Tropical cyclone: Wikis

  
  
  

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.
Hurricane Isabel (2003) as seen from orbit during Expedition 7 of the International Space Station.
^ Hurricane Isabel, September 8, 2003 .
  • SVS Search Keyword: Hurricane 20 November 2009 6:56 UTC svs.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Model of Precipitable Water during Hurricane Isabel, 2003 (WMS) .
  • SVS Search Keyword: Hurricanes 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC svs.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • SVS Search Keyword: Hurricane 20 November 2009 6:56 UTC svs.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Progression of Hurricane Isabel, 2003 (WMS) .
  • SVS Search Keyword: Hurricanes 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC svs.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

The eye, eyewall and surrounding rainbands characteristic of tropical cyclones are clearly visible in this view from space.
.A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain.^ For now, heavy wind/rain.
  • http://twitter.com/hurricaneike 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC twitter.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical cyclones are strong low pressure cells that spend most of their lives over the oceans.
  • NaturalHazards.org | Hurricane 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.naturalhazards.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hurricanes produce storm surge, rain, and wind.
  • Hurricane Hazards Mitigation 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.uhh.hawaii.edu [Source type: News]

.Tropical cyclones feed on heat released when moist air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor contained in the moist air.^ The air cools as it rises (vertical arrows) and condensation occurs.  The condensation of water vapor to liquid water releases the latent heat latent heat condensation into the atmosphere.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They draw heat from warm, moist ocean air and release it through condensation of water vapor in thunderstorms.
  • Hurricane Facts, Hurricane Information, Hurricane Videos, Hurricane Photos - National Geographic 20 November 2009 6:56 UTC environment.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical cyclones feed on heat released when moist air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor contained in the moist air.

.They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as nor'easters, European windstorms, and polar lows, leading to their classification as "warm core" storm systems.^ They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as nor'easters, European windstorms, and polar lows, leading to their classification as 'warm core' storm systems.
  • Intellicast - 24hr Tropical Winds in United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.intellicast.com [Source type: News]

^ Typhoons and other types of low pressure systems are all cyclones.
  • Digital Typhoon: Typhoons, Hurricanes and Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as nor'easters, European windstorms, and polar lows, leading to their classification as "warm core" storm systems.
  • Hurricanes, typhoons and related disaster words 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.eslgold.com [Source type: Reference]
  • tropical storm tracker 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.stormnetwork.net [Source type: General]
  • Hurricane 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]
  • How are tropical cyclones formed? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Tropical cyclones originate in the doldrums near the equator, about 10° away from it.^ Blogs about : Hurricanes Tropical Cyclones .
  • Hurricanes Tropical Cyclones — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Read about tropical cyclone myths.
  • NWS JetStream - Tropical Cyclone Introduction 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.srh.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Get alerts about Tropical Cyclone Sidr .
  • Tropical Cyclone Sidr Topics Page - USATODAY.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC content.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.The term "tropical" refers to both the geographic origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively in tropical regions of the globe, and their formation in maritime tropical air masses.^ The term "tropical" refers to both the geographic origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively in tropical regions of the globe, and their formation in Maritime Tropical air masses.
  • tropical storm tracker 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.stormnetwork.net [Source type: General]
  • Intellicast - 24hr Tropical Winds in United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.intellicast.com [Source type: News]
  • How are tropical cyclones formed? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Tropical Storms, Cyclones, Hurricanes - UNWTO Sos.Travel 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sos.travel [Source type: General]

^ The adjective "tropical" refers to both the geographic origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively in tropical regions of the globe, and their formation in Maritime Tropical air masses.
  • Hurricanes, typhoons and related disaster words 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.eslgold.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These fluctuations in hurricane activity result almost entirely from differences in the number of hurricanes and major hurricanes forming from tropical storms first named in the Main Development Region (MDR), which spans the tropical Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea between 30 o W-87.5 o W and 10 o N-21.5 o N (Goldenberg et al.
  • Climate Prediction Center - Atlantic Hurricane Outlook Update 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The term "cyclone" refers to such storms' cyclonic nature, with counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise rotation in the Southern Hemisphere.^ Hurricanes rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Caribbean Hurricane Center by Caribseek | Huracanes Caribe | Ouragans des Cara�bes | Cara�bische Orkanen | Karibische Hurrikane 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC hurricanes.caribseek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the rest of this article, the term hurricane refers to all such storms.
  • NASA - Hurricane 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Northern Hemisphere the storms rotate counterclockwise and in the Southern Hemisphere they rotate clockwise because of the Coriolis Effect.
  • Hurricanes (also known as Tropical Cyclones) 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.windows.ucar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone.^ Each tropical storm receives a name.
  • NASA - Hurricane 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones are also known as hurricanes or typhoons, depending on where they are located and their strength.
  • Most intense cyclones are becoming stronger as seas warm: study 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Is there a difference between a hurricane/typhoon and a tropical cyclone?
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

.While tropical cyclones can produce extremely powerful winds and torrential rain, they are also able to produce high waves and damaging storm surge as well as spawning tornadoes.^ When the winds mix with the water, they can create a spiraling cyclone or tropical storm front.
  • Hurricanes | Attorneys, Lawyers & Legal Resources 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.forthepeople.com [Source type: News]

^ How do tropical storms / cyclones form ?
  • EvacuationHelp.com Disaster Tips & Tricks - How do tropical storms / cyclones form ? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.evacuationhelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes produce storm surge, rain, and wind.
  • Hurricane Hazards Mitigation 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.uhh.hawaii.edu [Source type: News]

.They develop over large bodies of warm water, and lose their strength if they move over land.^ They lose force when they move over land or colder ocean waters.
  • Hurricanes Definition | Definition of Hurricanes at Dictionary.com 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: General]

^ They develop over large bodies of warm water, and lose their strength if they move over land.
  • tropical storm tracker 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.stormnetwork.net [Source type: General]
  • Intellicast - 24hr Tropical Winds in United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.intellicast.com [Source type: News]
  • Hurricane 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]
  • How are tropical cyclones formed? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Most hurricanes develop over large water bodies, and gradually fade out as they move inland.
  • Interesting Facts about Hurricanes 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is why coastal regions can receive significant damage from a tropical cyclone, while inland regions are relatively safe from receiving strong winds.^ Tropical cyclone damage - Horizontal wind .
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) :: Climatic variations and tropical cyclone frequency -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is the reason coastal regions can receive significant damage from a tropical cyclone, while inland regions are relatively safe from receiving strong winds.
  • tropical storm tracker 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.stormnetwork.net [Source type: General]
  • Intellicast - 24hr Tropical Winds in United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.intellicast.com [Source type: News]
  • Hurricane 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]
  • How are tropical cyclones formed? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Of all the tropical cyclone damage agents, strong winds are perhaps the best understood.
  • Impact of Tropical Cyclones 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.oas.org [Source type: Academic]

.Heavy rains, however, can produce significant flooding inland, and storm surges can produce extensive coastal flooding up to 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the coastline.^ Heavy rains caused flooding in Managua.
  • FOXNews.com - Tropical Storm Alma Forms Off Central America - International News | News of the World | Middle East News | Europe News 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Hurricanes produce storm surge, rain, and wind.
  • Hurricane Hazards Mitigation 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.uhh.hawaii.edu [Source type: News]

^ Occasionally the damage from inland flooding exceeds storm surge destruction.
  • Hurricane Detection, Tracking, and Forecasting 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.ametsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although their effects on human populations can be devastating, tropical cyclones can also relieve drought conditions.^ Although their effects on human populations can be devastating, tropical cyclones can also relieve drought conditions.
  • tropical storm tracker 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.stormnetwork.net [Source type: General]
  • Intellicast - 24hr Tropical Winds in United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.intellicast.com [Source type: News]
  • Hurricane 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]
  • How are tropical cyclones formed? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the 1997 hurricane season was one of the weakest on record, the Mobile area experienced its most unusual tropical cyclone.

^ For example, the intensity of rain during hurricanes and tropical cyclones causes high soil runoffs, even when conditions have been dry.
  • Hurricanes: Foul Winds or Fair? 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.lacoast.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also carry heat and energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which makes them an important part of the global atmospheric circulation mechanism.^ They also carry heat and energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which makes them an important part of the global atmospheric circulation mechanism.
  • tropical storm tracker 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.stormnetwork.net [Source type: General]
  • How are tropical cyclones formed? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The movement of warm air, within the hurricane, from the tropics to the temperate latitudes, makes them a major air circulation mechanism.
  • Interesting Facts about Hurricanes 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They also carry heat and energy away from the tropics and transport it towards temperate latitudes, which makes them an important part of the global atmospheric circulation mechanism.

.As a result, tropical cyclones help to maintain equilibrium in the Earth's troposphere, and to maintain a relatively stable and warm temperature worldwide.^ As a result, tropical cyclones help to maintain equilibrium in the Earth's troposphere, and to maintain a relatively stable and warm temperature worldwide.
  • tropical storm tracker 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.stormnetwork.net [Source type: General]
  • Intellicast - 24hr Tropical Winds in United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.intellicast.com [Source type: News]
  • Hurricane 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]
  • How are tropical cyclones formed? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes are Earth's strongest tropical cyclones.
  • Hurricanes 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The success of the models results from their general formulation, which unlike empirical or parametric methods, makes them applicable worldwide since the basic structure of tropical cyclones are governed by a general set of thermodynamic and dynamic constraints.
  • Oceanweather Inc: Research: Tropical Cyclone Modeling 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.oceanweather.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many tropical cyclones develop when the atmospheric conditions around a weak disturbance in the atmosphere are favorable.^ Can develop into a tropical cyclone.

