctrine, nontrinitarians were mostly groups that existed before the Nicene Creed was codified in 325 or are groups that developed after the Reformation, when many church doctrines came into question[112]
.In the early centuries of Christian history Adoptionists, Arians, Ebionites, some Gnostics, Marcionites, and others held nontrinitarian beliefs.^ This was also the view of the immediate post-New Testament Church and this so-called "binitarian" belief has been clearly held throughout Church history.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Clearly, if what that expression meant was not clear to Jerome by 376 A.D., it would not seem possible that accepting three hypostases could not have been a clear belief of the true and early Christians.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On a web page affiliated with the Christian History Institute , the radical, unChristian nature of Channing's beliefs were described as follows: .
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Nicene Creed raised the issue of the relationship between Jesus' divine and human natures.^ Does the human mind in Jesus guide the divine nature in him?
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus continually emphasized the family relationship between Himself as Son and the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the divine nature in him knew he would be raised, but he did not know this, then it was not his divine nature.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Monophysitism ("one nature") and monothelitism ("one will") were early attempts, considered heretical by trinitarians, to explain this relationship.^ The Tkach-era WCG had a booklet called God Is which essentially took the trinitarian position that you can never understand the nature of God, but that God was one being with three hypostases.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is one of the first references to a trinitarian view of the Godhead (the other earliest one was from the heretic Valentinus--it is unclear which was first).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.During more than a thousand years of Trinitarian orthodoxy, formal nontrinitarianism, i.e., a doctrine held by a church, group, or movement, was rare, but it did appear.^ More than 40 percent of the "messianic Jews" in Riga, Latvia, are between 16 and 25 years old, according to Jewish sources in Riga.

^ "About the year 379 the apostate church began to seek Scriptures to teach the erroneous doctrine of the deity of the Holy Ghost" (Ibid, p.87).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are several readings I use during my workshops to share concepts, in words that come from people who are more eloquent writers than me!

For example, among the Cathars of the 13th century. .The Protestant Reformation of the 1500s also brought tradition into question.^ Tim Enloe (Reformed Protestant apologist and controversialist) Dave Armstrong is part of that narrow, clustered source of a body of anti-traditional Catholic thought .
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

At first, nontrinitarians were executed (such as Servetus), or forced to keep their beliefs secret (such as Isaac Newton). .The eventual establishment of religious freedom, however, allowed nontrinitarians to more easily preach their beliefs, and the 19th century saw the establishment of several nontrinitarian groups in North America and elsewhere.^ Based on previous feedback, however, the program will allow more time for socializing and networking, with longer breaks.

.These include Christadelphians, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Unitarians.^ Beware Jerusalem, It is the snare of satan who seeks to devour you, so that you are not grafted into the True Vine, Christ Jesus and his saints.

^ The Grail Church is Jewish in the sense that it believes Jesus Christ is the Messiah of Israel.

^ Christ, for these husbandmen sought to rob his Inheritance, and Now they seek to rob the inheritance of Jesus the Christ his saints .

