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Trnava
City
Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in Trnava
Coat of arms
Country  Slovakia
Region Trnava
District Trnava
River Trnávka
Elevation 146 m (479 ft)
Coordinates 48°22′39″N 17°35′18″E / 48.3775°N 17.58833°E / 48.3775; 17.58833
Area 71.535 km2 (27.62 sq mi)
Population 68,466 (2006-12-31)
Density 957 /km2 (2,479 /sq mi)
First mentioned 1211
Mayor Štefan Bošnák
Timezone CET (UTC+1)
 - summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 917 01
Area code +421-33
Car plate TT
Location in Slovakia
Location in Slovakia
Location in the Trnava Region
Location in the Trnava Region
Wikimedia Commons: Trnava
Statistics: MOŠ/MIS
Website: www.trnava.sk

Trnava (About this sound pronunciation ; German: Tyrnau; Hungarian: Nagyszombat, Latin: Tyrnavia) is a city in western Slovakia, 47 km to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river. It is the capital of a kraj (Trnava Region) and of an okres (Trnava District). It was the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishopric (1541–1820 and then again since 1977). The city has a historic center. Because of the many churches within its city walls, Trnava has often been called "parva Roma", i. e. "Little Rome", or more recently, the "Slovak Rome".

Contents

Name

The name of the city is derived from the Slovak word tŕnie ("thornbush") which characterized the river banks in the region. The Hungarian name (first mentioned in 1238 in the form of Zumbotel) originates from the Hungarian word szombat ("Saturday"), referring to the weekly market fairs held on Saturdays.

History

Square of the Holy Trinity

Permanent settlements on the city's territory are known from the Neolithic period onwards. During the Middle Ages, an important market settlement arose here at the junction of two important roads – from Bohemia to Hungary and from the Mediterranean to Poland.

The first written reference to Trnava dates from 1211. In 1238, Trnava was the first town in (present-day) Slovakia to be granted a town charter (civic privileges) by the king. The former agricultural center gradually became a center of manufacture, trade, and crafts. By the early 13th century, the king of Hungary had invited numerous Germans to settle in Trnava; this settlement increased after the Tatar invasion in 1242. At the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, a part of Trnava was enclosed by very long city walls. The original Slovak market settlement and the Germans, however, stayed behind this wall.

Trnava was also the place of many important negotiations: Charles I, the king of Hungary, signed here a currency agreement with the Czech King John of Luxemburg in 1327, and King Louis I (who often stayed in the town and died there in 1380) signed a friendship agreement with Emperor Charles IV there in 1360.

The temporary German majority in Trnava's population ceased in favour of the Slovaks during the campaigns undertaken by the Czech Hussites in the 15th century, who opposed Germans and made Trnava the center of the campaigns in northwestern Kingdom of Hungary from 1432 to 1435. The town, along with the rest of the territory of present-day Slovakia, gained importance after the conquest of most of what is today Hungary by the Ottoman Empire in 1541, when Trnava became the see (1541–1820) of the Archbishopric of Esztergom (before 1541 and after 1820 the see was the town of Esztergom, which was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1543). The cathedrals of the archbishopric were the Saint John the Baptist Cathedral and the Saint Nicholas Cathedral in the town. Many ethnic Hungarians fleeing from the Turks moved to the town after 1541 from present-day Hungary.

In the 16th and especially the 17th century, Trnava was an important center of the Counter-Reformation in the Kingdom of Hungary (at the time largely identical with the territory of present-day Slovakia and a strip of western Hungary). The Archbishop Nicolas Oláh invited the Jesuits to Trnava in 1561 in order to develop the municipal school system. Subsequently, he had a seminary opened in 1566 and in 1577 Trnava’s priest Nicolas Telegdi founded a book-printing house in the town. The first Catholic Bible translation into Hungarian (based on the Latin Vulgate) was also completed in the town by the Jesuit György Káldi who was born there in 1573. The 17th century was also characterized by many anti-Habsburg uprisings in the country – these revolts of Stephen Bocskay, Gabriel Bethlen, George I Rákóczi, and Imre Thököly negatively affected Trnava’s life. On 26 December, in 1704 Francis II Rákóczi's army suffered deciding defeat from Sigbert Heister general's imperial army at the border of Trnava.

The Jesuit Trnava University (1635–1777), the only university of the Kingdom of Hungary at that time, was founded by Archbishop Péter Pázmány. Founded to support the Counter-Reformation, it soon became a center of Slovak education and literature, since most of the teachers, one half of the students and the majority of the town’s inhabitants were Slovaks. Pázmány himself was instrumental in promoting the usage of the Slovak instead of the Czech language and had his work "Isteni igazságra vezető kalauz" (Guide to the Truth of God) and several of his sermons translated into the local vernacular. From the late 18th century Trnava became a center of the literary and artistic Slovak National Revival. The first standard codification of the Slovak language (by the priest Anton Bernolák in 1787) was based on the Slovak dialect used in the region of Trnava. During the 1848 Revolution Richard Guyon's army fought here with an Austrian army on 14 December, in 1848.

