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Trojan War
.J G Trautmann Das brennende Troja.jpg
The Fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769).
^ The fall of Troy by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769) From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Burning of Troy", c.1750 by the German artist Johann Georg Trautmann.
  • CSCP - MAS - War with Troy - Episode 12 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.cambridgescp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Search Filter: Moderate Search Images , Videos , News for "Battle Of Troy" Trojan War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The fall of Troy , by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769) ...
  • Battle Of Troy - Dogpile Web Search 11 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.dogpile.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe.^ The fall of Troy by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769) From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the collection of the Granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe, Germany.
  • CSCP - MAS - War with Troy - Episode 12 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.cambridgescp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Date 10-year war in the Bronze Age
Location Troy (Çanakkale Province, Turkey)
Belligerents
.Ithaca, Sparta, Mycenae, Myrmidons, et al.^ At the forefront of this attack were Menelaus, king of Sparta, his brother, Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and Argos, and Odysseus, king of Ithaca.

^ A. Crete B. Sparta C. Ithaca D. Mycenae E. Corintha 19.

^ A. Crete B. Sparta C. Ithaca D. Mycenae E. Corintha   19.
  • Trojan War Quiz 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.greatauk.com [Source type: Academic]

Troy
Commanders
Odysseus
Menelaus
Agamemnon
Achilles †
Ajax †
Priam †
Hector †
Paris †
.In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta.^ The Trojan War was a war waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor, by the armies of the Achaeans, following the kidnapping (or elopement) of Helen of Sparta by Paris of Troy.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Then Helen and Menelaus set sail for Sparta.

^ Menelaus Bad Love Helen eloped with Paris and caused her husband to gather the Greeks and attack Troy.
  • Trojan War Quiz 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.greatauk.com [Source type: Academic]

.The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer.^ The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology, and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer.
  • What is the cause of trojan war? - Yahoo! Answers 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The Trojan War is a war discussed in Greek mythology.
  • Questions about Trojan War - Ask.com 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]
  • Trojan War - Ask.com 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Homer, Iliad Γ.441 Odyssey δ.261.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

."The Iliad" relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey describes the journey home of Odysseus, one of the Achaean leaders.^ The Iliad relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy, and the Odyssey describes the journey home of one of the Greek leaders, Odysseus.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iliad covers a short period in the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey concerns Odysseus's return to his home island of Ithaca after the sack of Troy.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iliad relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey describes the journey home of Odysseus, one of the Achaean leaders.
  • What is the cause of trojan war? - Yahoo! Answers 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Other parts of the war were told in a cycle of epic poems, which has only survived in fragments.^ Other parts of the war were told in a cycle of epic poems, which has only survived in fragments.
  • What is the cause of trojan war? - Yahoo! Answers 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Other parts of the story were narrated in a cycle of epic poems, which has only survived in fragments.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cyclic Epics only survive in fragments.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets like Virgil and Ovid.^ Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets like Virgil and Ovid.
  • What is the cause of trojan war? - Yahoo! Answers 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and the Roman poets Virgil and Ovid .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and Roman poets like Virgil and Ovid .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The war originated from a quarrel between the goddesses Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite, after Eris, the goddess of strife and discord, gave them a golden apple, sometimes known as the Apple of Discord, marked "for the fairest". Zeus sent the goddesses to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the "fairest", should receive the apple.^ The goddesses went to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the "fairest", should receive the apple.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The goddesses Hera, Athena and Aphrodite were there, and each thought that she was the fairest of them all.
  • YOU ARE THE REPORTER: The Trojan war 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.isd381.k12.mn.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The three goddesses asked Zeus to be their judge.

.In exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all women and wife of Menelaus, fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy.^ The award of the apple to Aphrodite, goddess of love, by Paris, son of King Priam of Troy, secured for Paris the favor of the goddess and the love of the beautiful Helen of Troy, wife of Menelaus, the king of Sparta.
  • TROJAN WAR, 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]
  • TROJAN WAR, 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ As legend as it, Prince Paris of Troy fell in love with a beautiful human named Helen.
  • The Trojan Horse and Helen of Troy: Fact or Fiction? - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Paris chose Aphrodite, and she promised him that Helen, wife of Menelaus, would be his wife.
  • History of the Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and the brother of Helen's husband Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris' insult.^ Menelaus returned to Sparta with Helen 8 years after he had left Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Acheans besieged Troy for nine years.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Agamemnon , king of Mycenae , and the brother of Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the deaths of many heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse.^ The Trojans drag the horse into the city.
  • CSCP - MAS - War with Troy - Episode 12 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.cambridgescp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Achilles' armour and the death of Ajax .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ After the deaths of many heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles and Aias and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Achaeans slaughtered the Trojans (except for some of the women and children whom they kept or sold as slaves) and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods' wrath.^ The women, and girls were kept and later sold as slaves.
  • Historical Analysis of Physical Activity -- The Trojan Horse 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC instructional1.calstatela.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Achaeans mercilessly slaughtered the Trojans and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods' wrath.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious Influence In Ancient Greece In a world where gods walked the earth, the mortals with whom they co-existed left nothing to chance.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Few of the Achaeans returned safely to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores.^ Few leaders reached home safely.

^ Few of the Achaeans returned to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Achaeans next desire to return home, but are restrained by Achilles, who afterwards drives off the cattle of Aeneas, and sacks Lyrnessus and Pedasus and many of the neighbouring cities, and kills Troilus.
  • OMACL: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica: The Cypria(fragments) 11 September 2009 22:41 UTC omacl.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Romans later traced their origin to Aeneas, one of the Trojans, who was said to have led the surviving Trojans to modern day Italy.^ The Romans later traced their origin to Aeneas , one of the Trojans, who was said to have led the surviving Trojans to Italy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But since some towns are founded several times, there is also one Ephesus, son of the river god Cayster, who is said to have founded the city that bears his name.
  • AMAZONS - Greek Mythology Link 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to later versions of the legend, it was at this time that the Trojans captured a young man named Sinon who had aided the Greeks.
  • The Legend of the Trojan Horse: Clever Odysseus Outwits the Trojans and Wins the War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC greek-history.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Ancient Greeks thought the Trojan War was a historical event that had taken place in the 13th or 12th century BC, and believed that Troy was located in modern day Turkey near the Dardanelles.^ Until the 19th century it was widely believed that Troy and the Trojan war were imaginary.
  • YOU ARE THE REPORTER: The Trojan war 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.isd381.k12.mn.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Ancient Greeks believed that the Trojan War was a historical event.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan War 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC www.searching.uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Trojan War took place, what was it like?
  • Page and Stage » Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC pageandstage.org [Source type: Original source]

.By modern times both the war and the city were widely believed to be non-historical.^ By modern times both the war and the city were widely believed to be mythological.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although this was filmed some time ago, I believe it is still current in the scholarly research concerning Homer and the Trojan War.
  • Rent In-Search-Of-The-Trojan-War from 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC dvdrental.cd-wow.com [Source type: General]

^ We will also consider the archaeological and historical evidence for the ancient city of Troy, as well as representations of the Trojan war in art and film.
  • TROY & THE TROJAN WAR 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1870, however, German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated a site in this area which he identified as Troy; this claim is nowadays accepted by most scholars.^ In 1870, however, the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated a site in this area which he believed to be the site of Troy, and at least some archaeologists agree.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 19th century, archeologist Heinrich Schliemann placed the location of ancient Troy in modern Turkey, near the Dardanelles.
  • King Nestor - Argonaut And Trojan War Hero's Palace Discovered In Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.scientificblogging.com [Source type: General]

^ The traditional dates of the Trojan War have been determined to have occurred about 1193-1183 BC. When Heinrich Schliemann excavated the site in 1873, he uncovered nine layers of ruins on top of each other going back to 2300 BC. Homer’s Troy was finally identified with the third layer of ruins from the top.
  • The Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.marvunapp.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .Whether there is any historical reality behind the Trojan War is an open question.^ Did the Trojan War really happen?
  • Page and Stage » Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC pageandstage.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Strauss Offers Fresh Look at 'Trojan War' : NPR 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Which historical reality is behind these tales?
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - trojan war 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trojan War as an historical event."
  • Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2008.06.11 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC bmcr.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Many scholars believe that there is a historical core to the tale, though this may simply mean that the Homeric stories are a fusion of various tales of sieges and expeditions by Mycenaean Greeks during the Bronze Age.^ Homer's stories are believed by many to be the merging of many wars fought on Troy.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many historians believe that the Homeric stories are a fusion of various stories of sieges and expeditions by the Greeks of the Bronze Age or Mycenean period, and do not describe actual events.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Many scholars believe that there is a historical core to the tale, though this may simply mean that the Homeric stories are a fusion of various tales of sieges and expeditions by Mycenaean Greeks during the Bronze Age.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those who believe that the stories of the Trojan War derive from a specific historical conflict usually date it to the 12th or 11th centuries BC, often preferring the dates given by Eratosthenes, 1194–1184 BC, which roughly corresponds with archaeological evidence of a catastrophic burning of Troy VIIa.^ After the Trojan War The story of the Trojan War does not end with the end of the war.
  • Story of the Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iliad is not the story of the whole Trojan War.
  • Strauss Offers Fresh Look at 'Trojan War' : NPR 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Until the 19th century it was widely believed that Troy and the Trojan War were myths.

[2]
Topics in Greek mythology
Gods
Heroes
Related

Contents

Sources

.The events of the Trojan War are found in many works of Greek literature and depicted in numerous works of Greek art.^ Ancient Greeks believed that the Trojan War was a historical event.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan War 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC www.searching.uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trojan War in art and fiction .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Trojan War Greek warriors .
  • Trojan War, the greatest conflict in Classical Mythology 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.igreekmythology.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is no single, authoritative text which tells the entire events of the war.^ There is no one authoritative narrative of the whole war.
  • Legend of the Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]
  • TVM Entry Floor: Greek War against Troy 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.tigtail.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Trojan War 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In an apocalyptic war, there are no winners.
  • Saudi Aramco World : Who Were the Sea People? 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no single, authoritative text which tells the entire story of the war.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, the story is assembled from a variety of sources, some of which report contradictory versions of the events.^ Instead, the story is assembled from a variety of sources, some of which report contradictory versions of the events.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, the story is assembled from many different sources, which sometimes report contradictory versions of events.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Often with Greek literature and stories from the Bronze age there are several different, even contradictory, versions.
  • TVM Entry Floor: Greek War against Troy 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.tigtail.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most important literary sources are the two epic poems traditionally credited to Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey , composed sometime between the ninth and sixth centuries BC.[3] Each poem narrates only a part of the war.^ Many Greek and Roman texts describe the Trojan War, but the earliest and most influential were Homer’s two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
  • Page and Stage » Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC pageandstage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer, Iliad Γ.441 Odyssey δ.261.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of these epics have been lost, except for two by Homer---the Iliad and the Odyssey .
  • Homer and the Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Iliad covers a short period in the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey concerns Odysseus's return to his home island of Ithaca, following the sack of Troy.^ The Iliad relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy, and the Odyssey describes the journey home of one of the Greek leaders, Odysseus.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iliad covers a short period in the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey concerns Odysseus's return to his home island of Ithaca after the sack of Troy.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Odysseus' ten year journey home to Ithaca was told in Homer's Odyssey.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other parts of the Trojan War were told in the poems of the Epic Cycle, also known as the Cyclic Epics: the Cypria, Aethiopis, Little Iliad, Iliou Persis, Nostoi, and Telegony.^ Trojan War cycle .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Several other poems fill the story of the Trojan War that was untold by Homer, these were known as the Epic Cycle or Cyclic Epics.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Other parts of the Trojan War were told in the poems of the Epic Cycle , also known as the Cyclic Epics.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though these poems survive only in fragments, their content is known from a summary included in Proclus' Chrestomathy.^ Though these poems survive only in fragments, their content is known from a summary included in Proclus' Chrestomathy.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These poems only survive in fragments, but their content is known from a summary included in Proclus' Chrestomathy .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cyclic Epics only survive in fragments.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

[4] .The authorship of the Cyclic Epics is uncertain.^ The authorship of the Cyclic Epics is uncertain.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The date and authorship of the Cyclic Epics is uncertain, but it is often though that they were composed in the 7th and the 6th century BC. Burgess, pp.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is generally thought that the poems were written down in the seventh and sixth century BC, after the composition of the Homeric poems, though it is widely believed that they were based on earlier traditions.^ The Odyssey was written by Homer (9th-8th century BC).

^ The Iliad was written by Homer (9th-8th century BC).

^ It is generally thought that the poems were written down in the seventh and sixth century BC, after the composition of the Homeric poems, though it is widely believed that they were based on earlier traditions.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Both the Homeric epics and the Epic Cycle take origin from oral tradition.^ Both the Homeric epics and the Cyclic epics had their origins in a flourishing oral tradition of stories of the Trojan War.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the Homeric epics and the Epic Cycle take origin from oral tradition.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hesiod is a very different epic poet than Homer: he composes in a catalogue style which is thought to be traditional to his region.
  • Iliad, Mythological Bckgnd, Univ. of Saskatchewan 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Even after the composition of the Iliad, Odyssey, and the Cyclic Epics, the myths of the Trojan War were passed on orally, in many genres of poetry and through non-poetic storytelling.^ Filed under: Trojan War -- Poetry .

^ Even after the composition of the Iliad, Odyssey, and the Cyclic Epics, the myths of the Trojan War were passed on orally, in many genres of poetry and through non-poetic storytelling.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iliad is not the story of the whole Trojan War.
  • Strauss Offers Fresh Look at 'Trojan War' : NPR 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

.Events and details of the story that are only found in later authors may have been passed on through oral tradition and could be as old as the Homeric poems.^ Events and details of the story that are only found in later authors may have been passed on through oral tradition and could be as old as the Homeric poems.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some further details are added to the story of Expedition #1 by later authors.
  • Troy VII and the Historicity of the Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC projectsx.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Details > Item No.: TROJ400 2 DVD Set For centuries, students have thrilled to Homer's intriguing epic poem of the fabled Trojan War.
  • In Search of the Trojan War DVD - shopPBS.org 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.shoppbs.org [Source type: General]

.Visual art, such as vase-painting, was another medium in which myths of the Trojan War circulated.^ Trojan War in art and fiction .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Visual art, such as vase-painting, was another medium in which myths of the Trojan War circulated.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trojan War in art and literature .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.In later ages playwrights, historians, and other intellectuals would create works inspired by the Trojan War.^ In later ages playwrights, historians and other intellectuals would create works inspired by the Trojan War.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In later ages playwrights, historians, and other intellectuals would create works inspired by the Trojan War.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greek Age of Bronze - trojan war .
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - trojan war 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: Original source]

.The three great tragedians of Athens, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, wrote many dramas that portray episodes from the Trojan War.^ The three great tragedians of Athens, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, wrote many dramas that portray episodes from the Trojan War.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The three great tragedians of Athens , Aeschylus , Sophocles and Euripides , wrote many dramas that portray episodes from the Trojan War.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some episodes of the Trojan War .
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.Among Roman writers the most important is the 1st century BC poet Virgil.^ Among Roman writers the most important is the 1st century BC poet Virgil .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among Roman writers the most important is the 1st century BC poet Virgil.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets like Virgil and Ovid.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is the cause of trojan war? - Yahoo! Answers 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.In Book 2 of the Aeneid, Aeneas narrates the sack of Troy; this section of the poem is thought to rely on material from the Cyclic Epic Iliou Persis.^ In Book 2 of the Aeneid , Aeneas narrates the sack of Troy; this section of the poem is thought to rely on material from the Cyclic Epic Iliou Persis.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In Book 2 of the Aeneid , Aeneas narrates the sack of Troy; this section of the poem is thought to rely on material from the Cyclic Epic Iliou Persis .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Book 2 of the Aeneid, Aeneas narrates the sack of Troy; this section of the poem is thought to rely on material from the Cyclic Epic Iliou Persis.
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[citation needed]

Legend

.The following summary of the Trojan War follows the order of events as given in Proclus' summary, along with the Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid, supplemented with details drawn from other authors.^ Legend The following summary of the Trojan War follows the order of events as given in Proclus' summary, along with the Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid, supplemented with details drawn from other authors.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trojan War as an historical event."
  • Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2008.06.11 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC bmcr.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He proceeded in orchestrating the events of the Trojan War.
  • The Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.marvunapp.com [Source type: Original source]

Origins of the war

The plan of Zeus

.For the foundation of Troy and her first fall to Heracles, see Troy: "Legendary Troy".^ Origins of the war [edit] The plan of Zeus For the foundation of Troy and her first fall to Heracles, see Troy: "Legendary Troy".
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the foundation of Troy and her first fall to Heracles see Troy: "Legendary Troy" .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See Heracles' war upon Troy .

.According to Greek mythology, Zeus had become king of the gods by overthrowing his father Kronos; Kronos in turn had overthrown his father Uranus.^ According to Greek mythology, Zeus had become king of the gods by overthrowing his father Cronus; Cronus in turn had overthrown his father Uranus.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Greek mythology, Zeus became king of the gods by overthrowing his father Cronus ; Cronus in turn had overthrown his father Ouranos .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How did Zeus become ruler of the Greek gods?
  • Mythology: Summary and Analysis for Greek Mythology: The Trojan War — Odysseus' Adventures - CliffsNotes 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Zeus was not faithful to his wife and sister Hera, and had many relationships from which many children were born.^ Zeus was not faithful to his wife and sister Hera, and had many relationships from which many children were born.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zeus's wife and favorite sister.
  • Trojan War Net Homework Help 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Zeus was not faithful to his wife (and sister) Hera and had many relationships from which many children were born.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since Zeus believed that there were too many people populating the earth, he envisioned Momus[7] or Themis,[8] who was to use the Trojan War as a means to depopulate the Earth, especially of his demigod descendants.^ Since there were too many people populating the earth already he came up along with Themis with the idea of the Trojan War in order to depopulate the Earth, especially of his demigod descendants.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since there were too many people populating the earth already he came up along with Themis with the idea of the Trojan War in order to depopulate the Earth, especially of his demigod descendants [10] [11] .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Since there were too many people populating the earth already he came up along with either Momos or Themis with the idea of the Trojan War in order to depopulate the Earth, especially of his demigod descendants.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[9]

The marriage of Peleus and Thetis, the Apple of Discord, and the Judgement of Paris

See also Judgement of Paris.
.Zeus came to learn from either Themis[10] or Prometheus, after Heracles had released him from Caucasus,[11] that, like his father Kronos, one of his sons would overthrow him.^ Zeus came to learn from either Themis[10] or Prometheus, after Heracles had released him from Caucasus,[11] that, like his father Cronus, one of his sons would overthrow him.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zeus was told that this son would one day overthrow him, as he had done to his own father (Cronus).

^ Zeus came to learn from either Themis or Prometheus, after Heracles had released him from Caucasus, that he himself would be overthrown by a son.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another prophecy stated that a son of the sea-nymph Thetis, with whom Zeus fell in love with after gazing upon her in the oceans off the Greek coast, would become greater than his father.^ However, a prophecy said she would have a son who was greater than his father.
  • Trojan War Summary 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.dmturner.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Zeus, father of the gods, desired the nymph Thetis.
  • Trojan War Summary 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.dmturner.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Zeus learned of an ancient prophecy that Thetis would give birth to a son greater than his father, so he gave his divine blessing to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis.
  • Welcome to the Classics Department at Haverford College 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.haverford.edu [Source type: Original source]

[12] .Possibly for one or both of these reasons,[13] Thetis was betrothed to an elderly human king, Peleus son of Aiakos, either upon Zeus' orders,[14] or because she wished to please Hera, who had raised her.^ Possibly for one or both of these reasons [17], Thetis was betrothed to a now-elderly human king, Peleus son of Aiakos, either upon Zeus' orders [18] [19], or because Thetis wished to please Hera since she had raised her[20].
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Thetis and Peleus had many sons.

^ Achilles was the son of Thetis and Peleus.
  • Trojan War Summary 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.dmturner.org [Source type: Original source]

[15] .All of the gods were invited to Peleus and Thetis' wedding and brought gifts,[16] except Eris ("Discord"), who was stopped at the door by Hermes, on Zeus' order.^ After the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, Zeus ordered Hermes to take the three powerful goddesses to Paris.

^ All the gods were invited to the celebration, except, by a deliberate oversight, Eris, the goddess of strife.
  • Legend of the Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC records.viu.ca [Source type: Original source]
  • The Trojan War 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All the gods and goddesses were invited except Eris (or Discord ).
  • THE TROJAN WAR: MYTHOLOGICAL BACKGROUND 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] .Insulted, she threw from the door a gift of her own:[18] a golden apple (το μήλον της έριδος) on which were inscribed the words Tēi Kallistēi ("To the fairest").^ Angry at this, she placed on the banquet table a golden apple inscribed with the words: "For the fairest."
  • Iliad, Mythological Bckgnd, Univ. of Saskatchewan 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Furious of this slight, Eris threw a golden apple, inscribed "For the fairest", in the midst of the guests.

^ Insulted she threw from the door a gift of her own-Her gift was a golden apple (το μήλον της έριδος) on which were inscribed the words Tēi Kallistēi , ("To the fairest").
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The apple was claimed by Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite.^ The apple was claimed by Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The apple was claimed by Hera , Athena , and Aphrodite .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Immediately, Hera , Athena and Aphrodite started to fight over the apple.
  • Trojan War, the greatest conflict in Classical Mythology 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.igreekmythology.com [Source type: Original source]

.They quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one, for fear of earning the enmity of the other two.^ They quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one contender for fear of earning the enmity of the other two.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ They quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one, for fear of earning the enmity of the other two.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ None of the gods wanted to judge because choosing one would ensure the wrath of the other two.
  • Story of the Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Original source]

.Eventually, Zeus ordered Hermes to lead the three goddesses to Paris, a prince of Troy, who, unaware of his ancestry, was being raised as a shepherd in Mount Ida,[19] because of a prophecy that he would be the downfall of Troy.^ Eventually, Zeus ordered Hermes to lead the three goddesses to Paris, a prince of Troy,who,unaware of his ancestry,was being raised as a shepherd in Mount Ida, because of a prophecy that he would be the downfall of Troy.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The three goddesses asked Zeus to be their judge.

^ After the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, Zeus ordered Hermes to take the three powerful goddesses to Paris.

[20] .The goddesses appeared to him naked, and because he was unable to decide between them, they resorted to bribes.^ So then, they offered him bribes.
  • Story of the Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The goddesses appeared to him naked, and because he was unable to decide between them, they resorted to bribes.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The three goddesses appeared naked to Paris, but he was still unable to judge them.
  • Story of the Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Original source]

.Athena offered Paris wisdom, skill in battle, and the abilities of the greatest warriors; Hera offered him political power and control of all of Asia; and Aphrodite offered him the love of the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta.^ She had neglected to mention that the most beautiful woman in the world was already married.
  • Trojan War@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all women, fall in love with Paris,who took her to Troy.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Greek legend, Helen of Troy was the most beautiful woman in the world.
  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, The Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.Paris awarded the apple to Aphrodite, and, after several adventures, returned to Troy, where he was recognized by his royal family.^ Her enmity was incurred against the Trojans when Paris awarded the apple to Aphrodite .

^ There are several tales of his adventure after Troy.

^ Paris awarded the apple to Aphrodite, and, after several adventures, returned to Troy and was recognized by his family.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Peleus and Thetis bore a son, whom they named Achilles.^ She bore him a son named Medus.

^ Achilles was the son of Thetis and Peleus.
  • Trojan War Summary 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.dmturner.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Penelope bore Odysseus a son, who they named Telemachus.

.It was foretold that he would either die of old age after an uneventful life, or die young in a battlefield and gain immortality through poetry.^ It was foretold that he would either die of old age after an uneventful life, or die young in a battlefield and gain immortality through poetry.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who failed to please her, they would either be punished in Tartarus or the shade would be reincarnated, to live another life among the living.

^ Polydectes knew that Perseus would either return home empty-handed or that he would die in the quest.

[21] .Furthermore, when Achilles was nine years old, Calchas had prophesied that Troy could not again fall without his help.^ Furthermore, when Achilles was nine years old, Calchas had prophesied that Troy could not again fall without his help.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Acheans besieged Troy for nine years.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Achaeans besieged Troy for nine years.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .A number of sources credit Thetis with attempting to make Achilles immortal when he was an infant.^ As an infant Thetis tried to make Achilles immortal.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A number of sources credit Thetis with attempting to make Achilles immortal when he was an infant.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While still an infant, Thetis tried to make her son immortal.