Servetus heavily influenced the theology of Emanuel Swedenborg; the church founded on his writings is a small but influential nontrinitarian movement. .Some groups espousing Binitarianism such as the Living Church of God claim that Binitarianism was the majority view of those that professed Christ in the second century.^ Living Church of God, March 2004).
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, it perhaps should be mentioned that the sacra nomina (generally two-letter abbreviations, perhaps intended to identify the documents as “Christian”) found on early documents associated Christianity is also believed to support the position that those that professed Christ in the second century were binitarian.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The great third-century theologian Origen, for example, pressed a bishop named Heraclides to define the relationship of Christ to God the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Twentieth-century nontrinitarian movements include Iglesia ni Cristo, Most Holy Church of God in Christ Jesus, and the Unification Church.^ Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ally is welcome to refute all the hundreds of evidences to the contrary, that I have compiled in my papers, Jesus is God: Biblical Proofs , and The Holy Trinity: Biblical Proofs .
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The great third-century theologian Origen, for example, pressed a bishop named Heraclides to define the relationship of Christ to God the Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nontrinitarian groups differ from one another in their views of Jesus Christ, depicting him variously as a divine being second only to God the Father (e.g., Jehovah's Witnesses), as Yahweh of the Old Testament in human form, as God (but not eternally God), as Son of God but inferior to the Father (versus co-equal), as a prophet, or simply as a holy man.^ No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ C. Man has the attribute of existence in human form.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Oneness Pentecostals deny traditional Trinitarian doctrine, while affirming their belief that God took on flesh in the man Jesus Christ.^ The trinitarian teachings thus deny that Jesus truly came in the flesh.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Where do you meet, in the New Testament, the phraseology which abounds in Trinitarian books and which necessarily grows from the doctrine of two natures in Jesus?
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Like Trinitarians, Oneness adherents believe that Jesus Christ is fully God and fully man.^ Thus while Jesus was what God would be like in the flesh, He simply was not fully God then.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We believe, then that Christ is one mind, one being, and, I add, a being distinct from the one God.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, whereas Trinitarians believe that "God the Son" (a being whose existence is denied in Oneness theology), the eternal second person of the Trinity, became man, Oneness adherents hold that the one and only true God—who manifests himself in any way he chooses, including as Father, Son and Holy Spirit—became man.^ No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only in this way can the true and holy .

.Oneness believers view "Father", "Son" and "Holy Spirit" as titles, reflecting different manifestations of the one true God in the universe.^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We in the Living Church of God believe in the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit--but as the Bible, and not any council of men defines them.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Oneness Pentecostals are regarded by orthodox Christians as subscribing to the heresy of Modalism, teaching that God displayed himself in the Old Testament as Father, in the Gospels as the Son, and after the Ascension as the Holy Spirit, which is not the orthodox doctrine of three distinct and eternal Persons in one divine essence.^ God is hyiopater , Son-Father.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the Father and the Son still are 'God'.
  • Binitarian View 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ TWENTY-FIFTH QUESTION - In the one divine essence are there three distinct persons: the Father, Son and Holy Spirit?
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

.Rather, Oneness teaches that there is only one being, revealing himself in different ways.^ In our world, each person is one person, and each person is different in some way from every other person.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The decrees of God can be regarded in two ways: subjectively - they do not differ from God himself and are no other than God himself decreeing objectively - they do differ because they may be conceived as many and various .
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the knowledge of God is one and simple intrinsically no less than his essence, yet it can be considered in different ways extrinsically as to the objects.
  • Turretin - Institutes of Elenctic Theology 16 October 2009 11:17 UTC www.lgmarshall.org [Source type: Original source]

[113]

