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Coordinates: 32°54′8″N 13°11′9″E / 32.90222°N 13.18583°E / 32.90222; 13.18583

Tripoli
طرابلس Trābles
Top: That El Emad Towers, Middle: Green Square, Bottom left: Marcus Aurelius Arch, Bottom right: Souq al-Mushir – Tripoli Medina.

Seal
Location of Tripoli within Libya, on the continent of Africa.
Country Libya
Sha'biyah Tripoli Sha'biyah
Government
 - Head of the People's Committee Abdullatif Abdulrahman Aldaali
Area
 - Total 400 km2 (154.4 sq mi)
Elevation 81 m (266 ft)
Population (2005)
 - Total 1,682,000
 Density 4,205/km2 (10,890.9/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+2)

Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Ṭarābulus About this sound pronunciation - also طرابلس الغرب Ṭarā-bu-lus al-Gharb[1] Libyan vernacular: Ṭrābləs About this sound pronunciation ; derived from "Τρίπολη"; the Greek word for "three cities" in Greek: Τρίπολις Tripolis) is the largest and capital city of Libya.

Tripoli has a population of 1.69 million[citation needed]. The city is located in the northwest of the country on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean Sea and forming a bay. Tripoli was founded in the 7th century BC by the Phoenicians, who named it Oea.[2]

Tripoli is the largest city, the principal sea port, and the largest commercial and manufacturing centre in Libya. It is also the site of Al-Fateh University. Due to the city's long history, there are many sites of archaeological significance in Tripoli. The climate is typical Mediterranean, with hot, dry summers, cool winters and some modest rainfall.

"Tripoli" may also refer to the shabiyah (top-level administrative division in the current Libyan system), Tripoli District.

Contents

History

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Early history

The city was founded in the 7th century BC, by the Phoenicians, who named it "Oea". They were probably attracted to the site by its fine natural harbor, flanked on the western shore by the small, easily defendable peninsula, on which they established their colony. The city then passed into the hands of the rulers of Cyrenaica (a Greek colony on the North African shore, east of Tripoli, halfway to Egypt). It was wrested away from the Greeks by the Carthaginians, like Tripoli, another Phoenician colony.

By the later half of the 2nd century BC it belonged to the Romans, who included it in their province of Africa, and gave it the name of Regio Syrtica. Around the beginning of the 3rd century AD, it became known as the Regio Tripolitana, meaning "region of the three cities", namely Oea (i.e. modern Tripoli), Sabratha and Leptis Magna. It was probably raised to the rank of a separate province by Septimius Severus, who was a native of Leptis Magna.

In spite of centuries of Roman habitation, the only visible Roman remains, apart from scattered columns and capitals (usually integrated in later buildings), is the Arch of Marcus Aurelius from the 2nd century AD. The fact that Tripoli has been continuously inhabited, unlike e.g. Sabratha and Leptis Magna, has meant that the inhabitants have either quarried material from older buildings (destroying them in the process), or built on top of them, burying them beneath the streets, where they remain largely unexcavated.

There is evidence to suggest that the Tripolitania region was in some economic decline during the 5th and 6th centuries, in part due to the political unrest spreading across the Mediterranean world in the wake of the collapse of the Roman empire, as well as pressure from the invading Vandals.

Like the rest of North Africa, it was conquered by the Muslims early in the 8th century. Following the conquest, Tripoli was ruled by dynasties based in Cairo, Egypt, first the Fatimids, and later the Mamluks.

1500s–1800s

In 1510, it was taken by Don Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto for Spain, and, in 1523, it was assigned to the Knights of St. John, who had lately been expelled by the Ottoman Turks from their stronghold on the island of Rhodes. Finding themselves in very hostile territory, the Knights enhanced the city’s walls and other defences. Though built on top of a number of older buildings (possibly including a Roman public bath), much of the earliest defensive structures of the Tripoli castle (or "Assaraya al-Hamra", i.e. the "Red Castle") are attributed to the Knights of St John.

Having previously combated piracy from their base on Rhodes, the reason that the Knights were given charge of the city was to prevent it from relapsing into the nest of Barbary pirates as it had been prior to the Spanish occupation. The disruption the pirates caused to the Christian shipping lanes in the Mediterranean had been one of the main incentives for the Spanish conquest of the city.