.Some of these state that she held him over fire every night to burn away his mortal parts and rubbed him with ambrosia during the day, but that Peleus discovered her actions and stopped them.^ First she held him over fire to burn away his mortal parts every night and rubbed him with ambrosia during the day.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First she held him over fire to burn away his mortal parts every night and rubbed him with ambrosia during the day Apollodorus, Library 3.117.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these state that she held him over fire every night to burn away his mortal parts and rubbed him with ambrosia during the day, but that Peleus discovered her actions and stopped them.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .According to some versions of this story, Thetis had already destroyed several sons in this manner, and Peleus' action therefore saved his son's life.^ According to some versions of this story, Thetis had already destroyed several sons in this manner, and Peleus' action therefore saved his son's life.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thetis was determined that her son will have a long life.

^ But since some towns are founded several times, there is also one Ephesus, son of the river god Cayster, who is said to have founded the city that bears his name.
  • AMAZONS - Greek Mythology Link 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] .Other sources state that Thetis bathed Achilles in the River Styx, the river that runs to the under world, making him invulnerable wherever he had touched the water.^ Then she bathed him in the River Styx , making him invincible wherever he had touched the water [30].Unfortunately she had held him by the heel.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Then she bathed him in the River Styx , making him invulnerable wherever he had touched the water.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Achilles was a baby Thetis had dipped him in the River Styx.
  • YOU ARE THE REPORTER: The Trojan war 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.isd381.k12.mn.us [Source type: Original source]

[25] .Because she had held him by the heel, it was not immersed during the bathing and thus the heel remained mortal and vulnerable to injury.^ This part of him remained mortal, and thus he remained human and not a god.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Because she had held him by the heel, it was not immersed during the bathing and thus the heel remained mortal and vulnerable to injury.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, she held him by the heel so his heel was unprotected.
  • Trojan War Summary 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.dmturner.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hence the expressions "Achilles heel" for an isolated weakness.^ Hence the expressions "Achilles heel" for an isolated weakness.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Thetis had foretold, Apollo guided an arrow, shot from Paris' bow, to Achilles' only weakness, one of his heels.

^ This is the source of the expression Achilles' heel, meaning a vulnerable point.
  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, The Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.He grew up to be the greatest of all mortal warriors.^ He grew up to be the greatest of all mortal warriors.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the most notable of these warriors were the following: Achilles : He was undoubtedly and by far the greatest of all Greek warriors during the Trojan War.
  • Trojan War, the greatest conflict in Classical Mythology 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.igreekmythology.com [Source type: Original source]

.After Calchas' prophesy, Thetis hid Achilles in Skyros at the court of king Lycomedes, where he was disguised as a girl.^ After Calchas' prophesy, Thetis hid Achilles in Skyros at the court of king Lycomedes, where he was disguised as a girl.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Calchas' prophesy Thetis hid Achilles in Skyros at the court of king Lycomedes where he was disguised as a girl.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thetis disguised Achilles as a girl.

[26]

Elopement of Paris and Helen

.The most beautiful woman in the world was Helen, one of the daughters of Tyndareus, King of Sparta.^ Leda was the wife of King Tyndareus of Sparta.
  • The Trojan War - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Trojan War - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most beautiful woman in the world.

^ After Tyndareus's death Helen's husband became the king of Sparta .
  • YOU ARE THE REPORTER: The Trojan war 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.isd381.k12.mn.us [Source type: Original source]

.Her mother was Leda, who had been either raped or seduced by Zeus in the form of a swan.^ Her mother was Leda , who had been seduced (or raped) by Zeus in the form of a swan;[31] accounts differ over which of Leda's four children were fathered by Zeus and which by Tyndareus.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Her mother was Leda, who had been either raped or seduced by Zeus in the form of a swan.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her mother was Leda, who had been seduced (or raped) by Zeus in the form of a swan; accounts differ over which of Leda's four children were fathered by Zeus and which by Tyndareus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[27] .Accounts differ over which of Leda's four children, two pairs of twins, were fathered by Zeus and which by Tyndareus.^ Her mother was Leda, who had been seduced (or raped) by Zeus in the form of a swan; accounts differ over which of Leda's four children were fathered by Zeus and which by Tyndareus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Accounts differ over which of Leda's four children, two pairs of twins, were fathered by Zeus and which by Tyndareus.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her mother was Leda , who had been seduced (or raped) by Zeus in the form of a swan;[31] accounts differ over which of Leda's four children were fathered by Zeus and which by Tyndareus.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.However, Helen is usually credited as Zeus' daughter,[28] and sometimes Nemesis is credited as her mother.^ Helen though is usually given as Zeus' daughter and sometimes Nemesis is given as her mother.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Helen is usually credited as Zeus' daughter,[28] and sometimes Nemesis is credited as her mother.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She was Helen, a half-mortal daughter of Zeus.
  • YOU ARE THE REPORTER: The Trojan war 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.isd381.k12.mn.us [Source type: Original source]

[29] .Helen had scores of suitors, and her father was unwilling to choose one for fear the others would retaliate violently.^ Helen had scores of suitors, and her father was unwilling to choose one for fear the others would retaliate violently.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her step father feared that trouble from rejected suitors would follow Helen and her groom.

^ Telemachus, the son of Odysseus would later meet Menelaüs and Helen at Sparta; the young man seeking news of his father.

.Finally, one of the suitors, Odysseus of Ithaca, proposed a plan to solve the dilemma.^ Finally, one of the suitors, Odysseus of Ithaca, proposed a plan to solve the dilemma.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ''A list is available at Helen#Suitors_of_Helen Finally, one of the suitors, Odysseus of Ithaca , proposed a plan to solve the dilemma.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This problem was solved when the prudent Odysseus , king of Ithaca, advised the Spartan king, that each suitor must swear an oath, that they will defend the interests of whoever Helen chooses to marry.

.In exchange for Tyndareus' support of his own suit towards Penelope,[30] he suggested that Tyndareus require all of Helen's suitors to promise that they would defend the marriage of Helen, regardless of whom he chose.^ In exchange for Tyndareus' support of his own suit towards Penelope, he suggested that Tyndareus allow Helen to choose her husband (instead of their father, as was typical in Greece from the mythical age until the twentieth century, though a few mythographers have Tyndareus choosing him) and require all of Helen's suitors to promise that they would defend the marriage of Helen, regardless of whom she chose.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In exchange for Tyndareus' support of his own suit towards Penelope,[30] he suggested that Tyndareus require all of Helen's suitors to promise that they would defend the marriage of Helen, regardless of whom he chose.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In exchange for Tyndareus' support of his own suit towards Penelope,[38] he suggested that Tyndareus allow Helen to choose her husband (instead of their father, as was typical in Greece from the mythical age until the 20th century) require all of Helen's suitors to promise that they would defend the marriage of Helen, regardless of whom she chose.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.The suitors duly swore the required oath on the severed pieces of a horse, although not without a certain amount of grumbling.^ The suitors duly swore the required oath on the severed pieces of a horse [39] although not without a certain amount of grumbling.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The suitors duly swore the required oath on the severed pieces of a horse, although not without a certain amount of grumbling.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the suitors swore this oath, Helen chose to marry Menelaus, King of Sparta.
  • Welcome to the Classics Department at Haverford College 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.haverford.edu [Source type: Original source]

[31]
.Tyndareus chose Menelaus.^ Tyndareus chose Menelaus.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the men having sworn, Tyndareus chose Menelaus, fat king of Sparta, a warrior state.
  • Trojan War Net Homework Help 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Menelaus was a political choice on her father's part.^ Menelaus was a political choice on her father's part.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He had wealth and power. .He had humbly not petitioned for her himself, but instead sent his brother Agamemnon on his behalf.^ He had humbly not petitioned for her himself, but instead sent his brother Agamemnon on his behalf.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Aegisthus and Clytemnestra murdered Agamemnon, fearing for her brother's life, Electra prudently sent Orestes, who was aged ten, to her uncle Strophius in Phocis.

.He had promised Aphrodite a hecatomb, a sacrifice of 100 oxen, if he won Helen, but forgot about it and earned her wrath.^ He had promised Aphrodite a hecatomb, a sacrifice of 100 oxen, if he had married Helen but forgot about it, and earned her wrath.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ He had promised Aphrodite a hecatomb, a sacrifice of 100 oxen, if he won Helen, but forgot about it and earned her wrath.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had promised Aphrodite a hecatomb , a sacrifice of 100 oxen, if he won Helen, but forgot about it, and earned her wrath.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .Menelaus inherited Tyndareus' throne of Sparta with Helen as his queen when her brothers, Castor and Pollux, became gods,[33] and when Agamemnon married Helen's sister Clytemnestra and took back the throne of Mycenae.^ Since then Tyndareus has made Menelaus King of Sparta and he has reigned there with Helen as his Queen.
  • Ancient Egypt: the Mythology - The Greek Princess 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.egyptianmyths.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Helen married Menelaus and Clytemnestra married Agamemnon, Menelaus's brother.
  • Trojan War Net Homework Help 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Odyssey also shows Helen back in Sparta with Menelaus.
  • Strauss Offers Fresh Look at 'Trojan War' : NPR 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

[34]
.Paris, in the guise as a supposed diplomatic mission, went to Sparta to get Helen and bring her back to Troy.^ Paris, in the guise as a supposed diplomatic mission, went to Sparta to get Helen and bring her back to Troy.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Helen of Sparta was better known as Helen of Troy.

^ Thus Helen of Sparta became Helen of Troy.
  • Myth Man's Paris and Helen 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.thanasis.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before Helen could look up, to see him enter the palace, she was shot with an arrow from Eros, otherwise known as Cupid, and fell in love with Paris when she saw him as promised by Aphrodite.^ Before Paris met Helen, he fell in love with a nymph at Mount Ida.
  • The Trojan War - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Trojan War - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Paris came to visit and fell in love with Helen when he saw her.
  • Trojan War Summary 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.dmturner.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On a diplomatic mission to Sparta, Paris fell in love with Helen.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Menelaus had left for Crete[35] to bury his uncle, Crateus.^ Menelaus had left for Crete[35] to bury his uncle, Crateus.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menealus had to leave for Crete[45] to bury his uncle Crateus.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Menelaus had to leave for Crete to bury his uncle Crateus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[36] .Hera, still jealous over his judgement, sent a storm.^ Hera, still jealous over his judgement, sent a storm.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hera , still jealous over his judgement sent a storm.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hera, still jealous over his judgement sent a storm.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[35] .The storm caused the lovers to land in Egypt, where the gods replaced Helen with a likeness of her made of clouds, Nephele.^ The storm made the lovers land in Egypt, where the gods replaced Helen with an liking of her made of clouds, Nephele .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The storm caused the lovers to land in Egypt, where the gods replaced Helen with a likeness of her made of clouds, Nephele.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The storm made the lovers land in Egypt, where the gods replaced Helen with a likeness of her made of clouds, Nephele.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[37] .The myth of Helen being switched is attributed to the 6th century BC Sicilian poet Stesichorus.^ The myth of Helen being switched is attributed to 6th century BC Sicilian poet Stesichorus .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ (The myth of Helen being switched is attributed to 6th century BC Sicilian poet Stesichorus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The myth of Helen being switched is attributed to the 6th century BC Sicilian poet Stesichorus.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For Homer the true Helen was in Troy.^ According to Homer, Menelaus and his ally, Odysseus, traveled to Troy, where they unsuccessfully sought to recover Helen by diplomatic means.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Homer, the apparent cause of the war was the abduction of beautiful Helen , wife of King Menelaus of Sparta, by Paris, a prince of Troy, while he was a guest staying at the palace in Sparta.
  • Trojan War, the greatest conflict in Classical Mythology 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.igreekmythology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In one of the earlier scene of Homer's Iliad , Helen watched Greeks and Trojans marshalling the forces on the plain of Troy, with her father-in-law, King Priam of Troy .

.The ship then landed in Sidon before reaching Troy.^ The ship then landed in Sidon before reaching Troy.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the ship landed in Sidon before reaching Troy.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before reaching Troy the fleet sailed to Sidon and Paris was hospitably met and entertained by the local king.
  • Myth Man's Paris and Helen 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.thanasis.com [Source type: Original source]

.Paris, fearful of getting caught, spent some time there and then sailed to Troy.^ Paris, fearful of getting caught, spent some time there and then sailed to Troy [52] .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Paris, fearful of getting caught, spent some time there and then sailed to Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agamemnon was the leader of the great host that sailed against Troy because he was the most powerful king in the West; and although there were many kings and dynasties in Hellas, he was their overlord.
  • TROJAN LEADERS - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[38]
.Paris' abduction of Helen had several precedents.^ Paris' abduction of Helen had several precedents.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afraid that Menelaus was pursuing them, Paris and Helen then spent several months in Phoenicia, Cyprus and Egypt, before finally reaching Troy.
  • Myth Man's Paris and Helen 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.thanasis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Homer, the apparent cause of the war was the abduction of beautiful Helen , wife of King Menelaus of Sparta, by Paris, a prince of Troy, while he was a guest staying at the palace in Sparta.
  • Trojan War, the greatest conflict in Classical Mythology 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.igreekmythology.com [Source type: Original source]

.Io was taken from Mycenae, Europa was taken from Phoenicia, Jason took Medea from Colchis,[39] and the Trojan princess Hesione had been taken by Heracles, who gave her to Telamon of Salamis.^ Io was taken from Argos , Eurropa , was taken from Phoenicia , Jason took Medea from Colchis , Herodotus, Histories 1.2.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Medea had left Colchis with Jason .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Also the Trojan princess Hesione had been eloped by Heracles who gave her to Telamon of Salamis.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

[40] .According to Herodotus, Paris was emboldened by these examples to steal himself a wife from Greece, and expected no retribution, since there had been none in the other cases.^ According to Herodotus, Paris was emboldened by these examples to steal himself a wife from Greece, and expected no retribution, since there had been none in the other cases.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ None other than Menelaus, King of Sparta and husband of Paris' obscure object of desire.
  • Myth Man's Paris and Helen 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.thanasis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just those, that's all, there were no others.
  • Story of the Trojan War in doggerel 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.samizdat.com [Source type: Original source]

[41]

The gathering of Achaean forces and the first expedition

Map of Homeric Greece.
.According to Homer, Menelaus and his ally, Odysseus, traveled to Troy, where they unsuccessfully sought to recover Helen by diplomatic means.^ According to Homer, Menelaus and his ally, Odysseus, traveled to Troy, where they unsuccessfully sought to recover Helen by diplomatic means.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They remembered the days of Helen of Troy.
  • Cynthia McKinney: Beware the Trojan Horse 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since it was their duty to help Menelaus recover Helen, the Greeks sent one thousand ships to Troy to recover Helen; hence the saying, “A face that could launch a thousand ships”.

[42]
.Menelaus then asked Agamemnon to uphold his oath.^ Menelaus then asked Agamemnon to uphold his oath.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Gathering of Achean Forces and the First Expedition Menelaus asked Agamemnon to uphold his oath.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Menelaus asked Agamemnon to uphold his oath.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.He agreed and sent emissaries to all the Achaean kings and princes to call them to observe their oaths and retrieve Helen.^ He agreed and sent emissaries to all the Achaean kings and princes to call them to observe their oaths and retrieve Helen.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He agreed and sent him Nestor along with other emissaries to all the Achean kings and princes, who were called to make good their oaths and retrieve Helen.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ B.C. E. when Paris, a headstrong Trojan prince, violated all laws of hospitality by running off with Helen, the beautiful wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta.

[43]

Odysseus and Achilles

.Since Menelaus's wedding, Odysseus had married Penelope and fathered a son, Telemachus.^ Telemachus (Τηλέμαχος) was the son of Odysseus and Penelope .

^ Penelope bore Odysseus a son, who they named Telemachus.

^ Odysseus had by this time married Penelope and fathered a son, Telemachus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.In order to avoid the war, he feigned madness and sowed his fields with salt.^ In order to avoid the war, he feigned madness and sowed his fields with salt.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to avoid the war, he feigned madness, and sowed his fields with salt.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Odysseus sowed the field with salts.

.Palamedes outwitted him by placing his infant son in front of the plough's path, and Odysseus turned aside, unwilling to kill his son, so revealing his sanity and forcing him to join the war.^ It was never Odysseus desired to leave his kingdom, wife and infant son when he joined the war.

^ When Agamemnon returned from war, the two of them joined forces to kill him out of revenge.
  • The Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.marvunapp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Palamedes outwitted him by placing his infant son in front of the plough's path, and Odysseus turned aside, unwilling to kill his son, so revealing his sanity and forcing him to join the war.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35][44]
.According to Homer, however, Odysseus supported the military adventure from the beginning, and traveled the region with Pylos' king, Nestor, to recruit forces.^ According to Homer, however, Odysseus supported the military adventure from the beginning, and traveled the region with Pylos' king, Nestor, to recruit forces.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eurypylus, son of Telephus, leading, according to Homer, a large force of Kêteioi,[138] or Hittites or Mysians according to Apollodorus,[139] arrived to aid the Trojans.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She identified the leaders of Greek forces for the Trojan king, such as Ajax and Odysseus .

[45]
.At Skyros, Achilles had an affair with the king's daughter Deidamia, resulting in a child, Neoptolemus.^ At Scyros, Achilles had an affair with the king's daughter Deidamia, resulting in a child, Neoptolemus.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Source: Wikipedia At Scyros, Achilles had an affair with the king's daughter Deidamea, resulting in a child, Neoptolemus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There he had an affair with the king's daughter Deidameia , resulting in a child, Neoptolemus .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

[46] .Odysseus, Telamonian Ajax, and Achilles' tutor Phoenix went to retrieve Achilles.^ Odysseus, Telamonian Ajax, and Achilles' tutor Phoenix went to retrieve Achilles.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Odysseus quarrels with Ajax over Achilles' armor .
  • Trojan War, the greatest conflict in Classical Mythology 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.igreekmythology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Statius, Achilleid 1.25 Odysseus, Telamonian Aias , and Achilles' tutor Phoenix went to retrieve Achilles.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Achilles' mother disguised him as a woman so that he would not have to go to war, but, according to one story, they blew a horn, and Achilles revealed himself by seizing a spear to fight intruders, rather than fleeing.^ Achilles' mother disguised him as a woman so that he would not have to go to war, but, according to one story, they blew a horn, and Achilles revealed himself by seizing a spear to fight intruders, rather than fleeing.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They had hoped that at least one of their sons would survive after the war.

^ According to one story they blew a horn, and Achilles revealed himself by seizing a spear to fight intruders rather than fleeing.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[47] .According to another story, they disguised themselves as merchants bearing trinkets and weaponry, and Achilles was marked out from the other women for admiring weaponry instead of clothes and jewelry.^ According to another story, they disguised themselves as merchants bearing trinkets and weaponry, and Achilles was marked out from the other women for admiring weaponry instead of clothes and jewelry.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to another, they disguised themselves as merchants bearing trinkets and weaponry, and Achilles was marked out from the other women by admiring the wrong goods.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Achilles' mother disguised him as a woman so that he would not have to go to war, but, according to one story, they blew a horn, and Achilles revealed himself by seizing a spear to fight intruders, rather than fleeing.
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[48]
.Pausanias said that, according to Homer, Achilles did not hide in Skyros, but rather conquered the island, as part of the Trojan War.^ Pausanias said that, according to Homer, Achilles did not hide in Scyros, but rather conquered the island, as part of the Trojan War.
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^ Did the Trojan War really happen?
  • Strauss Offers Fresh Look at 'Trojan War' : NPR 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pausanias says that according to Homer, Achilles did not hide in Scyros, but rather conquered the island, as part of the Trojan War.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[49]
The Discovery of Achilles among the Daughters of Lycomedes, painting by Jan de Bray (1627–1697) in 1664, Muzeum Narodowe, Warsaw.

First gathering at Aulis

.The Achean forces first gathered at Aulis.^ The Achean forces gathered at Aulis .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The gathering of Achean forces and the first expedition .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First gathering at Aulis .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras of Cyprus.^ All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras of Cyprus.
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^ All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras of Cyprus, though he had sworn on Agamemnon's breastplate to send 50 ships, sent only 1 real ship led by the son of Mygdalion and 49 toy ships.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras of Cyprus, though he had sworn on Agamemnon's breastplate to send 50 ships, sent only 1 true ship led by the son of Mygdalion and 49 toy ships.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.Though he sent breastplates to Agamemnon and promised to send 50 ships, he sent only one real ship, led by the son of Mygdalion, and 49 ships made of clay.^ Though he sent breastplates to Agamemnon and promised to send 50 ships, he sent only one real ship led by the son of Mygdalion and 49 ships made of mud.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras of Cyprus, though he had sworn on Agamemnon's breastplate to send 50 ships, sent only 1 true ship led by the son of Mygdalion and 49 toy ships.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras of Cyprus, though he had sworn on Agamemnon's breastplate to send 50 ships, sent only 1 real ship led by the son of Mygdalion and 49 toy ships.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[50] .Idomeneus was willing to lead the Cretan contingent in Mycenae's war against Troy, but only as a co-commander, which he was granted.^ Idomeneus was willing to lead the Cretan contingent in Mycenae's war against Troy, but only as a co-commander, which he was granted.
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^ Idomeneus was willing to lead the Cretan contingent in Mycenae's war against Troy, but only as a co-commander which he was granted.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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^ This is the case with the war against Troy.
  • TVM Entry Floor: Greek War against Troy 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.tigtail.org [Source type: Original source]

[51] .The last commander to arrive was Achilles, who was then 15 years old.^ The last one to arrive was Achilles, who was then 15 years old.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The last commander to arrive was Achilles, who was then 15 years old.
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^ Furthermore, when Achilles was nine years old, Calchas had prophesied that Troy could not again fall without his help.
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.Following a sacrifice to Apollo, a snake slithered from the altar to a sparrow's nest in a plane tree nearby.^ Following a sacrifice to Apollo, a snake slithered from the altar to a sparrow's nest in a plane tree nearby.
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^ During a sacrifice to Apollo the following happened: a serpent darted from the altar beside the neighboring plane-tree, in which there was a nest; and having consumed the eight sparrows in the nest, together with the mother bird, which made the ninth, it was turned to stone.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Achaean army was in Aulis, after a sacrifice to Apollo , a serpent darted from the altar beside the neighbouring plane-tree, in which there was a nest; and having consumed the eight sparrows in the nest, together with the mother-bird, which made the ninth, it was turned to stone.
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.It ate the mother and her nine babies, then was turned to stone.^ It ate the mother and her nine babies, then was turned to stone.
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^ It ate the mother and her eight babies, then was turned to stone.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Calchas interpreted this as a sign that Troy would fall in the tenth year of the war.^ Calchas interpreted this as a sign that Troy would fall in the tenth year of the war.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Calchas interpreted this as a sign that Troy would fall on the 10th year of the war.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For many hundreds of years, Homer's epic tale of Paris and Helen, the wrath of Achilles and the fall of Troy was regarded as a myth.
  • Strauss Offers Fresh Look at 'Trojan War' : NPR 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

[52]

Telephus

.When the Achaeans left for the war, they did not know the way, and accidentally landed in Mysia, ruled by King Telephus, son of Heracles, who had led a contingent of Arcadians to settle there.^ Telephus When the Achaeans left for the war, they did not know the way, and accidentally landed in Mysia, ruled by King Telephus, son of Heracles, who had led a contingent of Arcadians to settle there.
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^ When the Acheans left for the war, they were did not know the way, and accidentally landed in Mysia , ruled by King Telephus son of Heracles who had led a contigent of Arcadians to settle there.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Greeks left for the war, they were unaware of the route and accidentally landed in Mysia, ruled by King Telephus son of Heracles who had led a contigent of Arcadians to settle there.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

[53] .In the battle, Achilles wounded Telephus,[54] who had killed Thersander.^ Achilles wounded Telephus in the thigh.