The importance of the town decreased in the early 19th century, when the university was moved to Buda (today: Eötvös Loránd University) and the see of the archbishopric moved back to Esztergom. It increased however partly again after 1844, when Trnava was connected with Bratislava through the first railway line in the Kingdom of Hungary, which was a horse railway (steam engines were used since 1872). The railway connection launched a modernization of the town, which started with the erection of a big sugar factory, a malt-house and of the Coburgh’s factory (later referred to as Trnavské automobilové závody, i.e. "Trnava Car Factory"). The St. Adalbert Association (Spolok sv. Vojtecha), founded in 1870 when the Slovak foundation (Matica slovenská) was prohibited by the Hungarian authorities, kept up the Slovak national conscience at a time of strong Magyarisation in Hungary. In the 19th but mainly in the early 20th century the town grew behind its city walls and a part of the wall was demolished in the 19th century, but most of it is still well-preserved.

Until World War II, Trnava was also home to a sizable Jewish minority. Their freedom to move was restricted as early as in 1495 and from 1539 to 1800, and 12 Jews were burned publicly in 1870 during a pogrom.

After the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, Trnava was one of the most industrialized cities of Slovakia. In 1977, by a decision of Pope Paul VI, Trnava became the see of a separate Slovak archbishopric (although the seat in 2008 moved to Bratislava the city still remains a seat of its own archbishopric). With the establishment of this archbishopric, Slovakia became independent of Hungary again also in terms of church administration for the first time in centuries.

After the establishment of Slovakia (1993), Trnava became the capital of the newly created Trnava Region in 1996. The French car manufacturer PSA began construction of a large automobile plant in Trnava in 2003.

Geography

Trnava lies at an altitude of 146 metres (479 ft) above sea level and covers an area of 71.535 square kilometres (27.6 sq mi).[1] It is located in the Danubian Lowland on the Trnávka river, around 45 kilometres (28 mi) north-east of Bratislava, 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of Nitra and around 70 kilometres (43 mi) from the Czech border. The closest mountain ranges are the Little Carpathians to the west and the Považský Inovec to the north-east of the city.

Climate

Trnava lies in the north temperate zone and has a continental climate with four distinct seasons. It is characterized by a significant variation between hot summers and cold winters.

Weather data for Trnava (observed at Piešťany)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 2
(35)
4
(40)
10
(49)
16
(60)
21
(70)
24
(75)
26
(79)
26
(79)
21
(70)
15
(59)
7
(45)
3
(37)
Average low °C (°F) -4
(25)
-3
(26)
0
(33)
4
(40)
9
(49)
12
(54)
14
(56)
14
(57)
10
(50)
6
(43)
2
(35)
-2
(28)
Precipitation cm (inches) 1.78
(0.70)
2.11
(0.83)
2.15
(0.85)
3.15
(1.24)
3.83
(1.51)
4.90
(1.93)
4.83
(1.90)
3.53
(1.39)
4.05
(1.59)
2.89
(1.14)
3.09
(1.22)
3.85
(1.12)
Source: MSN Weather[2] 2008-01-21

Main sights

Gothic St. Nicolas’ Church in Trnava.
Tower in the historical center of Trnava.

As early as in the Middle Ages, Trnava was an important centre of Gothic religious and lay architecture – St. Nicolas’s Church, St. Helen’s Church and several church monastery complexes (Clarist, Franciscan and Dominican) were built in this period.

The Renaissance (16th century) added a town tower to Trnava’s silhouette. Nicolas Oláh ordered the erection of the Seminary and Archbishop’s Palace. Peter Bornemisza and Huszár Gál, the leading personalities of the Reformation in the Kingdom of Hungary, were active in Trnava for a short time. The town ramparts were rebuilt to a Renaissance fortification as a reaction to the approaching Turkish danger from the south.

The 17th century was characterized by the construction of the Pualinian Church that bears badges of Silesian Renaissance. Trnava was gradually redesigned to Baroque. The erection of the St. John the Baptist Church and of the university campus launched a building rush that continued with the reconstruction of the Franciscan and Clarist’s complexes. Builders and artists called to build the university also participated in improvements of the burgher architecture. The Holy Trinity Statue and the group of statues of St. Joseph, the Ursulinian and Trinitarian Church and Monastery are of recent construction.

The District hospital was built 1824. The building of the theatre started in May 1831 and the first performance was played at Christmas. Both of the Trnava synagogues, historizing structures with oriental motifs, date back to the 19th century.