Historic map of Tripoli by Piri Reis

The knights kept the city with some trouble until 1551, when they were compelled to surrender to the Ottoman Turks, led by Turgut Reis. Turgut was also buried in Tripoli after his death in 1565. His body was taken from Malta, where he had fallen during the Ottoman siege of the island, to a tomb in the mosque he had established close to his palace in Tripoli. The palace has since disappeared (supposedly it was situated between the so called “Ottoman prison” and the arch of Marcus Aurelius), but the mosque, along with his tomb, still stands, close to the Bab Al-Bahr gate.

After the capture by the Ottoman Turks, Tripoli once again became a base of operation for Barbary pirates. One of several Western attempts to dislodge them again was a Royal Navy attack under John Narborough in 1675, of which a vivid eye-witness account has survived.[3] Effective Ottoman rule during this period (1551–1711) was often hampered by the local Janissary corps. Intended to function as enforcers of local administration, the captain of the Janissaries and his cronies were often the de facto rulers.

In 1711 Ahmed Karamanli, a Janissary officer of Turkish origin, killed the Ottoman governor, the "Pasha", and established himself as ruler of the Tripolitania region. By 1714 he had asserted a sort of semi-independence from the Ottoman Sultan, heralding in the Karamanli dynasty. The Pashas of Tripoli were expected to pay a regular tributary tax to the Sultan, but were in all other aspects rulers of an independent kingdom. This order of things continued under the rule of his descendants, accompanied by the brazen piracy and blackmailing until 1835, when the Ottoman Empire took advantage of an internal struggle and re-established its authority.

The Ottoman province (vilayet) of Tripoli (including the dependent sanjak of Cyrenaica) lay along the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea between Tunisia in the west and Egypt in the east. Besides the city itself, the area included Cyrenaica (the Barca plateau), the chain of oases in the Aujila depression, Fezzan and the oases of Ghadames and Ghat, separated by sandy and stony wastelands.

The Barbary Wars

Tripoli Harbour during the Tripolitan War

In the early part of the 19th century, the regency at Tripoli, owing to its piratical practices, was twice involved in war with the United States. In May 1801, the pasha demanded an increase in the tribute ($83,000) which the US government had been paying since 1796 for the protection of their commerce from piracy under the 1796 Treaty with Tripoli. The demand was refused, and a naval force was sent from the United States to blockade Tripoli.

The First Barbary War dragged on for four years. In 1803, Tripolitan fighters captured the US frigate Philadelphia and took its commander, Captain William Bainbridge, and the entire crew as prisoners. The Philadelphia was turned against the Americans and anchored in Tripoli Harbour as a gun battery. The following year, US Navy Lieutenant Stephen Decatur led a successful nighttime raid to retake and burn the ship. Decatur's men set fire to the Philadelphia and escaped.

The most colorful incident in the war was the expedition undertaken by William Eaton with the object of replacing the pasha with an elder brother living in exile, who had promised to accede to all the wishes of the United States. Eaton, at the head of a crew of 500 US Marines, Greek, Arab and Turkish Mercenaries, marched across the desert from Alexandria, Egypt and with the aid of American ships, succeeded in capturing Derna. Soon afterward, on June 3, 1805, peace was concluded. The pasha ended his demands and received $60,000 as ransom for the Philadelphia prisoners under the 1805 Treaty with Tripoli.

In 1815, in consequence of further outrages and due to the humiliation of the earlier defeat, Captains Bainbridge and Stephen Decatur, at the head of an American squadron, again visited Tripoli and forced the pasha to comply with the demands of the United States. See Second Barbary War.

Later history

Tripoli Cathedral and "the Fiat centre in Tripoli" (Meydan al Gaza'ir) during the 1960s

In 1835, the Ottomans took advantage of a local civil war to reassert their direct authority. After that date, Tripoli was under the direct control of the Sublime Porte. Rebellions in 1842 and 1844 were unsuccessful. After the occupation of Tunisia by the French (1881), the Ottomans increased their garrison in Tripoli considerably.