^ Many tropical cyclones develop when the atmospheric conditions around a weak disturbance in the atmosphere are favorable.
  • tropical storm tracker 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.stormnetwork.net [Source type: General]
  • Intellicast - 24hr Tropical Winds in United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.intellicast.com [Source type: News]
  • Hurricane 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]
  • How are tropical cyclones formed? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Cyclonic disturbance 1-6 Tropical cyclone 4-6 .

.The background environment is modulated by climatological cycles and patterns such as the Madden-Julian oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation.^ There are at least two prominent factors associated with tropical storm and hurricane activity: 1) the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle; and 2) west African rainfall.
  • USGCRP Seminar: Hurricanes 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.usgcrp.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Coring work in the Central Atlantic show that such cycles have been occurring for centuries if not more than a thousand years," Landsea said.
  • Many More Hurricanes to Come | LiveScience 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: News]

^ Climate researchers show intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean over the last 1,500 years were closely linked to long-term changes in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and sea surface temperature.
  • Newswise | Channels 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.newswise.com [Source type: News]

.Others form when other types of cyclones acquire tropical characteristics.^ How do tropical storms / cyclones form ?
  • EvacuationHelp.com Disaster Tips & Tricks - How do tropical storms / cyclones form ? 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.evacuationhelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical cyclone is in general a cyclone formed in the tropical areas.
  • Digital Typhoon: Typhoons, Hurricanes and Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical Cyclone characteristics .

.Tropical systems are then moved by steering winds in the troposphere; if the conditions remain favorable, the tropical disturbance intensifies, and can even develop an eye.^ Many tropical cyclones develop when the atmospheric conditions around a weak disturbance in the atmosphere are favorable.
  • tropical storm tracker 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.stormnetwork.net [Source type: General]
  • Intellicast - 24hr Tropical Winds in United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.intellicast.com [Source type: News]
  • Hurricane 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]
  • How are tropical cyclones formed? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical systems are then moved by steering winds in the troposphere; if the conditions remain favorable, the tropical disturbance intensifies, and can even develop an eye.
  • tropical storm tracker 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.stormnetwork.net [Source type: General]
  • Intellicast - 24hr Tropical Winds in United States 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.intellicast.com [Source type: News]
  • Hurricane 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]
  • How are tropical cyclones formed? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A hurricane begins when winds blowing across the surface of the warm ocean water converge to form clusters of strong thunderstorms known as tropical disturbances or tropical waves.

.On the other end of the spectrum, if the conditions around the system deteriorate or the tropical cyclone makes landfall, the system weakens and eventually dissipates.^ This is the earliest recorded case of a tropical cyclone making landfall in Japan.

^ Winds around a tropical cyclone .
  • Australian Region Tropical Cyclone Tracking Maps 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC users.qldnet.com.au [Source type: General]

^ On the other end of the spectrum, if the conditions around the system deteriorate or the tropical cyclone makes landfall, the system weakens and eventually dissipates.

.It is not possible to artificially induce the dissipation of these systems with current technology.^ These forces induce currents in the water.
  • al.com: Hurricane Center 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.al.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not possible to artificially induce the dissipation of these systems with current technology.

^ Based on the current forecast track, the system is now expected to move further inland and dissipate within the next 60- 72 hours.
  • UPDATE 2: Tropical Cyclone Laurence (06S) « Fire Earth 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC feww.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Physical structure

Structure of a tropical cyclone
.All tropical cyclones are areas of low atmospheric pressure near the Earth's surface.^ Surface atmospheric pressure in the center of a hurricane tends to be extremely low.
  • Tropical weather and hurricanes - Encyclopedia of Earth 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, is a low pressure area categorized as a tropical wave.

^ Typhoons and other types of low pressure systems are all cyclones.
  • Digital Typhoon: Typhoons, Hurricanes and Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest that occur on Earth's surface at sea level.^ Surface pressure drops to its lowest in the eye.
  • NASA - Hurricane 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sea-surface temperatures and tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin.
  • Monster Hurricanes: Study Questions Linkage Between Severe Hurricanes And Global Warming 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

^ Minimum Sea-level Pressure .
  • NHC Tropical Cyclone Report 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nhc.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nhc.boulder.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NHC Tropical Cyclone Report 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC origin.www.nhc.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • NHC Tropical Cyclone Report 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC origin.www.nhc.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Tropical cyclones are characterized and driven by the release of large amounts of latent heat of condensation, which occurs when moist air is carried upwards and its water vapor condenses.^ When water vapor condenses, it releases energy.
  • Tropical Storm - MSN Encarta 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The air cools as it rises (vertical arrows) and condensation occurs.  The condensation of water vapor to liquid water releases the latent heat latent heat condensation into the atmosphere.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones feed on heat released when moist air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor contained in the moist air.

.This heat is distributed vertically around the center of the storm.^ This heat warms the center, or eye, of the storm, which in turn causes more water to evaporate.

^ Or, if a tropical cyclone has already formed, large vertical shear can weaken or destroy it by interfering with the organization around the cyclone center.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A hurricane is a storm in which a vast system of clouds, heavy rains, and strong winds circle around a calm center.
  • hurricanes 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC elyunque.cet.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, at any given altitude (except close to the surface, where water temperature dictates air temperature) the environment inside the cyclone is warmer than its outer surroundings.^ Center of storm is warmer than the surrounding air.

^ Was the water temperature warmer than you thought?

^ Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer, when the difference between temperatures aloft and sea surface temperatures is the greatest.

[2]

Eye and center

.A strong tropical cyclone will harbor an area of sinking air at the center of circulation.^ Tropical cyclone is in general a cyclone formed in the tropical areas.
  • Digital Typhoon: Typhoons, Hurricanes and Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The World's tropical cyclone warning centers .
  • USATODAY.com - Tropical Cyclone Olaf nears American Samoa 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC content.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ In contrast, hurricanes (tropical cyclones) have warm air over their centers.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If this area is strong enough, it can develop into a large "eye". Weather in the eye is normally calm and free of clouds, although the sea may be extremely violent.^ Large cumulonimbus clouds surround the eye.

^ Inside this ring of strong winds, a calm area develops, known as an eye.
  • Tropical Storm - MSN Encarta 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sinking air warms and dries, creating a calm, cloud-free area in the eye.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .The eye is normally circular in shape, and may range in size from 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) to 370 kilometres (230 mi) in diameter.^ They may be 50–500 mi (80–800 km) in diameter, and sustained winds in excess of 100 mph (160 kph) are common.
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The cloud system becomes more circular in shape and develops a distinct eye.
  • http://app2.nea.gov.sg/tropical_cyclones.aspx 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC app2.nea.gov.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This range is lower than the 65%-130% predicted in May, and no longer includes values for an above-normal season.
  • Climate Prediction Center - Atlantic Hurricane Outlook Update 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4][5] .Intense, mature tropical cyclones can sometimes exhibit an outward curving of the eyewall's top, making it resemble a football stadium; this phenomenon is thus sometimes referred to as the stadium effect.^ Intense tropical cyclone .
  • Digital Typhoon: Typhoons, Hurricanes and Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very intense tropical cyclone .
  • Digital Typhoon: Typhoons, Hurricanes and Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When referring to tropical weather systems, the words cyclone, typhoon and hurricane can often be used interchangeably.
  • "Middle Cyclone" - The Weather Guys - USATODAY.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC blogs.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

[6]
.There are other features that either surround the eye, or cover it.^ Meanwhile, there are two other areas in the Atlantic that forecasters are eyeing for possible development.
  • NASA - Hurricane Season 2009: Tropical Depression Ana (Atlantic) 20 September 2009 13:36 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, there was a hint of an eye feature on visible satellite imagery at 1545 UTC on that day ( Figure 2 ).
  • National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report 20 September 2009 13:36 UTC www.nhc.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There had    been a significant increase in deep convection over the LLCC with a    recent TRMM pass revealing a developing low-level banding eye feature.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: April Tropical Cyclone Summary 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The central dense overcast is the concentrated area of strong thunderstorm activity near the center of a tropical cyclone;[7] in weaker tropical cyclones, the CDO may cover the center completely.^ Forecast of tropical cyclone activity and its verification.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The World's tropical cyclone warning centers .
  • USATODAY.com - Tropical Cyclone Olaf nears American Samoa 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC content.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ This change can happen if thunderstorms occur near the cyclone center.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .The eyewall is a circle of strong thunderstorms that surrounds the eye; here is where the greatest wind speeds are found, where clouds reach the highest, and precipitation is the heaviest.^ Large cumulonimbus clouds surround the eye.

^ (Top) Surrounding the eye of the hurricane is a ring of thunderstorms, called the eyewall.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The speed of the winds in the eyewall is related to the diameter of the eye.
  • NASA - Hurricane 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The heaviest wind damage occurs where a tropical cyclone's eyewall passes over land.^ Winds around a tropical cyclone .
  • Australian Region Tropical Cyclone Tracking Maps 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC users.qldnet.com.au [Source type: General]

^ A tropical cyclone with hurricane force winds.

^ Dissipation Tropical cyclone damage .
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) :: Climatic variations and tropical cyclone frequency -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[3] .Eyewall replacement cycles occur naturally in intense tropical cyclones.^ The same storm occurring over the North West Pacific Ocean west of the dateline is called a typhoon; one occurring over Australia and the Indian Ocean is a tropical Cyclone, but the winds rotate clockwise.
  • How and where do tropical storms occur? - Q&A 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ These factors increase and decrease roughly in line with naturally occurring cycles known as the multidecadal signal.
  • Hurricane Season 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tornado production can occur for days after landfall when the tropical cyclone remnants maintain an identifiable low pressure circulation.
  • HURRICANE SURVIVAL, Be Prepared To Survive a Hurricane. 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.lacetoleather.com [Source type: General]

.When cyclones reach peak intensity they usually have an eyewall and radius of maximum winds that contract to a very small size, around 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to 25 kilometres (16 mi).^ But when we see a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained wind speeds of 39 mph (34 knots), we also usually see the thunderstorms in the cyclone concentrated near the center, and we also see rainfall in the outer part of the cyclone organizing into distinct bands, and we call it a Tropical Storm.  When sustained winds reach around 74 mph (64 knots), we begin to see an eyewall and spiral rain bands forming in the tropical cyclone, and it officially becomes a hurricane.    .
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Heavy rains, however, can produce significant flooding inland, and storm surges can produce extensive coastal flooding up to 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the coastline.