^ In the battle, Achilles wounded Telephus, Pindar, Isthmian 8.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the battle, Achilles wounded Telephus,[69] who killed Thersander .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

[55] .Because the wound would not heal, Telephus asked an oracle, "What will happen to the wound?". The oracle responded, "he that wounded shall heal". The Achaean fleet then set sail and was scattered by a storm.^ Because the wound would not heal, Telephus asked an oracle, "What will happen to the wound?".
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^ The oracle responded, "he that wounded shall heal".
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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^ The Achaean fleet then set sail and was scattered by a storm.
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.Achilles landed in Scyros and married Deidamia.^ Achilles landed in Scyros and married Deidamia.
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^ Achilles landed in Scyros and married Deidameia.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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^ At Scyros, Achilles had an affair with the king's daughter Deidamia, resulting in a child, Neoptolemus.
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.A new gathering was set again in Aulis.^ A new gathering was set again in Aulis.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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^ His campaign was successful: In a few months, a great army was gathered in Aulis , ready to set sail.
  • Trojan War, the greatest conflict in Classical Mythology 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.igreekmythology.com [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.Telephus went to Aulis, and either pretended to be a beggar, asking Agamemnon to help heal his wound,[56] or kidnapped Orestes and held him for ransom, demanding the wound be healed.^ Telephus went to Aulis , and either pretended to be a beggar, asking Agamemnon to help heal his wound, Apollodorus, Epitome 3.20.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Orestes and held him for ransom, demanding the wound be healed.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the wound would not heal, Telephus asked an oracle, "What will happen to the wound?".
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[57] .Achilles refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge.^ Achilles refused to heal the wound saying that he had no medical expertise.
  • Welcome to the Classics Department at Haverford College 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.haverford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Achilles refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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.Odysseus reasoned that the spear that had inflicted the wound must be able to heal it.^ Odysseus reasoned that the spear that had inflicted the wound must be able to heal it.
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^ Odysseus reasoned that the spear had inflicted the wound and the spear must be able to heal it.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Odysseus pointed out that, as it was the spear that had inflicted the wound, the oracle meant that the spear must be the instrument of his healing.
  • Welcome to the Classics Department at Haverford College 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.haverford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound, and Telephus was healed.^ Scrapings from the spear were applied to Telephus' wound, and it was healed.
  • Welcome to the Classics Department at Haverford College 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.haverford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound, and Telephus was healed.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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^ Telephus's wound was immediately healed.

[58] .Telephus then showed the Achaeans the route to Troy.^ Then Telephus showed the Acheans the route to Troy.
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^ Telephus then showed the Achaeans the route to Troy.
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[56]
Some scholars have regarded the expedition against Telephus and its resolution as a derivative reworking of elements from the main story of the Trojan War, but it has also been seen as fitting the story-pattern of the "preliminary adventure" that anticipates events and themes from the main narrative, and therefore as likely to be "early and integral".[59]

The second gathering

Map of the Troad (Troas).
.Eight years after the storm had scattered them,[60] the fleet of more than a thousand ships was gathered again.^ Eight years after the storm had scattered them,[60] the fleet of more than a thousand ships was gathered again.
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^ They have already had 60 more years than they expected, that morning.
  • History News Network 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Eight years after the storm had scatrered them,[75] the fleet of more than a thousand ships was gathered again.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.But when they had all reached Aulis, the winds ceased.^ But when they had all reached Aulis , the winds ceased.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But when they had all reached Aulis, the winds ceased.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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^ Three leaders had no trouble reaching home safely with all their ships, but they found trouble brewing at home.

.The prophet Calchas stated that the goddess Artemis was punishing Agamemnon for killing either a sacred deer or a deer in a sacred grove, and boasting that he was a better hunter than she.^ The prophet Calchas stated that the goddess Artemis was punishing Agamemnon for killing a sacred deer (or a deer in a sacred grove) and boasting that he was a better hunter than she.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ According to a different version, Agamemnon had killed a stag in sacred grove, and then boasted that he was a better hunter than the goddess herself.

^ The prophet Calchas stated that the +#$@#!% Artemis was punishing Agamemnon for killing either a sacred deer or a deer in a sacred grove, and boasting that he was a better hunter than she.
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[35] .The only way to appease Artemis, he said, was to sacrifice Iphigenia, who was either the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra,[61] or of Helen and Theseus entrusted to Clytemnestra when Helen married Menelaus.^ Helen married Menelaus and Clytemnestra married Agamemnon, Menelaus's brother.
  • Trojan War Net Homework Help 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way to appease Artemis, he said, was to sacrifice Iphigenia that was either the daughter Agamemnon [77] or of Helen and Theseus entrusted to Clytemnestra (Agamemnon's wife) when Helen married Menelaus.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way to appease Artemis, he said, was to sacrifice Iphigenia, who was either the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, or of Helen and Theseus entrusted to Clytemnestra when Helen married Menelaus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[62] .Agamemnon refused, and the other commanders threatened to make Palamedes commander of the expedition.^ Originally he refused and the other commanders threatened to put Palamedes instead as cammander of the expedition.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Agamemnon refused, and the other commanders threatened to make Palamedes commander of the expedition.
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^ The other Greek leaders forced Agamemnon into submission; otherwise he would have to step down from commander-in-chief's post.

[63] .According to some versions, Agamemnon relented, but others claim that he sacrificed a deer in her place, or that at the last moment, Artemis took pity on the girl, and took her to be a maiden in one of her temples, substituting a lamb.^ But before that other encounters took place.
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to some versions, he did so, but others claim that he sacrificed a deer in her place, or that just before Agamemnon slayed her, Artemis took pity on the poor girl and took her to be a maiden in one of her temples, replacing her with a lamb.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In her place, the goddess left a deer to be sacrificed.
  • Trojan War, the greatest conflict in Classical Mythology 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.igreekmythology.com [Source type: Original source]

[35] .Hesiod says that Iphigenia became the goddess Hecate.^ Hesiod says that Iphigenia became the goddess Hecate.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hesiod says that Iphigenia became the goddess Hecate .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hesiod said she became the goddess Hecate .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

[64]
.The Achaean forces are described in detail in the Catalogue of Ships, in the second book of the Iliad.^ The Achaean forces are described in detail in the Catalogue of Ships, in the second book of the Iliad.
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^ The Greek forces are described in detail in the Catalogue of Ships in the second book of the Iliad.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Achean forces are described in detail in the Catalogue of Ships , in the second book of the Iliad .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.They consisted of 28 contingents from mainland Greece, the Peloponnese, the Dodecanese islands, Crete, and Ithaca, comprising 1178 pentekontoroi, ships with 50 rowers.^ They consisted of 28 contingents from mainland Greece, the Peloponnese, the Dodecanese islands, Crete, and Ithaca, comprising 1178 pentekontoroi, ships with 50 rowers.
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^ They consisted of 28 contingents from mainland Greece, the Peloponnese, the Dodecanese islands, Crete and Ithaca, comprising 1178 pentekontoroi, that is ships with 50 rowers.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They consisted of 28 contingents from mainland Greece, the Peloponnese , the Dodecanese islands, Crete and Ithaca , comprising 1168 pentekontoroi, that is ships with 50 rowers.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thucydides says[65] that according to tradition there were about 1200 ships, and that the Boeotian ships had 120 men, while Philoctetes' ships only had the fifty rowers, these probably being maximum and minimum.^ Thucydides says[65] that according to tradition there were about 1200 ships, and that the Boeotian ships had 120 men, while Philoctetes' ships only had the fifty rowers, these probably being maximum and minimum.
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^ Thucydides says that according to tradition there were about 1200 ships, the Boeotian ships had 120 men while Philoctetes ships only had the fifty rowers, these probably being maximum and minimum.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Thucydides mentions [82] according to tradition there were about 1200 ships, the Boeotian ships had 120 men while Philoctetes ships only the fifty rowers, these probably being maximum and minimum.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.These numbers would mean a total force of 70,000 to 130,000 men.^ These numbers would mean a total force of 70,000 to 130,000.
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^ Thus the total force numbered between 70,000 and 130,000 men.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ These numbers would mean a total force of 70,000 to 130,000 men.
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.Another catalogue of ships is given by Apollodorus that differs somewhat but agrees in numbers.^ Another catalogue of ships is given by Apollodorus that differs somewhat but agrees in numbers.
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.Some scholars have claimed that Homer's catalogue is an original Bronze Age document, possibly the Achaean commander's order of operations.^ Some scholars have claimed that Homer's catalogue is an original Bronze age document, possibly the Achean commanders order of operations.
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^ Some scholars have claimed that Homer's catalogue is an original Bronze age document, possibly the Achaean commander's order of operations.
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^ Some scholars have claimed that Homer's catalogue is an original Bronze Age document, possibly the Achaean commander's order of operations.
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[66][67][68] .Others believe it was a fabrication of Homer.^ Others believe it was a fabrication of Homer.
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^ Others though believe it was a fabrication of Homer [citation needed] .
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.The second book of the Iliad also lists the Trojan allies, consisting of the Trojans themselves, led by Hector, and various allies listed as Dardanians led by Aeneas, Zeleians, Adrasteians, Percotians, Pelasgians, Thracians, Ciconian spearmen, Paionian archers, Halizones, Mysians, Phrygians, Maeonians, Miletians, Lycians led by Sarpedon and Carians.^ Aeneas was the bravest Trojan next to Hector.

^ The second book of the Iliad also lists the Trojan allies, consisting of the Trojans themselves, led by Hector, and various allies listed as Dardanians led by Aeneas, Zeleians, Adrasteians, Percotians, Pelasgians, Thracians, Ciconian spearmen, Paionian archers, Halizones, Mysians, Phrygians, Maeonians, Miletians, Lycians led by Sarpedon and Carians.
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^ The Trojan forces are also listed in the second book of the Iliad, consisting of the Trojans themselves, led by Hector, and various allies listed as Dardanians led by Aeneas, Zeleians , Adrasteians, Percotians, Pelasgians , Thracians, Ciconian spearmen, Paionian archers, Halizones, Mysians, Phrygians, Maeonians, Miletians, Lycians led by Sarpedon and Carians.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.Nothing is said of the Trojan language; the Carians are specifically said to be barbarian-speaking, and the allied contingents are said to have spoken multiple languages, requiring orders to be translated by their individual commanders.^ Nothing is said of the Trojan language; the Carians are specifically said to be barbarian-speaking, and the allied contingents are said to have spoken multiple languages, requiring orders to be translated by their individual commanders.
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^ Only the Carians are specifically mentioned by Homer to be barbarian-speaking.
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^ Nothing is said of the Trojan language ; the Carians are specifically said to be barbarian-speaking , and the allied contingents are said to have spoken multiple languages, requiring orders to be translated by their individual commanders.
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[69] .It should be noted, however, that the Trojans and Achaeans in the Iliad share the same religion, same culture and the enemy heroes speak to each other in the same language, though this could be dramatic effect.^ It should be noted, however, that the Trojans and Achaeans in the Iliad share the same religion, same culture and the enemy heroes speak to each other in the same language, though this could be dramatic effect.
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^ It should be noted though that the Trojans and Acheans in the Iliad share the same religion, same culture and the enemy heroes speak to each other in the same language, though this could be dramatic effect.
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^ Nothing is said of the Trojan language; the Carians are specifically said to be barbarian-speaking, and the allied contingents are said to have spoken multiple languages, requiring orders to be translated by their individual commanders.
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Nine years of war

Philoctetes

.
Philoctetes abandoned at Lemnos, detail of an Attic red-figure stamnos, ca.
^ Nine years of war [edit] Philoctetes Philoctetes abandoned at Lemnos, detail of an Attic red-figure stamnos, ca.
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^ Philoctetes abandoned at Lemnos ,detail of an Attic red-figure stamnos, ca.
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^ Philoctetes abandoned at Lemnos.
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460 BC, Campana Collection, 1861.
.Philoctetes was Heracles' friend, and because he lit Heracles's funeral pyre when no one else would, he received Heracles' bow and arrows.^ But some say that Philoctetes himself lighted the pyre and received, in return for his compliance, the bow and arrows of Heracles 1 .
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^ Because...no one really knew what he was.
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^ Philoctetes was Heracles' friend and, because he lit Heracles's funeral pyre when no one else would, he received Heracles' bow and arrows.
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[70] .He sailed with seven ships full of men to the Trojan War, where he was planning on fighting for the Achaeans.^ He sailed with seven ships full of men to the Trojan War, where he was planning on fighting for the Achaeans.
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^ He sailed with seven ships full of men to the Trojan War, where he was planning on fighting for the Acheans.
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^ He sailed with seven ships full of men to the Trojan War, where he was planning on fighting for the Greeks.
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.They stopped either at Chryse for supplies,[71] or in Tenedos, along with the rest of the fleet.^ They stopped either at Chryse for supplies,[71] or in Tenedos, along with the rest of the fleet.
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^ They stopped either at Chryse for supplies, or in Tenedos along with the rest of the fleet.
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^ They stopped either at Chryse for supplies, Pausanias 8.33.4 or in Tenedos along with the rest of the fleet.
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[72] .Philoctetes was then bitten by a snake.^ Philoctetes was then bitten by a snake.
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^ In either of these locations Philoctetes was bitten by a snake.
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^ While they were still on the island, Philoctetes went hunting, but was bitten by a poisonous water snake.

.The wound festered and had a foul smell; on Odysseus's advice, the Atreidae ordered Philoctetes to stay on Lemnos.^ Odysseus and Neoptolemus retrieved Philoctetes from Lemnos.
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^ The wound festered and had a foul smell; on Odysseus's advice, the Atreidae ordered Philoctetes to stay on Lemnos.
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^ The wound festered and smelled horrible; Odysseus advised and the Atreidae ordered Philoctetes to stay on Lemnos.
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[35] .Medon took control of Philoctetes's men.^ Medon took control of Philoctetes's men.
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.While landing on Tenedos, Achilles killed king Tenes, son of Apollo, despite a warning by his mother that if he did so he would be killed himself by Apollo.^ Then got killed himself by Orestes, Agamemnon's son.
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^ If he were to kill Tenes, the god would surely avenge his son's death.

^ But when Achilles landed on the island, he forgot his mother's warning and killed Tenes.

[73] .From Tenedos Agamemnon sent an embassy to Priam composed of Menelaus, Odysseus, and Palamedes asking for Helen's return.^ From Tenedos Agamemnon sent an embassy to Priam composed of Menelaus, Odysseus and Palamedes asking for Helen's return.
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^ From Tenedos Agamemnon sent an embassy to Priam composed of Menelaus, Odysseus, and Palamedes asking for Helen's return.
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^ Menelaus asked Agamemnon to uphold his oath.
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The embassy was refused.[74]
.Philoctetes stayed on Lemnos for ten years, which was a deserted island according to Sophocles' tragedy Philoctetes, but according to earlier tradition was populated by Minyans.^ Philoctetes stayed on Lemnos for ten years, which was a deserted island according to Sophocles' tragedy Philoctetes, but according to earlier tradition was populated by Minyans.
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^ Philoctetes stayed on Lemnos for ten years, which was a deserted island according to Sophocles' tagedy Philoctetes but according to earlier tradition was populated by Minyans .
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^ That is why an embassy was sent to Lemnos , where Philoctetes stayed because of his hideous sickness, in order to fetch the Bow (see below Conditions to take Troy).
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[75]

Arrival

.Calchas had prophesied that the first Achean to walk on land after stepping off a ship would be the first to die.^ Arrival Calchas had prophesied that the first Achean to walk on land after stepping off a ship would be the first to die.
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^ Calchas had prophesied that the first Achean to walk on land after stepping off a ship, would be the first to die.
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^ According to Thetis the first to land would be the first to die.
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[76] .Thus even the leading Greeks hesitated to land.^ Thus even Achilles hesitated to land.
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^ The Greek ships landed on the coast of Troy, but not of them wish to lead, because it was prophesied that the first Greek to set foot on the soil will be the first to die.

.Finally, Protesilaus, leader of the Phylaceans, landed first.^ Finally Protesilaus, leader of the Phylaceans, landed first.
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^ Finally Protesilaus , leader of the Phylace ans, landed first.
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^ Finally, Protesilaus, leader of the Phylaceans, landed first.
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[77] .Odysseus had tricked him, in throwing his own shield down to land on, so that while he was first to leap off his ship, he was not the first to land on Trojan soil.^ In the Odyssey , Odysseus lost six of his men to Scylla, the first time his ship passed through the strait.
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^ Calchas had prophesied that the first Achean to walk on land after stepping off a ship, would be the first to die.
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^ The Trojans came to oppose their landing, and at the first onset Protesilaus fell by the hand of Hector.
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  • CHAPTER XXVII. The Trojan War. 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hector killed Protesilaus in single combat, though the Trojans conceded the beach.^ Achilles was determined to seek out and kill Hector in single combat.

^ He returned to combat, avenging his friend by killing the Trojan champion, Hector .

^ Protesilaus had killed many Trojans but was killed by Hector Apollodorus, Epitome 3.30.
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.In the second wave of attacks, Achilles killed Cycnus, son of Poseidon.^ The first Trojan leader to fall to Achilles was Cycnus, a son of Poseidon.

^ Achilles jumped second and killed Cycnus, son of Poseidon.
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^ Achilles jumped second and killed Cycnus .
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.The Trojans then fled to the safety of the walls of their city.^ The Trojans then fled to the safety of the walls of their city.
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^ The Trojans were taken aback by this phenomenon and hastily withdrew back to their city wall, ending the day's fighting.

^ Patroclus drove the Trojans back all the way to the walls of Troy and was only prevented from storming the city by the intervention of Apollo.
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[78] .Protesilaus had killed many Trojans but was killed by Hector in most versions of the story,[79] though others list Aeneas, Achates, or Ephorbus as his slayer.^ Aeneas was the bravest Trojan next to Hector.

^ Protesilaus had killed many Trojans but was killed by Hector[95] or Aeneas,Achates or Ephorbus.
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^ Protesilaus had killed many Trojans but was killed by either Hector,[79] Aeneas, Achates, or Ephorbus.
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[80] .The Achaeans buried him as a god on the Thracian peninsula, across the Troad.^ The Greeks buried him as a god on the Thracian peninsula, across the Troad.
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^ The Achaeans buried him as a god on the Thracian peninsula, across the Troad.
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^ But Poseidon, god of oceans, doesn't want him to make it back across the wine-dark sea to his wife Penelope.
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[81] .After Protesilaus' death, his brother, Podarces, took command of his troops.^ After Protesilaus' death, his brother, Podarces , joined the war in his place.
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^ After Protesilaus' death, his brother, Podarces, joined the war in his place.
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Achilles' campaigns

.
Achilles bandaging Patroclus, ca.
^ Achilles bandaging Patroclus ca.
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^ Achilles' campaigns Achilles bandaging Patroclus, ca.
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^ Achilles bandaging Patroclus.
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500 BC. Staatliche Museen, Antikenabteilung, Berlin.
.The Achaeans besieged Troy for nine years.^ The Achaeans besieged Troy for nine years.
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^ The Acheans besieged Troy for nine years.
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^ Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and the brother of Helen's husband Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris' insult.
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.This part of the war is the least developed among surviving sources, which prefer to talk about events in the last year of the war.^ This part of the war is the least developed among surviving sources, which prefer to talk about events in the last year of the war.
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^ This part of the war is the least developped among surviving sources, which prefer to talk about events in the last yar of the war.
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^ Other parts of the war were told in a cycle of epic poems, which has only survived in fragments.
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.After the initial landing the army was gathered in its entirety again only in the tenth year.^ After the initial landing the army was gathered in its entirety again only in the tenth year, due to lack of money as Thucydides deduces.
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^ After the initial landing the army was gathered in its entirety again only in the tenth year.
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^ Both armies gathered in full for the first time since the landing.
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.Thucydides deduces that this was due to lack of money.^ Thucydides deduces that this was due to lack of money.
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^ After the initial landing the army was gathered in its entirety again only in the tenth year, due to lack of money as Thucydides deduces.
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.They raided the Trojan allies and spent time farming the Thracian peninsula.^ They raided the Trojan allies and spent time farming the Thracian peninsula.
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^ It has also been noted that there is great similarity between the names of the Sea Peoples, which at that time were raiding Egypt, as they are listed by Ramesses III and Merneptah, and of the allies of the Trojans.
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^ They also entered Trojan camp and killed Troy's allied Rhesus, king of the Thracians, together with twelve men, and stole the king's immortal horses.

[82] .Troy was never completely besieged, thus it maintained communications with the interior of Asia Minor.^ Troy was never completely besieged, thus it maintained communications with the interior of Asia Minor .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Troy was never completely besieged, thus it maintained communications with the interior of Asia Minor.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ The Trojan War was a war waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor, by the armies of the Achaeans, following the kidnapping (or elopement) of Helen of Sparta by Paris of Troy.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.Reinforcements continued to come until the very end.^ Reinforcements continued to come until the very end.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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.The Acheans controlled only the entrance to the Dardanelles, and Troy and her allies controlled the shortest point at Abydos and Sestus and communicated with allies in Europe.^ Also the Acheans controlled only the entrance to the Dardanelles, Troy and her allies controlled the shortest point at Abydos and Sestus and communicated with allies in Europe.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Acheans controlled only the entrance to the Dardanelles, and Troy and her allies controlled the shortest point at Abydos and Sestus and communicated with allies in Europe.
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^ In 1871 Heinrich Schliemann amazed the world with the announcement that a mound near the entrance to the Dardanelles contained the ruins of Troy.
  • Strauss Offers Fresh Look at 'Trojan War' : NPR 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: Original source]

[83]
.Achilles and Ajax were the most active of the Achaeans, leading separate armies to raid lands of Trojan allies.^ Achilles was the most active of the Achaeans.
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^ As a revenge, Ajax 1 planned an attack on the army, but Athena drove him mad, and he slaughtered the cattle with the herdsmen, taking them for the Achaeans.
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trojan War was a war waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor, by the armies of the Achaeans, following the kidnapping (or elopement) of Helen of Sparta by Paris of Troy.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.According to Homer, Achilles conquered 11 cities and 12 islands.^ According to Homer he conquered 11 cities and 12 islands.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Homer, he conquered 11 cities and 12 islands.
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^ Pausanias says that according to Homer, Achilles did not hide in Scyros, but rather conquered the island, as part of the Trojan War.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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[84] .According to Apollodorus, he raided the land of Aeneas in the Troad region and stole his cattle.^ According to Apollodorus he raided the land of Aeneas in the Troad region and stole its cattle.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Achilles raided the land of Aeneas in the Troad region and stole his cattle.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Apollodorus, he raided the land of Aeneas in the Troad region and stole his cattle.
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[85] .He also captured Lyrnassus, Pedasus, and many of the neighbouring cities, and killed Troilus, son of Priam, who was still a youth; it was said that if he reached 20 years of age, Troy would not fall.^ He also captured Lyrnassus and Pedasus and many of the neighbouring cities, and killed Troilus, son of Priam who was 19 and was said that if he reached 20 Troy would not fall.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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^ After the fall of Troy, it took him ten years to reach home.

^ Neoptolemus killed his father, King Priam, during the fall of Troy.

According to Apollodorus,
.He also took Lesbos and Phocaea, then Colophon, and Smyrna, and Clazomenae, and Cyme; and afterwards Aegialus and Tenos, the so-called Hundred Cities; then, in order, Adramytium and Side; then Endium, and Linaeum, and Colone.^ He also took Lesbos and Phocaea , then Colophon , and Smyrna , and Clazomenae , and Cyme; and afterwards Aegialus and Tenos, the so-called Hundred Cities; then, in order, Adramytium and Side; then Endium, and Linaeum, and Colone.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Then he also took Lesbos and Phocaea, then Colophon, and Smyrna, and Clazomenae, and Cyme; and afterwards Aegialus and Tenos, the so-called Hundred Cities; then, in order, Adramytium and Side; then Endium, and Linaeum, and Colone.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And besides these he took Clazomenae, and Cyme, and Adramytium, and Antandrus, and the island of Lesbos, and, as they say, many others.
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

He took also Hypoplacian Thebes and Lyrnessus, and further Antandrus, and many other cities.
[86]
.Kakrides comments that the list is wrong in that it extends too far into the south.^ Kakrides comments that the list is wrong in that it extends too far into the south.
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[87] .Other sources talk of Achilles taking Pedasus, Monenia,[88] Mythemna (in Lesbos), and Peisidice.^ Other sources talk of Achilles taking Pedasus, Monenia,[88] Mythemna (in Lesbos), and Peisidice.
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^ Other sources talk of him taking Pedasus,Monenia Mythemna (in Lesbos) and Peisidice.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other sources state that Thetis bathed Achilles in the River Styx, the river that runs to the under world, making him invulnerable wherever he had touched the water.
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[89]
.Among the loot from these cities was Briseis, from Lyrnessus, who was awarded to him, and Chryseis, from Hypoplacian Thebes, who was awarded to Agamemnon.^ Among the loot from these cities was Briseis that was awarded to him and Chryseis that was awarded to Agamemnon.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the loot from these cities was Briseis from Lyrnessus who was awarded to him and Chryseis from Hypoplacian Thebes who was awarded to Agamemnon.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the loot from these cities was Briseis who was awarded to him and Chryseis who was awarded to Agamemnon.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[35] .Achilles captured Lycaon, son of Priam,[90] while he was cutting branches in his father's orchards.^ Achilles captured Lycaon, son of Priam, while he was cutting branches in his father's orchards.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Achilles captured Lycaon, son of Priam, Apollodorus, Library 3.12.5.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Patroclus sold him as a slave in Lemnos,[35] where he was bought by Eetion of Imbros and brought back to Troy.^ Patroclus sold him a slave in Lemnos [104] where he was bought by Eetion of Imbros and brought back to Troy.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Patroclus sold him as a slave in Lemnos,[35] where he was bought by Eetion of Imbros and brought back to Troy.
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^ Patroclus sold him as a slave in Lemnos, where he was bought by Eetion of Imbros and brought back to Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only 12 days later Achilles slew him, after the death of Patroclus.^ Achilles was grief stricken by Patroclus' death.