Italy had long claimed that Tripoli fell within its zone of influence and that Italy had the right to preserve order within the state.[4] Under the pretext of protecting its own citizens living in Tripoli from the Ottoman Government, it declared war against the Ottomans on September 29, 1911, and announced its intention of annexing Tripoli. On October 1, 1911, a naval battle was fought at Prevesa, Greece, and three Ottoman vessels were destroyed. By the Treaty of Lausanne, Italian sovereignty was acknowledged by the Ottomans, although the Caliph was permitted to exercise religious authority.

Tripoli was nominally controlled by Italy until 1943. Afterwards it was governed by British forces until independence in 1951.

On 15 April 1986 US Air Force and Navy planes bombed Tripoli and Benghazi. President Ronald Reagan justified the attacks by claiming Libya was responsible for terrorism directed at the USA, including the bombing of La Belle discothèque in West Berlin ten days before.

United Nations sanctions against Libya were lifted in 2003, which is expected to increase traffic through the Port of Tripoli and have a positive impact on the city's economy.

Law and government

The old medina in Central Tripoli; There are 29 Local People's Congresses within the city boundaries.

The city of Tripoli and its surrounding suburbs all lie within the Tripoli sha'biyah (district). In accordance with Libya's Jamahiriya political system, Tripoli comprises Local People's Congresses where, in theory, the city's population discuss different matters and elect their own people's committee; At present there are 29 Local People's Congresses. In reality, the revolutionary committees severely limit the democratic process by closely supervising committee and congress elections at the branch and district levels of governments, Tripoli being no exception.

Tripoli is sometimes referred to as the de-facto capital of Libya. This is because none of the country's ministries are actually located in the capital. Even the National General People's Congress is held annually in the city of Surt and not the capital. As part of a radical decentralisation programme undertaken in September 1988, all General People's Committee secretariats (ministries), except those responsible for foreign liaison (foreign affairs) and information, were located away from Tripoli. According to diplomatic sources, the former Secretariat for Economy and Trade was moved to Benghazi; the Secretariat for Health to Kufra; and the remainder, excepting one, to Surt, Col. Gaddafi's birthplace. In early 1993 it was announced that the Secretariat for Foreign Liaison and International Co-operation was to be moved to Ras Lanouf.

Geography and climate

A dust storm, making its way from the Sahara to Western Libya, passes over Tripoli.
Al Saaha Alkhadhraa (The Green Square), located in the city centre is mostly landscaped with palm trees as is much of Tripoli.

Tripoli lies at the western extremity of Libya close to the Tunisian border, on the continent of Africa. Over a thousand kilometers separate Tripoli from Libya's second largest city, Benghazi. Coastal oases alternate with sandy areas and lagoons along the shores of Tripolitania for more than 300 kilometers.

Until 2007, the "Sha'biyah" included the City, its suburbs and their immediate surroundings. In older administrative systems and throughout history, there existed a Province ("muhafazah"), State ("wilayah") or City-state with a much larger area (though not constant boundaries), which is sometimes mistakenly referred to as Tripoli but more appropriately should be called Tripolitania.

As a sha'biyah, Tripoli borders the following sha'biyat:

The dominant climatic influences in Tripoli, a coastal lowland city, are Mediterranean. The city enjoys warm summers and mild winters with an average July temperature of between 22 °C (72 °F) and 29 °C (84 °F). In December temperatures have reached as low as 1 °C (34 °F), but the average remains at between 9 °C (48 °F) and 18 °C (64 °F). The average annual rainfall is less than 400 millimetres (15.7 in), but can be very erratic.[5]

For example, epic floods in 1945 left Tripoli under water for several days, but two years later an unprecedentedly severe drought caused the loss of thousands of head of cattle. Deficiency in rainfall is no doubt reflected in an absence of permanent rivers or streams in Tripoli as well as an absence throughout the entire country. The allocation of limited water is considered of sufficient importance to warrant the existence of the Secretariat of Dams and Water Resources, and damaging a source of water can be penalized by a heavy fine or imprisonment.

The Great Manmade River, a network of pipelines that transport water from the desert to the coastal cities, supplies Tripoli with its water.[6] The grand scheme was initiated by Gaddafi in 1982 and has had a positive impact on the city's inhabitants.