^ Strongest winds were confined to a much smaller radius than that; it remains one of the smallest tropical cyclones in our record books today!
  • Christmas Tropical Cyclones! 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: General]

.Outer rainbands can organize into an outer ring of thunderstorms that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and angular momentum.^ The thunderstorms also begin to organize themselves into spiral bands that swirl cyclonically toward the center of the storm.
  • Tropical weather and hurricanes - Encyclopedia of Earth 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Core” tornadoes occur within inner rainbands or in the eyewall, while the optimum range for “outer rainband” tornadoes is 200–400 km from the center, but they can occur at even greater distances.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Occasionally, a cluster of thunderstorms will break away from the ITCZ and organize into a more unified storm system.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the inner eyewall weakens, the tropical cyclone weakens (in other words, the maximum sustained winds weaken and the central pressure rises.^ Tropical cyclone damage - Horizontal wind .
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) :: Climatic variations and tropical cyclone frequency -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A tropical cyclone with hurricane force winds.

^ Technically, all hurricanes are cyclones but not all cyclones are hurricanes: if their wind speed is over 74 miles per hour, they're hurricanes, if not, they're just cyclones or tropical storms.
  • WikiAnswers - What is the difference between a hurricane and a cyclone 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

) .The outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely at the end of the cycle.^ The initial weakening was likely due to an eyewall replacement cycle which was evident in satellite imagery.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Core” tornadoes occur within inner rainbands or in the eyewall, while the optimum range for “outer rainband” tornadoes is 200–400 km from the center, but they can occur at even greater distances.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

.The storm can be of the same intensity as it was previously or even stronger after the eyewall replacement cycle finishes.^ The initial weakening was likely due to an eyewall replacement cycle which was evident in satellite imagery.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the next 24 hours, as Wilma tracked westward, an eyewall replacement cycle was observed, enlarging the eye and decreasing maximum windspeed so that the storm weakened to a strong category 4.
  • NCDC: Climate of 2005: Hurricane Wilma 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.ncdc.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, not surprisingly, stronger storms last longer; times series of duration and peak intensity are correlated with an r 2 of 0.74.
  • Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 yearsKERRY EMANUEL / Letters / Nature v.436, 4aug2005 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

.The storm may strengthen again as it builds a new outer ring for the next eyewall replacement.^ Papua New Guinea Tropical Storm Erin Forms While Tropical Storm Dean Strengthens Two tropical storms intensify as the southeastern United States prepare for the peak hurricane season.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ During the next 24 hours, as Wilma tracked westward, an eyewall replacement cycle was observed, enlarging the eye and decreasing maximum windspeed so that the storm weakened to a strong category 4.
  • NCDC: Climate of 2005: Hurricane Wilma 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.ncdc.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And spare me that crap about how the new decade doesn't begin until next year--That may be technically right, but nobody cares.

[9]
Size descriptions of tropical cyclones
ROCI Type
Less than 2 degrees latitude Very small/midget
2 to 3 degrees of latitude Small
3 to 6 degrees of latitude Medium/Average
6 to 8 degrees of latitude Large anti-dwarf
Over 8 degrees of latitude Very large[10]

Size

.One measure of the size of a tropical cyclone is determined by measuring the distance from its center of circulation to its outermost closed isobar, also known as its ROCI.^ Yet another complicating factor is that changes in climate can also change the paths that tropical cyclones tend to take, determining whether they remain over oceans or strike land.
  • Climate myths: Hurricane Katrina was caused by global warming - environment - 16 May 2007 - New Scientist 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ Tropical Cyclone Centers Worldwide Central Pacific Hurricane Center Joint Typhoon Warning Center Canadian Hurricane Centre WMO Severe Weather Info Centre Lat/Lon Distance Calculator Find distance between latitude/longitude points .
  • National Hurricane Center 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.nhc.noaa.gov [Source type: News]

^ Tornado production can occur for days after landfall when the tropical cyclone remnants maintain an identifiable low pressure circulation.
  • HURRICANE SURVIVAL, Be Prepared To Survive a Hurricane. 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.lacetoleather.com [Source type: General]

.If the radius is less than two degrees of latitude or 222 kilometres (138 mi), then the cyclone is "very small" or a "midget". A radius between 3 and 6 latitude degrees or 333 kilometres (207 mi) to 670 kilometres (420 mi) are considered "average-sized". "Very large" tropical cyclones have a radius of greater than 8 degrees or 888 kilometres (552 mi).^ On average, a tropical cyclone can brew for 9 days.
  • http://app2.nea.gov.sg/tropical_cyclones.aspx 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC app2.nea.gov.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical Cyclone Centers Worldwide Central Pacific Hurricane Center Joint Typhoon Warning Center Canadian Hurricane Centre WMO Severe Weather Info Centre Lat/Lon Distance Calculator Find distance between latitude/longitude points .
  • National Hurricane Center 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.nhc.noaa.gov [Source type: News]

^ Floods from tropical cyclones are dependent upon: The size and speed of the system; The physical characteristics of the drainage basin such as the soil type, the degree of saturation of the ground, and the vegetation which control runoff; The rate and total amount of precipitation .
  • Impact of Tropical Cyclones 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.oas.org [Source type: Academic]

[10] .Use of this measure has objectively determined that tropical cyclones in the northwest Pacific Ocean are the largest on earth on average, with Atlantic tropical cyclones roughly half their size.^ Pacific Tropical Cyclones - 2000s .
  • Hurricane Basics 20 November 2009 6:56 UTC nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Atlantic Tropical Cyclones - 1870s .
  • Hurricane Basics 20 November 2009 6:56 UTC nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On average, a tropical cyclone can brew for 9 days.
  • http://app2.nea.gov.sg/tropical_cyclones.aspx 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC app2.nea.gov.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .Other methods of determining a tropical cyclone's size include measuring the radius of gale force winds and measuring the radius at which its relative vorticity field decreases to 1×10−5 s−1 from its center.^ Tropical cyclone damage - Horizontal wind .
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) :: Climatic variations and tropical cyclone frequency -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A tropical cyclone with gale or storm force winds.

^ Gale force wind .

[12][13]

Mechanics

.
Tropical cyclones form when the energy released by the condensation of moisture in rising air causes a positive feedback loop over warm ocean waters.
^ A: Hurricanes start over warm ocean water.
  • Hurricanes | Scholastic.com 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: General]

^ The rising air cools, and water vapor in the air condenses into rain.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the air rises, it cools, and water vapor condenses into clouds.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
.A tropical cyclone's primary energy source is the release of the heat of condensation from water vapor condensing at high altitudes, with solar heating being the initial source for evaporation.^ Energy from the sun changes water to water vapor.
  • Education World ® Lesson Planning: Hurricanes Spark a Storm of Classroom Activity! 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.educationworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes are powered by the latent heat energy released from condensation.
  • Tropical weather and hurricanes - Encyclopedia of Earth 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the source of energy for all tropical cyclones?
  • Glencoe Science: WebQuest 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore, a tropical cyclone can be visualized as a giant vertical heat engine supported by mechanics driven by physical forces such as the rotation and gravity of the Earth.^ According to the ational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "a tropical cyclone can be visualized as a giant vertical heat engine supported by mechanics driven by physical forces such as the rotation and gravity of the Earth" ( 5 ).

^ A tropical cyclone with hurricane force winds.

^ The Earth’s rotation causes the wind to follow a curved path over the ocean (the Coriolis effect ), which helps give tropical cyclones their circular appearance.
  • Hurricane - MSN Encarta 20 November 2009 6:56 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .In another way, tropical cyclones could be viewed as a special type of mesoscale convective complex, which continues to develop over a vast source of relative warmth and moisture.^ Stages of development of a tropical cyclone * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What is the source of energy for all tropical cyclones?
  • Glencoe Science: WebQuest 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: General]

^ The ingredients for a hurricane include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds aloft.
  • Hurricane Basics 20 November 2009 6:56 UTC nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While an initial warm core system, such as an organized thunderstorm complex, is necessary for the formation of a tropical cyclone, a large flux of energy is needed to lower atmospheric pressure more than a few millibars (0.10 inch of mercury).^ The warm, moist air rises, lowering the atmospheric pressure of the air beneath.
  • NASA - Hurricane 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More information on this system can be found in the   December tropical cyclone summary.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strongest tropical cyclones get more extreme .

.The inflow of warmth and moisture from the underlying ocean surface is critical for tropical cyclone strengthening.^ Tropical cyclones are classified as follows: * Sustained winds A 1-minute average wind measured at about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The ingredients for a hurricane include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds aloft.
  • Hurricane Basics 20 November 2009 6:56 UTC nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones are experienced in the South Indian Ocean, tropical seas to the west, north and east of Australia and the western and central South Pacific Ocean.
  • Met Office: Tropical cyclone forecast verification - southern hemisphere 2008-9 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.meto.gov.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] A significant amount of the inflow in the cyclone is in the lowest 1 kilometre (3,300 ft) of the atmosphere.[17]
.Condensation leads to higher wind speeds, as a tiny fraction of the released energy is converted into mechanical energy;[18] the faster winds and lower pressure associated with them in turn cause increased surface evaporation and thus even more condensation.^ Wind speed in a hurricane is directly related to the surface pressure of the storm.
  • Tropical weather and hurricanes - Encyclopedia of Earth 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The falling pressure, in turn, draws more air into the storm.
  • NASA - Hurricane 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wind speed is in knots, the pressure is in millibars.