^ Only 12 days later Achilles slew him again (after the death of Patroclus).
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Only 12 days later Achilles slew him, after the death of Patroclus.
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[91]

Ajax and a game of petteia

.Ajax son of Telamon laid waste the Thracian peninsula of which Polymestor, a son-in-law of Priam, was king.^ He also laid waste the Thracian peninsula of which Polymestor, a son-in-law of Priam, was king.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Aias the Telamonian laid waste the Thracian peninsula of which Polymestor , a son-in-law of Priam, was king.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ajax and a game of petteia Telamonian Ajax laid waste the Thracian peninsula of which Polymestor, a son-in-law of Priam, was king.
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.Polymestor surrendered Polydorus, one of Priam's children, of whom he had custody.^ Polymestor surrendered Polydorus , one of Priam's children, of whom he had custody.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Polymestor surrendered Polydorus, one of Priam's children, of whom he had custody.
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^ Before actual fighting had started at Troy, Priam and Hecuba left one of their sons, Polydorus, to be brought up in Thrace, ruled by King Polymestor.

.He then attacked the town of the Phrygian king Teleutas, killed him in single combat and carried off his daughter Tecmessa.^ He then attacked the town of the Phrygian king Teleutas, killed him in single combat and carried off his daughter Tecmessa.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Aias the Telamonian attacked the town of the Phrygian king Teleutas, and carried off his daughter Tecmessa .
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Diomedes was first thrown by a storm on the coast of Lycia, where he was to be sacrificed to Ares by king Lycus but Callirrhoe, the king's daughter, took pity upon him, and assisted him in escaping.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[92] .Ajax also hunted the Trojan flocks, both on Mount Ida and in the countryside.^ Ajax also hunted the Trojan flocks, both on Mount Ida and in the countryside.
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^ Aias also hunted the Trojan flocks, both on Mount Ida and in the countryside.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jupiter ( Zeus ), not willing to decide in so delicate a matter, sent the goddesses to Mount Ida , where the beautiful shepherd Paris was tending his flocks, and to him was committed the decision.
  • YOU ARE THE REPORTER: The Trojan war 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.isd381.k12.mn.us [Source type: Original source]

.Numerous paintings on pottery have suggested a tale not mentioned in the literary traditions.^ Numerous paintings on pottery have suggested a tale not mentioned in the literary traditions.
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.At some point in the war Achilles and Ajax were playing a board game (petteia).^ Achilles and Ajax playing board game Exekias Black-figure vase, c.

^ At some point in the war Achilles and Ajax were playing a board game (petteia).
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^ During the funeral games, contest for armour of Achilles, was awarded to Odysseus as the hero who did the greatest services to the Greek causes in the war.

[93][94] .They were absorbed in the game and oblivious to the surrounding battle.^ They were absorbed in the game and oblivious to the surrounding battle.
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[95] .The Trojans attacked and reached the heroes, who were only saved by an intervention of Athena.^ The Trojans attacked and reached the heroes, who were only saved by an intervention of Athena.
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^ Philoctetes was among the heroes who were hidden within the belly of the Wooden Horse (Trojan Horse).

^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.11 Nestor, who had the best conduct in Troy and did not take part in the looting, was the only hero who had a good, fast and safe return.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[96]

The death of Palamedes

.Odysseus was sent to Thrace to return with grain, but came back empty-handed.^ Odysseus was sent to Troy to return with grain but came back empty handed.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The death of Palamedes Odysseus was sent to Thrace to return with grain but came back empty-handed.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The death of Palamedes Odysseus was sent to Thrace to return with grain, but came back empty-handed.
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.When scorned by Palamedes, Odysseus challenged him to do better.^ When scorned by Palamedes he challenged him to do better.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When scorned by Palamedes, Odysseus challenged him to do better.
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^ Palamedes outwitted him by putting his infant son in front of the plough, and Odysseus turned aside, unwilling to kill his son, and so revealed his sanity and joined the war.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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.Palamedes set out and returned with a shipload of grain.^ Palamedes set out also and returned with a shipload.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Palamedes set out and returned with a shipload of grain.
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^ Palamedes set out also and returned with a shipload of grain.
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[97]
.Odysseus had never forgiven Palamedes for threatening the life of his son.^ On seeing this, Odysseus who had never forgiven him for threatening the life of his son conjured a plot.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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^ Odysseus had never forgiven Palamedes for threatening the life of his son.
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^ Palamedes outwitted him by putting his infant son in front of the plough, and Odysseus turned aside, unwilling to kill his son, and so revealed his sanity and joined the war.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
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  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.In revenge, Odysseus conceived a plot[98] where an incriminating letter was forged, from Priam to Palamedes,[99] and gold was planted in Palamedes' quarters.^ In revenge, Odysseus conceived a plot[98] where an incriminating letter was forged, from Priam to Palamedes,[99] and gold was planted in Palamedes' quarters.
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^ Then he buried gold in the quarters of Palamedes and he dropped the letter in the camp.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ An incriminating letter was forged, from Priam to Palamedes, and gold was planted in Palamedes' quarters.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The letter and gold were "discovered", and Agamemnon had Palamedes stoned to death for treason.^ The letter and gold were "discovered", and Agamemnon had Palamedes stoned to death for treason.
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^ In revenge, Odysseus conceived a plot[98] where an incriminating letter was forged, from Priam to Palamedes,[99] and gold was planted in Palamedes' quarters.
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^ However, Pausanias, quoting the Cypria, says that Odysseus and Diomedes drowned Palamedes, while he was fishing, and Dictys says that Odysseus and Diomedes lured Palamedes into a well, which they said contained gold, then stoned him to death.
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.However, Pausanias, quoting the Cypria, says that Odysseus and Diomedes drowned Palamedes, while he was fishing, and Dictys says that Odysseus and Diomedes lured Palamedes into a well, which they said contained gold, then stoned him to death.^ However, Pausanias, quoting the Cypria, says that Odysseus and Diomedes drowned Palamedes, while he was fishing, and Dictys says that Odysseus and Diomedes lured Palamedes into a well, which they said contained gold, then stoned him to death.
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^ Pausanias quoting the Cypria though puts the conspiracy differently:[107] Odysseus and Diomedes drowned him when he was put out to catch fish.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Cypria (Epic Cycle), Odysseus and Diomedes drowned Palemedes, while he went fishing.

[100]
.Palamedes' father Nauplius sailed to the Troad and asked for justice, but was refused.^ Palamede's father Nauplius sailed to the Troad and asked for justice from Agamemnon.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Palamedes' father Nauplius sailed to the Troad and asked for justice, but was refused.
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.In revenge, Nauplius traveled among the Achaean kingdoms and told the wives of the kings that they were bringing Trojan concubines to dethrone them.^ In revenge Nauplius traveled among the Achaean kingdoms and told the wives of the kings that they were bringing Trojan concubines to dethrone them.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In revenge Nauplius traveled to the lands of the Acheans and told the wives of the kings that they were bringing Trojan concubines to dethrone them.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In revenge, Nauplius traveled among the Achaean kingdoms and told the wives of the kings that they were bringing Trojan concubines to dethrone them.
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.Many of the Greek wives were persuaded to betray their husbands, most significantly Agamemnon's wife, Clytemnestra, who was seduced by Aegisthus, son of Thyestes.^ In vengeance many of them stared cheating on them, most significantly Clytaemnestra with Aegisthus, son of Thyestes.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the Greek wives were persuaded to betray their husbands, most significantly Agamemnon's wife, Clytemnestra, who was seduced by Aegisthus, son of Thyestes.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the Greek wives were persuaded to betray their husbands, most significantly Agamemnon's wife, Clytemnestra with Aegisthus, son of Thyestes.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[101]

Mutiny

.Near the end of the ninth year since the landing, the Achaean army, tired from the fighting and from the lack of supplies, mutinied against their leaders and demanded to return to their homes.^ Mutiny Near the end of the ninth year since the landing the Achean army, tired from the fighting and from the lack of supplies, mutinied against their leaders and demanded to return to their homes.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mutiny Near the end of the ninth year since the landing, the Achaean army, tired from the fighting and from the lack of supplies, mutinied against their leaders and demanded to return to their homes.
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^ The Trojan War was a war waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor, by the armies of the Achaeans, following the kidnapping (or elopement) of Helen of Sparta by Paris of Troy.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.According to the Cypria, Achilles forced the army to stay.^ According to the Cypria Achilles forced the army to stay.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Cypria, Achilles forced the army to stay.
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[35] .According to Apollodorus, Agamemnon brought the Wine Growers, daughters of Anius, son of Apollo, who had the gift of producing by touch wine, wheat, and oil from the earth, in order to relieve the supply problem of the army.^ According to Apollodorus, Agamemnon brought the Wine Growers, daughters of Anius, son of Apollo, who had the gift of producing by touch wine, wheat, and oil from the earth, in order to relieve the supply problem of the army.
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^ According to Apollodorus Agamemnon brought the Wine Growers, daughters of Anius son of Apollo, who had the gift of producing by touch wine, wheat, and oil from the earth, in order to relieve the supply problem of the army.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eurypylus, son of Telephus, leading, according to Homer, a large force of Kêteioi,[138] or Hittites or Mysians according to Apollodorus,[139] arrived to aid the Trojans.
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[102]

The Iliad

.
Chryses pleading with Agamemnon for his daughter, ca.
^ Chryses pleading with Agamemnon for his daughter.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iliad Chryses pleading with Agamemnon for his daughter, ca.
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^ Chryses pleading Agamemnon for this daughter,ca.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

360 BC–350 BC (Louvre).
.
Thetis gives her son Achilles his weapons newly forged by Hephaestus, detail of an Attic black-figure hydria, ca.
^ BC–350 BC Louvre Thetis gives her son Achilles his weapons newly forged by Hephaestus, detail of an Attic black-figure hydria, ca.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sack of Troy Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic black-figure amphora, ca.
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^ Thetis gives her son Achilles his weapons newly forged by Hephaestus, detail of an Attic black-figure hydria, ca.
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575 BC–550 BC (Louvre).
.Chryses, a priest of Apollo and father of Chryseis, came to Agamemnon to ask for the return of his daughter.^ Main article: Iliad Chryses, a priest of Apollo and father of Chryseis, came to Agamemnon to ask for the return of his daughter.
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^ Chryses , a priest of Apollo and father of Chryseis , comes to Agamemnon to ask for the return of his daughter.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Chryses pleading with Agamemnon for his daughter.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Agamemnon refused, and insulted Chryses, who prayed to Apollo to avenge his ill-treatment.^ Agamemnon refused, and insulted Chryses, who prayed to Apollo to avenge his ill-treatment.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Agamemnon refuses, and insults Chryses, who prays to Apollo to avenge his ill-treatment.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Iliad Chryses, a priest of Apollo and father of Chryseis, came to Agamemnon to ask for the return of his daughter.
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.Enraged, Apollo afflicted the Achaean army with plague.^ Enraged, Apollo strikes the Achaean army with plague.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Enraged, Apollo afflicted the Achaean army with plague.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.Agamemnon was forced to return Chryseis to end the plague, and took Achilles' concubine Briseis as his own.^ Agamemnon is forced to return Chryseis to avert the plague, and takes the concubine Briseis from Achilles.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In anger, Agamemnon foolishly took Achilles' concubine Briseïs, to compensate for the lost of his own concubine.

^ Agamemnon was forced to return Chryseis to end the plague, and took Achilles' concubine Briseis as his own.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.Enraged at the dishonour Agamemnon had inflicted upon him, Achilles decided he would no longer fight.^ Enraged at the dishonor Agamemnon has inflicted upon him, Achilles decides he will no longer fight.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Enraged at the dishonor Agamemnon had inflicted upon him, Achilles decided he would no longer fight.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Achilles' mother disguised him as a woman so that he would not have to go to war, but, according to one story, they blew a horn, and Achilles revealed himself by seizing a spear to fight intruders, rather than fleeing.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He asked his mother, Thetis, to intercede with Zeus, who agreed to give the Trojans success in the absence of Achilles, the best warrior of the Achaeans.^ He asked his mother, Thetis, to intercede with Zeus, who agreed to give the Trojans success in the absence of Achilles, the best warrior of the Achaeans.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Hector was the best warrior on the Trojan side.

^ He asks his mother, Thetis, to intercede with Zeus, who agrees to give the Trojans success in the absence of Achilles, the best warrior of the Achaeans.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the withdrawal of Achilles, the Achaeans were initially successful.^ Even so, the Achaeans are initially successful.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ After the withdrawal of Achilles, the Achaeans were initially successful.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Source: Wikipedia After the withdrawal of Achilles, the Achaeans were initially successful.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Both armies gathered in full for the first time since the landing.^ Both armies gathered in full for the first time since the landing.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ After the initial landing the army was gathered in its entirety again only in the tenth year.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mutiny Near the end of the ninth year since the landing the Achean army, tired from the fighting and from the lack of supplies, mutinied against their leaders and demanded to return to their homes.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Menelaus and Paris fought a duel, which ended when Aphrodite snatched the beaten Paris from the field.^ Paris fought with Menelaus and got almost killed.
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Menelaus and Paris fought a duel, which ended when Aphrodite snatched the beaten Paris from the field.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Paris with Aphrodite's help, kidnapped or seduced her and sailed to Troy carrying off part of Menelaus' treasure.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the truce broken, the armies began fighting again.^ With the truce broken, the armies began fighting again.
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^ The truce was broken and fighting broke out on both sides.

^ The truce was broken, the Achean army nearly reached the wall, and Diomedes, with the assistance of Athena, nearly killed Aeneas, and wounded the gods Aphrodite and Ares.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Diomedes won great renown amongst the Achaeans, killing the Trojan hero Pandaros and nearly killing Aeneas, who was only saved by his mother, Aphrodite.^ He slaughtered many Trojans, and nearly killed Aeneas, who was saved by Poseidon.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Diomedes, with the assistance of Athena, nearly kills Aeneas, and wounds the gods Aphrodite and Ares.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trojans attacked and reached the heroes, who were only saved by an intervention of Athena.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.With the assistance of Athena, Diomedes then wounded the gods Aphrodite and Ares.^ Aphrodite wounded by Diomedes 2 .
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the assistance of Athena, Diomedes then wounded the gods Aphrodite and Ares.
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^ With Athena's encouragement, Diomedes not only wounded Aeneas , but also the two gods, Aphrodite and Ares.

.During the next days, however, the Trojans drove the Achaeans back to their camp and were stopped at the Achaean wall by Poseidon.^ They drove back the Acheans to their camp.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the first day of the Trojan attack they are stopped at the Achean wall by Poseidon.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the next days, however, the Trojans drove the Achaeans back to their camp and were stopped at the Achaean wall by Poseidon.
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.The next day, though, with Zeus' help, the Trojans broke into the Achaean camp and were on the verge of setting fire to the Achaean ships.^ The next day, though, with Zeus' help, the Trojans broke into the Achaean camp and were on the verge of setting fire to the Achaean ships.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ The next day though with Zeus' help the Trojans broke into the Achaean camp, and were on the verge of setting fire to the Achaean ships.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The next days though the Trojans had the upper hand.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.An earlier appeal to Achilles to return was rejected, but after Hector burned Protesilaus' ship, he allowed his close friend[103] and relative Patroclus to go into battle wearing Achilles' armour and lead his army.^ An earlier appeal to Achilles to return was rejected, but after Hector burned Protesilaus' ship, he allowed his close friend and relative Patroclus to go into battle wearing Achilles' armor and leading his army.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They break into the Achaean camp, and are on the verge of setting fire to the Achaean ships, when Achilles allows his close friend Patroclus to go into battle wearing Achilles' armor.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ An earlier appeal to Achilles to return was rejected, but after Hector burned Protesilaus' ship, he allowed his close friend[103] and relative Patroclus to go into battle wearing Achilles' armor and lead his army.
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.Patroclus drove the Trojans all the way back to the walls of Troy, and was only prevented from storming the city by the intervention of Apollo.^ Patroclus drove the Trojans back all the way to the walls of Troy and was only prevented from storming the city by the intervention of Apollo.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Patroclus drives the Trojans back all the way back to the walls of Troy, and is only prevented from storming the city by the intervention of Apollo.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Patroclus drove the Trojans back all the way to the walls of Troy, and was only prevented from storming the city by the intervention of Apollo.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Patroclus was then killed by Hector, who took Achilles' armour from the body of Patroclus.^ Hector had killed Patroclus, Achilles' beloved companion.

^ Patroclus was then killed by Hector, who took Achilles' armor from the body of Patroclus.
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^ Patroclus is then killed by Hector, who takes Achilles' armor from the body of Patroclus.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.
Triumphant Achilles dragging Hector's lifeless body in front of the Gates of Troy.
^ Triumphant Achilles dragging Hector's lifeless body in front of the Gates of Troy.
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^ Achilles killed Hector, and afterwards he dragged Hector's body from his chariot and refused to return the body to the Trojans for burial.
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^ This proved to be so because Ajax 1 gave Hector 1 the belt by which he was dragged by Achilles , and Hector 1 gave Ajax 1 the sword with which he killed himself.
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

(From a panoramic fresco on the upper level of the main hall of the Achilleion)
.Achilles, maddened with grief, swore to kill Hector in revenge.^ (From a panoramic fresco on the upper level of the main hall of the Achilleion) Achilles, maddened with grief, swore to kill Hector in revenge.
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^ Achilles, maddened with grief, swore to kill Hector in revenge.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Source: Wikipedia Achilles, maddened with grief, swore to kill Hector in revenge.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was reconciled with Agamemnon and received Briseis back, untouched by Agamemnon.^ He was reconciled with Agamemnon and received Briseis back, untouched by Agamemnon.
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^ He was reconciled with Agamemnon and received Brisei back, untouched by Agamemnon.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He received a new set of arms, forged by the god Hephaestus, and returned to the battlefield.^ He received a new set of arms, forged by the god Hephaestus , and returned to the battlefield.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He received a new set of arms, forged by the god Hephaestus, and returned to the battlefield.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ He receives a new set of arms, forged by the god Hephaestus, and returns to the battlefied.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.He slaughtered many Trojans, and nearly killed Aeneas, who was saved by Poseidon.^ He slaughtered many Trojans, and nearly killed Aeneas, who was saved by Poseidon.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Poseidon , who normally favoured the Greeks, saved Aeneas from Achilles.

^ Protesilaus had killed many Trojans but was killed by Hector or Aeneas, Achates or Ephorbus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Achilles fought with the river god Scamander, and a battle of the gods followed.^ Achilles fought with the river Scamander, and a battle of the gods followed.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Achilles fought with the river god Scamander, and a battle of the gods followed.
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^ Achilles was relentless, killing many Trojans at the Scamander River, so much so that blood and bodies were choking the river.

.The Trojan army returned to the city, except for Hector, who remained outside the walls because he was tricked by Athena.^ The Trojan army returned to the city, except for Hector, who remained outside because he was tricked by Athena.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trojan army returned to the city, except for Hector, who remained outside the walls because he was tricked by Athena.
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^ The Trojan army returned to the city, except for Hector, who remained outside because he was tricked by Athena .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Achilles killed Hector, and afterwards he dragged Hector's body from his chariot and refused to return the body to the Trojans for burial.^ Achilles killed Hector, and aftwards he draged Hector's body from his chariot and refused to return the body to the Trojans for burial.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Achilles killed Hector, and afterwards he dragged Hector's body from his chariot and refused to return the body to the Trojans for burial.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Patroclus is then killed by Hector, who takes Achilles' armor from the body of Patroclus.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

.The Achaeans then conducted funeral games for Patroclus.^ The Achaeans then conducted funeral games for Patroclus.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ The Achaeans then conduct funeral games for Patroclus.
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^ His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held.
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.Afterwards, Priam came to Achilles' tent, guided by Hermes, and asked Achilles to return Hector's body.^ Afterwards, Priam came to Achilles' tent, guided by Hermes , and asked Achilles to return Hector's body.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Afterwards, Priam comes to Achilles' tent, guided by Hermes, and asks Achilles to return Hector's body.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Afterwards, Priam came to Achilles' tent, guided by Hermes, and asked Achilles to return Hector's body.
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.The armies made a temporary truce to allow the burial of the dead.^ The armies made a temporary truce to allow the burial of the dead.
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^ The armies make a temporary truce to allow the burial of the dead, and the Iliad ends with the funeral of Hector.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ A one-day truce was agreed upon from both sides, to allow them to bury their comrades who had fallen that day.

.The Iliad ends with the funeral of Hector.^ The Iliad ended with with a tribute for the bravery of Hector at the funeral.

^ The Iliad ends with the funeral of Hector.
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^ The following articles recount the events begins where the Iliad ended (funeral of Hector), with arrival of new allies for Troy and the death of Achilles and Ajax to the final outcome of the war.

After the Iliad

Achilles killing Penthesilea, Antikensammlung, Munich.

Penthesilea and the death of Achilles

.Shortly after the burial of Hector, Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons, arrived with her warriors.^ Penthesilea and the death of Achilles Shortly after the burial of Hector, Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons, arrived with her warriors.
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^ Shortly after the burial of Hector, Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons arrived with her warriors.
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^ Shortly after the burial of Hector, Penthesilea , queen of the Amazons arrived with her warriors.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[104] .Penthesilea, daughter of Otrere and Ares, had accidentally killed her sister Hippolyte.^ The Amazon queen, Penthesileia , was a daughter of Ares , and sister of Hippolyte.

^ Penthesilea, daughter of Otrere and Ares, had killed by accident her sister Hippolyte.
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^ Penthesilea, daughter of Otrere and Ares, had accidentally killed her sister Hippolyte.
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.She was purified from this action by Priam,[105] and in exchange she fought for him and killed many, including Machaon[106] (according to Pausanias, Machaon was killed by Eurypylus),[107] and according to another version, Achilles himself, who was resurrected at the request of Thetis.^ Achilles killed many of Trojan leaders (including many of Priam's sons) as well as their allies.

^ In exchange, she fought for him and killed many, including Machaon Apollodorus, Epitome 5.1.
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^ Pausanias, Machaon was killed by Eurypylus ) Pausanias 3.26.9.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[108] .Penthesilia was then killed by Achilles[109] who fell in love with her beauty after her death.^ Achilles fell in love with her.

^ Penthesilia was then killed by Achilles[109] who fell in love with her beauty after her death.
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^ Penthesilia was then killed by Achilles who fell in love with her beauty, after her death.
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.Thersites, a simple soldier and the ugliest Achaean, taunted Achilles over his love[106] and gouged out Penthesilea's eyes.^ Thersites, a simple soldier and the ugliest Achaean, taunted Achilles over his love and gouged out Penthesilea's eyes.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thersites, a simple soldier and the ugliest Achaean, taunted Achilles over his love[106] and gouged out Penthesilea's eyes.
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^ Thersites , a simple soldier and the ugliest Achaean, taunted Achilles over his love and gouged out Penthesilea's eyes.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[110] .Achilles slew Thersites, and after a dispute sailed to Lesbos, where he was purified for his murder by Odysseus after sacrificing to Apollo, Artemis, and Leto.^ Odysseus took Achilles to the island of Lesbos, where he sacrificed to Leto and her children, Apollo and Artemis.

^ Achilles slew Thersites, and after a dispute sailed to Lesbos, where he was purified for his murder by Odysseus after sacrificing to Apollo, Artemis, and Leto.
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^ Achilles slew Thersites, and after a dispute sailed to Lesbos where he was purified for his murder by Odysseus after sacrificing to Apollo, Artemis and Leto.
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[109]
.While they were away, Memnon of Ethiopia, son of Tithonus and Eos,[111] came with his host to help his stepbrother Priam.^ While they were away, Memnon of Ethiopia , son of Tithonus and Eos Apollodorus, Epitome 5.3.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Source: Wikipedia While they were away, Memnon of Ethiopia, son of Tithonus and Eoscame with his host to help his stepbrother Priam.
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^ While they were away, Memnon of Ethiopia, son of Tithonus and Eos,[111] came with his host to help his stepbrother Priam.
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[112] .He did not come directly from Ethiopia, but either from Susa in Persia, conquering all the peoples in between,[113] or from the Caucasus, leading an army of Ethiopians and Indians.^ He did not come directly from Ethiopia, but either from Susa in Persia, conquering all the peoples in between, or from the Caucasus, leading an army of Ethiopians and Indians.
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^ He did not come directly from Ethiopia, but either from Susa in Persia, conquering all the peoples in between,[113] or from the Caucasus, leading an army of Ethiopians and Indians.
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^ He did not come directly from Ethiopia, but either from Susa in Persia, having subdued all the peoples that lived between there and Troy, Pausanias 10.31.7.
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[114] .Like Achilles, he wore armour made by Hephaestus.^ Like Achilles, he wore armor made by Hephaestus.
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^ Memnon had golden helmet, armour and shield were made by Hephaestus , just like Achilles' armour, helmet and shield.