Tripoli is dotted with public spaces, but few fit under the category of large city parks. The Green Square located near the waterfront is scattered with palm trees, the most abundant plant used for landscaping in the city. Tripoli zoo, located south of the city centre, is a large reserve of plants, trees and open green spaces and is the country's biggest zoo.

Climate data for Tripoli
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28
(82)
36
(97)
38
(100)
41
(106)
43
(109)
44
(111)
46
(115)
44
(111)
45
(113)
41
(106)
36
(97)
31
(88)
46
(115)
Average high °C (°F) 16
(61)
17
(63)
19
(66)
22
(72)
24
(75)
27
(81)
29
(84)
30
(86)
29
(84)
27
(81)
23
(73)
18
(64)
23
(73)
Average low °C (°F) 8
(46)
9
(48)
11
(52)
14
(57)
16
(61)
19
(66)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
18
(64)
14
(57)
9
(48)
15
(59)
Record low °C (°F) 1
(34)
3
(37)
4
(39)
6
(43)
6
(43)
10
(50)
16
(61)
17
(63)
15
(59)
10
(50)
6
(43)
1
(34)
1
(34)
Precipitation mm (inches) 81
(3.19)
46
(1.81)
28
(1.1)
10
(0.39)
5
(0.2)
3
(0.12)
0
(0)
0
(0)
10
(0.39)
41
(1.61)
66
(2.6)
94
(3.7)
384
(15.12)
Source: BBC Weather [7] 2009-08-16

Green square

Fountain

Medina

Winter

Economy

Panorama of Tripoli Central Business District as of June 2009; Tripoli is currently undergoing a construction boom.
The That El-Emad Towers, where many Libyan and International companies have offices.

Tripoli is one of the main hubs of Libya's economy along with Misurata. It is the leading centre of banking, finance and communication in the country and is one of the leading commercial and manufacturing cities in Libya. Many of the country's largest corporations locate their headquarters home offices in Tripoli as well as the majority of international companies.[citation needed]

Major manufactured goods include processed food, textiles, construction materials, clothing and tobacco products. Since the lifting of sanctions against Libya in 1999 and again in 2003, Tripoli has seen a rise in foreign investment as well as an increase in tourism. Increased traffic has also been recorded in the city's port as well as Libya's main international airport, Tripoli International.[citation needed]

The city is home to the Tripoli International Fair, an international industrial, agricultural and commercial event located on Omar Muktar Street. One of the active members of the Global Association of the Exhibition Industry (UFI), located in the French capital Paris, the international fair is organised annually and takes place from the 2nd to the 12th of April. Participation averages around 30 countries as well as more than 2000 companies and organisations.[citation needed]

Since the rise in tourism and influx of foreign , there has been an increased demand for hotels in the city. To cater for these increased demands, the Corinthia Bab Africa Hotel located in the central business district was constructed in 2003 and is the largest hotel in Libya. Other high end hotels in Tripoli include the Al Waddan Intercontinental and the Tripoli Radisson Blu Hotel as well as others.[8]

Companies with head offices in Tripoli include Afriqiyah Airways and Libyan Airlines.[9][10]

Tourism

Emhemmed Elmgharief Street in central Tripoli has some of the best examples of Italianate colonial architecture in Tripoli.

The city's old town is still unspoilt by mass-tourism, though it is increasingly being exposed to more and more visitors from abroad, following the lifting of the UN embargo in 2003. However, the walled medina retains much of its serene old-world ambience. The Assaraya al-Hamra (the Red Castle), a vast palace complex with numerous courtyards, dominates the city skyline and is located on the outskirts of the medina. There are some classical statues and fountains from the Ottoman period scattered around the castle.

The Gurgi and Karamanli mosques, with their intricate decorations and tilework, are examples of the artistic skills of local craftsmen. Just outside the Gurgi mosque is the Arch of Marcus Aurelius, the only surviving Roman monument in the city. More and more palaces (especially from the Karamanli period) are also being restored and opened to the public. The basic street plan of the medina was laid down in the Roman period when the walls were constructed as protection against attacks from the interior of Tripolitania, and are considered well planned, possibly better than modern street plans. In the 8th century a wall on the sea-facing side of the city was added.