.Much of the released energy drives updrafts that increase the height of the storm clouds, speeding up condensation.^ Benchmarks: Knows that clouds, which are formed by the condensation of water vapor, affect weather and climate; some do so by reflecting much of the sunlight that reaches Earth from the Sun; others hold heat energy emitted from the Earths surface.

^ This instability increases the likelihood of convection, which leads to strong updrafts that lift the air and moisture upwards, creating an environment favorable for the development of high, towering clouds.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As this air rises, it cools and releases its latent heat into the atmosphere to add further energy to the storm.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .This positive feedback loop continues for as long as conditions are favorable for tropical cyclone development.^ The position of the centre of the tropical cyclone.

^ What are the three weather conditions under which a tropical cyclone usually develops?
  • Glencoe Science: WebQuest 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes are enormous cyclonic storm systems covering thousands of square miles which usually develop in the tropical or subtropical latitudes during the summer and fall.

.Factors such as a continued lack of equilibrium in air mass distribution would also give supporting energy to the cyclone.^ If conditions are right for a hurricane, however, there is so much heat energy and moisture in the atmosphere that new cumulonimbus clouds continually form from rising moist air.
  • NASA - Hurricane 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hurricane’s energy is fed by that continuous flow of warm humid air into the cyclone, and the outward flow above.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Heavy rain from tropical cyclones is affected by the several factors, including the duration of rainfall (speed of motion), the energy/moisture supply, and topography.
  • Impact of Tropical Cyclones 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.oas.org [Source type: Academic]

.The rotation of the Earth causes the system to spin, an effect known as the Coriolis effect, giving it a cyclonic characteristic and affecting the trajectory of the storm.^ Cyclones spin because the Earth is spinning.
  • Cyclones ClearlyExplained.Com 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC clearlyexplained.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This effect of the rotating earth on wind flow is called the Coriolis effect.
  • NASA - Hurricane 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The winds are driven by this low-pressure core and by the rotation of the Earth, which deflects the path of the wind through a phenomenon known as the Coriolis force .
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[20][21]
.What primarily distinguishes tropical cyclones from other meteorological phenomena is deep convection as a driving force.^ A tropical cyclone with hurricane force winds.

^ Depending on their location and strength, tropical cyclones are referred to by other names, such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression and simply cyclone.
  • Tropical Storms, Cyclones, Hurricanes - UNWTO Sos.Travel 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sos.travel [Source type: General]

^ These tropical storms go by other names in the various parts of the world: India/Australia - cyclones; western North Pacific - typhoons; and the Philippines - baguio.
  • Tropical weather and hurricanes - Encyclopedia of Earth 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .Because convection is strongest in a tropical climate, it defines the initial domain of the tropical cyclone.^ Strongest tropical cyclones get more extreme .

^ Yet another complicating factor is that changes in climate can also change the paths that tropical cyclones tend to take, determining whether they remain over oceans or strike land.
  • Climate myths: Hurricane Katrina was caused by global warming - environment - 16 May 2007 - New Scientist 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ That same year, another study concluded that the frequency of the strongest tropical cyclones has almost doubled globally since the early 1970s .
  • Climate myths: Hurricane Katrina was caused by global warming - environment - 16 May 2007 - New Scientist 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

.By contrast, mid-latitude cyclones draw their energy mostly from pre-existing horizontal temperature gradients in the atmosphere.^ Fronts and Mid-latitude Cyclones .
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones derive their energy from the warm tropical oceans and do not form unless the sea-surface temperature is above 26.5°C, although once formed, they can persist over lower sea-surface temperatures.
  • Weather with Malcolm Riley - Tropical Cyclones 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.afloat.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cyclones that form along mid-latitude frontal boundaries are often called mid-latitude or extratropical cyclones, and they typically have cold air at upper levels over the cyclone center.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .To continue to drive its heat engine, a tropical cyclone must remain over warm water, which provides the needed atmospheric moisture to keep the positive feedback loop running.^ The position of the centre of the tropical cyclone.

^ Tropical cyclones gains momentum as warm, moist air rises, cools, and condenses to rain, releasing heat in the process.

^ Tropical cyclones derive their energy from the warm tropical oceans and do not form unless the sea-surface temperature is above 26.5°C, although once formed, they can persist over lower sea-surface temperatures.
  • Weather with Malcolm Riley - Tropical Cyclones 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.afloat.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a tropical cyclone passes over land, it is cut off from its heat source and its strength diminishes rapidly.^ Tropical cyclones gains momentum as warm, moist air rises, cools, and condenses to rain, releasing heat in the process.

^ Yet another complicating factor is that changes in climate can also change the paths that tropical cyclones tend to take, determining whether they remain over oceans or strike land.
  • Climate myths: Hurricane Katrina was caused by global warming - environment - 16 May 2007 - New Scientist 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ Tropical cyclones in the Northern zone will be a threat to some land area within 48 hours; hence Darwin does not issue Tropical Cyclone Information Bulletins.
  • Weather with Malcolm Riley - Tropical Cyclones 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.afloat.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
Chart displaying the drop in surface temperature in the Gulf of Mexico as Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed over
.The passage of a tropical cyclone over the ocean can cause the upper layers of the ocean to cool substantially, which can influence subsequent cyclone development.^ Stages of development of a tropical cyclone * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Yet another complicating factor is that changes in climate can also change the paths that tropical cyclones tend to take, determining whether they remain over oceans or strike land.
  • Climate myths: Hurricane Katrina was caused by global warming - environment - 16 May 2007 - New Scientist 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ Each year, a number of tropical storms develop over the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, or Gulf of Mexico.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

.Cooling is primarily caused by upwelling of cold water from deeper in the ocean because of the wind.^ These wind patterns are, in turn, due to the activity of the prevailing mid-latitude westerly winds and the tropical trade winds on the large-scale ocean circulation, and the impact of northerly winds along the west coasts (which leads to the cold upwelling).
  • RealClimate: Tropical Cyclones workshop 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It causes "upwelling," which is pulling cooler water up from lower depths toward the surface of the ocean.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The strengthening winds extract ever larger amounts of water vapor from the warm ocean.
  • Hurricane Detection, Tracking, and Forecasting 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.ametsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

.The cooler water causes the storm to weaken.^ Storms that move poleward over cold waters tend to weaken at a slower rate than those storms that move over land.
  • Hurricane Detection, Tracking, and Forecasting 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.ametsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It causes "upwelling," which is pulling cooler water up from lower depths toward the surface of the ocean.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP) — Tropical Storm Ida sloshed ashore with rain and gusty winds Tuesday before weakening to a depression, causing...
  • Hampton Roads Hurricane Guide - dailypress.com 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.dailypress.com [Source type: News]

.This is a negative feedback process that causes the storms to weaken over sea because of their own effects.^ Storm surges are dangerous because many coastal areas are densely populated and lie only a few feet or meters above sea level.
  • NASA - Hurricane 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The balance of forces near the sea surface is altered by the friction, causing moisture-rich air to move toward the storm center.
  • Hurricane Detection, Tracking, and Forecasting 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.ametsoc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (AP) — Tropical Storm Ida sloshed ashore with rain and gusty winds Tuesday before weakening to a depression, causing...
  • Hampton Roads Hurricane Guide - dailypress.com 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.dailypress.com [Source type: News]

.Additional cooling may come in the form of cold water from falling raindrops (this is because the atmosphere is cooler at higher altitudes).^ Benchmarks: Knows that the cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns: water evaporates from the surface of the Earth, rises and cools, condenses into rain or snow and falls to the surface where it forms rivers and lakes and collects in porous layers of rock.

^ Is it because there is an abundance of warm water being pushed over to those costs, and therefore it is not displaced enough by Ekman transport for the nutrient rich cold water to come to the surface?
  • RealClimate: Tropical Cyclones workshop 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An increase of atmospheric methane suggests an increase in plant decay from swamps and bogs, which would have come from an increase in planetary atmospheric water vapor.
  • Terracycles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC terracycles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cloud cover may also play a role in cooling the ocean, by shielding the ocean surface from direct sunlight before and slightly after the storm passage.^ But before this plan could be put into motion, the AKC played a leadership role in coordinating needed permissions from government officials and airlines representatives.
  • American Kennel Club - Hurricane Relief Updates 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.akc.org [Source type: General]

^ Hurricane Carlos may soon have company in the form of another named storm in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
  • Hawaii247.org | Hawaii 24/7 | Tag Archive | tropical cyclones 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii247.org [Source type: General]

^ Storm surge is increase in the height of the ocean 's surface in the region beneath and around the eye of the storm.
  • Tropical weather and hurricanes - Encyclopedia of Earth 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All these effects can combine to produce a dramatic drop in sea surface temperature over a large area in just a few days.^ Sea surface temperature .
  • New tropical depression could be forming - NOLA.com 20 September 2009 13:36 UTC www.nola.com [Source type: General]
  • Hurricane News and Storm Tracking - NOLA.com 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.nola.com [Source type: General]
  • Hurricane News and Storm Tracking - NOLA.com 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.nola.com [Source type: General]

^ It takes current and forecasted information on the synoptic scale on the sea surface temperatures, vertical shear, moist stability, etc.
  • Tropical Cyclone Forecasting :: Hurricane Preparedness 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC publix.onestorm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Likewise, on a sunny day, the amount of incoming solar radiation, affects the temperature right at the earth's surface, without necessarily having much effect on the thickness of the whole layer.
  • weather.com - Glossary 20 September 2009 13:36 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.Scientists at the US National Center for Atmospheric Research estimate that a tropical cyclone releases heat energy at the rate of 50 to 200 exajoules (1018 J) per day,[19] equivalent to about 1 PW (1015 watt).^ The National Hurricane Center says that a hurricane releases heat energy at a rate of 50 trillion to 200 trillion watts.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Development Potential is an estimate of the probability of tropical cyclone development for each day ...
  • Weather with Malcolm Riley - Tropical Cyclones 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.afloat.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The molecules then release latent heat energy.
  • Hurricanes - where they form, how they happen, by Weatherquestion 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.weatherquesting.com [Source type: News]

.This rate of energy release is equivalent to 70 times the world energy consumption of humans and 200 times the worldwide electrical generating capacity, or to exploding a 10-megaton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes.^ In 10 minutes, a hurricane releases more energy than all the world’s nuclear weapons combined.
  • Hurricane Shutters | Be Prepared for a Hurricane 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC hurricaneshutterinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ There are about 2 chickens for every human in the world.
  • Hurricane Shutters | Be Prepared for a Hurricane 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC hurricaneshutterinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ In South Africa, someone dies due to HIV or AIDS every 10 minutes.
  • Hurricane Shutters | Be Prepared for a Hurricane 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC hurricaneshutterinfo.com [Source type: General]

[19][25]
.While the most obvious motion of clouds is toward the center, tropical cyclones also develop an upper-level (high-altitude) outward flow of clouds.^ Stages of development of a tropical cyclone * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NOAA-s GIV high altitude jet becomes operational, allowing examination of the steering flow around hurricanes from a greater height.