^ He wore armor made by Hephestus, like Achilles.
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[115] .In the ensuing battle, Memnon killed Antilochus, who took one of Memnon's blows to save his father Nestor.^ In the ensuing battle, Memnon killed Antilochus, who took one of Memnon's blows to save his father Nestor.
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^ In the ensuing battle, Memnon killed Achilles' intimate friend Antilochus, who took one of Memnon's blows to save his father Nestor.
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^ In the ensuing battle, Memnon killed Achilles' intimate friend Antilochus , who took one of Memnon's blows to save his father Nestor .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[116] .Achilles and Memnon then fought.^ Achilles and Memnon then fought.
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^ Then Achilles and Memnon fought.
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.Zeus weighed the fate of the two heroes; the weight containing that of Memnon sank,[117] and he was slain by Achilles.^ Memnon was slain by Achilles.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Zeus weighed the fate of the two heroes, and the wale containing that of Memnon sank, Quintus Smyrnaeus ii.
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^ Zeus weighed the fate of the two heroes; the weight containing that of Memnon sank,[117] and he was slain by Achilles.
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[109][118] .Achilles chased the Trojans to their city, which he entered.^ Achilles chased the Trojans to their city, which he entered.
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^ Apollo encouraged Achilles into chasing him so the Trojans and their allies were able to escape Achilles' deadly pursuit.

^ (See also Map: ACHAEAN & TROJANS , where the cities taken by Achilles are marked.
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.The gods, seeing that he had killed too many of their children, decided that it was his time to die.^ The gods, seeing that he had killed too many of their children, decided that it was his time to die.
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^ The gods, seeing that he had killed too many of their children decided that it was his time to die.
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^ While another says that Sisyphus had imprisoned Thanatos , god of death, so that for a time, no one could die.

.He was killed after Paris shot a poisoned arrow that was guided by Apollo.^ He was killed by Paris with a poisoned arrow that was guided by Apollo.
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^ Paris himself was killed by poisoned arrow from Philoctetes .

^ Philoctetes then shot and killed Paris.
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[109][111][119] .In another version he was killed by a knife to the back (or heel) by Paris, while marrying Polyxena, daughter of Priam, in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo,[120] the site where he had earlier killed Troilus.^ In another version he was killed by a knife to the back (or heel) by Paris, while marrying Polyxena, daughter of Priam, in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo,[120] the site where he had earlier killed Troilus.
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^ In another version he is killed by a knife to the back (or heel) by Paris while marrying Polyxena daughter of Priam in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo, the site where he had earlier killed Troilus.
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^ As Thetis had foretold, Apollo guided an arrow, shot from Paris' bow, to Achilles' only weakness, one of his heels.

.Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valour, saying Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield.^ Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valour, saying Achilles remains undefeated on the battlefield.
  • Trojan War 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valour, saying Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield.
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^ According to one story, the armour was buried with Ajax, but the more common version, say that Odysseus gave the armour to Achilles' son, Neoptolemus .

.His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held.^ The Achaeans then conduct funeral games for Patroclus.
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^ Funeral games were held in his honor.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Great funeral games were held in Patroclus' honour.

[121] .Like Ajax, he is represented as living after his death in the island of Leuke, at the mouth of the Danube River,[122] where he is married to Helen.^ Like Ajax, he is represented as living after his death in the island of Leuke at the mouth of the Danube Apollodorus, Epitome 5.5.
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^ Like Ajax, he is represented as living after his death in the island of Leuke, at the mouth of the Danube River,[122] where he is married to Helen.
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^ Like Ajax, he is represented as living after his death in the island of Leuke at the mouth of the Danube.
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[123]

The Judgment of the Arms: Achilles' armour and the death of Ajax

Ajax preparing to commit suicide.
.A great battle raged around the dead Achilles.^ A great battle raged around the dead Achilles.
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^ After Achilles death a great battle followed over his body.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Odysseus held back the Trojans, while Ajax carried the body away.^ While Ajax carried Achilles' body back to camp, Odysseus kept the Trojans back.

^ Odysseus held back the Trojans, while Ajax carried the body away.
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^ Odysseus held back the Trojans while Aias carried the body.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[109] .When Achilles' armour was offered to the smartest warrior, the two that had saved his body came forward as competitors.^ When Achilles' armour was offered to the bravest, the two that had saved his body came forward as competitors.
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^ When Achilles' armour was offered to the smartest warrior, the two that had saved his body came forward as competitors.
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^ Proclus Chrestomathy 2,Little Iliad When Achilles' armour was offered to the bravest the two that had saved his body came forward as competitors.
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.Agamemnon, unwilling to undertake the invidious duty of deciding between the two competitors, referred the dispute to the decision of the Trojan prisoners, inquiring of them which of the two heroes had done most harm to the Trojans.^ Agamemnon, unwilling to undertake the invidious duty of deciding between the two competitors, referred the dispute to the decision of the Trojan prisoners, inquiring of them which of the two heroes had done most harm to the Trojans.
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^ During the funeral games of Achilles, his armour resulted in bitter dispute between two comrades – Ajax and Odysseus – both heroes claiming to be the bravest warrior next to Achilles.

^ When his wife Antigone died, the gods decided that the hero being the most worthy to marry the sea-goddess, Thetis .

[124] .Alternatively, the Trojans and Pallas Athena were the judges[125][126] in that, following Nestor's advice, spies were sent to the walls to overhear what was said.^ Alternatively the Trojans and Pallas Athena were the judges in that, following Nestor's advice, spies were sent to the walls to overhear what was said.
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^ Alternatively the Trojans and Pallas Athena were the judges Homer Odyssey λ 542 in that, following Nestor's advice, spies were sent to the walls to overhear what was said.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alternatively, the Trojans and Pallas Athena were the judges[125][126] in that, following Nestor's advice, spies were sent to the walls to overhear what was said.
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A girl said that Ajax was braver:
For Aias took up and carried out of the strife the hero, Peleus'
son: this great Odysseus cared not to do.
To this another replied by Athena's contrivance:
.Why, what is this you say?^ To this another replied by Athena's contrivance: Why, what is this you say?
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^ To this another replied by Athena's contrivance: ''Why, what is this you say?
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

A thing against reason and untrue!
Even a woman could carry a load once a man had put it on her
shoulder; but she could not fight. For she would fail with fear
if she should fight. (Scholiast on Aristophanes, Knights 1056 and Aristophanes ib)
Ajax having committed suicide.
.According to Pindar, the decision was made by secret ballot among the Acheans.^ According to Pindar, the decision was made by secret ballot among the Acheans.
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^ (Scholiast on Aristophanes, Knights 1056 and Aristophanes ib) According to Pindar though the decision was by secret ballot of the Acheans.
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^ Source: Wikipedia According to Pindar, the decision was by secret ballot among the Acheans.
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[127] .In all story versions, the arms were awarded to Odysseus.^ In all story versions, the arms were awarded to Odysseus.
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^ In any case the arms were awarded to Odysseus.
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^ According to one story, the armour was buried with Ajax, but the more common version, say that Odysseus gave the armour to Achilles' son, Neoptolemus .

.Driven mad with grief, Ajax desired to kill his comrades, but Athena caused him to mistake the cattle and their herdsmen for the Achean warriors.^ Aias went mad with grief and vowed to kill his comrades.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Driven mad with grief, Ajax desired to kill his comrades, but Athena caused him to mistake the cattle and their herdsmen for the Achean wariors.
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^ Driven mad with grief, Ajax desired to kill his comrades, but Athena caused him to mistake the cattle and their herdsmen for the Achean warriors.
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[128] .In his frenzy he scourged two rams, believing them to be Agamemnon and Menelaus.^ Apollodorus Epitome 5.6 In his frenzy he scourged two rams, believing that he was scourging Agamemnon and Menelaus.
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^ In his frenzy he scourged two rams, believing them to be Agamemnon and Menelaus.
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[129] .In the morning, he came to his senses and killed himself by jumping on the sword that had been given to him by Hector, so that it pierced his armpit, his only vulnerable part.^ Returning to sanity, Ajax was mortified by what he done, and in his despair, Ajax killed himself with the sword that Hector had given him.

^ In the morning, he came to his senses and killed himself by jumping on the sword that had been given to him by Hector, so that it pierced his armpit, his only vulnerable part.
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^ One of the leader, Protesilaüs try to defy fate, leap ashore and after killing several Trojans, was killed himself by Hector.

[130] .According to an older tradition, he was killed by the Trojans who, seeing he was invulnerable, attacked him with clay until he was covered by it and could no longer move, thus dying of starvation.^ Sophocles Aias 42, 277, 852 According to an older tradition he was killed by the Trojans who, seeing he was invulnerable, attacked him with clay until he was covered by it and could no longer move, thus dying of starvation.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now I am no longer who I was.
  • Charles Mee | The Trojan Women: A Love Story 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.charlesmee.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to an older tradition, he was killed by the Trojans who, seeing he was invulnerable, attacked him with clay until he was covered by it and could no longer move, thus dying of starvation.
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The prophecies

.After the tenth year, it was prophesied[131] that Troy could not fall without Heracles' bow, which was with Philoctetes in Lemnos.^ Furthermore, when Achilles was nine years old, Calchas had prophesied that Troy could not again fall without his help.
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^ See Fall of Troy about Philoctetes.

^ When the ten year had past Calchas profesised that Troy could not fall without Heracle's bows and arrows (which were in Philoctetes 's possession).
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Odysseus and Diomedes[132] retrieved Philoctetes, whose wound had healed.^ Odysseus and Diomedes[132] retrieved Philoctetes, whose wound had healed.
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^ Odysseus and Diomedes retrieved Philoctetes from Lemnos.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For nine years, Philoctetes his wound had not healed, and he had to live in agony and loneliness.

[133] .Philoctetes then shot and killed Paris.^ Philoctetes then shot and killed Paris.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Philoctetes used his arrow to kill Paris.

^ Back in the war Philoctetes shot Paris dead with his bow and arrows.
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Apollodorus, Paris' brothers Helenus and Deiphobus vied over the hand of Helen.^ Helenus was the brother of Hector , Paris , Deiphobus and Cassandra .

^ According to Apollodorus, Paris' brothers Helenus and Deiphobus vied over the hand of Helen.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Hector was the brother of Paris , Helenus and Cassandra .

.Deiphobus prevailed, and Helenus abandoned Troy for Mt.^ Deiphobus prevailed, and Helenus abandoned Troy for Mt.
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^ Deiphobus prevailed and Helenus abandoned Troy for Mt.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Helenus left Troy and abode in Mt.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

Ida. .Calchas said that Helenus knew the prophecies concerning the fall of Troy, so Odysseus waylaid Helenus.^ As a seer, Helenus knew that Troy was doom.

^ Calchas said that Helenus knew the prophecies concerning the fall of Troy, so Odysseus waylaid Helenus.
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^ But Chalcas said that Helenus knew the prophecies concerning the fall of Troy, so Odysseus waylaid Helenus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[126][134] .Under coercion, Helenus told the Acheans that they would win if they retrieved Pelops' bones, persuaded Achilles' son Neoptolemus to fight for them, and stole the Trojan Palladium.^ Helenus said they would win if they retrieved Heracles ' arrows; steal the Trojan Palladium , bring the shoulder blade of Pelops Pausanias 5.13.1 and persuade Achilles' son ( Neoptolemus ) to join the war.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under coercion, Helenus told the Acheans that they would win, if they retrieved Pelops' bones, persuaded Achilles' son Neoptolemus to fight for them, and stole the Trojan Palladium.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Helenus was easy to persuade, and told the Greeks they Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles must come and fight at Troy.

[135]
.The Greeks retrieved Pelop's bones,[136] and sent Odysseus to retrieve Neoptolemus, who was hiding from the war in King Lycomedes's court in Scyros.^ The Greeks retrieved Pelop's bones,[136] and sent Odysseus to retrieve Neoptolemus, who was hiding from the war in King Lycomedes's court in Scyros.
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^ Apollodorus Epitome 5.10 Neoptolemus was hiding from the war in king Lycomedes 's court in Scyros but the Acheans retrieved him.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Greeks retrieved Pelop's bones, and sent Odysseus to retrieve Neoptolemus, who was hiding from the war in king Lycomedes's court in Scyros.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Odysseus gave him his father's arms.^ Odysseus gave him his father's arms.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Odysseus granted him his father's arms.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iphitus gave his father's bow to Odysseus.

[126][137] .Eurypylus, son of Telephus, leading, according to Homer, a large force of Kêteioi,[138] or Hittites or Mysians according to Apollodorus,[139] arrived to aid the Trojans.^ Eurypylus, son of Telephus, arrived to fight for the Trojans, bringing a great force of Mysians.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Breaking Telephus' promises, Eurypylus arrived with new Mysian reinforcement.

^ Eurypylus, son of Telephus, leading, according to Homer, a large force of Kêteioi,[138] or Hittites or Mysians according to Apollodorus,[139] arrived to aid the Trojans.
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.He killed Machaon[107] and Peneleus,[140] but was slain by Neoptolemus.^ He performed doughty deeds,killed Machaon Pausanias 3.26.9 and Peneleus Pausanias 9.5.15 but was slain by Neoptolemus.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Neoptolemus killed Eurypylus, avenging Machaon's death.

^ He killed Machaon and Peneleus but was slain by Neoptolemus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Disguised as a beggar, Odysseus went to spy inside Troy, but was recognized by Helen.^ Disguised as a beggar, Odysseus went to spy inside Troy, but was recognized by Helen.
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^ Paris, in the guise as a supposed diplomatic mission, went to Sparta to get Helen and bring her back to Troy.
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^ Disguised as a beggar, Odysseus told her, how he met her husband and he reassured her that he would return soon.

.Homesick,[141] Helen plotted with Odysseus.^ Homesick, Helen plotted with Odysseus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homesick,[141] Helen plotted with Odysseus.
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^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.11 Odysseus dressed went as a spy inside Troy and plotted with Helen (which was disatisfied with her forced marriage) the fall of Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later, with Helen's help, Odysseus and Diomedes stole the Palladium.^ Later, with Helen's help, Odysseus and Diomedes stole the Palladium.
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^ Telemachus, the son of Odysseus would later meet Menelaüs and Helen at Sparta; the young man seeking news of his father.

^ (Odysseus knew that Helen would never choose him, but Tyndareüs helped the hero to win Tyndareüs' niece – Penelope, the daughter of Icarius and cousin of Helen.

[126][142]

Trojan Horse

.The end of the war came with one final plan.^ Trojan Horse Main article: Trojan Horse The end of the war came with one final plan.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trojan Horse The end of the war came with one final plan.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The end of the war came with one final plan.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Odysseus devised a new ruse—a giant hollow wooden horse, an animal that was sacred to the Trojans.^ Epeius Apollodorus Epitome 5.14 or, in some versions of the tale, Odysseus devised a new ruse — a giant hollow wooden horse, an animal that was sacred to the Trojans.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Odysseus devised a new ruse - a giant hollow wooden horse, an animal that was sacred to the Trojans.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Odysseus devised a new ruse-a giant hollow wooden horse, an animal that was sacred to the Trojans.
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It was built by Epeius and guided by Athena,[143] from the wood of a cornel tree grove sacred to Apollo,[144] with the inscription:
.The Greeks dedicate this thank-offering to Athena for their return home.^ The Greeks dedicate this thank-offering to Athena for their return home.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pausanias 3.13.5 It had an inscription For their return home, the Greeks dedicate this thank--offering to Athena .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "For their return home, the Achaeans dedicate this thank-offering to Athena ".
  • The Trojan War - Greek Mythology Link 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[145]
.The hollow horse was filled with soldiers[146] led by Odysseus.^ It was built by Epeius and filled with soldiers led by Odysseus.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The hollow horse was filled with soldiers[146] led by Odysseus.
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^ The hollow horse was filled with soldiers led by Odysseus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The rest of the army burned the camp and sailed for Tenedos.^ The rest of the army burned the camp and left for Tenedos.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The rest of the army burned the camp and sailed for Tenedos.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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[147]
.When the Trojans discovered that the Greeks were gone, believing the war was over, they "joyfully dragged the horse inside the city",[148] while they debated what to do with it.^ Ancient Greeks believed that the Trojan War was a historical event.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Trojans discovered that the Greeks were gone, believing the war was over, they "joyfully dragged the horse inside the city",[148] while they debated what to do with it.
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^ When the Trojans discovered that the Greeks were gone, believing the war was over, they "joyfully dragged the horse inside the city" while they debated what to do with it.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others thought they should burn it, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.^ Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others to burn it up, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others to burn it, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others thought they should burn it, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.
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[149][150]
.Both Cassandra and Laocoön warned against keeping the horse.^ Both Cassandra and Laocoön warned against keeping the horse.
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^ Source: Wikipedia Both Cassandra and Laocoön warned against keeping the horse.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trojan seers, Cassandra and Laocoön (Laocoon) tried to warn them not to listen to Sinon, but a sea-monster send by Poseidon, killed Laocoön and his two sons.

[151] .While Cassandra had been given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, she was also cursed by Apollo never to be believed.^ When Cassandra rejected his love, Apollo had turned the gift into a curse.

^ But Cassandra, given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, was also cursed by Apollo to never be believed.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Apollo had given her the gift of prophecy, hoping to win her love.

.Serpents then came out of the sea and devoured either Laocoön and one of his two sons,[149] Laocoön and both his sons,[152] or only his sons,[153] a portent which so alarmed the followers of Aeneas that they withdrew to Ida.^ Then serpents came out of the sea and devoured either Laocoon and one of his two sons, Laocoon and both his sons, or only his sons, a portent which so alarmed the followers of Aeneas that they withdrew to Ida.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Serpents then came out of the sea and devoured either Laocoön and one of his two sons,[149] Laocoön and both his sons,[152] or only his sons,[153] a portent which so alarmed the followers of Aeneas that they withdrew to Ida.
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^ Apollodorus Epitome 5.17 But at this very time two serpents appeared and destroyed Laocoon and one of his two sons, a portent which so alarmed the followers of Aeneas that they withdrew to Ida.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[149] .The Trojans decided to keep the horse and turned to a night of mad revelry and celebration.^ The Trojans decided to keep the horse and turned to a night of mad revelry and celebration.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ The Trojans then turned to a night of mad revelry and celebration believing the war was over.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trojans thought that they had won the war, and started a celebration at that fateful night.

[126] .Sinon, an Achaean spy, signaled the fleet stationed at Tenedos when "it was midnight and the clear moon was rising"[154] and the soldiers from inside the horse emerged and killed the guards.^ Sinon had shown a secret light on the fleet stationed at Tenedos when it was midninght and the clear moon was rising Scholiast on Lycophroon, 344 and the soldiers from inside the horse emerged and killed the guards.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sinon, an Achean spy, signaled the fleet stationed at Tenedos when "it was midnight and the clear moon was rising" and the soldiers from inside the horse emerged and killed the guards.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sinon, an Achaean spy, signaled the fleet stationed at Tenedos when "it was midnight and the clear moon was rising"[154] and the soldiers from inside the horse emerged and killed the guards.
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[155]

The Sack of Troy

.
Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic black-figure amphora, ca.
^ Priam killed by Neoptolemus Black-figure vase .

^ Thetis gives her son Achilles his weapons newly forged by Hephaestus, detail of an Attic black-figure hydria, ca.
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^ Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic black-figure amphora, ca.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

520 BC–510 BC, Louvre.
.The Acheans entered the city and killed the sleeping population.^ BC The Acheans entered the city and slewed the sleeping population.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Acheans entered the city and killed the sleeping population.
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^ The Sack of Troy The Acheans entered the city and killed the sleeping population.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.A great massacre followed which continued into the day.^ A great massacre followed which continued into the day.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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Blood ran in torrents, drenched was all the earth,
As Trojans and their alien helpers died.
Here were men lying quelled by bitter death
All up and down the city in their blood.[156]
.The Trojans, fuelled with desperation, fought back fiercely, despite being disorganized and leaderless.^ The Trojans, fuelled with desperation, fought back fiercely, despite being disorganized and leaderless.
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^ Source: Wikipedia The Trojans, fuelled with desperation, fought back fiercely, despite being disorganized and leaderless.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the fighting at its height, some donned fallen enemies' attire and launched surprise counterattacks in the chaotic street fighting.^ With the fighting at its height, some donned fallen enemies' attire and launched surprise counterattacks in the chaotic street fighting.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.Other defenders hurled down roof tiles and anything else heavy down on the rampaging attackers.^ Other defenders hurled down roof tiles and anything else heavy down on the rampaging attackers.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others to burn it up, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others to burn it, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The outlook was grim though, and eventually the remaining defenders were destroyed along with the whole city.^ The outlook was grim though, and eventually the remaining defenders were destroyed along with the whole city.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.Neoptolemus killed Priam, who had taken refuge at the altar of Zeus of the Courtyard.^ Neoptolemus had killed Priam either in the palace or at the temple of Zeus.

^ Neoptolemus killed Priam, who had taken refuge at the altar of Zeus of the Courtyard.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ BC–510 BC Louvre Neoptolemus killed Priam who had taken refuge at the altar of Zeus of the Courtyard.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[149][157] .Menelaus killed Deiphobus, Helen's husband after Paris' death, and also intended to kill Helen, but, overcome by her beauty, threw down his sword[158] and took her to the ships.^ Helen chose Menelaüs (Menelaus) as her husband.

^ Menelaus killed Deiphobus, Helen's husband after Paris' death, and also intended to kill Helen, but, overcome by her beauty, threw down his sword[158] and took her to the ships.
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^ Menelaus killed Deiphobus and, enraged, intended to kill Helen too but he somehow caught sight of her bare breasts and threw down his sword Aristophanes, Lysistrata 155 and took her to the ship.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[149][159]
.Ajax the Lesser raped Cassandra on Athena's altar while she was clinging to her statue.^ Ajax dragged the prophetess Cassandra from altar of Athena and raped her.

^ Ajax the Lesser raped Cassandra on Athena's altar while she was clinging to her statue.
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^ Ajax saved himself; he threw himself to Athena's defiled altar, pleading for mercy.

.Because of Ajax's impiety, the Acheaens, urged by Odysseus, wanted to stone him to death, but he fled to Athena's altar, and was spared.^ Because of Ajax's impiety, the Acheaens, urged by Odysseus, wanted to stone him to death, but he fled to Athena's altar, and was spared.
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^ However, Pausanias, quoting the Cypria, says that Odysseus and Diomedes drowned Palamedes, while he was fishing, and Dictys says that Odysseus and Diomedes lured Palamedes into a well, which they said contained gold, then stoned him to death.
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^ Driven mad with grief, Ajax desired to kill his comrades, but Athena caused him to mistake the cattle and their herdsmen for the Achean wariors.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[149][160]
.Antenor, who had given hospitality to Menelaus and Odysseus when they asked for the return of Helen, and who had advocated so, was spared, along with his family.^ Hyginus Fabulae 109 Glaukus, son of Antenor who had earlier offered hospitality to the Achean embassy that asked the return of Helen and had advocated so Homer Iliad Γ.347-353 was spared, along with his family by Menelaus and Odysseus.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Antenor, who had given hospitality to Menelaus and Odysseus when they asked for the return of Helen, and who had advocated so, was spared, along with his family.
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^ Menelaus returned to Sparta with Helen 8 years after he had left Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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[161] .Aeneas took his father on his back and fled, and, according to Apollodorus, was allowed to go because of his piety.^ Aeneas took his father on his back and fled, and according to Apollodorus, was allowed to go because of his piety.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aeneas took his father on his back and fled.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aeneas took his father on his back and fled, and, according to Apollodorus, was allowed to go because of his piety.
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[157]
.The Greeks then burned the city and divided the spoils.^ The Greeks then burned the city and divided the spoils.
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^ Before the Greeks left Troy, the Greeks divided the spoils between themselves.

.Cassandra was awarded to Agamemnon.^ Cassandra was awarded to Agamemnon.
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.Neoptolemus got Andromache, wife of Hector, and Odysseus was given Hecuba, Priam's wife.^ Andromache , wife of Hector , became Neoptolemus' concubine, while the seer Helenus , son of Priam and Hecuba, became his slave.