Three gates provided access to the old town: Bab Zanata in the west, Bab Hawara in the southeast and Bab Al-Bahr in the north wall. The city walls are still standing and can be climbed for good views of the city. The Bazaar is also known for its traditional ware; fine jewellery and clothes can be found in the local markets. The Jamahiriya Museum, a fine modern facility located in the Red Castle, is Libya's national museum. It houses many artefacts from the country's Roman and Greek periods, including treasures from the World Heritage sites at Leptis Magna and Sabratha, as well as politically motivated displays such as the Volkswagen Beetle car driven by Gadaffi in the 1960s.

Colleges and universities

The largest university in Tripoli, Al Fateh University, is a public university providing free education to the city's inhabitants. Private universities and colleges have also begun to crop up in the last few years.

Universities in Tripoli include:

  • Al Fateh University – The largest and most important university in Tripoli
  • Al Fateh University for Medical Sciences – It includes the following faculties: Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry and nursing (which was previously a small institute).
  • The Open University
  • Tripoli University
  • Informatics Tripoli

Sports

11 June Stadium is the home stadium of Al Ittihad, and was the venue of the 1982 African Cup of Nations Final.

Soccer is the most popular sport in the Libyan capital. Tripoli is home to two of the most prominent soccer clubs in Libya, Al Ahly (Tripoli) and Al Ittihad.

The main sports clubs based in Tripoli:

The city also played host to the Italian Super Cup in 2002, a contest in which Juventus defeated Parma 2–1.

Sister cities

Transport

Tripoli is the interim destination of a railway from Sirt under construction in 2007.[11]

References and notes

  1. ^ Meaning Western Tripoli to distinguish it from Tripoli, Lebanon
  2. ^ Hopkins, Daniel J (1997). Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (Index). Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-8777-9546-0. 
  3. ^ The Diary of Henry Teonge Chaplain on Board HM’s Ships Assistance, Bristol and Royal Oak 1675-1679. The Broadway Travellers. Edited by Sir E. Denison Ross and Eileen Power. London: Routledge, [1927] 2005. ISBN 978-0415344777
  4. ^ Furlong, Charles Wellington (December 1911). "The Taking Of Tripoli: What Italy Is Acquiring". The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXIII: 165–176. 
  5. ^ (2006), "Average Conditions, Tripoli Libya", BBC Weather, Accessed September 10, 2006
  6. ^ Watkins, John, (March 18), 2006), "Libya's thirst for 'fossil water'", BBC News, Accessed September 10, 2006
  7. ^ "Average Conditions Tripoli, Libya". BBC Weather. http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT000330. Retrieved August 16, 2009. 
  8. ^ Libya Opportunities for British goods and services exporters, Accessed Feb 18, 2010
  9. ^ "Contact Us." Afriqiyah Airways. Retrieved on 9 November 2009.
  10. ^ "Libyan Airlines." Arab Air Carriers Organization. Retrieved on 9 November 2009.
  11. ^ (Jan 1, 2001) Briginshaw, David, "Libya's First Two Railway Lines Start To Take Shape", International Railway Journal, Accessed Dec 30, 2007.
  • Includes text from Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921).

Further reading

See also

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Africa : North Africa : Libya : Tripoli
Tripoli, July 2006
Tripoli, July 2006

Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Ṭarābulus) is the capital, largest city, principal harbour and biggest commercial and manufacturing centre of the North African country of Libya. Tripoli is located in the north-west of Libya and is situated on the Mediterranean Sea. The city has a population of some 1.68 million people.

Understand

History

Tripoli was founded in the 7th century BCE by the Phoenicians, who named their settlement Oea—due to the city's long history, there are multiple sites of archaeological significance in the city and in its surroundings, not least from the period under the Roman Empire.

Climate

Tripoli's prevailing climate is typical Mediterranean, with hot dry summers, cool winters, and some modest rainfall.

Get in

Visas will be needed, and those can be attained via embassies and/ or consulates. Roughly $50-$150, depending on how long you will stay. Make sure you have an official Arabic translation of your personal details in your passport otherwise immigration will turn you away once you have landed and send you home again.