^ These potential changes would influence the maximum intensity reached by a tropical cyclone, which depends on both the sea surface temperature and the temperature of the upper troposphere.
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) :: Climatic variations and tropical cyclone frequency -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.These originate from air that has released its moisture and is expelled at high altitude through the "chimney" of the storm engine.^ The term "tropical" refers to both the geographic origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively in tropical regions of the globe, and their formation in Maritime Tropical air masses.
  • Tropical Storms, Cyclones, Hurricanes - UNWTO Sos.Travel 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sos.travel [Source type: General]

^ This instability increases the likelihood of convection, which leads to strong updrafts that lift the air and moisture upwards, creating an environment favorable for the development of high, towering clouds.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As this air rises, it cools and releases its latent heat into the atmosphere to add further energy to the storm.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .This outflow produces high, thin cirrus clouds that spiral away from the center.^ Surrounding the eye wall are curved bands of clouds that trail away in a spiral fashion, suitably called spiraling rain bands.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cirrus Canopy The extremely vigorous uplift of moist air within the convective clouds of the eye wall and inner spiral bands produces a massive outflow of cirrus cloud in the upper atmosphere.
  • http://app2.nea.gov.sg/tropical_cyclones.aspx 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC app2.nea.gov.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The band of clouds north of the center was a spiral band and could not be taken as a cold front.

The clouds are thin enough for the sun to be visible through them. .These high cirrus clouds may be the first signs of an approaching tropical cyclone.^ These tropical storms go by other names in the various parts of the world: India/Australia - cyclones; western North Pacific - typhoons; and the Philippines - baguio.
  • Tropical weather and hurricanes - Encyclopedia of Earth 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Africa; they are waves in the atmosphere's flow; some of these reach conditions over the ocean where they can fuel up with water vapor and turn into tropical cyclones.
  • Tropical Storm Bertha - Science and Society 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC blogs.abcnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Another   consideration may be PAGASA's desire to assign a name when a system is   first classified as a tropical depression.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .As air parcels are lifted within the eye of the storm the vorticity is reduced, causing the outflow from a tropical cyclone to have anti-cyclonic motion.^ Eye of the tropical cyclone .

^ Hurricanes and tropical storms are cyclones with tropical origins (tropical cyclones).
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical cyclones gains momentum as warm, moist air rises, cools, and condenses to rain, releasing heat in the process.

Major basins and related warning centers

Basins and WMO Monitoring Institutions[27]
Basin Responsible RSMCs and TCWCs
North Atlantic National Hurricane Center (United States)
North-East Pacific National Hurricane Center (United States)
North-Central Pacific Central Pacific Hurricane Center (United States)
North-West Pacific Japan Meteorological Agency
North Indian Ocean India Meteorological Department
South-West Indian Ocean Météo-France
Australian region Bureau of Meteorology (Australia)
Meteorological and Geophysical Agency (Indonesia)
Papua New Guinea National Weather Service
Southern Pacific Fiji Meteorological Service
Meteorological Service of New Zealand
: Indicates a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center
.There are six Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMCs) worldwide.^ Since tropical cyclones are so rare in this region, the WMO has not designated a forecast center with responsibility for there.
  • Tropical Cyclone Forecasting :: Hurricane Preparedness 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC publix.onestorm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP) : RSMCs The list of RSMCs (regional specialized meteorological centres) of tropical cyclones provided by WMO (World Meteorological Organization) .
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RSMC Tokyo - Typhoon Center RSMC Tokyo Typhoon Center, Japan Meteorological Agency.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These organizations are designated by the World Meteorological Organization and are responsible for tracking and issuing bulletins, warnings, and advisories about tropical cyclones in their designated areas of responsibility.^ Tropical Storm Warning issued .
  • NHC Tropical Cyclone Report 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nhc.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nhc.boulder.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Responses to “Tropical Cyclones workshop” .
  • RealClimate: Tropical Cyclones workshop 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name - the name (if any) assigned by the responsible Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, there are six Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWCs) that provide information to smaller regions.^ Worldwide tropical storm information is also provided.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I9) Where can I get tropical cyclone preparedness information?
  • FAQ: HURRICANES, TYPHOONS AND TROPICAL CYCLONES (Part 2 of 2) 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are five tropical cyclone regional bodies, i.e.
  • Tropical Cyclone Programme 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wmo.int [Source type: Reference]

[28] .The RSMCs and TCWCs are not the only organizations that provide information about tropical cyclones to the public.^ Worldwide tropical storm information is also provided.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I9) Where can I get tropical cyclone preparedness information?
  • FAQ: HURRICANES, TYPHOONS AND TROPICAL CYCLONES (Part 2 of 2) 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones in the Northern zone will be a threat to some land area within 48 hours; hence Darwin does not issue Tropical Cyclone Information Bulletins.
  • Weather with Malcolm Riley - Tropical Cyclones 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.afloat.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issues advisories in all basins except the Northern Atlantic for the purposes of the United States Government.^ Note also that the US Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issues warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northwest Pacific, the North Indian, the Southwest Indian, the Southeast Indian/Australian, and the Australian/Southwest Pacific basins, though they are not specifically tasked to do so by the WMO. The US Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii does the same for the Pacific Ocean east of 180E. (Neumann 1993) Note that on rare occasions, tropical cyclones (or storms that appear to be similar in structure to tropical cyclones) can develop in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Tropical Cyclone Forecasting :: Hurricane Preparedness 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC publix.onestorm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (In the data sets used here, from the US Navys Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administrations National Hurricane Center (NHC), maximum sustained wind is defined as the one-minute average wind speed at an altitude of 10 m.
  • Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 yearsKERRY EMANUEL / Letters / Nature v.436, 4aug2005 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It should also be noted that typhoons with sustained winds greater than 67 metres per second (240 km/h) are called Super Typhoons by the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre.
  • http://app2.nea.gov.sg/tropical_cyclones.aspx 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC app2.nea.gov.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) issues advisories and names for tropical cyclones that approach the Philippines in the Northwestern Pacific to protect the life and property of its citizens.^ Why are tropical cyclones named?
  • FAQ: Tropical Cyclone Names :: Hurricane Preparedness 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.onestorm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the upcoming tropical cyclone names ?
  • FAQ: Tropical Cyclone Names :: Hurricane Preparedness 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.onestorm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the ational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "a tropical cyclone can be visualized as a giant vertical heat engine supported by mechanics driven by physical forces such as the rotation and gravity of the Earth" ( 5 ).

[30] .The Canadian Hurricane Center (CHC) issues advisories on hurricanes and their remnants for Canadian citizens when they affect Canada.^ If a cyclone is expected to affect coastal communities with the onset of gales within 24 hours or they are already occurring a Tropical Cyclone Warning is issued.
  • Weather with Malcolm Riley - Tropical Cyclones 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.afloat.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HURRICANE FRED Tracking links: • Five-day forecast • Computer model map • Satellite loop • Interactive tracking map • Historical tracks • Latest advisory • Storm-centered satellite .
  • Ken Kaye's Storm Center: Weather and Hurricane News for Fort Lauderdale, Palm Beach, Miami, Broward | Sun-Sentinel Blogs 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC weblogs.sun-sentinel.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical Storms Tropical Storm Gustav Sends Oil Prices Soaring The National Hurricane Center has issued a tropical storm Gustav public advisory that warns residents of Hispaniola to prepare for the impact of former tropical depression seven.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[31]
.On 26 March 2004, Cyclone Catarina became the first recorded South Atlantic cyclone and subsequently struck southern Brazil with winds equivalent to Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.^ March 27, 2004 The " Nameless Hurricane " .
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: When was the first hurricane ever recorded by meteorologists?
  • Hurricanes | Scholastic.com 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical Cyclone Brazil March 26, 2004 .
  • Tropical storm Stock Photo Images. 676 Tropical storm royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.As the cyclone formed outside the authority of another warning center, Brazilian meteorologists initially treated the system as an extratropical cyclone, although subsequently classified it as tropical.^ Parker D. Criteria for evaluating the condition of a tropical cyclone warning system.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hurricanes are enormous cyclonic storm systems covering thousands of square miles which usually develop in the tropical or subtropical latitudes during the summer and fall.

^ For example, an early warning system was implemented in Bangladesh after the 1970 cyclone (300,000 deaths); nevertheless, 138,000 people perished in the subsequent 1991 cyclone when most failed to respond to warnings (31 , 131 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[32]

Formation

.Map of the cumulative tracks of all tropical cyclones during the 1985–2005 time period.^ Tropical cyclone tracks Tracking and forecasting .
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • tropical cyclone (meteorology) :: Climatic variations and tropical cyclone frequency -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hurricanes are enormous cyclonic storm systems covering thousands of square miles which usually develop in the tropical or subtropical latitudes during the summer and fall.