See also

Endnotes and references

  1. ^ a b Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, article Trinity
  2. ^ a b Olson, Roger E. The Story of Christian Theology: Twenty Centuries of Tradition & Reform. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1999. ISBN 139780830815050.
  3. ^ See discussion in  "Person". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Person. 
  4. ^ Grudem, Wayne A. 1994. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press; Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Page 226.
  5. ^ Tertullian, Against Praxeas, chapter II
  6. ^ a b c d e The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press, 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article Trinity, doctrine of the
  7. ^ a b Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Broadman Press, 1962. ISBN 978-0805416138, p. 38 ff.
  8. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica
  9. ^ John L. McKenzie, S.J., Dictionary of the Bible (New York), p. 899
  10. ^ New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967), Vol. XIV, p. 299
  11. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana (1956), Vol. XXVII, p. 294L
  12. ^ Nouveau Dictionnaire Universel (Paris, 1865-1870), Vol. 2, p. 1467.
  13. ^ Lewis and Short: trinitas
  14. ^ Lewis and Short: trinus
  15. ^ Liddell & Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon. entry for Τριάς, retrieved December 19, 2006
  16. ^ Theophilus of Antioch, To Autolycus, II.XV (retrieved on December 19, 2006).
  17. ^ W.Fulton in the "Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics"
  18. ^ Theandros, an online Journal of Orthodox Christian Theology and Philosophy, vol. 3, Fall 2005. http://www.theandros.com/htrinity.html
  19. ^ Against Praxeas, chapter 3
  20. ^ Against Praxeas, chapter 2 and in other chapters
  21. ^ History of the Doctrine of the Trinity. Accessed September 15, 2007.
  22. ^ "Neither the word Trinity nor the explicit doctrine appears in the New Testament ... the New Testament established the basis for the doctrine of the Trinity" (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: article Trinity).
  23. ^ See for example Romans 4:24; 8:11; 2 Cor. 4:14; Colossians 2:12; 1 Tim. 2:5-6; 6:13; 2 Tim. 4:1).
  24. ^ Editor, General; Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (2002), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Q—Z, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, pp. 914–15, ISBN 0802837840, http://books.google.com/books?id=6OJvO2jMCr8C&pg=PA921&dq=Trinity+in+the+NT&ei=pWF0SfvUMZbAM93w1NoM&client=firefox-a#PPA915,M1 
  25. ^ As in Psalms 33:6
  26. ^ As in Isaiah 61:1
  27. ^ As in Proverbs 9:1 and the Book of Wisdom
  28. ^ See Book of Wisdom#Messianic interpretation by Christians
  29. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia: article The Blessed Trinity
  30. ^ "Encyclopedia of Religion", Vol. 14, p.9360, on Trinity
  31. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: article Gospel of St. John. Although the Catholic Encyclopedia admits to having "no certain historical information" regarding the date of composition of the Gospel of John, it arrives at a date of 96 CE by identifying the author of the gospel (i.e., John the Evangelist) with the author of the Book of Revelation (i.e., John of Patmos), whom Eusebius, writing in the fourth century, states was exiled to Patmos in the fifteenth year of Domitian's reign. This conflation of the two Johns is disputed, however (see: Authorship of the Johannine Works).
  32. ^ a b c d e The Oxford Companion to the Bible (ed. Bruce Metzger and Michael Coogan) 1993, p. 782-3.
  33. ^ McGrath, Alister E. Understanding the Trinity. Zondervan, 9789 ISBN 0310296811
  34. ^ Harris, Stephen L. Understanding the Bible. Mayfield Publishing: 2000.pp.427-428
  35. ^ see, Elizabeth Lev, "Dimming the Pauline Spotlight; Jubilee Fruits", 2009[1]
  36. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses interpret it differently.
  37. ^ Brown, Raymond E. The Anchor Bible: The Gospel According to John (XIII-XXI), pp. 1026, 1032
  38. ^ Gregory Nazianzen, Orations, 31.26
  39. ^ Allen, Willoughby. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to S. Matthew. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark 1907, p. 307-308
  40. ^ United Bible Societies: The Greek New Testament ISBN 3-438-05110-9
  41. ^ Nova Vulgata
  42. ^ See, for instance, the note in 1 Jn. 5:7-8.
  43. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration, 2d ed. Oxford University'", 1968 p.101
  44. ^ "It is written of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, 'And these three are one'" (On the Unity of the Church, 6)
  45. ^ The Presentation of Jesus in John's Gospel