By plane

Tripoli has an international airport appropriately named Tripoli International Airport. It is operated by the Civil Aviation and Meteorology Bureau of Libya and is the nation's largest airport. Located in the town of Ben Ghashir 34km south of the city centre, Tripoli International is a hub for Libyan Airlines. They are many well-known international carriers flying to the Libyan capital such as British Airway, Lufthansa, KLM, Emirates etc. They are currently building a new airport adjacent to the old one.

By train

There is no train network operating in Libya yet, although Libya is planning to introduce such a service between the east and west of the country. This is currently in the planning stages and a Chinese contractor has already been brought on board.

By car

Tourists travelling to Tripoli used to make their way there by road from Tunisia which is nearer than the other border from Egypt, the journey takes approx three hours drive from the border with Tunisia.

By boat

From Malta. Before sanctions were lifted in 1999 and 2003, this was the preferred method for getting into Tripoli. The only alternative was flying to Tunisia and driving to Tripoli.

A new ferries line that link Sfax in Tunisia to Tripoli 3 times a week is operated by [GTT Feries] , the one way trip cost about 30$ and take 10 hours at sea.

  • the Arch of Marcus Aurelius
  • the National Museum

Do

If you want to escape from the pressures of today's modern life, Tripoli is the place to go. There are wonderful beaches within driving distance, and the Old City and the Museum are good for hours of exploration. Adventurous types might try the nightclub on the 3rd floor of the 3rd building in the downtown tower complex. Like any proper nightclub it only opens at 11pm. A non alcoholic beer will set you back a small fortune, and, like in Italy and Paris, there is a charge to sit at a table.

Fitness

If you want to keep fit, and if you can afford it, then go to the Corinthian hotel which has swimming pool, gym etc. If you are staying there, it is included in the price, but if not then the minimum membership is for 3 months at a price of 700 LD, then 6 months for 1200 LD.

There is also another gym called the Ein Zara Physiotherapy Centre which offers massage and all the basic fitness equipment for a far cheaper price of basic 75 LD/month or about 130 LD /month including massage. There is also a rumour of a gym in the Imad Complex (the 5 towers - downtown commercial area).

Work

Most jobs for expats in Libya are in the oil and gas industry although there are major plans for development of practically every part of the Libyan infrastructure. This includes rebuilding roads, airports, a new railway system, towers and offices in the commercial district, and tourist projects near Tripoli and the Egyptian border.

Because of the perception that Libya offers very little compared to other Middle Eastern countries (and which is mainly true ....at the moment), and the fact that rates are generally better elsewhere such as Qatar or UAE, very few expats actually come to Libya and construction and engineering companies are desperate to attract people with experience.

Libya is changing rapidly though and there are already plans for the usual big shopping malls and big brand shops and supermarkets to open in Tripoli. As a note, the government generally owns the land, not individuals, so when the government agencies want to clear a patch of ground in the city and build something, they go right ahead and do it. You might wake up one morning to find a block of houses has been cleared nearby.

Doing business in Libya can be frustrating and there are many false leads. There are many stories of outside companies not being paid the full amount they are due for a project, especially the final invoice. Libyans are generally well educated and many can speak reasonable English. However, they still have a long way to go when it comes to the commercial aspects of business. Beware of the bidding process for example, if you submit you technical bid for a project and which receives the best score, and then have the best price to go with it, don't celebrate just yet. All too often, the client will now ask you again for you to come back again with your "best price". If there is a Libyan company competing against you, they may already have it wrapped up. Libya is embarking on an economic diversification project. However, they have learned from the mistakes of Dubai, and western expats will not find it to be a place they can abuse, and act in a manner that insults the local religion and culture.

Buy

There are no big brand shops present in Triopli just yet but they are on the way and in the planning stages.

Clothes The best clothing shops are generally near Green Square and running up towards the former cathedral (now a mosque). Bargains can be found here including shoes and the usual knitwear which appears to good quality.

Furniture Gargarish Road running towardds Hay Andulas is easily the location to go for any furniture or office equipment, printing supplies etc.

Electronics The best electronics shops are also on Gargarish Road but for computer equipment head to the Fatah Tower in the downtown commercial district where there a couple of shops.