Demographics

According to the last census from 2001, Trnava had 70,286 inhabitants, while according to the estimate from 2006, Trnava has 68,466 inhabitants with an average age of 37.3 years.

Nationality (2001 census):

  • Slovaks (96.89%)
  • Czechs (0.79%)
  • Roma (0.27%)
  • Hungarians (0.21%)

Age:[3]

  • Pre-productive Age: 9,947
  • Productive Age: 46,742
  • Post-productive Age: 11,603

Government

The current government structure has been in place since 1990, and is composed of a mayor (primátor) and of a city council (Mestské zastupiteľstvo), which in turn leads a city board (Mestská rada) and city commissions (Komisie mestského zastupiteľstva). The mayor is the city's top executive officer, elected for a four-year term; the current mayor is Štefan Bošnák, who is serving his fourth term and leads the city since 1994.[4] The city council is the highest legislative body of the city, represented by 31 councillors, elected to a concurrent term with the mayor's. Since 2002, Trnava is divided into six urban districts, with area and further sub-units in parentheses:

  • Trnava-centre (2.15 km2; Staré mesto [Old Town], Špiglsál)
  • Trnava-west (20.60 km2; Prednádražie)
  • Trnava-south (8.03 km2; Tulipán, Linčianska)
  • Trnava-east (10.66 km2; Hlboká, Vozovka)
  • Trnava-north (22.33 km2; Kopánka, Zátvor, Vodáreň)
  • Modranka (7.76 km2)

However, compared to the present-day total area of 71.53 km2, the city used to have a larger area. Its height was in the 1970s, when it annexed villages of Modranka, Biely Kostol and Hrnčiarovce nad Parnou, reaching an area of almost 90 km2. The latter two separated in 1993 and 1994, respectively.[5]

Education

Aerial photography of Trnava

Trnava is the seat of two universities: University of Trnava (present) with 7,159 students, including 446 doctoral students.[6] and of the University of St. Cyril and Methodius, with 6,833 students.[7] The city's system of primary education consists of nine public schools and one religious primary school, enrolling in overall 5,422 pupils.[8] Secondary education is represented by four gymnasia with 2,099 students,[9], 7 specialized high schools with 3,212 students,[10] and 6 vocational schools with 3,697 students.[11][12]

Transport

The city lies at the crossroads of two roads of international importance; from the Czech Republic to southern Slovakia and from Bratislava to northern Slovakia. The D1 motorway connects the city to Bratislava, Trenčín and Žilina and the R1 expressway connects it to Nitra. A part of a planned bypass is currently under construction. The city also has an important station on the Bratislava–Žilina railway, with two tracks from Sereď and Kúty (near the Czech border) ending in the city. Although there is a small airstrip at the north-eastern edge, closest international airports are in Bratislava and Vienna. The city also operates a public transport service, currently represented by 16 regular and other lines.[13]

Famous people

Town hall of Trnava

Sister and twin cities

See also

References

  1. ^ "Municipal Statistics". Statistical Office of the Slovak republic. http://www.statistics.sk/mosmis/eng/run.html. Retrieved 2008-01-21.  
  2. ^ "Monthly Averages for Trnava, Slovakia". MSN. http://weather.msn.com/monthly_averages.aspx?&wealocations=wc%3aLOXX0007&setunit=C. Retrieved 21 January 2008.  
  3. ^ Mestská a obecná štatistika SR
  4. ^ "Vizitky primátorov krajských miest (Short biographies of regional cities' mayors)" (in Slovak). Pravda. 3 December 2006. http://spravy.pravda.sk/vizitky-primatorov-krajskych-miest-d7h-/sk_domace.asp?c=A061203_080548_sk_domace_P04. Retrieved 11 May 2008.  
  5. ^ "Profile of the city of Trnava as of 31 December 2007" (PDF). City of Trnava. no date. http://www.trnava.sk/new/upload/dokumenty/profil_071231_EN.pdf. Retrieved May 11, 2008.  
  6. ^ "Trnavská univerzita" (in Slovak) (PDF). Ústav informácií a prognóz školstva. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/VS_P19.PDF. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  7. ^ "Univerzita sv. Cyrila a Metoda" (in Slovak) (PDF). Ústav informácií a prognóz školstva. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/VS_P6.PDF. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  8. ^ "Prehľad základných škôl v školskom roku 2006/2007" (in Slovak) (PDF). Ústav informácií a prognóz školstva. 2006. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/ZS_P2.PDF. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  9. ^ "Prehľad gymnázií v školskom roku 2006/2007" (in Slovak) (PDF). Ústav informácií a prognóz školstva. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/GYM_P2.PDF. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  10. ^ "Prehľad stredných odborných škôl v školskom roku 2006/2007" (in Slovak) (PDF). Ústav informácií a prognóz školstva. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/SOS_P2.PDF. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  11. ^ "Prehľad združených stredných škôl v školskom roku 2006/2007" (in Slovak) (PDF). Ústav informácií a prognóz školstva. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/ZSS_P3.PDF. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  12. ^ "Prehľad stredných odborných učilíšť a učilíšť v školskom roku 2006/2007" (in Slovak) (PDF). Ústav informácií a prognóz školstva. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/SOU_P3.PDF. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  13. ^ "Trasy liniek mestskej hromadnej dopravy (Routes of the public transport lines)" (in Slovak). imhd.sk. no date. http://www.imhd.sk/tt/index.php?w=3933213234ef2f302523ea. Retrieved May 11, 2008.  