  46. ^ The Scriptures on Jesus
  47. ^ John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible, John 12:41, Heb. 1:8,10
  48. ^ Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible, John 12:41, Heb. 1:8,10
  49. ^ Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible, John 12:41, Heb. 1:8,10
  50. ^ St. Paul helps us understand truths about Jesus
  51. ^ http://www.bbc.edu/journal/volume1_2/granville_sharp-baker.pdf
  52. ^ [Wallace, Daniel B. _Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics_. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996. p270-271.]
  53. ^ [Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996. p276.]
  54. ^ [Wordsworth, Christopher. Six Letters to Granville Sharp Esq. Respecting his Remarks on the Use of the Definitive Article in the Greek Text of the New Testament. London: F. and C. Rivington, 1802. p132]
  55. ^ For the two chapters as a single text, see Letellier, Robert. Day in Mamre, night in Sodom: Abraham and Lot in Genesis 18 and 19. Brill: 1995. ISBN 9789004102507 pp.37ff. Web: 9 Jan 2010 http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=t92-lwQVwrAC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=abraham+trinity+genesis&ots=c2dCxTAmG_&sig=BmRsq6HaklZCFSkRtm9gBmxsPAg#PPA37,M1
  56. ^ a b c http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/journals/ssr/issues/volume2/number3/ssr02-03-e02.html
  57. ^ "These Christian beliefs (...) have been the basis for the Jewish rejection of Christianity—even on pain of death—for the last 2,000 years. (...) The belief that Jesus was G-d and did away with the commandments was due to the influence of the apostle Paul, and later, the political authority of Constantine and the Roman Empire. They created a religion that Jesus himself would not recognize. (...) Additional substantiation can be brought from the Ebionite Christian sect, who existed as late as the fourth century and who denied the divinity of Jesus and believed they were obligated to keep the Torah. There is evidence that the Ebionites were direct descendants of the original followers of Jesus and were maintaining their original beliefs in a human Messiah. The Ebionites were excommunicated from the Roman church for refusing to accept the non-biblical doctrines put forth in the Nicene Creed."; p.24-26,39; Fourth Edition. Revised. 2001 Jews for Judaism International Inc.
  58. ^ "Jesus alluded to the doctrine of the Trinity. The Gospel of Matthew tells us that his final words to his disciples was, 'Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' This belief in a three-part god is a basic doctrine of Christianity. (...) Although Christianity began among Jews, it was rapidly adopted by the pagans of the ancient world. These pagans believed in an entire pantheon of gods. (...) So early Christian missionaries compromised with these pagans by introducing the Trinity, a sort of three-in-one god. Even many contemporary Christian scholars see the Trinity as the result of pagan influence on Christianity. This might represent an improvement for the pagan. But for the Jew it is a regression, representing a step backwards towards idolatry. (...) The pagan gods came down in human form, copulated with mortals, and bore human children. Many Christian historians attribute it to the early Christians who were attempting to win over pagans to their new religion, and therefore adopted this pagan concept."; p.7-9
  59. ^ The Trinity in the Old Testament
  60. ^ Larry W. Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2005 ISBN 0802831672 pp. 573-578
  61. ^ Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology: Angel of the Lord
  62. ^ a b c d e "Trinity". Britannica encyclopaedia of world religions. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2006.
  63. ^ Swindal, James, and Harry J. Gensler. 2005. The Sheed & Ward anthology of Catholic philosophy. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield. Page 84.
  64. ^ Athanasius: De Decretis or Defence of the Nicene Definition, Introduction, 19
  65. ^ "The bishops were forced to use 'non-Scriptural' terminology (not 'un-Scriptural') to protect and preserve the Scriptural meaning" (The Arian Controversy).
  66. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online
  67. ^ On Athanasius, Oxford Classical Dictionary, Edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. Third edition. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  68. ^ a b c d Bingham, Jeffrey, "HT200 Class Notes", Dallas Theological Seminary, (2004).
  69. ^ Orthodox Outlet for Dogmatic Enquiries: On God
  70. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: article:Paul of Samosata
  71. ^ Athanasius, Bishop of Alexanria, Theologian, Doctor