^ Neoptolemus got Andromache, wife of Hector, and Odysseus was given Hecuba, Priam's wife.
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^ HECUBA And what of mail-clad Hector's wife, sad Andromache?
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The Trojan Women by Euripides 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[162]
.The Achaeans[163] threw Hector's infant son Astyanax down from the walls of Troy,[164] either out of cruelty and hate[165] or to end the royal line, and the possibility of a son's revenge.^ The Achaeans[163] threw Hector's infant son Astyanax down from the walls of Troy,[164] either out of cruelty and hate[165] or to end the royal line, and the possibility of a son's revenge.
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^ Astyanax, Hector's son, was flung to his death at the top of Troy's wall.

^ The Achaeans threw Hector's infant son Astyanax down from the walls of Troy, either out of cruelty and hate or to end the royal line, and the possibllity of a son's revenge.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[166] .They (by usual tradition Neoptolemus) also sacrificed the Trojan princess Polyxena on the grave of Achilles as demanded by his ghost, either as part of his spoil or because she had betrayed him.^ They (by usual tradition Neoptolemus) also sacrificed the Trojan princess Polyxena on the grave of Achilles as demanded by his ghost, either as part of his spoil or because she had betrayed him.
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^ Apollodorus Epitome 5.23 The ghost of Achilles appeared before the survivors of the war, demanding that the Trojan princess Polyxena be sacrificed before anybody could leave,as either part of his spoil or because she had betrayed him.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the ghost of Achilles appeared before the Greeks, demanding the sacrifice of Polyxena, Priam's youngest daughter, it was Neoptolemus who cut her throat upon his father's grave.

[167]
.Aethra, Theseus' mother, and one of Helen's handmaids,[168] was rescued by her grandsons, Demophon and Acamas.^ Aethra's grandsons, Demophon and Acamas, freed her and took her back to their ships.

^ Theseus left her in the care of his mother, Aethra.

^ Aethra, Theseus' mother, and one of Helen's handmaids, was rescued by her grandsons, Demophon and Acamas.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[149][169]

The returns

.The gods were very angry over the destruction of their temples and other sacrilegious acts by the Acheans, and decided that most would not return home.^ The Gods were very angry over the destruction of their temples and other sacrilegious acts by the Acheans and decided that most would not return.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The returns Main article: Returns from Troy The gods were very angry over the destruction of their temples and other sacrilegious acts by the Acheans, and decided that most would not return home.
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^ The Returns The gods were very angry over the destruction of their temples and other sacrilegious acts by the Acheans and decided that most would not return.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.A storm fell on the returning fleet off Tenos island.^ A storm fell on the returning fleet off Tenos island.
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^ At Pylus, Nestor told them how some returned home safely, while others were either driven off course or were killed by the storm sent by Poseidon.

^ Those ships that had survived the storm off the coast of Tenos would face another diaster.

.Additionally, Nauplius, in revenge for the murder of his son Palamedes, set up false lights in Cape Caphereus (also known today as Cavo D'Oro, in Euboea) and many were shipwrecked.^ Additionally, Nauplius, in revenge for the murder of his son Palamedes, set up false lights in Cape Caphereus (also known today as Cavo D'Oro, in Euboea) and many were shipwrecked.
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^ Also Nauplius, in revenge for the murder of his son Palamedes, set up false lights in Cape Caphereus (also known today as Cavo D'Oro, in Euboea) and many were shipwrecked.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Orphic myth , Dionysus, son of Persephone, otherwise known as Zagreus, the Titans murdered and devoured the infant Dionysus-Zagreus, but his heart was saved.

[170]
.Nestor, who had the best conduct in Troy and did not take part in the looting, was the only hero who had a fast and safe return.^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.11 Nestor, who had the best conduct in Troy and did not take part in the looting, was the only hero who had a good, fast and safe return.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nestor, who had the best conduct in Troy and did not take part in the looting, was the only hero who had a good, fast and safe return.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nestor, who had the best conduct in Troy and did not take part in the looting, was the only hero who had a fast and safe return.
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[171] .Those of his army that survived the war also reached home with him safely, but later left and colonised Metapontium in Southern Italy.^ Those of his army that survived the war also reached home with him safely, but later left and colonised Metapontium in Southern Italy.
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^ Those of his army that survived the war also reached home with him safely but later left and colonised Metapontium in Southern Italy.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.24 Those of his army that survived the war also reached home with him safely.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[172]
Poseidon smites Ajax the Lesser, by Bonaventura Genelli (1798–1868).
.Ajax the Lesser, who had endured more than the others the wrath of the Gods, never returned.^ Ajax the Lesser, who had endured more than the others the wrath of the Gods, never returned.
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^ Ajax the Lesser, who had endured more than the others the wrath of the Gods never returned.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Poseidon smotes Aias by Genelli Bonaventura (1798-1868) Locrian Aias, who had endured more than the others the wrath of the Gods never returned.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.His ship was wrecked by a storm sent by Athena, who borrowed one of Zeus' thunderbolts and tore it to pieces.^ His ship was wrecked by a storm sent by Athena, who borrowed one of Zeus' thunderbolts and tore it to pieces.
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^ His ship was wrecked by a storm sent by Athena who borrowed one of Zeus' thunderbolts and tore it to pieces.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ For instance, the historian Thucydides, who is known for his critical spirit, considers it a true event but doubts that 1,186 ships were sent to Troy.
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.The crew managed to land in a rock, but Poseidon struck it, and Ajax fell in the sea and drowned.^ The crew managed to land in a rock but Poseidon struck it and Ajax fell in the sea and drowned.
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^ The crew managed to land in a rock, but Poseidon struck it, and Ajax fell in the sea and drowned.
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^ Ajax fell into the sea and drowned.

.He was buried by Thetis in Myconos[173] or Delos.^ He was buried by Thetis in Myconos[173] or Delos.
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^ He was buried by Thetis in Myconos or Delos.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was buried by Thetis in Myconos Apollodorus Epitome 6.6 or Delos.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[174]
.Teucer, son of Telamon and half-brother of Ajax, stood trial by his father for his half-brother's death.^ Teucer son of Telamon and brother of the other Ajax stood trial by his father for his brother's death.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Teucer, son of Telamon and half-brother of Ajax, stood trial by his father for his half-brother's death.
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^ Scholiast on Homer's Iliad 13.66 Teucer son of Telamon and brother of the other Aias stood trial by his father for his brother's death.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was not allowed to land and was at sea near Phreattys in Peiraeus.^ He was not allowed to land and was at sea near Phreattys in Peiraeus.
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^ He was not allowed to land and was at sea near Phreattys in Peiraeus .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[175] .He was acquitted of responsibility but found guilty of negligence because he did not return his dead body or his arms.^ He was acquitted of responsibility but found guilty of negligence because he did not return his dead body or his arms.
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^ Pausanias 1.28.11 He was acquitted of responsibility but found guilty of negligence because he did not return his dead body or his arms.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That most Achean heroes did not return to their homes and founded colonies elsewhere was interpreted by Thucydides as being due to their long absence.
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.He left with his army (who took their wives) and founded Salamis in Cyprus.^ He left with his army (who took their wives) and founded Salamis in Cyprus.
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^ Io was taken from Mycenae, Europa, was taken from Phoenicia, Jason took Medea from Colchis, and the Trojan princess Hesione had been taken by Heracles who gave her to Telamon of Salamis.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Io was taken from Mycenae, Europa was taken from Phoenicia, Jason took Medea from Colchis,[39] and the Trojan princess Hesione had been taken by Heracles, who gave her to Telamon of Salamis.
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[176] .The Athenians later created a political myth that his son left his kingdom to Theseus' sons (and not to Megara).^ Pausanias 8.15.7 The Athenians later created a political myth that his son left his kingdom to Theseus' son (and not to Megara ).
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Athenians later created a political myth that his son left his kingdom to Theseus' sons (and not to Megara).
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^ Arcadia taketh some, and some the folk of Thessaly; others are assigned to Theseus' sons, the Athenian chiefs.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The Trojan Women by Euripides 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Neoptolemus, following the advice of Helenus, who accompanied him when he traveled over land, was always accompanied by Andromache.^ Neoptolemus, following Helenus' advice who accompanied him travelled over land, always accompanied by Andromache.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Neoptolemus, following the advice of Helenus, who accompanied him when he traveled over land, was always accompanied by Andromache.
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^ Andromache , wife of Hector , became Neoptolemus' concubine, while the seer Helenus , son of Priam and Hecuba, became his slave.

.He met Odysseus and they buried Phoenix, Achilles' teacher, on the land of the Ciconians.^ At first they landed in the land of the Ciconians in Ismara .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He met Odysseus and they buried Phoenix, Achilles' teacher, on the land of the Ciconians.
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^ Odysseus, Telamonian Ajax, and Achilles' tutor Phoenix went to retrieve Achilles.
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.They then conquered the land of the Molossians (Epirus) and Neoptolemus had a child by Andromache, Molossus, to whom he later gave the throne.^ Then they conquered the land of the Molossians ( Epirus ) and had a child by Andromache, Molossus to whom he later gave the throne.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They then conquered the land of the Molossians (Epirus) and Neoptolemus had a child by Andromache, Molossus, to whom he later gave the throne.
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^ However, Apollodorus says that Neoptolemus gave his mother, Deidameia, to Helenus as wife; not Andromache.

[177] .Thus the kings of Epirus claimed their lineage from Achilles, and so did Alexander the Great, whose mother was of that royal house.^ Alexander the Great and the kings of Macedon also claimed descendance from Heracles.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.12 Thus the kings of Epirus claimed descendance from Achilles, and so did Alexander the Great whose mother was of that royal house.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander the Great and the kings of Macedon also claimed descendance from Heracles .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Alexander the Great and the kings of Macedon also claimed to be descended from Heracles.^ Alexander the Great and the kings of Macedon also claimed descendance from Heracles.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander the Great and the kings of Macedon also claimed descendance from Heracles .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander the Great and the kings of Macedon also claimed to be descended from Heracles.
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.Helenus founded a city in Molossia and inhabited it, and Neoptolemus gave him his mother Deidamia as wife.^ Helenus founded a city in Molossia and inhabited it, and Neoptolemus gave him his mother Deidamia as wife.
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^ Helenus was given his freedom, and the Greeks gave his mother to him.

^ However, Apollodorus says that Neoptolemus gave his mother, Deidameia, to Helenus as wife; not Andromache.

.After Peleus died he succeeded Phtia's throne.^ After Peleus died he also sucseed Phtia's throne too.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Peleus died he also succeed Phtia's throne too.
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^ After Peleus died he succeeded Phtia's throne.
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[178] .He had a feud with Orestes, son of Agamemnon, over Menelaus' daughter Hermione, and was killed in Delphi, where he was buried.^ However, Orestes , son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, also wanted to marry Hermione.

^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.13 He had a feud with Orestes , son of Agamemon over Menelaus' daughter Hermione and was killed in Delphi, where he was buried.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had a feud with Orestes, son of Agamemon over Menelaus' daughter Hermione and was killed in Delphi, where he was buried.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[179] .In Roman myths, the kingdom of Phtia was taken over by Helenus, who married Andromache.^ In Roman myths, the kingdom of Phtia was taken over by Helenus, who married Andromache.
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^ In Roman myths the kingdom of Phtia was taken over by Helenus who married Andromache.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.14 In Roman myths the kingdom of Phtia was taken over by Helenus who married Andromache.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.They offered hospitality to other Trojan refugees, including Aeneas, who paid a visit there during his wanderings.^ They offered hospitality to other Trojan refugees including Aeneas who paid a visit there during his wonderings.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They offered hospitality to other Trojan refugees, including Aeneas, who paid a visit there during his wanderings.
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^ Even after the fall of Troy, she persecuted Aeneas and the Trojan followers, as they searched for a new home in Italy.

.Diomedes was first thrown by a storm on the coast of Lycia, where he was to be sacrificed to Ares by king Lycus, but Callirrhoe, the king's daughter, took pity upon him, and assisted him in escaping.^ Diomedes was first thrown by a storm on the coast of Lycia, where he was to be sacrificed to Ares by king Lycus but Callirrhoe, the king's daughter, took pity upon him, and assisted him in escaping.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Diomedes was first thrown by a storm on the coast of Lycia, where he was to be sacrificed to Ares by king Lycus, but Callirrhoe, the king's daughter, took pity upon him, and assisted him in escaping.
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^ Diomedes was first thrown by a storm on the coast of Lycia, where he was to be sacrificed to Ares by king Lycus but Callirrhoe , the king's daughter, took pity upon him, and assisted him in escaping.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[180] .He then accidentally landed in Attica, in Phaleron.^ Then he accidentally landed in Attica in Phaleron.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He then accidentally landed in Attica, in Phaleron.
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.The Athenians, unaware that they were allies, attacked them.^ The Athenians, unaware that they were allies, attacked them.
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^ The Athenians, unaware that they were allies attacked them.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many were killed, and Demophon took the Palladium.^ Many were killed and the Palladium was taken by Demophon.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many were killed, and Demophon took the Palladium.
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^ Many were killed and the Palladium was taken by Demophon .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[181] .He finally landed in Argos, where he found his wife Aegialeia committing adultery.^ Pausanias 1.28.9 He finally landed in Argos where his wife Aegialeia was committing adultery and, in disgust, left for Aetolia .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He finally landed in Argos, where he found his wife Aegialeia committing adultery.
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^ He finally landed in Argos where his wife Aegialeia was committing adultery and, in disgust, left for Aetolia.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.In disgust, he left for Aetolia.^ In disgust, he left for Aetolia.
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^ Pausanias 1.28.9 He finally landed in Argos where his wife Aegialeia was committing adultery and, in disgust, left for Aetolia .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He finally landed in Argos where his wife Aegialeia was committing adultery and, in disgust, left for Aetolia.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[182] .According to later traditions, he had some adventures and founded Canusium and Argyrippa in Southern Italy.^ According to later traditions he had some adventures and founded Canusium and Argyrippa in Southern Italy.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to later traditions, he had some adventures and founded Canusium and Argyrippa in Southern Italy.
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^ Tzetzes ad Lycophroon 609 According to Roman traditions he had some adventures and founded a colony in Italy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[183]
.Philoctetes, due to a sedition, was driven from his city and emigrated to Italy, where he founded the cities of Petilia, Old Crimissa, and Chone, between Croton and Thurii.^ Philoctetes due to a sedition was driven from his city and emigrated to Italy where he founded the cities of Petilia , Old Crimissa, and Chone, between Croton and Thurii .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Philoctetes, due to a sedition, was driven from his city and emigrated to Italy, where he founded the cities of Petilia, Old Crimissa, and Chone, between Croton and Thurii.
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^ Philoctetes due to a sedition was driven from his city and emigrated to Italy where he founded the cities of Petilia, Old Crimissa, and Chone, between Croton and Thurii.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

[184] .After making war on the Leucanians he founded there a sanctuary of Apollo the Wanderer, to whom also he dedicated his bow.^ Strabo 6.1.3 After making war on the Leucanians he founded there a sanctuary of Apollo the Wanderer, to whom also he dedicated his bow.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After making war on the Leucanians he founded there a sanctuary of Apollo the Wanderer, to whom also he dedicated his bow.
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[185]
.According to Homer, Idomeneus reached his house safe and sound.^ According to Homer, Idomeneus reached his house safe and sound.
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^ For Homer Idomeneus reached his house safe and sound.
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^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.15b For Homer Idomeneus reached his house safe and sound.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[186] .Another tradition later formed.^ Another tradition was formed later.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer Odyssey γ 1.91 Another tradition was formed later.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another tradition later formed.
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.After the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a horrible storm.^ After the war, Idomeneus 's ship hit a horrible storm.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a horrible storm.
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.Idomeneus promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew.^ The first living thing he saw was his son, whom Idomeneus duly sacrificed.
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^ The first living thing was his son, whom Idomeneus duly sacrificed.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Idomeneus promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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.The first living thing he saw was his son, whom Idomeneus duly sacrificed.^ The first living thing he saw was his son, whom Idomeneus duly sacrificed.
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^ The first living thing was his son, whom Idomeneus duly sacrificed.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Idomeneus promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew.
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.The gods were angry at his murder of his own son and they sent a plague to Crete.^ The gods were angry at his murder of his own son and they sent a plague to Crete.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ They first tried to establish themselves in Crete, where Dardanus had once settled, but found it ravaged by the same plague that had driven Idomeneus away.
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^ They ended up killing their own sons.

.His people sent him into exile to Calabria in Italy,[187] and then to Colophon, in Asia Minor, where he died.^ His people sent him into exile to Calabria in Italy , Vergil, Aeneid 3.400 and then Colophon , in Asia Minor , where he died.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His people sent him into exile to Calabria in Italy, and then Colophon, in Asia Minor, where he died.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His people sent him into exile to Calabria in Italy,[187] and then to Colophon, in Asia Minor, where he died.
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[188] .Among the lesser Achaeans very few reached their homes.^ Among the lesser Acheans very few reached their homes.
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^ Among the lesser Achaeans very few reached their homes.
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^ Scholiast on Homer Odyssey ν 259 Among the lesser Acheans very few reached their homes.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

House of Atreus

The murder of Agamemnon, from an 1879 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians, by Alfred Church.
.According to the Odyssey, Menelaus's fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt, where they were unable to sail away due to calm winds.^ According to the Odyssey, Menelaus's fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt, where they were unable to sail away due to calm winds.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Odyssey, Menelaus's fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt where they were unable to sail away because the wind was calm.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Odyssey , Menelaus's fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt where they were unable to sail away because the wind was calm.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[189] .Only five of his ships survived.^ Odyssey δ 360 Only 5 of his ships survived.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only 5 of his ships survived.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only five of his ships survived.
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[171] .Menelaus had to catch Proteus, a shape-shifting sea god, to find out what sacrifices to which gods he would have to make to guarantee safe passage.^ But he would find out soon.
  • MuggleNet Interactive :: View topic - The Trojan Horse (Take... 3) 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC interactive.mugglenet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Menelaus had to catch Proteus, a shape-shifting sea god, to find out what sacrifices to which gods he would have to make to guarantee safe passage.
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^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.24 Menelaus had to catch Proteus , a shape-shifting sea god to find out what sacrifices to which gods he would have to make to guarantee safe passage.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[190] .According to some stories the Helen who was taken by Paris was a fake, and the real Helen was in Egypt, where she was reunited with Menelaus.^ According to some stories the Helen who was taken by Paris was a fake, and the real Helen was in Egypt, where she was reunited with Menelaus.
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^ Odyssey δ 382 According to some stories the Helen who was taken by Paris was a fake, and the real Helen was in Egypt where she was reunited with Menelaus at this point.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to some stories the Helen who was taken by Paris was a fake, and the real Helen was in Egypt where she was reunited with Menelaus at this point.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Proteus also told Menelaus that he was destined for Elysium (Heaven) after his death.^ Proteus also told Menelaus that he was destined for Elysium (Heaven) after his death.
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.Menelaus returned to Sparta with Helen eight years after he had left Troy.^ Menelaus returned to Sparta with Helen 8 years after he had left Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Helen of Sparta was better known as Helen of Troy.

^ Menelaus returned to Sparta with Helen eight years after he had left Troy.
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[191]
.Agamemnon returned home with Cassandra to Argos.^ Agamemnon returned home with Cassandra to Argos.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Agamemnon was still upset with the news and was seriously thinking of ending the war and return home.

.His wife Clytemnestra (Helen's sister) was having an affair with Aegisthus, son of Thyestes, Agamemnon's cousin who had conquered Argos before Agamemnon himself retook it.^ His wife Clytemnestra (Helen's sister) was having an affair with Aegisthus, son of Thyestes, Agamemnon's cousin who had conquered Argos before Agamemnon himself retook it.
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^ His wife Clytemnestra (Helen's sister) was having an affair with Aegisthus , son of Thyestes , Agamemnon's cousin who had conquered Argos before Agamemnon himself retook it.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Agamemnon married Helen's sister Clytemnestra and took back the throne of Argos.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Possibly out of vengeance for the death of Iphigenia, Clytemnestra plotted with her lover to kill Agamemnon.^ Possibly out of vengeance for the death of Iphigenia , Clytemnestra plotted with her lover to kill Agamemnon.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Possibly out of vengeance for the death of Iphigenia, Clytemnestra plotted with her lover to kill Agamemnon.
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^ The marriage didn't last long, because she had taken her cousin Orestes , the son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra , as her lover.

.Cassandra foresaw this murder, and warned Agamemnon, but he disregarded her.^ Cassandra foresaw this murder, and warned Agamemnon, but he disregarded her.
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^ Cassandra had a vision that Agamemnon would be murdered by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus.

.He was killed, either at a feast or in his bath,[192] according to different versions.^ He was killed, either at a feast or in his bath Pausanias 2.16.6 according to different versions.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was killed, either at a feast or in his bath according to different versions.
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^ He was killed, either at a feast or in his bath,[192] according to different versions.
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Cassandra was also killed.[193] .Agamemnon's son Orestes, who had been away, returned and conspired with his sister Electra to avenge their father.^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.23 Agamemnon's son Orestes, who had been away, returned and conspired with his sister Electra to avenge their father.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iphigeneia was the sister of Electra , Chrysothemis and Orestes .

^ Agamemnon's son Orestes, who had been away, returned and conspired with his sister Electra to avenge their father.
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[194] .He killed Clytemnestra and Aegisthus and succeeded to his father's throne.^ He killed Clytemnestra and Aegisthus and succeeded to his father's throne.
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^ Odyssey α 30, 298 He killed Clytemnestra and Aegisthus and sucseeded to his father's throne.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Orestes reached manhood, he sought the oracle in Delphi, where Apollo informed Orestes must avenge his father, not only to kill Aegisthus, but his own mother as well.

[195][196]

The Odyssey

.Odysseus' ten year journey home to Ithaca was told in Homer's Odyssey.^ Odysseus' ten year journey home to Ithaca was told in Homer's Odyssey.
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^ The Odyssey Odysseus' ten year journey home to Ithaca was told in Homer's Odyssey.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Aeneïd was sort of the combination of epics in Greek mythology, such as his journey to Italy was told like the Argonautica and the Odyssey , in the first half.

.Odysseus and his men were blown far off course to lands unknown to the Achaeans; there Odysseus had many adventures, including the famous encounter with the Cyclops Polyphemus, and an audience with the seer Teiresias in Hades.^ Odysseus and his men were blown far off course to lands unknown to the Achaeans; there Odysseus had many adventures, including the famous encounter with the Cyclops Polyphemus, and an audience with the seer Teiresias in Hades.
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^ Many famous men were involved with his education.

^ Odysseus had blinded his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus .

.On the island of Thrinacia, Odysseus' men ate the cattle sacred to the sun-god Helios.^ On the island of Thrinacia, Odysseus' men ate the cattle sacred to the sun-god Helios.
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^ Helius kept sacred cattle in the island of Thrinacia.

^ Odysseus had not eaten the cattle, and was allowed to live; he washed ashore on the island of Ogygia, and lived there with the nymph Calypso.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.For this sacrilege Odysseus' ships were destroyed, and all his men perished.^ For this sacrilege Odysseus' ships were destroyed, and all his men perished.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ In the Odyssey , Odysseus lost six of his men to Scylla, the first time his ship passed through the strait.
  • Mythical Creatures and Monsters 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC www.timelessmyths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason why Odysseus didn't want to go to Troy because a prophecy said he could not return home without wandering for 10 years after the war, losing all of his ships and men.