^ Weiss, S. J., 1985: On the operational forecasting of tornadoes associated with tropical cyclones.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

The Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line sees more tropical cyclones than any other basin, while there is almost no activity in the Atlantic Ocean south of the Equator.
 
Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006. Equal-area projection.
.Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer, when the difference between temperatures aloft and sea surface temperatures is the greatest.^ Another analysis charted sea surface temperatures and the number of tropical cyclones.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It revealed that as sea surface temperatures went up, the number of cyclones went up.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the difference between a hurricane, cyclone and typhoon?
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns. .On a worldwide scale, May is the least active month, while September is the most active whilst November is the only month with all the tropical cyclone basins active.^ Tropical cyclone season, by basin .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Subject: E10) What are the average, most, and least tropical cyclones occurring in each basin?
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Combinations of tropical cyclones in all basins also are presented in Fig.

[33]

Times

.In the Northern Atlantic Ocean, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September.^ Gray, W. M. Atlantic seasonal hurricane frequency.
  • Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 yearsKERRY EMANUEL / Letters / Nature v.436, 4aug2005 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hurricane Kyle, Atlantic Ocean - September 27, 2002 .
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hurricane Survival Florida Hurricane Preparation Tips The hurricane season in Florida runs from June 1 through November 1.

[33] .The statistical peak of the Atlantic hurricane season is 10 September.^ Gray, W. M. Atlantic seasonal hurricane frequency.
  • Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 yearsKERRY EMANUEL / Letters / Nature v.436, 4aug2005 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Government forecasters are lowering their outlook for this Atlantic hurricane season after a quiet start with no named storms so far.
  • Houston Hurricane Help, KPRC Local 2, Click2Houston 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.click2houston.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the official peak of the Atlantic hurricane season has passed, local hospitals continue to prepare for a possible major disaster.
  • Miami Hurricane Season 2009, WPLG Local 10, JustNews.com 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.justnews.com [Source type: General]

.The Northeast Pacific Ocean has a broader period of activity, but in a similar time frame to the Atlantic.^ This same tropical cyclone is known as a hurricane in the eastern North Pacific and North Atlantic Ocean, and as a cyclone in the Indian Ocean.
  • weather.com - Glossary 20 September 2009 13:36 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones (the generic name) are called “hurricanes” in the North Atlantic and the Northeast Pacific Ocean east of the international dateline (180W).
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hurricane Isabel east of the Bahamas - September 15, 2003 Hurricane Isabel northeast of the Lesser Antilles - September 12, 2003 Hurricane Isabel (13L), North Atlantic Ocean - September 11, 2003 .
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .The Northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and March and a peak in early September.^ See Tropical cyclone .

^ See Tropical cyclone advice .

^ Tropical cyclone year .

.In the North Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November.^ January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 .

^ September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 .
  • Miami Dolphins | Sun-Sentinel Blogs 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC blogs.sun-sentinel.com [Source type: General]
  • Ethan Skolnick's Season Ticket | Sun-Sentinel Blogs 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC blogs.sun-sentinel.com [Source type: General]

^ Figure 1.18 : Meridional profiles of specified tropical cyclone parameters for the north Indian basin averaged over 2 o latte bands (details as in Fig.

[33] .In the Southern Hemisphere, the tropical cyclone year begins on July 1 and runs all year round and encompasses the tropical cyclone seasons which run from November 1 until the end of April with peaks in mid-February to early March.^ Tropical cyclone season .

^ Tropical cyclones ending during the month .
  • Met Office: Tropical cyclone activity and forecasts - September 2008 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metoffice.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclone season, by basin .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[33][35]
Season lengths and seasonal averages[33][36]
Basin Season start Season end Tropical Storms
(>34 knots)
Tropical Cyclones
(>63 knots)
Category 3+ TCs
(>95 knots)
Northwest Pacific April January 26.7 16.9 8.5
South Indian November April 20.6 10.3 4.3
Northeast Pacific May November 16.3 9.0 4.1
North Atlantic June November 10.6 5.9 2.0
Australia Southwest Pacific November April 9 4.8 1.9
North Indian April December 5.4 2.2 0.4

Factors

Waves in the trade winds in the Atlantic Ocean—areas of converging winds that move along the same track as the prevailing wind—create instabilities in the atmosphere that may lead to the formation of hurricanes.
.The formation of tropical cyclones is the topic of extensive ongoing research and is still not fully understood.^ Formation The formation of a tropical cyclone is dependent upon a number of favourable environmental conditions which are frequently present in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).
  • http://app2.nea.gov.sg/tropical_cyclones.aspx 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC app2.nea.gov.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Editor's Note: Regarding the first sentence in the above paragraph-- the unlikely development of a June tropical cyclone did happen with the formation of Tropical Cyclone Gina during the first week in June.

^ The inhabitants of the island were not expecting a tropical cyclone since no warnings had been issued, and apparently the people there had not heard nor understood the gale warnings that were in force for Arnhem Land.

[37] .While six factors appear to be generally necessary, tropical cyclones may occasionally form without meeting all of the following conditions.^ Tropical cyclones cannot be generated spontaneously.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones are classified as follows: * Sustained winds A 1-minute average wind measured at about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Formation The formation of a tropical cyclone is dependent upon a number of favourable environmental conditions which are frequently present in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).
  • http://app2.nea.gov.sg/tropical_cyclones.aspx 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC app2.nea.gov.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In most situations, water temperatures of at least 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) are needed down to a depth of at least 50 m (160 ft);[38] waters of this temperature cause the overlying atmosphere to be unstable enough to sustain convection and thunderstorms.^ As the oceans soak up extra heat from the atmosphere, ocean surface temperatures rise, increasing the extent of warm water that can support a hurricane.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It causes "upwelling," which is pulling cooler water up from lower depths toward the surface of the ocean.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The warm water pushed to the west by the trade winds, heats as it flows along the equator, so that on arrival in the western Pacific heat is added to the overlying atmosphere causing it to rise, form clouds, and produce extensive rainfall.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .Another factor is rapid cooling with height, which allows the release of the heat of condensation that powers a tropical cyclone.^ Another analysis charted sea surface temperatures and the number of tropical cyclones.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only tropical cyclones, which have warm air at their center, become the powerful storms that are called hurricanes.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the total power dissipation is of direct interest from the point of view of tropical cyclone contributions to upper ocean mixing and the thermohaline circulation 7 .
  • Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 yearsKERRY EMANUEL / Letters / Nature v.436, 4aug2005 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[38] .High humidity is needed, especially in the lower-to-mid troposphere; when there is a great deal of moisture in the atmosphere, conditions are more favorable for disturbances to develop.^ "Not that there isn't a great deal more to do, and not that there aren't thousands of animals out there to be rescued, but we at least made the effort and the AKC was there when we needed them."
  • American Kennel Club - Hurricane Relief Updates 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.akc.org [Source type: General]

^ The Kimberly coast north of where I live is very unlikely to be developed however in regions where significant development has taken place there are more targets to hit now.
  • RealClimate: Tropical Cyclones workshop 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mid-troposphere (5 km [3 mi]), must contain enough moisture to sustain the thunderstorms.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .Low amounts of wind shear are needed, as high shear is disruptive to the storm's circulation.^ First, storm-surge drowning deaths have decreased markedly, and by default, the majority of impact phase deaths are now due to high-velocity winds (36 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A cell possessing weak cyclonic shear or rotation at low or midlevels and high reflectivity relative to surrounding cells should be immediately categorized as suspect, especially if persistence is noted or a history of wind damage exists.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Storm surges reached 27 feet and winds as high as 90 mph were felt as far east as Mobile, Alabama, which experienced its worst flooding in 90 years.

[38] .Tropical cyclones generally need to form more than 555 km (345 mi) or 5 degrees of latitude away from the equator, allowing the Coriolis effect to deflect winds blowing towards the low pressure center and creating a circulation.^ Frequently tropical cyclones will move generally toward the west but also move north of about 30 degrees north latitude.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tropical cyclones cannot be generated spontaneously.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alyson, Hurricanes are tropical cyclones with warm air near the center of low pressure.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[38] .Lastly, a formative tropical cyclone needs a pre-existing system of disturbed weather, although without a circulation no cyclonic development will take place.^ Stages of development of a tropical cyclone * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (Tropical Cyclone Programme report no.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The disturbance was written off as a candidate for tropical cyclone development on the 24th.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .Low-latitude and low-level westerly wind bursts associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation can create favorable conditions for tropical cyclogenesis by initiating tropical disturbances.^ Initially, there was minimal convection associated with the combination of these two features; however, on 11 September an upper-level short-wave trough over the southern United States cut off over the central Gulf of Mexico, and convection began to develop to the east of the both the upper level low and the tropical wave/surface low.
  • NHC Tropical Cyclone Report 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nhc.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These wind patterns are, in turn, due to the activity of the prevailing mid-latitude westerly winds and the tropical trade winds on the large-scale ocean circulation, and the impact of northerly winds along the west coasts (which leads to the cold upwelling).
  • RealClimate: Tropical Cyclones workshop 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These strong west winds in the upper levels often (but not always) help speed up the tropical cyclone.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[40]

Locations

.Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity called by several names: the Intertropical Front (ITF), the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), or the monsoon trough.^ This is the severe cyclone stage where the cyclone is at its most dangerous.
  • http://app2.nea.gov.sg/tropical_cyclones.aspx 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC app2.nea.gov.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forecast of tropical cyclone activity and its verification.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when we see a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained wind speeds of 39 mph (34 knots), we also usually see the thunderstorms in the cyclone concentrated near the center, and we also see rainfall in the outer part of the cyclone organizing into distinct bands, and we call it a Tropical Storm.  When sustained winds reach around 74 mph (64 knots), we begin to see an eyewall and spiral rain bands forming in the tropical cyclone, and it officially becomes a hurricane.    .
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[41][42][43] .Another important source of atmospheric instability is found in tropical waves, which cause about 85% of intense tropical cyclones in the Atlantic ocean, and become most of the tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin.^ Tropical cyclone season, by basin .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Note that about 12% of all tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, for the eastern Pacific Ocean basin in Fig.