  72. ^ 7:1, 3 online
  73. ^ Epistle to the Philippians, 2:13 online
  74. ^ On Baptism 8:6 online, Against Praxeas, 26:2online
  75. ^ Against Noetus, 1:14 online
  76. ^ Seventh Council of Carthage online
  77. ^ A Sectional Confession of Faith, 13:2online
  78. ^ Baptism "in the name of" need not be taken as referring to a formula used in the ceremony in either Matthew or Acts; it may merely indicate the establishment of a relationship, corresponding to the phrases "baptized into Christ Jesus"[Rom. 6:3] and "baptized into Christ."[Gal. 3:27] Compare "baptized ... into John's baptism,"[Acts 19:3] "baptized in the name of Paul,"[1 Cor. 1:13] "baptized into Moses."1 Cor. 10:2
  79. ^ Kittel, 3:108.
  80. ^ Grudem, Wayne A. 1994. Systematic theology an introduction to biblical doctrine. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press. Page 226.
  81. ^ Athanasian Creed
  82. ^ Thomas, and Anton Charles Pegis. 1997. Basic writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub. Pages 307-09.
  83. ^ Barth, Karl, and Geoffrey William Bromiley. 1975. The doctrine of the word of God prolegomena to church dogmatics, being volume I, 1. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. Pages 348-49.
  84. ^ K Rahner, The Trinity (Herder & Herder:1970) p22
  85. ^ Phillip Cary, Priscilla Papers Vol. 20, No. 4, Autumn 2006
  86. ^ Basil the Great, De Spiritu Sancto, NPNF, Vol 8, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf208.vii.ix.html
  87. ^ Athanasius, 3.29 (p. 409)
  88. ^ Basil "Letters", NPNF, Vol 8, 189.7 (p. 32)
  89. ^ Hill, De Trinitate, 2.15
  90. ^ P. van Buren, Christ in Our Place (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1957), p. 38
  91. ^ George Knight III, New Testament Teaching on the Role Relationship of Men and Women (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1977)
  92. ^ Lambeth Conference Resolutions from 1978. Accessed May 24th, 2009.
  93. ^ Creeds and Authorized Affirmations of Faith from the 'Common Worship' service books. Accessed May 24th, 2009.
  94. ^ Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online, on Trinity, Link
  95. ^ Strong, James (1999). Strong's Hebrew Dictionary. AGES Digital Library. pp. 24, 284. 
  96. ^ Westminster Confession of Faith, 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith: "God and the holy Trinity"
  97. ^ Berkhof, Louis: Systematic Theology. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996. ISBN 978-0802838209. pp.87-88
  98. ^ See below and G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I, 1971, Vol II, 1972, (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, figs I;5-16 & passim, ISBN 0853312702 and ISBN 0853313245
  99. ^ Cartlidge, David R., and Elliott, J.K.. Art and the Christian Apocrypha, pp. 69-72 (illustrating examples), Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0415233925, 9780415233927, Google books
  100. ^ G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. II, 1972, (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, figs I;5-16 & passim, ISBN 0853312702 and ISBN 0853313245, p.122-124 and figs 409-414
  101. ^ G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. II, 1972, (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, figs I;5-16 & passim, ISBN 0853312702 and ISBN 0853313245, pp. 219-224 and figs 768-804
  102. ^ Bigham, 89-98
  103. ^ The Tome of the Great Council of Moscow (1666-1667 A.D.), Ch. 2, 43-45; tr. Hierodeacon Lev Puhalo, Canadian Orthodox Missionary Journal
  104. ^ "The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church Icons": http://www.prairienet.org/~dxmoges/icons.htm
  105. ^ An Ethiopian Iconostasis: http://www.henrytrotter.com/travels/africa/ethiopia/slides/40-gondar-monastary.jpg
  106. ^ for both, G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I,1971, Vol II, 1972, (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, ISBN 0853312702 and ISBN 0853313245, pp. 6-12 and figs 10-16
  107. ^ Schiller, I, figs 7, 10, 11
  108. ^ Guss, David M. (2006). "The Gran Poder and the Reconquest of La Paz". Journal of Latin American Anthropology 11 (2): 294–328. ISSN 1085-7025. http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/wallace/ANT325%20Guss%20on%20La%20Paz%20festivals.pdf. 
  109. ^ Jeffry R Holland, Ensign. 2007 November
  110. ^ Chapman, John. "Tritheists." 2003. The Catholic Encyclopedia. December 6, 2005. p2. [2]
  111. ^ Eddy, Mary Baker; Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures
  112. ^ See indulgences, particular judgment, primacy of the Pope, purgatory, transubstantiation, etc.
  113. ^ The Oneness of God by David K. Bernard. Explains the Oneness view of God, as opposed to the Trinitarian viewpoint.