Eat

The quality of food in Tripoli is good and it is generally inexpensive by western standards. Do not expect a huge variety, the cuisine is mostly Arabic. The chances of getting food poisoning is slim but beware of the fish, if you do however feel inclined to sample the fruits of the sea, just take one look at the cleanliness of the harbor and the beaches. There is an Oriental restaurant in the Corinthea hotel and another one in Gargash. Brush up on your Arabic; waiting staff speak little English and getting one of them to serve you at your table can be a challenge.

Budget

$5 for a takeaway meal, $20 in a good reastaurant, and $40 at a fancy restaurant in the Corinthea hotel.

Mid-range

Several new cafe shops and bistros opened up in Tripoli. Mostly located in the Gergaresh strip all the way to Seyaheya. Just to name a few of the most popular venues; 02,W Cafe, Veranda, Caracalla, Cacao, Halaweyat Sharkiya and Caffe Casa. Most of these cafes are also restaurants and serve a variety of dishes both western and middle eastern. All are of the afforable range and are very popular amongst the foreigns of the city of Tripoli.

Drink

Alcohol is forbidden in Libya. It is not available in any restaurants or hotels except black market which may be much pricier than you thought.

  • Nouzha Hotel Abu Gfifa Street (Benashour), +218 21 3601237. Has 14 well kept rooms. Its size makes it more of a guest house and it seems to be very popular with longer stay foreign workers who prefer a homely touch.
  • Corinthia's Bab Africa, (downtown Tripoli) [1]. Tripoli's premier hotel, referred to locally by the chain name (not the hotel name), also a main meeting point for many foreigners and Tripoli elite. It has a number of good quality restaurants as well as a gymnasium, indoor pool and sauna.
  • Safwa Hotel, (in front of the UN offices) [2]. Claims to be four star. The Safwa has about 20 suites of varying standards. Be careful when paying with your Visa card, the owner will charge a hefty premium for handling the transaction.
  • Thobacts Hotel, is probably the second or third best hotel in Tripoli. Granted there is a big difference between it and the Corinthia but it is a fraction of the price. It has been renovated and the staff are very friendly and speak good english. Wifi is not great but at the time of writing this they are looking to upgrade. If you are on business this can be frustrating but for the leisure traveller it should not cause you a problem.

Stay safe

Women may choose to dress modestly -- long sleeves, and long skirts or pants are considered most appropriate when shopping or sightseeing.

Get out

'Roman Ruins' of Sabratha and Leptis Magna are worth visiting. Sabratha is towards west of Tarabulus and Leptis is to the east.

Leaving Libya requires the right stamps in your passport. Your hotel is required to present your passport to the authorities where a postage like stamp is pasted on to your visa. Make sure you confirm this with the hotel prior to checking out or else you are liable for a fine or worse when clearing immigration.

Make use of the business class lounge at Tripoli Airport (LYD 20 charge if you are not a first/business traveller)where the toilet facilities in the are clean while the same cannot be said for the ones in the general lounge.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Tripoli discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also tripoli

Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Tripoli

Plural
-

Tripoli

  1. Capital of Libya.

Related terms

Translations


Italian

Proper noun

Tripoli f.

  1. Tripoli

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Early History.

Seaport on the northern coast of Africa; capital of the Turkish vilayet of the same name. Local tradition states that under the Fatimite dynasty in Egypt, Jews from theoasis of Pessato established the most ancient community in Tripoli. Benjamin of Tudela, on the other hand, who traveled through northern Africa in the latter part of the twelfth century and visited Tunis and Alexandria, makes no mention of Tripoli. When the Jews were exiled from Spain in 1492, they avoided Tripoli, which was then a part of the dominions of Ferdinand the Catholic; nor did they settle there until it passed into the hands of Sultan Sulaiman the Magnificent in 1551. The surnames of the Jewish families of Tripoli show that Spanish Jews never resided in the city in considerable numbers; for instead of bearing names like "Toledo," "Carmona," and "Tarragone," they are called "Arbib," "Hasan," "Halefi," "Racah," "Tayar," "Tamam," etc. Moreover, the traveler Benjamin II. drew particular attention to the fact that the family of Sylva was descended from Spanish Maranos who had come to the city at some unknown period. In 1667 Miguel Cardoso, one of the most ardent disciples of Shabbethai Ẓebi, endeavored to establish a Shabbethaian sect at Tripoli, but was forced by the Jews to leave the city.