[44][45][46]
.Tropical cyclones move westward when equatorward of the subtropical ridge, intensifying as they move.^ Hurricanes are enormous cyclonic storm systems covering thousands of square miles which usually develop in the tropical or subtropical latitudes during the summer and fall.

^ The greatest forecast errors are typically associated with rapidly moving or highly variable tropical cyclones.

^ Tropical Storm 02W did not intensify significantly on the 10th and 11th as it moved generally northwestward, turning more to the west- northwest on the 11th.

.Most of these systems form between 10 and 30 degrees away of the equator, and 87% form no farther away than 20 degrees of latitude, north or south.^ Latitude indicator: 1 = North latitude; 2 = South latitude .

^ A subtropical storm is a low pressure area that has characteristics of both a tropical cyclone and a regular mid-latitude cyclone (the kind that normally brings precipitation across the U.S.)  Subtropical storms usually form between about 20 to 35 degrees north latitude over water.  The winds are strongest about 10-15 thousand feet high, and weaker near the surface, where winds are in the 39-73 mile an hour range, which is less than hurricane strength.  .
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those that begin to form near the coast of Africa are often referred to as "Cape Verde" hurricanes, because the area in which they develop is near the Cape Verde Islands.  15% of all tropical cyclones develop in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 30% develop in the western Pacific Ocean, 24% in the Indian Ocean both north and south of the equator, and 12% develop in the southern Pacific Ocean.  It is notable that essentially no tropical cyclones develop south of the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47][48] .Because the Coriolis effect initiates and maintains tropical cyclone rotation, tropical cyclones rarely form or move within about 5 degrees of the equator, where the Coriolis effect is weakest.^ Tropical cyclones can pick up speed after landfall, but the winds within the system will usually weaken.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The greatest forecast errors are typically associated with rapidly moving or highly variable tropical cyclones.

^ Fan, Y., I. Ginis, and T. Hara, 2009: The effect of wind-wave-current interaction on air-sea momentum fluxes and ocean response in tropical cyclones.
  • PO Numerical Modeling: Tropical Cyclone Publications 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.po.gso.uri.edu [Source type: Academic]

[47] However, it is possible for tropical cyclones to form within this boundary as Tropical Storm Vamei did in 2001 and Cyclone Agni in 2004.[49][50]

Movement and track

Steering winds

.Although tropical cyclones are large systems generating enormous energy, their movements over the Earth's surface are controlled by large-scale winds—the streams in the Earth's atmosphere.^ Tropical cyclones cannot be generated spontaneously.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones are classified as follows: * Sustained winds A 1-minute average wind measured at about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes are enormous cyclonic storm systems covering thousands of square miles which usually develop in the tropical or subtropical latitudes during the summer and fall.

The path of motion is referred to as a tropical cyclone's track and has been compared by Dr. Neil Frank, former director of the National Hurricane Center, to "leaves carried along by a stream".[51]
.Tropical systems, while generally located equatorward of the 20th parallel, are steered primarily westward by the east-to-west winds on the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge—a persistent high pressure area over the world's oceans.^ In tropical areas steering winds blow from east to west and hence so to do tropical weather systems.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South of this ridge of high pressure we find "trade winds" (blowing from east to west), north of this high pressure ridge we find "westerlies" (blowing from west to east).
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In non-tropical areas steering winds blow from west to east and hence so to do weather systems.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[51] .In the tropical North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific oceans, trade winds—another name for the westward-moving wind currents—steer tropical waves westward from the African coast and towards the Caribbean Sea, North America, and ultimately into the central Pacific ocean before the waves dampen out.^ Tropical cyclones (the generic name) are called “hurricanes” in the North Atlantic and the Northeast Pacific Ocean east of the international dateline (180W).
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ocean waves move in the same direction the wind is blowing.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Atlantic storms typically move with the steering currents in the tropics from east to west.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[45] .These waves are the precursors to many tropical cyclones within this region.^ This is interpreted as lack of detection of cyclones in these regions in the pre-satellite era (Holland, 1981c; Foley, 1989).

^ In the earliest stages of tropical cyclone formation, winds start to circle around a low-pressure region at a mid-level in the atmosphere.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones can pick up speed after landfall, but the winds within the system will usually weaken.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[44] .In the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific (both north and south of the equator), tropical cyclogenesis is strongly influenced by the seasonal movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the monsoon trough, rather than by easterly waves.^ Indian Ocean, Australia and the western South Pacific Ocean were considered as a single entity.

^ South Indian Ocean west of 100 o E .

^ North Atlantic and the western North Pacific basins, and to a lesser extent in the southwestern Indian Ocean.

[43] .Tropical cyclones can also be steered by other systems, such as other low pressure systems, high pressure systems, warm fronts, and cold fronts.^ Alyson, Hurricanes are tropical cyclones with warm air near the center of low pressure.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hurricanes are enormous cyclonic storm systems covering thousands of square miles which usually develop in the tropical or subtropical latitudes during the summer and fall.

^ An Air Force Reserve Hurricane Center aircraft will be investigating this system this afternoon to determine if a tropical cyclone has formed.
  • New tropical depression could be forming - NOLA.com 20 September 2009 13:36 UTC www.nola.com [Source type: General]

Coriolis effect

Infrared image of a powerful southern hemisphere cyclone, Monica, near peak intensity, showing clockwise rotation due to the Coriolis effect
.The Earth's rotation imparts an acceleration known as the Coriolis effect, Coriolis acceleration, or colloquially, Coriolis force.^ The storm takes the distinctive, spiraling hurricane shape because of the Coriolis Force, generated by the rotation of the Earth.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This acceleration causes cyclonic systems to turn towards the poles in the absence of strong steering currents.^ At 16/0000 UTC the tropical cyclone turned abruptly towards the north-northeast and decelerated to 4 kts.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mauri Pelto says: 25 April 2006 at 8:38 AM I am interested to gain some perspective on the causes of the two unusually strong cyclones Larry and Monica.
  • RealClimate: Tropical Cyclones workshop 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A ridge to the north and east   became the primary steering mechanism and Elita turned east-southeastward   toward the west coast of Madagascar as it intensified sharply.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .The poleward portion of a tropical cyclone contains easterly winds, and the Coriolis effect pulls them slightly more poleward.^ Tropical cyclones can pick up speed after landfall, but the winds within the system will usually weaken.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parenthesis gives the number of tropical cyclones with maximum winds > 118 km h -1 (64 kt).

^ This includes the Weibull distribution for describing maximum winds in tropical cyclones and the log-normal distribution for describing the radii of maximum wind (Hahn and Shapiro, 1967).

.The westerly winds on the equatorward portion of the cyclone pull slightly towards the equator, but, because the Coriolis effect weakens toward the equator, the net drag on the cyclone is poleward.^ Tropical cyclones can pick up speed after landfall, but the winds within the system will usually weaken.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since a lag can be expected in tropical cyclone response to these factors, the average latitude of maximum wind can be interpreted as the region slightly poleward of where the factors related to intensification are maximised.

^ Here, the cold SSTs at low latitudes cause rapid weakening as cyclones move poleward.

.Thus, tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere usually turn north (before being blown east), and tropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere usually turn south (before being blown east) when no other effects counteract the Coriolis effect.^ (Tropical Cyclone Programme report no.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Southern Hemisphere east of 142 o E .

^ Cyclonic systems rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[21]
.The Coriolis effect also initiates cyclonic rotation, but it is not the driving force that brings this rotation to high speeds – that force is the heat of condensation.^ The storm takes the distinctive, spiraling hurricane shape because of the Coriolis Force, generated by the rotation of the Earth.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it the Earth’s roation, and denser water filled atmospheres moving with that rotation, or the Coriolis effect?
  • RealClimate: Tropical Cyclones workshop 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This index is similar to the accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index 19 , defined as the sum of the squares of the maximum wind speed over the period containing hurricane-force winds.
  • Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 yearsKERRY EMANUEL / Letters / Nature v.436, 4aug2005 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[19]

Interaction with the mid-latitude westerlies

Storm track of Typhoon Ioke, showing recurvature off the Japanese coast in 2006
.When a tropical cyclone crosses the subtropical ridge axis, its general track around the high-pressure area is deflected significantly by winds moving towards the general low-pressure area to its north.^ Low pressure area 2.

^ A hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone, which is a generic term for a low pressure system that generally forms in the tropics.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Frequently tropical cyclones will move generally toward the west but also move north of about 30 degrees north latitude.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the cyclone track becomes strongly poleward with an easterly component, the cyclone has begun recurvature.[53] A typhoon moving through the Pacific Ocean towards Asia, for example, will recurve offshore of Japan to the north, and then to the northeast, if the typhoon encounters southwesterly winds (blowing northeastward) around a low-pressure system passing over China or Siberia.^ For example, in the eastern North Pacific basin, maximum winds occur while tropical cyclones are embedded in the easterlies.

^ Ocean waves move in the same direction the wind is blowing.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These conditions usually prevail in the summer and early fall months of the tropical North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans, and for this reason, hurricane “season” in the northern hemisphere runs from June through November.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many tropical cyclones are eventually forced toward the northeast by extratropical cyclones in this manner, which move from west to east to the north of the subtropical ridge.^ Frequently tropical cyclones will move generally toward the west but also move north of about 30 degrees north latitude.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The depression is moving toward the west-northwest...
  • Hurricane News and Storm Tracking - NOLA.com 20 November 2009 6:56 UTC www.nola.com [Source type: News]

^ By comparison, relatively warm SSTs in the western North Pacific and the North Atlantic allow tropical cyclones to be sustained well into the subtropics, even after recurvature into the westerlies.