Bibliography

  • Bigham, Steven, Image of God the Father in Orthodox Theology and Iconography, Studies in Orthodox iconography, St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1995, ISBN 1879038153, 97818790381, Google books
  • Paul Fiddes, The Trinity in worship and preaching (London: London Baptist Preachers' Association, 1991)
  • Paul Fiddes, Participating in God : a pastoral doctrine of the Trinity (London: Darton, Longman, & Todd, 2000)
  • Roger E. Olson, The Story of Christian Theology : Twenty Centuries of Tradition & Reform (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1999)
  • William J. La Due, The Trinity guide to the Trinity (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003 ISBN 1563383950, 9781563383953)

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also trinity

Contents

English

Etymology

From Latin trīnitās, from trīni (three each), from trēs (three).

Proper noun

Singular
Trinity
Plural
-
Trinity
  1. (Christianity) In Christian belief, the three persons (personae) of the Godhead: Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
  2. A female given name used since the 1970s, from the religious term trinity, or translated from its long-established Spanish equivalent.

Translations

Related terms


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.A word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine of the unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons.^ The word "Trinity" is not found in Scripture and no verse says "God is three Persons" or "God is a Trinity."
  • The Trinity: UNDERSTANDING THE BIBLICAL DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.bible-truth.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This God subsists in three Divine Persons.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Reply to a Muslim Apologist Concerning the Two Natures of Christ and Trinitarianism (vs. Shabir Ally) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How can we understand that God can be One God, yet be three distinct persons?
  • The Trinity: UNDERSTANDING THE BIBLICAL DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.bible-truth.org [Source type: Original source]

This word is derived from the Gr. .trias, first used by Theophilus (A.D. 168-183), or from the Lat.^ The word trias (of which the Latin trinitas is a translation) is first found in Theophilus of Antioch about A.D. 180.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Trinity 8 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Theophilus first used the word "trinity" (or possibly "triad") when he wrote "of the trinity [triados] , of God, and His Word, and His wisdom" (Autol.
  • Jesus & The Trinity (1) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.auburn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The first recorded use of this Greek word in Christian theology (though not about the Divine Trinity) was by Theophilus of Antioch in about 170.
  • Boston University School of Theology 16 September 2009 10:57 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.trinitas, first used by Tertullian (A.D. 220), to express this doctrine.^ Like the Apologists, Tertullian posited a two-stage existence in the Word: First as immanent within the Father, then as expressed at the Son's generation: .
  • Jesus & The Trinity (1) 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.auburn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Interestingly enough, the modalists (Oneness believers) had first used the chosen word ( homoousios ) to express the identity of Jesus with the Father.

^ By the express command of God, His holy people used the first day of the week as a common working day for 4,000 years, at least.
  • Sabbath Question 20 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.smyrna.org [Source type: Original source]

The propositions involved in the doctrine are these:
  1. That God is one, and that there is but one God (Deut 6:4; 1 Kg 8:60; Isa 44:6; Mk 12:29, Mk 12:32; Jn 10:30).
  2. That the Father is a distinct divine Person (hypostasis, subsistentia, persona, suppositum intellectuale), distinct from the Son and the Holy Spirit.
  3. That Jesus Christ was truly God, and yet was a Person distinct from the Father and the Holy Spirit.
  4. That the Holy Spirit is also a distinct divine Person.
This article needs to be merged with TRINITY (Jewish Encyclopedia).
This article needs to be merged with Three Persons of God.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Trinity, which are similar to those in the above article.








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