.Odysseus had not eaten the cattle, and was allowed to live; he washed ashore on the island of Ogygia, and lived there with the nymph Calypso.^ Odysseus had not eaten the cattle, and was allowed to live; he washed ashore on the island of Ogygia, and lived there with the nymph Calypso.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Odysseus was washed ashore on Ogygia , where the nymph Calypso lived.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the island of Thrinacia, Odysseus' men ate the cattle sacred to the sun-god Helios.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.After seven years, the gods decided to send Odysseus home; on a small raft, he sailed to Scheria, the home of the Phaeacians, who gave him passage to Ithaca.^ Odysseus gave him his father's arms.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ After seven years, the gods decided to send Odysseus home; on a small raft, he sailed to Scheria, the home of the Phaeacians, who gave him passage to Ithaca.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Odysseus left on a small raft furnished with provisions of water, wine and food by Calypso, only to be hit by a storm and washed up on the island of Scheria and found by Nausicaa , daughter of King Alcinous and Queen Arete of the Phaeacians , who entertained him well and escorted him to Ithaca.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Once in his home land, Odysseus traveled disguised as an old beggar.^ There Odysseus traveled disguised as an old beggar by Athena he was recognised by his dog Argos who died in his lap.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There Odysseus traveled disguised as a old beggar by Athena he was recognised by his dog Argos who died in his lap.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Odysseus passing the Sirens Odysseus, attempting to travel home, underwent a series of trials, tribulations and setbacks that stretched his journey to ten years' time.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was recognised by his dog, Argos, who died in his lap.^ He was recognised by his dog, Argos, who died in his lap.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There Odysseus traveled disguised as an old beggar by Athena he was recognised by his dog Argos who died in his lap.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There Odysseus traveled disguised as a old beggar by Athena he was recognised by his dog Argos who died in his lap.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He then discovered that his wife, Penelope, had been faithful to him during the 20 years he was absent, despite the countless suitors that were eating his food and spending his property.^ He then discovered that his wife, Penelope, had been faithful to him during the 20 years he was absent, despite the countless suitors that were eating his food and spending his property.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then he discovered his wife was faithfull to him all these years despite the countless suitors that were eating and spending his property all these years.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then he discovered his wife was faithful to him all these years despite the countless suitors that were eating and spending his property all these years.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the help of his son Telemachus, Athena, and Eumaeus, the swineherd, he killed all of them except Medon, who had been polite to Penelope, and Phemius, a local singer who had only been forced to help the suitors against Penelope.^ Telemachus (Τηλέμαχος) was the son of Odysseus and Penelope .

^ With the help of his son Telemachus, Athena, and Eumaeus, the swineherd, he killed all of them except Medon, who had been polite to Penelope, and Phemius, a local singer who had only been forced to help the suitors against Penelope.
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^ All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras of Cyprus.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.Penelope tested him and made sure it was him, and he forgave her.^ Penelope tested him and made sure it was him, and he forgave her.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.The next day the suitors' relatives tried to take revenge on him but they were stopped by Athena.^ The next day the suitors' relatives tried to take revenge on him but they were stopped by Athena.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the next day the suitor's relatives tried to revenge on him but they were stopped by Athena.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the morning of the next day, Paris wounded him with an arrow.

The Telegony

.The Telegony picks up where the Odyssey leaves off, beginning with the burial of the dead suitors, and continues until the death of Odysseus.^ The Telegony Main article: Telegony The Telegony picks up where the Odyssey leaves off, beginning with the burial of the dead suitors, and continues until the death of Odysseus.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Telegony tells Odysseus' adventures after the Odyssey until his death.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Heracles overpowered Thanatos, until the god of death gave up Alcestis.

[197] .Some years after Odysseus' return, Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, came to Ithaca and plundered the island.^ Some years after Odysseus' return, Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, came to Ithaca and plundered the island.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Years later Odysseus' son Telegonus of Circe came from the sea and plundered the island thinking it was Corcyra .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Circe married Telemachus, while Penelope married Odysseus' other son, Telegonus.

.Odysseus, attempting to fight off the attack, was killed by his unrecognized son.^ Odysseus, attempting to fight off the attack, was killed by his unrecognized son.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Palamedes outwitted him by putting his infant son in front of the plough, and Odysseus turned aside, unwilling to kill his son, and so revealed his sanity and joined the war.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When her son, Telegonus, killed his father (Odysseus), Penelope and Telemachus had forgiven Telegonus and went to Circe's island with him.

.After Telegonus realized he had killed his father, he brought the body to his mother Circe, along with Telemachus and Penelope.^ When her son, Telegonus, killed his father (Odysseus), Penelope and Telemachus had forgiven Telegonus and went to Circe's island with him.

^ Circe made them immortal and married Telemachus, while Telegonus made Penelope his wife.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Telegonus realized he had killed his father, he brought the body to his mother Circe, along with Telemachus and Penelope.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Circe made them immortal; then Telegonus married Penelope and Telemachus married Circe.^ On the sorceress' island, Telegonus married Penelope, while Circe married Telemachus.

^ Circe made them immortal and married Telemachus, while Telegonus made Penelope his wife.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Circe being a goddess, made Telemachus and his mother immortal.

The Aeneid

Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome
.Aeneas led a group of survivors away from the city, including his son Ascanius, his trumpeter Misenus, father Anchises, the healer Iapyx, all the Lares, and Penates and Mimas as a guide.^ The Aeneid Main article: The Aeneid Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome Aeneas led a group of survivors away from the city, including his son Ascanius, his trumpeter Misenus, father Anchises, the healer Iapyx, all the Lares, and Penates and Mimas as a guide.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci , 1598 Galleria Borghese , Rome Aeneas led a group of survivors away from the city, including his son Ascanius , his trumpeter Misenus , father Anchises , the healer Iapyx , all the Lares and Penates and Mimas as a guide.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Aeneid Aeneas led a group of survivors away from the city, including his son Ascanius, his trumpeter Misenus, father Anchises, the healer Iapyx, all the Lares and Penates and Mimas as a guide.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.His wife Creusa was killed during the sack of the city.^ His wife Creusa was killed during the sack of the city.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Disaster fell upon the Greeks, during the sacking and looting of the great city.

^ The Sack of Troy The Acheans entered the city and killed the sleeping population.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.They fled Troy with a number of ships, seeking to establish a new homeland elsewhere.^ They fled Troy with a number of ships, seeking to establish a new homeland elsewhere.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Homer, in the Iliad , Poseidon had foretold that Aeneas would establish a new dynasty at Troy, but none of the later sources follow this version.

^ Even after the fall of Troy, she persecuted Aeneas and the Trojan followers, as they searched for a new home in Italy.

.They landed in several nearby countries that proved inhospitable, and were finally told by a sibyl that they had to return to the land of their forebears.^ They landed in several nearby countries that proved inhospitable and finally were told by a Sibyl that they had to return to the land of their forebears.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In revenge Nauplius traveled to the lands of the Acheans and told the wives of the kings that they were bringing Trojan concubines to dethrone them.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.They first tried to establish themselves in Crete, where Dardanus had once settled, but found it ravaged by the same plague that had driven Idomeneus away.^ They first tried to establish themselves in Crete, where Dardanus had once settled, but found it ravaged by the same plague that had driven Idomeneus away.
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^ Source: Wikipedia They first tried Crete, where Dardanus had once settled, but found it ravaged by the same plague that had driven Idomeneus away.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Greek mythographers though he was Arcadian Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1.61–62 and thus the Trojan War was a Greek civil war They first tried Crete , where Dardanus had once settled, but found it ravaged by the same plague that had driven Idomeneus away.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.They found the colony led by Helenus and Andromache, but declined to remain.^ They found the colony led by Helenus and Andromache, but declined to remain.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.After seven years they arrived in Carthage, where Aeneas had an affair with Dido.^ After seven years they arrived in Carthage, where Aeneas had an affair with Dido.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After seven years they arrived in Carthage , where Aeneas had an affair with Dido .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They hug for a moment and then Dido grabs Aeneas by the hair and pushes him under water.
  • Charles Mee | The Trojan Women: A Love Story 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.charlesmee.org [Source type: Original source]

.Eventually the gods ordered him to continue onward (Dido committed suicide), and he and his people arrived at the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy.^ Eventually the gods ordered him to continue onward (Dido committed suicide), and he and his people arrived at the mouth of the river Tiber in Italy.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eventually the gods ordered him to continue onward (Dido committed suicide ), and he and his people arrived at the mouth of the Tiber in Italy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.There, a sibyl took him to the underworld and foretold the majesty of Rome, which would be founded by his people.^ There a Sibyl took him to the underworld and foretold the majesty of Rome , which would be founded by his people.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There a Sibyl took him to the underworld and foretold the majesty of Rome, which would be founded by his people.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hector failed to persuade Achilles to allow his people to bury him should he lose if he would do the same for Achilles.

.He negotiated a settlement with the local king, Lavinius, and was wed to his daughter, Lavinia.^ He negotiated a settlement with the local king, Lavinius, and was wed to his daughter, Lavinia.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ He negotiated a settlement with the local king, Lavinius, and was wed to his daughter, Lavinia .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This triggered a war with other local tribes, which culminated in the founding of the settlement of Alba Longa, ruled by Aeneas and Lavinia's son Silvius.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]
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.This triggered a war with other local tribes, which culminated in the founding of the settlement of Alba Longa, ruled by Aeneas and Lavinia's son Silvius.^ This triggered a war with other local tribes, which culminated in the founding of the settlement of Alba Longa , ruled by Aeneas and Lavinia's son Silvius .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war in Italy, Aeneas married Lavinia.

^ Some say that Aeneas founded the city of Alba Longa; others say that it was his son Ascanius who founded this city.

.Three hundred years later, according to Roman myth, his descendants Romulus and Remus founded Rome.^ Three hundred years later, according to Roman myth, his descendants Romulus and Remus founded Rome.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three hundred years later, according to Roman myth , his descendants Romulus and Remus founded Rome .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to later traditions he had some adventures and founded Canusium and Argyrippa in Southern Italy.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The details of the journey of Aeneas, his affair with Dido, and his settling in Italy are the subject of the Roman epic poem The Aeneid by Virgil.^ The details of the journey of Aeneas, his affair with Dido, and his settling in Italy are the subject of the Roman epic poem The Aeneid by Virgil.
  • Ancient Greece 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC upge.wn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The details of the journey of Aeneas, his affair with Dido, and his settling in Italy are the subject of the Roman epic poem The Aeneid by Virgil .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Aeneïd was sort of the combination of epics in Greek mythology, such as his journey to Italy was told like the Argonautica and the Odyssey , in the first half.

.According to tradition, though, Carthage was founded in 814 BC, so the true Aeneas, if he had ventured to the West he would have found little more than villages.^ According to tradition though Carthage was founded in 814 BC , so the true Aeneas, if he had ventured to the West he would have found little more than villages.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the early Roman accounts, Mars was known more as a god of agriculture than that of war.

^ But, for some reason, she had a feeling that if she were to play chess with Seth it would be more taxing than an actual duel, and also a lot safer.
  • MuggleNet Interactive :: View topic - The Trojan Horse (Take... 3) 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC interactive.mugglenet.com [Source type: Original source]

Dates of the Trojan War

.Since this war was considered among the ancient Greeks as either the last event of the mythical age or the first event of the historical age, several dates are given for the fall of Troy.^ Since this war was considered among the ancient Greeks as either the last event of the mythical age or the first event of the historical age, several dates are given for the fall of Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ancient Greeks believed that the Trojan War was a historical event.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dates of the Trojan War Since this war was considered among the ancient Greeks as either the last event of the mythical age or the first event of the historical age, several dates are given for the fall of Troy.
  • the trojan war: discuss - Off Topic - The Rest... - Survivor Sucks - Message Board - Yuku 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC www.survivorsucks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They usually derive from genealogies of kings.^ They usually derive from geneologies of kings.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They usually derive from genealogies of kings.
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.Ephorus gives 1135 BC,[198] Sosibius 1172 BC,[199] Eratosthenes 1184 BC/1183 BC,[200] Timaeus 1193 BC,[201] the Parian marble 1209 BC/1208 BC,[202] Dicaearchus 1212 BC,[203] Herodotus around 1250 BC,[204] Eretes 1291 BC,[205] while Douris 1334 BC.^ Ephorus gives 1135 BC FGrHist 70 , Eratosthenes Chronographiai FGrHist 241 1184 BC / 1183 BC , Plato 1193 BC Timaeus 125 , the Parian marble 1209 BC / 1208 BC Fragment 24 , Dicaearchus Bios Hellados 1212 BC , Herodotus around 1250 BC Histories 2,145 while Douris 1334 BC FGrHist 76 .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[206] .As for the exact day Ephorus gives 23/24 Thargelion (July 6 or 7), Hellanicus 12 Thargelion (May 26)[207] while others give the 23rd of Sciroforion (July 7) or the 23rd of Ponamos (October 7).^ Other days sacred to Jupiter was the Ides of each month, which was held on 15th on March, May, July and October.

.The glorious and rich city Homer describes was believed to be Troy VI by many twentieth century authors, destroyed in 1275 BC, probably by an earthquake.^ Homer's stories are believed by many to be the merging of many wars fought on Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The glorious and rich city Homer describes was believed to be Troy VI by many 20th century authors, destroyed in 1275 BC , probably by earthquake.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also captured Lyrnassus and Pedasus and many of the neighbouring cities, and killed Troilus, son of Priam who was 19 and was said that if he reached 20 Troy would not fall.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its follower Troy VIIa, destroyed by fire at some point during the 1180s BC, was long considered a poorer city, but since the excavation campaign of 1988 it has risen to the most likely candidate.^ Its follower Troy VIIa, destroyed by fire at some point during the 1180s BC, was long considered a poorer city, but since the excavation campaign of 1988 it has risen to the most likely candidate.
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^ Its follower Troy VII a , destroyed by fire at some point during the 1180s, was long considered a poorer city, but since the excavation campaign of 1988 it has risen to the most likely candidate.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew Dalby notes that while the Trojan War most likely did take place in some form and is therefore grounded in history, its true nature is and will be unknown.
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Historical basis

.
The Hittite Empire of Asia Minor in ca.
^ See also: Historicity of the Iliad The Hittite Empire of Asia Minor in ca.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

1300 BC (light red).
.The historicity of the Trojan War is still subject to debate.^ The historicity of the Trojan War is still subject to debate.
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^ BC Whether the Trojan War was a true event or a complete fabrication of the human imagination is still subject to debate.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trojan War arrived, and Odysseus was conscripted to join the Greek army when Telemachus was still an infant.

.Most classical Greeks thought that the war was an historical event, but many believed that the Homeric poems had exaggerated the events to suit the demands of poetry.^ Ancient Greeks believed that the Trojan War was a historical event.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homer's stories are believed by many to be the merging of many wars fought on Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most classical Greeks thought that the war was a historical event, but many thought that the Homeric poems had exaggerated the events to suit the demands of poetry.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.For instance, the historian Thucydides, who is known for his critical spirit, considers it a true event but doubts that 1,186 ships were sent to Troy.^ For instance, the historian Thucydides, who is known for his critical spirit, considers it a true event but doubts that 1,186 ships were sent to Troy.
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^ For instance, the historian Thucydides , who is known for his critical spirit, considers it a true event but doubts that 1186 ships were sent to Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since this war was considered among the ancient Greeks as either the last event of the mythical age or the first event of the historical age, several dates are given for the fall of Troy.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Euripides started changing Greek myths at will, including those of the Trojan War.^ Euripides started changing Greek myths at will, including those of the Trojan War.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Trojan War, he favoured the Greeks.

^ Visual art, such as vase-painting, was another medium in which myths of the Trojan War circulated.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Around 1870 it was generally agreed in Western Europe that the Trojan War never had happened and Troy never existed.^ Around 1870 it was generally agreed in Western Europe that the Trojan War was myth and Troy never existed.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After nine years of war at Troy, Helenus, the Trojan seer foretold that Troy could not fall without Neoptolemus' aid.

^ The sea god's intervention had convinced the Trojans that they had won the war, so they brought the wooden horse within Troy's walls.

.Then Heinrich Schliemann discovered the ruins of Troy and of the Mycenaean cities of Greece.^ Then Heinrich Schliemann discovered the ruins of Troy and of the Mycenae an cities of Greece.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Schliemann was so certain he had discovered Troy that he once exclaimed of a gold mask uncovered at the site, "I have gazed on the face of Agamemnon!"
  • History News Network 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1870, however, the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated a site in this area which he believed to be the site of Troy, and at least some archaeologists agree.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Today many scholars agree that the Trojan War is based on a historical core of a Greek expedition against the city of Illium, but few would argue that the Homeric poems faithfully represent the actual events of the war.^ Ancient Greeks believed that the Trojan War was a historical event.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today many scholars agree that the Trojan War is based on a historical core of a Greek expedition against the city of Illium, but few would argue that the Homeric poems faithfully represent the actual events of the war.
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^ Most classical Greeks thought that the war was a historical event, but many thought that the Homeric poems had exaggerated the events to suit the demands of poetry.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In November 2001, geologists John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and John V. Luce from Trinity College, Dublin presented the results[208][209][210] of investigations into the geology of the region that had started in 1977. The geologists compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia.^ In November 2001, geologists John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and John V. Luce from Trinity College, Dublin presented the results[208][209][210] of investigations into the geology of the region that had started in 1977.
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^ The geologists compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia.
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.Their conclusion was that there is regularly a consistency between the location of Troy as identified by Schliemann (and other locations such as the Greek camp), the geological evidence, and descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad.^ Their conclusion was that there is regularly a consistency between the location of Troy as identified by Schliemann (and other locations such as the Greek camp), the geological evidence, and descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad.
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^ In 1870, however, German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated a site in this area which he identified as Troy; this claim is nowadays accepted by most scholars.
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^ She identified the leaders of Greek forces for the Trojan king, such as Ajax and Odysseus .

.In the twentieth century scholars have attempted to draw conclusions based on Hittite and Egyptian texts that date to the time of the Trojan War.^ In the twentieth century scholars have attempted to draw conclusions based on Hittite and Egyptian texts that date to the time of the Trojan War.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Films based on the Trojan War include Troy (2004).
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^ The Trojan War was the greatest conflict in the Greek mythology, a war that was to influences people in literature and arts for centuries.

.While they give a general description of the political situation in the region at the time, their information on whether this particular conflict took place is limited.^ While they give a general description of the political situation in the region at the time, their information on whether this particular conflict took place is limited.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ They believed that this war took place in the 13th or 12th century BC , and that Troy was located in the vicinity of the Dardanelles in what is now north-western Turkey .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Andrew Dalby notes that while the Trojan War most likely did take place in some form and is therefore grounded in history, its true nature is and will be unknown.^ Andrew Dalby notes that while the Trojan War most likely did take place in some form and is therefore grounded in history, its true nature is and will be unknown.
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^ Was this the way that the true Trojan War was fought?
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some scholars have regarded the expedition against Telephus and its resolution as a derivative reworking of elements from the main story of the Trojan War, but it has also been seen as fitting the story-pattern of the "preliminary adventure" that anticipates events and themes from the main narrative, and therefore as likely to be "early and integral".
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[211] .Hittite archives, like the Tawagalawa letter mention of a kingdom of Ahhiyawa (Achaea, or Greece) that lies beyond the sea (that would be the Aegean) and controls Milliwanda, which is identified with Miletus.^ Hittite archives, like the Tawagalawa letter mention of a kingdom of Ahhiyawa that lies beyond the sea (that would be the Aegean) and controls Milliwanda, which is indentified with Miletus .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Milawata letter implies this city lies on the north of the Assuwa confederation, beyond the Seha river.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BC - 1205 BC ) the Hittites were forced to abandon the lands they controlled in the coast of the Aegean.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Also mentioned in this and other letters is the Assuwa confederation made of 22 cities and countries which included the city of Wilusa (Ilios or Ilium).^ Also mentioned in this and other letters is the Assuwa confederation made of 22 cities and countries which included the city of Wilusa .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Milawata letter implies this city lies on the north of the Assuwa confederation, beyond the Seha river.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Milawata letter implies this city lies on the north of the Assuwa confederation, beyond the Seha river.^ The Milawata letter implies this city lies on the north of the Assuwa confederation, beyond the Seha river.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hittite archives, like the Tawagalawa letter mention of a kingdom of Ahhiyawa that lies beyond the sea (that would be the Aegean) and controls Milliwanda, which is indentified with Miletus .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also mentioned in this and other letters is the Assuwa confederation made of 22 cities and countries which included the city of Wilusa .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.While the identification of Wilusa with Ilium (that is, Troy) is always controversial, in the 1990s it gained majority acceptance.^ While the identification of Wilusa with Ilium, that is Troy, is always controversial in the 1990's it gained majority acceptance.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Alaksandu treaty (ca.^ In the Alaksandu treaty (ca.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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.1280 BC) the king of the city is named Alakasandu, and it must be noted that Paris' son of Priam's name in the Iliad (among other works) is Alexander.^ BC) the king of the city is named Alakasandu, and it must be noted that Paris' son of Priam's name in the Iliad (among other works) is Alexander.
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^ BC ) the king of the city is named Alakasandu, and it must be noted that Paris son of Priam's name in the Iliad (among other works) is Alexander.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before actual fighting had started at Troy, Priam and Hecuba left one of their sons, Polydorus, to be brought up in Thrace, ruled by King Polymestor.

.The Tawagalawa letter (dated ca.^ The Tawagalawa letter (dated ca.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

1250 BC) which is addressed to the king of Ahhiyawa actually says:
Now as we have come to an agreement on Wilusa over which we went to war...
.Formerly under the Hittites, the Assuwa confederation defected after the battle of Kadesh between Egypt and the Hittites (ca.^ Formerly under the Hittites, the Assawa confederation defected after the battle of Kadesh between Egypt and the Hittites (ca.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Formerly under the Hittites, the Assuwa confederation defected after the battle of Kadesh between Egypt and the Hittites (ca.
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^ It is possible that the Trojan War was a conflict between the king of Ahhiyawa and the Assuwa confederation.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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1274 BC). .In 1230 BC Hittite king Tudhaliya IV (ca.^ In 1230 BC hittite king Tudhaliya IV (ca.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1230 BC Hittite king Tudhaliya IV (ca.
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.1240–1210 BC) campaigned against this federation.^ BC - 1210 BC ) campaigned against this federation.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BC) campaigned against this federation.
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.Under Arnuwanda III (ca.^ Under Arnuwanda III (ca.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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.1210–1205 BC) the Hittites were forced to abandon the lands they controlled in the coast of the Aegean.^ BC - 1205 BC ) the Hittites were forced to abandon the lands they controlled in the coast of the Aegean.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hittite archives, like the Tawagalawa letter mention of a kingdom of Ahhiyawa that lies beyond the sea (that would be the Aegean) and controls Milliwanda, which is indentified with Miletus .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Next they landed in Circe 's which transformed most of the crew into pigs, but Odysseus managed to force her to tansform them back and left.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is possible that the Trojan War was a conflict between the king of Ahhiyawa and the Assuwa confederation.^ It is possible that the Trojan War was a conflict between the king of Ahhiyawa and the Assuwa confederation.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Trojan War broke out between the Greeks and the Trojans, Peleus gave his gifts to Achilles: his armour, helmet, and the chariot drawn by Xathus and Balius.
  • Mythical Creatures and Monsters 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC www.timelessmyths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BC ) which is addressed to the king of Ahhiyawa actually says: Now as we have come to an agreement on Wilusa over which we went to war...
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.This view has been supported in that the entire war includes the landing in Mysia (and Telephus' wounding), Achilles's campaigns in the North Aegean and Telamonian Ajax's campaigns in Thrace and Phrygia.^ Achilles wounded Telephus in the thigh.

^ This view has been supported in that the entire war includes the landing in Mysia (and Telephus' wounding), Achilles' campaigns in the North Aegean and Telamonian Aias' in Thrace and Phrygia.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the battle, Achilles wounded Telephus, Pindar, Isthmian 8.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most of these regions were part of Assuwa.^ Most of these regions were part of Assuwa.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[67][212] .It has also been noted that there is great similarity between the names of the Sea Peoples, which at that time were raiding Egypt, as they are listed by Ramesses III and Merneptah, and of the allies of the Trojans.^ They raided the Trojan allies and spent time farming the Thracian peninsula.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ It has also been noted that there is great similarity between the names of the Sea Peoples, which at that time were raiding Egypt, as they are listed by Ramesses III and Merneptah, and of the allies of the Trojans.
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^ A, Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens 1968 It has also been noted that there is great similarity between the the names of the Sea Peoples , which at that time were raiding Egypt, as they are listed by Ramesses III and Merneptah , and of the allies of the Trojans.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[213]
.That most Achean heroes did not return to their homes and founded colonies elsewhere was interpreted by Thucydides as being due to their long absence.^ That most Achean heroes did not return to their homes and founded colonies elsewhere was interpreted by Thucydides as being due to their long absence.
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^ That most Achean heroes did not return to their homes and founded colonies elsewhere was interpreted by Thucydides to be due to their long absence.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.11 Nestor, who had the best conduct in Troy and did not take part in the looting, was the only hero who had a good, fast and safe return.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[214] .Nowadays the interpretation followed by most scholars is that the Achean leaders driven out of their lands by the turmoil at the end of the Mycenean era preferred to claim descendance from exiles of the Trojan War.^ Nowadays the interpretation followed by most scholars is that the Achean leaders driven out of their lands by the turmoil at the end of the Mycenean era preferred to claim descendance from exiles of the Trojan War.
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^ The Peloponnesian War 1.12.2 Nowadays though the interpretation forwarded by most scholars is that Achean leaders driven out of their lands by the Dorian invasion and the turmoil at the end of the Mycenean era prefered to claim descendance from exilees of the Trojan War.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1870, however, German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated a site in this area which he identified as Troy; this claim is nowadays accepted by most scholars.
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[215]

Trojan War in art and literature

.A full listing of works inspired by the Trojan War has not been attempted, since the inspiration provided by these events produced so many works that a list that merely mentions them by name would be larger than the full tale of the events of the war.^ A full listing of works inspired by the Trojan War has not been attempted, since the inspiration provived by these events produced so many works that a list that merely mentions them by name would be larger than the full tale of the events of the war.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Artemis marvelled at the size of these deer, larger than bulls and with golden horns on their heads.