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Trnava [1] is a town in western Slovakia with a population of over 70,000.

Trnava city center, city tower
Trnava city center, city tower

Understand

Trnava has rich history as a medieval city. It used to be seat of university as early as in 17th century. It has also been seat of archbishop and the catholic church has influenced city during its history. There are many churches in city, well preserved baroque city center, it has been nicknamed "little Rome". Trnava has been indutrialized since beginning of 20th century. Recently it emerged as one of centers of Slovak automotive industry with big PSA Peugeot car plant built in 2005 and many smaller car components producers. Nuclear power plant is located close to the city near village Jaslovske Bohunice.

Get in

By train

Trnava lies on major Slovak train route (from Bratislava to Kosice). Therefore there is quite easy railway access from most of major Slovak cities. Train travel from Bratislava takes only about 30 minutes. There are another two railway lines stemming from Trnava: one with westward direction (Smolenice, Kuty) and another leading south-east to town of Sered. Trnava has direct railway connections with these European capitals: Vienna, Warsaw. Kiev.

By bus

Trnava is located on major D1 Slovak freeway and close to its R1 intersection. It has good connection to Slovak capital Bratislava and nearby cities such as Nitra, Piestany, Trencin. Bus station is located is located near Trnava city center next to railway station. There are buses leaving to/arriving from Bratislava at least once in every hour, more frequently in peak hours. Quite many people commute from Trnava to Bratislava and also from nearby villages to Trnava. Bus travel from Bratislava to Trnava takes about 50 minutes. There are direct bus lines to some major European cities such as Prague, Vienna, Munich.

By plane

Bratislava Airport (IATA: BTS) is nearest commercial airport located about 40 km southward. Another close airport is Vienna International Airport (IATA: VIE). Small airport serving mostly ultra-light aviation is located some 10 km westward near village of Boleraz.

Get around

Most points of interest can be reached from the center by walking. Car or taxi is preferred option to reach city outskirts. Keep in mind that traffic jams are quite common in peak hours. Trnava has public transportation system consisting of 16 bus lines. However, their frequency and comfort are rather insufficient. There are some bicycle paths in the city.

Learn

Trnava university in Trnava

Buy

City center (Stefanikova and Hlavna streets, Trinity square) has been traditional shopping area. Oldest shopping center Jednota is located there. Modern shopping centers have opened in recent years. Shopping center Max is about 1 km from city center near bus and railway stations. Major modern shopping cluster has evolved in north part of the city around Arkadia shopping park and Tesco mall.

Sleep

There are several small hotels and so called "pensions" in the town.

Mid-range

Hotel Dream *** in the centre, Kapitulska 12

Contact

There is free wifi zone in city center around Trinity square. Some restaurants, cafes offer wifi for their clients and there are few internet cafes in the city as well.

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Simple English

Trnava
Trnava, Church of John the Baptist
Nickname(s): Little/Slovak Rome
Location of Trnava within Slovakia
Coordinates: 48°22′37″N 17°35′35″E / 48.37694°N 17.59306°E / 48.37694; 17.59306
Country Slovakia
Region (kraj) Trnava Region
Districts Trnava District
First mentioned 1211
Population (2005)
 - Total 68,292
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal Code 91700
Website www.trnava.sk

Trnava (German: Tyrnau, Hungarian: Nagyszombat) is a city in western Slovakia, around 50 km from the capital Bratislava. Because it has so many churches with its town walls, it is commonly called Little Rome or Slovak Rome.

History

The town was first mentioned in 1211. It received royal free town privileges as the first town in Slovakia in 1238. The town had its height as a cultural and religious centre, as it was seat of archbishopric from 1541 to 1820. The first horse drawn railway in the Kingdom of Hungary was built to Trnava from Bratislava in 1846. It is again an seat of archbishopric since 1978. In 2003, French car manufacturer PSA started construction of automobile plant. It was finished in 2006

Twin towns

Other websites

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frr:Trnava








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