Special Purims.

In 1705 the Bey of Tunis made war upon Ḥalil Pasha, governor of Tripoli, and threatened to put the inhabitants to the sword; but his camp was ravaged by an epidemic, and he was forced to retreat. In memory of this event the local rabbis instituted a yearly festival on the 24th of Ṭebet, called "Purim Sherif," or "Purim Kidebuni." Eighty-seven years later a corsair named Borghel attacked Ali Pasha Karamanli, the governor, and committed many atrocities in the city, burning at the stake the son of Abraham Ḥalfon, the caid of the Tripolitan Jews. At the end of two years, however, Karamanli succeeded in expelling the invaders; and in commemoration of this deliverance the Jews established the Purim Borghel, which falls on the 29th of Ṭebet. See Purims, Special.

When Benjamin II. visited Tripoli in 1850, he found there about 1,000 Jewish families, with eight synagogues and several Talmudic schools, while the spiritual interests of the community were in the keeping of four rabbis.

Tripoli has produced a number of rabbinical authors, the most important being the following: Simeon b. Labi, who flourished about 1509 and was the head of a local Talmudic school, besides being the author of a cabalistic commentary on Genesis entitled "Ketem Paz" and of a hymn on Simeon b. Yoḥai; Abraham Ḥalfon, who flourished in the latter part of the eighteenth century and wrote "Ḥayye Abraham" (Leghorn, 1826), on the ritual laws of the Bible and the Talmud, in addition to a manuscript diary, still extant; Moses Serussi, who flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century and wrote the "Wa-Yasheb Mosheh"; and Ḥayyim Cohen, author of "Millot ha-Melek," "Leb Shomea'," "Zokrenu le-Ḥayyim," "'Ereb Pesaḥ," "Allon Bakut," "Perush al-Seliḥot," "Na'awah Ḳodesh," "Torat Ḥayyim," "Perush Hosha'anot," and "Miḳra Ḳodesh."

Rabbis and Scholars.

The administration of the community, which pays an annual tax of 4,890 francs for exemption from military service, is in the hands of a chief rabbi ("ḥakam bashi"), who is assisted by four judges. Since 1840 the following chief rabbis have officiated at Tripoli: Jacob Memun (d. 1849), Shalom Tito, Moses Arbib, Elijah Hazan (1874-88; appointed by a firman of the sultan Aziz and decorated with the Order of the Medjidie), Ezekiel Sasson (1897), David Ḳimḥi (1897-1902), and the present incumbent, Shabbethai Levi. The Jews of Tripoli, who are characterized by many superstitious beliefs, now (1905) number 12,000 in a total population of 40,000. Theyhave many representatives in various mechanical and mercantile pursuits. They possess eighteen synagogues, eleven yeshibot, a society for the relief of the sick; also two schools maintained by the Alliance, Israélite Universelle.

A number of towns in the vicinity of Tripoli contain a considerable Jewish population, e.g., Amrum, 1,000; Derne or Derna, 150; Garian, 300; Homs, 300; Messilata, 350; Misserato, Idir, and Maatin, 400; Tajoorah, 200; Yiffren or Jebel, 1,000; Zanzbur, 60; Zawiel, 450; and Ziliten, 450.

Bibliography: Dezobry, Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie; Benjamin II., Mas'e Yisrael, p. 166; Franco, Histoire des Israélites de l'Empire Ottoman, p. 121; Hazan, Ha-Ma'alot li-Shelomoh, pp. 38, 116; Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, s.v. Simeon b. Labi; Bulletin de l'Alliance Israélite Universelle, 1885, 1889, 1890, 1903; Revue des Ecoles de l'Alliance Israélite Universelle, pp. 81, 153, 358, 421, 428; R. E. J. xx. 78 et seq.

This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
Facts about TripoliRDF feed

Simple English

There is also Tripoli, Greece.

Tripoli is a city in Libya. It is the capital of the country.

File:Photo 091
Tripoli (Photo: Patrick-André Perron) [1]

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