^ There were five of these deer, larger than bulls and horns of gold.

.The siege of Troy provided inspiration for many works of art, most famously Homer's Iliad, set in the last year of the siege.^ The siege of Troy provided inspiration for many works of art, most famously Homer's Iliad, set in the last year of the siege.
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^ The siege of Troy provided inspiration for many works of art, most famously Homer 's Iliad , set in the last year of the siege.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And while she looked, she wondered where her twin brothers were, not realising that they had died while she was in Troy for the last nine years.

.Some of the others include Troades by Euripides, Troilus and Criseyde by Geoffrey Chaucer, Troilus and Cressida by William Shakespeare, Iphigenia and Polyxena by Samuel Coster, Palamedes by Joost van den Vondel and Les Troyens by Hector Berlioz.^ Some of the others include Troades by Euripides, Troilus and Criseyde by Geoffrey Chaucer, Troilus and Cressida by William Shakespeare, Iphigenia and Polyxena by Samuel Coster, Palamedes by Joost van den Vondel and Les Troyens by Hector Berlioz.
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^ Some of the others include Troades by Euripides , Troilus and Criseyde by Geoffrey Chaucer , Troilus and Cressida by William Shakespeare , Iphigenia and Polyxena by Samuel Coster, Palamedes by Joost van den Vondel and Les Troyens by Hector Berlioz .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Films based on the Trojan War include Troy (2004).^ Films based on the Trojan War include Troy (2004).
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^ Papademetriou Konstantinos, "Τα όπλα του Τρωϊκού Πολέμου" ("The weapons of the Trojan War"), Panzer Magazine issue 14, June-July 2004, Athens.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite assumptions to the contrary, archaeological work of the new Troy project has not been performed for the purpose of understanding Homer’s Iliad or the Trojan War.
  • History News Network 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

.Perhaps the most complete reconstruction of all the accounts can be found in the ongoing graphic novel series, Age of Bronze.^ Perhaps the most complete reconstruction of all the accounts can be found in the ongoing graphic novel series, Age of Bronze.
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^ In the Minoan civilisation (Bronze Age), seals have been found, where naked woman or goddess held a griffin by the ear.
  • Mythical Creatures and Monsters 9 October 2009 21:31 UTC www.timelessmyths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her name is found in Bronze Age Linear B tablets, where she was called Eleuthia (E-RE-U-TI-JA).

.The war has also been featured in many books, television series, and other creative works.^ The war has also been featured in many books, films, television series, and other creative works.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In later ages playwrights, historians and other intellectuals would create works inspired by the Trojan War.
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and was narrated in many works of Greek literature , of which the two most famous are the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer .
  • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

Notes

  1. ^ Rutter, Jeremy B.. "Troy VII and the Historicity of the Trojan War". http://projectsx.dartmouth.edu/classics/history/bronze_age/lessons/les/27.html. Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  2. ^ Wood (1985: 116–118)
  3. ^ Wood (1985: 19)
  4. ^ It is unknown whether this Proclus is the Neoplatonic philosopher, in which case the summary dates to the fifth century AD, or whether he is the lesser-known grammarian of the second century AD. See Burgess, p. 12.
  5. ^ Burgess, pp. 10–12; cf. W. Kullmann (1960), Die Quellen der Ilias.
  6. ^ Burgess, pp. 3–4.
  7. ^ Scholium on Homer A.5.
  8. ^ Plato, Republic 2,379e.
  9. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.1, Hesiod Fragment 204,95ff.
  10. ^ Apollonius Rhodius 4.757.
  11. ^ Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 767.
  12. ^ Scholiast on Homer’s Iliad; Hyginus, Fabulae 54; Ovid, Metamorphoses 11.217.
  13. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.168.
  14. ^ Pindar, Nemean 5 ep2; Pindar, Isthmian 8 str3–str5.
  15. ^ Hesiod, Catalogue of Women fr. 57; Cypria fr. 4.
  16. ^ Photius, Myrobiblion 190.
  17. ^ P.Oxy. 56, 3829 (L. Koppel, 1989)
  18. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 92.
  19. ^ Pausanias, 15.9.5.
  20. ^ Euripides Andromache 298; Div. i. 21; Apollodorus, Library 3.12.5.
  21. ^ Homer Iliad I.410
  22. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.174.
  23. ^ Apollonius Rhodius 4.869–879; Apollodorus, Library 3.13.6.
  24. ^ Frazer on Apollodorus, Library 3.13.6.
  25. ^ Alluded to in Statius, Achilleid 1.269–270.
  26. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 96.
  27. ^ Apollodorus 3.10.7.
  28. ^ Pausanias 1.33.1; Apollodorus, Library 3.10.7.
  29. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.10.5; Hyginus, Fabulae 77.
  30. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.10.9.
  31. ^ Pausanias 3.20.9.
  32. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History 4 (as summarized in Photius, Myriobiblon 190).
  33. ^ Pindar, Pythian 11 ep4; Apollodorus, Library 3.11.15.
  34. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 2.15.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Proclus Chrestomathy 1
  36. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.3.
  37. ^ Euripides, Helen 40.
  38. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.4.
  39. ^ Herodotus, Histories 1.2.
  40. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.12.7.
  41. ^ Herodotus, 1.3.1.
  42. ^ Il. 3.205-6; 11.139
  43. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.6.
  44. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.7.
  45. ^ Il.11.767-70, (lines rejected by Aristophanes and Aristarchus)
  46. ^ Statius, Achilleid 1.25
  47. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.13.8.
  48. ^ Scholiast on Homer's Iliad 19.326; Ovid, Metamorphoses 13.162 ff.
  49. ^ Pausanias, 1.22.6.
  50. ^ Homer, Iliad 11.19 ff.; Apollodurus, Epitome 3.9.
  51. ^ Philostratus, Heroicus 7.
  52. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.15.
  53. ^ Pausanias, 1.4.6.
  54. ^ Pindar, Isthmian 8.
  55. ^ Pausanias, 9.5.14.
  56. ^ a b Apollodorus, Epitome 3.20.
  57. ^ Aeschylus fragment 405–410
  58. ^ Pliny, Natural History 24.42, 34.152.
  59. ^ Davies, esp. pp. 8, 10.
  60. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.19.
  61. ^ Philodemus, On Piety.
  62. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 27.
  63. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History 5 (as summarized in Photius, Myriobiblon 190).
  64. ^ Pausanias, 1.43.1.
  65. ^ History of the Pelloponesian War 1,10.
  66. ^ Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους (History of the Greek Nation) vol. A, Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens 1968.
  67. ^ a b Pantelis Karykas, Μυκηναίοι Πολεμιστές (Mycenian Warriors), Athens 1999.
  68. ^ Vice Admiral P.E. Konstas R.H.N.,Η ναυτική ηγεμονία των Μυκηνών (The naval hegemony of Mycenae), Athens 1966
  69. ^ Homer, Iliad Β.803–806.
  70. ^ Diodorus iv,38.
  71. ^ Pausanias 8.33.4
  72. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.27.
  73. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.26.
  74. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.28.
  75. ^ Herodotus 4.145.3.
  76. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.29.
  77. ^ Pausianias 4.2.7.
  78. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.31.
  79. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.30.
  80. ^ Eustathius on Homer, Iliad ii.701.
  81. ^ Scholiast on Lycophron 532.
  82. ^ Thucydides 1.11.
  83. ^ Papademetriou Konstantinos, "Τα όπλα του Τρωϊκού Πολέμου" ("The weapons of the Trojan War"), Panzer Magazine issue 14, June–July 2004, Athens.
  84. ^ Iliad I.328
  85. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.32.
  86. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.33; translation, Sir James George Frazer.
  87. ^ Volume 5 p.80
  88. ^ Demetrius (2nd century BC) Scholium on Iliad Z,35
  89. ^ Parthenius Ερωτικά Παθήματα 21
  90. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.12.5.
  91. ^ Homer, Iliad Φ 35–155.
  92. ^ Dictis Cretensis ii. 18; Sophocles, Ajax 210.
  93. ^ "Petteia".
  94. ^ "Greek Board Games".
  95. ^ "Latrunculi".
  96. ^ Kakrides vol. 5 p. 92.
  97. ^ Servius, Scholium on Virgil's Aeneid 2.81
  98. ^ According to other accounts Odysseus, with the other Greek captains, including Agamemnon, conspired together against Palamedes, as all were envious of his accomplishments. See Simpson, Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, p. 251.
  99. ^ According to Apollodorus Epitome 3.8, Odysseus forced a Phrygian prisoner, to write the letter.
  100. ^ Pausanias 10.31.2; Simpson, Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, p. 251.
  101. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.9.
  102. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.10
  103. ^ The exact nature of Achilles' relationship to Patroclus is the subject of some debate. See Achilles and Patroclus for details.
  104. ^ Scholiast on Homer, Iliad. xxiv. 804.
  105. ^ Quintus of Smyrna, Posthomerica i.18 ff.
  106. ^ a b Apollodorus, Epitome 5.1.
  107. ^ a b Pausanias 3.26.9.
  108. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Bk6 (as summarized in Photius, Myriobiblon 190)
  109. ^ a b c d e Proclus, Chrestomathy 2, Aethiopis.
  110. ^ Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 999.
  111. ^ a b Apollodorus, Epitome 5.3.
  112. ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophroon 18.
  113. ^ Pausanias 10.31.7.
  114. ^ Dictys Cretensis iv. 4.
  115. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 8.372.
  116. ^ Pindarus Pythian vi. 30.
  117. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus ii. 224.
  118. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4.75.4.
  119. ^ Pausanias 1.13.9.
  120. ^ Euripedes, Hecuba 40.
  121. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica iv. 88–595.
  122. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.5.
  123. ^ Pausanias 3.19.13.
  124. ^ Scholiast on Homer's Odyssey λ.547.
  125. ^ Homer, Odyssey λ 542.
  126. ^ a b c d e Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad.
  127. ^ Pindar, Nemean Odes 8.46(25).
  128. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.6.
  129. ^ Zenobius, Cent. i.43.
  130. ^ Sophocles, Ajax 42, 277, 852.
  131. ^ Either by Calchas, (Apollodorus, Epitome 5.8; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 9.325–479), or by Paris' brother Helenus (Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Illiad; Sophocles, Philoctetes 604–613; Tzetzes, Posthomerica 571–595).
  132. ^ This is according to Apollodorus, Epitome 5.8, Hyginus, Fabulae 103, Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 9.325–479, and Euripides, Philoctetes—but Sophocles, Philoctetes says Odysseus and Neoptolemus, while Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Illiad says Diomedes alone.
  133. ^ Philoctetes was cured by a son of Asclepius, either Machaon, (Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Illiad; Tzetzes, Posthomerica 571–595) or his brother Podalirius (Apollodorus, Epitome 5.8; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 9.325–479).
  134. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.9.
  135. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.10; Pausanias 5.13.4.
  136. ^ Pausanias 5.13.4–6, says that Pelop's sholder-blade was brought to Troy from Pisa, and on its return home was lost at sea, later to be found by a fisherman, and identified as Pelop's by the Oracle at Delphi.
  137. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.11.
  138. ^ Odyssey λ.520
  139. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.12.
  140. ^ Pausanias 9.5.15.
  141. ^ Homer, Odyssey 4.242 ff.
  142. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.13.
  143. ^ Homer, Odyssey 8.492–495; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.14.
  144. ^ Pausanias, 3.13.5.
  145. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.15, Simpson, p 246.
  146. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.14, says the hollow horse held 50, but attributes to the author of the Little Iliad a figure of 3,000, a number that Simpson, p 265, calls "absurd", saying that the surviving fragments only say that the Greeks put their "best men" inside the horse. Tzetzes, Posthomerica 641–650, gives a figure of 23, while Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xii.314–335, gives the names of thirty, and says that there were more. In late tradition it seems it was standardized at 40.
  147. ^ Homer, Odyssey 8.500–504; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.15.
  148. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.16, as translated by Simpson, p. 246. Proculus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad, says that the Trojans pulled down a part of their walls to admit the horse.
  149. ^ a b c d e f g Proclus, Chrestomathy 4, Iliou Persis.
  150. ^ Homer, Odyssey 8.505 ff.; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.16–15.
  151. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.17 says that Cassandra warned of an armed force inside the horse, and that Lacoön agreed.
  152. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 2.199–227; Hyginus, Fabulae 135;
  153. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xii.444–497; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.18.
  154. ^ Scholiast on Lycophroon, 344.
  155. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.19–20.
  156. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.100–104,Translation by A.S. Way, 1913.
  157. ^ a b Apollodorus. Epitome 5.21.
  158. ^ Aristophanes, Lysistrata 155; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.423–457.
  159. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.22.
  160. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.22; Pausanias 10.31.2; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.462–473; Virgil, Aeneid 403–406. The rape of Cassandra was a popular theme of ancient Greek paintings, see Pausanias, 1.15.2, 5.11.6, 5.19.5, 10.26.3.
  161. ^ Homer, Iliad 3.203–207, 7.347–353; Apollodorus, Epitome, 5.21; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.322–331, Livy, 1.1; Pausanias, 10.26.8, 27.3 ff.; Strabo, 13.1.53.
  162. ^ Apollodorus. Epitome 5.23.
  163. ^ Proclus, Chrestomathy 4, Ilio Persis, says Odysseus killed Astyanax, while Pausanias, 10.25.9, says Neoptolemus.
  164. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.23.
  165. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.279–285.
  166. ^ Euripides, Trojan Women 709–739, 1133–1135; Hyginus, Fabulae 109.
  167. ^ Euripides, Hecuba 107–125, 218–224, 391–393, 521–582; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiv.193–328.
  168. ^ Homer, Iliad 3.144.
  169. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.22; Pausanias, 10.25.8; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.547–595.
  170. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.11.
  171. ^ a b Apollodorus, Epitome 5.24.
  172. ^ Strabo, 6.1.15.
  173. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.6.
  174. ^ Scholiast on Homer, Iliad 13.66.
  175. ^ Pausanias, 1.28.11.
  176. ^ Pausanias, 8.15.7
  177. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.12
  178. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.13.
  179. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.14.
  180. ^ Plutarch, 23.
  181. ^ Pausanias, 1.28.9.
  182. ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophroon 609.
  183. ^ Strabo, 6.3.9.
  184. ^ Strabo, 6.1.3.
  185. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.15b; Strabo, 6.1.3.
  186. ^ Homer, Odyssey 3.191.
  187. ^ Vergil, Aeneid 3.400
  188. ^ Scholiast on Homer's Odyssey 13.259.
  189. ^ Homer, Odyssey 4.360.
  190. ^ Homer, Odyssey 4.382.
  191. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.29.
  192. ^ Pausanias, 2.16.6.
  193. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.23.
  194. ^ Homer, Odyssey 1.30, 298.
  195. ^ Pausanias, 2.16.7.
  196. ^ Sophocles, Electra 1405.
  197. ^ Proclus Chrestomathy 2, Telegony
  198. ^ FGrHist 70 F 223
  199. ^ FGrHist 595 F 1
  200. ^ Chronographiai FGrHist 241 F 1d
  201. ^ FGrHist 566 F 125
  202. ^ FGrHist 239, §24
  203. ^ Bios Hellados
  204. ^ Histories 2,145
  205. ^ FGrHist 242 F 1
  206. ^ FGrHist 76 F 41
  207. ^ FGrHist 4 F 152
  208. ^ Confex.
  209. ^ Nature.
  210. ^ Iliad, Discovery.
  211. ^ Wilson, Emily. Was The Iliad written by a woman?, Slate Magazine, December 12, 2006. Accessed June 30, 2008.
  212. ^ Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους (History of the Greek Nation) Volume A. Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon, 1968.
  213. ^ Phoenix Data Systems - Attacks on Egypt
  214. ^ Thucydides. The Peloponnesian War, 1.12.2.
  215. ^ Graves, Robert. The Greek Myths, "The Returns".

References and further reading

Ancient authors

.
  • Apollodorus, Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, translated by Michael Simpson, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976).^ Herodotus ; Histories , A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0674991338 .
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus , Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus , translated by Michael Simpson, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976).
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus, [ Apollodorus: The Library ] , translated by Sir James George Frazer, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .ISBN 0-87023-205-3.
  • Apollodorus, Apollodorus: The Library, translated by Sir James George Frazer, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd.^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.33; translation, Sir James George Frazer.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus, [ Apollodorus: The Library ] , translated by Sir James George Frazer, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Herodotus ; Histories , A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0674991338 .
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .1921. Volume 1: ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Volume 2: ISBN 0-674-99136-2.
  • Euripides, Andromache, in Euripides: Children of Heracles, Hippolytus, Andromache, Hecuba, with an English translation by David Kovacs.^ Children of Heracles was written by Euripides.

    Cambridge. .Harvard University Press.^ Herodotus ; Histories , A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0674991338 .
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus, [ Apollodorus: The Library ] , translated by Sir James George Frazer, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pausanias , [ Description of Greece ] , ( Loeb Classical Library ) translated by W. H. S. Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    (1996). ISBN 0-674-99533-3.
  • Euripides, Helen, in The Complete Greek Drama, edited by Whitney J. Oates and Eugene O'Neill, Jr. in two volumes. 1. Helen, translated by E. P. Coleridge. New York. Random House. 1938.
  • Euripides, Hecuba, in The Complete Greek Drama, edited by Whitney J. Oates and Eugene O'Neill, Jr. in two volumes. 1. Hecuba, translated by E. P. Coleridge. New York. Random House. .1938.
  • Herodotus, Histories, A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0-674-99133-8. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library].
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece, (Loeb Classical Library) translated by W. H. S. Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd.^ Herodotus ; Histories , A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0674991338 .
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Online version at the Perseus Digital Library ].
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus , Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus , translated by Michael Simpson, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976).
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    (1918). .Vol 1, Books I–II, ISBN 0-674-99104-4; Vol 2, Books III–V, ISBN 0-674-99207-5; Vol 3, Books VI–VIII.21, ISBN 0-674-99300-4; Vol 4, Books VIII.22–X, ISBN 0-674-99328-4.
  • Proclus, Chrestomathy, in Fragments of the Kypria translated by H.G. Evelyn-White, 1914 (public domain).
  • Proclus, Proclus' Summary of the Epic Cycle, trans.^ These poems only survive in fragments, but their content is known from a summary included in Proclus' Chrestomathy .
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Proclus, Chrestomathy , in [ Fragments of the Kypria ] translated by H.G. Evelyn-White, 1914 (public domain).
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Other parts of the story were narrated in a cycle of epic poems , which has only survived in fragments.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Gregory Nagy.
  • Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, in Quintus Smyrnaeus: The Fall of Troy, Arthur Sanders Way (Ed.^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica iv.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Fall of Troy was written by Quintus Smyrnaeus.

    ^ Euripedes,Hecabe 109 Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiv.210-328 Despite the mythographer's insistance that Troy was razed, archeology shows that the city survived and continued to exist.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    & Trans.), .Loeb Classics #19; Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. (1913).^ Herodotus ; Histories , A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0674991338 .
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus, [ Apollodorus: The Library ] , translated by Sir James George Frazer, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pausanias , [ Description of Greece ] , ( Loeb Classical Library ) translated by W. H. S. Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .(1962 edition: ISBN 0-674-99022-6).
  • Strabo, Geography, translated by Horace Leonard Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd.^ Herodotus ; Histories , A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0674991338 .
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus , Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus , translated by Michael Simpson, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976).
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus, [ Apollodorus: The Library ] , translated by Sir James George Frazer, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    (1924)

Modern authors

.
  • Burgess, Jonathan S. 2004. The Tradition of the Trojan War in Homer and the Epic Cycle (Johns Hopkins).^ The first epic of the cycle, the Kypria , begins with Zeus ' decision to cause the Trojan War, continues with the first nine years of the war, and ends just before the beginning of the Iliad .
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pausanias says that according to Homer, Achilles did not hide in Scyros, but rather conquered the island, as part of the Trojan War.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ According to the Sack of Ilium (Epic Cycle), after the Trojan prophet Laocoon was killed, Aeneas withdrew from Troy and returned home with some of his followers to Mount Ida.

    ISBN 0-8018-7890-X.
  • Castleden, Rodney. The Attack on Troy. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen and Sword Books, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-84415-175-1).
  • Davies, Malcolm (2000). "Euripides Telephus Fr. 149 (Austin) and the Folk-Tale Origins of the Teuthranian Expedition" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 133: 7–10. http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/ifa/zpe/downloads/2000/133pdf/133007.pdf. 
  • Durschmied, Erik. The Hinge Factor:How Chance and Stupidity Have Changed History. .Coronet Books; New Ed edition (7 Oct 1999).
  • Frazer, Sir James George, Apollodorus: The Library, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd.^ Herodotus ; Histories , A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0674991338 .
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus , Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus , translated by Michael Simpson, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976).
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus, [ Apollodorus: The Library ] , translated by Sir James George Frazer, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    1921. Volume 1: ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Volume 2: ISBN 0-674-99136-2.
  • Graves, Robert. .The Greek Myths, Penguin (Non-Classics); Cmb/Rep edition (April 6, 1993).^ The Penguin Classics edition of The Iliad begins with a disclaimer: "The Greeks believed that The Iliad was composed by Homer.
    • History News Network 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Robert Graves The Wooden Horse,The Greek myths, second edition believes that the Trojan Horse was a battering ram covered with horse hides against incidiery arrows.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .ISBN 0-14-017199-1.
  • Kakridis, J., 1988. Ελληνική Μυθολογία ("Greek mythology"), Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens.
  • Karykas, Pantelis, 2003. Μυκηναίοι Πολεμιστές ("Mycenean Warriors"), Communications Editions, Athens.
  • Latacz, Joachim.^ "Greek mythology"), Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Mycenean Warriors"), Communications Editions, Athens.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pantelis Karykas, Μυκηναίοι Πολεμιστές (Mycenian Warriors), Athens 1999.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery. .New York: Oxford University Press (USA), 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-19-926308-6).
  • Simpson, Michael.^ Herodotus ; Histories , A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0674991338 .
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus , Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus , translated by Michael Simpson, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976).
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976).^ Apollodorus , Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus , translated by Michael Simpson, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976).
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Apollodorus, [ Apollodorus: The Library ] , translated by Sir James George Frazer, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pausanias , [ Description of Greece ] , ( Loeb Classical Library ) translated by W. H. S. Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-87023-205-3.
  • Strauss, Barry. .The Trojan War: A New History.^ Despite assumptions to the contrary, archaeological work of the new Troy project has not been performed for the purpose of understanding Homer’s Iliad or the Trojan War.
    • History News Network 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The sea goddess Thetis saved Hephaestus, which was why he was later willing to make new armour for her son during the Trojan War .

    ^ It was her aid that Hephaestus was willing to make new set of armour for Thetis' mortal son (Achilles), during the Trojan War .

    .New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7432-6441-X).
  • Thompson, Diane P. The Trojan War: Literature and Legends from the Bronze Age to the Present.^ The Trojan War was the greatest conflict in the Greek mythology, a war that was to influences people in literature and arts for centuries.

    ^ It was her aid that Hephaestus was willing to make new set of armour for Thetis' mortal son (Achilles), during the Trojan War .

    ^ In later ages playwrights, historians and other intellectuals would create works inspired by the Trojan War.
    • Trojan war - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

    Jefferson, NC: McFarland. .ISBN 0-7864-1737-4 (paperback). 
  • Troy: From Homer's Iliad to Hollywood Epic, edited by Martin M. Winkler.^ According to Homer, in the Iliad , Poseidon had foretold that Aeneas would establish a new dynasty at Troy, but none of the later sources follow this version.

    ^ Despite assumptions to the contrary, archaeological work of the new Troy project has not been performed for the purpose of understanding Homer’s Iliad or the Trojan War.
    • History News Network 14 January 2010 1:50 UTC hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In one of the earlier scene of Homer's Iliad , Helen watched Greeks and Trojans marshalling the forces on the plain of Troy, with her father-in-law, King Priam of Troy .

    Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 1-4051-3182-9; paperback, ISBN 1-4051-3183-7).
  • Wood, Michael. In Search of the Trojan War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998 (paperback, ISBN 0-520-21599-0); London: BBC Books, 1985 (ISBN 0563201614).

External links

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