.An example of a tropical cyclone in recurvature was Typhoon Ioke in 2006, which took a similar trajectory.^ Tropical Cyclone Hubert April 5, 2006 .
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By comparison, relatively warm SSTs in the western North Pacific and the North Atlantic allow tropical cyclones to be sustained well into the subtropics, even after recurvature into the westerlies.

^ Current activity maps on this page are from Hurricanes, Typhoons & Tropical Cyclones by Thomas R. Metcalf.
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]

[54]

Landfall

.Officially, landfall is when a storm's center (the center of its circulation, not its edge) crosses the coastline.^ Radar from Nadi showed some circulation, but the center was difficult to pinpoint since the system was on the edge of the radar's range.

[55] .Storm conditions may be experienced on the coast and inland hours before landfall; in fact, a tropical cyclone can launch its strongest winds over land, yet not make landfall; if this occurs, then it is said that the storm made a direct hit on the coast.^ This is the earliest recorded case of a tropical cyclone making landfall in Japan.

^ Fact : Hurricanes/tropical storms sometimes occur before or after the hurricane season.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ I'm experiencing tropical storm Fay fatigue.

[55] .As a result of the narrowness of this definition, the landfall area experiences half of a land-bound storm by the time the actual landfall occurs.^ Extensive flooding occurred in New Orleans, which was actually spared the brunt of the storm.

^ If a storm surge occurs near the time of high tide, the height of the water will be even greater.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Because the storm surge occurs ahead of the eye of the storm, the surge will reach coastal areas long before the hurricane makes landfall.  This is an important point to remember because flooding caused by the surge can destroy roads and bridges making evacuation before the storm impossible.
  • extreme weather 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For emergency preparedness, actions should be timed from when a certain wind speed or intensity of rainfall will reach land, not from when landfall will occur.^ Forecasting Tropical cyclones can be detected at formation and are being tracked with increasing precision in terms of location, trajectory, central pressure, wind speed, storm surge, point of landfall, wind fields, and rainfall production—thus facilitating timely and targeted warnings.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Discussing hurricanes and reviewing flood safety and preparedness measures ahead of time will help reduce fear and save precious time in an emergency.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Time interval for averagin surface wind speed (minutes for measured or derived wind speeds or 99 if unknown (e.g.

[55]

Multiple storm interaction

.When two cyclones approach one another, their centers will begin orbiting cyclonically about a point between the two systems.^ Wrote a column for tomorrow about the connection between the Dolphins and Falcons, which centers on their mutual interest in Bill Parcells toward the end of the 2007 season.
  • Ethan Skolnick's Season Ticket | Sun-Sentinel Blogs 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC blogs.sun-sentinel.com [Source type: General]

^ Those are the shortest distance between two points on a sphere, or in this case, Earth.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I got extremely lucky at one point, as there was one guy two seats to my right who'd re-bought three or four times already.

.The two vortices will be attracted to each other, and eventually spiral into the center point and merge.^ Potential Intensity theory: This is the theoretical framework that most of this discussion falls into and a number of relevant points were made by Emanuel and others.
  • RealClimate: Tropical Cyclones workshop 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Has there ever been a case where two hurricanes come together and merged into one larger hurricane?
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So that's what I did--I rolled back into Rexburg about two weeks after I'd left, but this time I was the center of attention, driving that van with the huge canoe on the roof.

When the two vortices are of unequal size, the larger vortex will tend to dominate the interaction, and the smaller vortex will orbit around it. This phenomenon is called the Fujiwhara effect, after Sakuhei Fujiwhara.[56]

Dissipation

Factors

Tropical Storm Franklin, an example of a strongly sheared tropical cyclone in the Atlantic Basin during 2005
.A tropical cyclone can cease to have tropical characteristics through several different ways.^ Severe Tropical Cyclone Inigo continued moving slowly toward the west-southwest on 3 April while rapidly intensifying.

^ Is there a difference between a hurricane/typhoon and a tropical cyclone?
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MFR issued warnings on Subtropical Depression Luma, but none were issued by JTWC. Several meteorologists in the tropical cyclone community were of the opinion that Luma did attain nominal tropical characteristics.

.One such way is if it moves over land, thus depriving it of the warm water it needs to power itself, quickly losing strength.^ When installing or changing fence lines, consider placing them in such a way that your animals are able to move to higher water in the event of flooding.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Louisiana authorities remind us that many parishes in their state are still without power from Hurricane Gustav and that residents there need food, water, and supplies.
  • Hurricane Ike Notes, Stats, Facts 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

^ The first,   Tropical Cyclone Ken, began as a monsoon depression over land which   moved westward into the waters of the Timor Sea.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .Most strong storms lose their strength very rapidly after landfall and become disorganized areas of low pressure within a day or two, or evolve into extratropical cyclones.^ Most of the tropical cyclones that have impacted this area have been tropical storms.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Low pressure area 2.

^ Turning a disaster into a learning experience: "When Hurricane Isabel came through, I tracked the air pressure every hour to see how low it was.

.While there is a chance a tropical cyclone could regenerate if it managed to get back over open warm water, if it remains over mountains for even a short time, weakening will accelerate.^ This is the time when all the ingredients for tropical cyclones come together, including warm ocean waters, a warm moist atmosphere that is most conducive to thunderstorms, a lot of large-scale spin in the atmosphere, and not much vertical shear (turning of winds with height).
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While it’s true that there have been, and there will certainly again be tropical cyclones in the Caribbean during the month of August in any year, the chances of a cruise ship directly encountering one is pretty remote.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, before Nanmadol, there has never been any tropical cyclone to affect Fujian in the month of December, according to the meteorological records of the province.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .Many storm fatalities occur in mountainous terrain, as the dying storm unleashes torrential rainfall,[59] leading to deadly floods and mudslides, similar to those that happened with Hurricane Mitch in 1998.[60] Additionally, dissipation can occur if a storm remains in the same area of ocean for too long, mixing the upper 60 metres (200 ft) of water, dropping sea surface temperatures more than 5 °C (9 °F).^ Hurricane Mitch October 1998 .
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it possible to have hurricanes and tornadoes in the same area?
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Long range forecasting is not one of my strongest areas so the follow forecasts are not mine, but with the first tropical system forming Thursday (Tropical Depression 1) for the 2009 Hurricane season I thought I would share what many of the experts are predicting for the 2009 Atlantic hurricane season.
  • Hurricanes 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC wx-man.com [Source type: News]

[61] .Without warm surface water, the storm cannot survive.^ As the oceans soak up extra heat from the atmosphere, ocean surface temperatures rise, increasing the extent of warm water that can support a hurricane.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warm ocean waters fuel hurricanes, so measurements of sea surface temperatures are crucial to accurately predicting how much a storm might intensify.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They all know that a hurricane weakens when it moves over land due to the lack of warm water convection feeding the storm.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[62]
.A tropical cyclone can dissipate when it moves over waters significantly below 26.5 °C (79.7 °F).^ The tropical cyclone had veered to a slow southeasterly heading, seemingly moving away from the Philippines.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greatest forecast errors are typically associated with rapidly moving or highly variable tropical cyclones.

^ Tropical Storm 02W did not intensify significantly on the 10th and 11th as it moved generally northwestward, turning more to the west- northwest on the 11th.

This will cause the storm to lose its tropical characteristics (i.e. thunderstorms near the center and warm core) and become a remnant low pressure area, which can persist for several days. This is the main dissipation mechanism in the Northeast Pacific ocean.[63] .Weakening or dissipation can occur if it experiences vertical wind shear, causing the convection and heat engine to move away from the center; this normally ceases development of a tropical cyclone.^ Stages of development of a tropical cyclone * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones are classified as follows: * Sustained winds A 1-minute average wind measured at about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Overnight on 11 January, the central convection increased and became much better organised over the LLCC. Under favourable diffluent air conditions aloft and with low to moderate vertical wind shear, TD-05F underwent steady development and subsequently was named Tropical Cyclone Ami around 0000 UTC on 12 January.

[64] .Additionally, its interaction with the main belt of the Westerlies, by means of merging with a nearby frontal zone, can cause tropical cyclones to evolve into extratropical cyclones.^ Tropical cyclones can bring great amounts of rain and frequently cause floods.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Figure 1.11 : Mean direction of tropical cyclone motion over the periods indicated.

^ Tropical cyclones cause a range of public health consequences, including mortality, injury, and infectious diseases (1 , 5 , 18 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

This transition can take 1–3 days.[65] .Even after a tropical cyclone is said to be extratropical or dissipated, it can still have tropical storm force (or occasionally hurricane/typhoon force) winds and drop several inches of rainfall.^ Typhoon Saomai and tropical storm Bopha .
  • Tropical storm Stock Photo Images. 676 Tropical storm royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Is there a difference between a hurricane/typhoon and a tropical cyclone?
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Severe tropical storm .

.In the Pacific ocean and Atlantic ocean, such tropical-derived cyclones of higher latitudes can be violent and may occasionally remain at hurricane or typhoon-force wind speeds when they reach the west coast of North America.^ The force of wind is proportional to the square of the wind speed.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ FAQ : HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TROPICAL CYCLONES FAQ about hurricanes, typhoons, and tropical cyclones.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, if the wind from a hurricane reaches speeds above 70 mph, what is the force produced by the wind?
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

.These phenomena can also affect Europe, where they are known as European windstorms; Hurricane Iris's extratropical remnants are an example of such a windstorm from 1995.[66] Additionally, a cyclone can merge with another area of low pressure, becoming a larger area of low pressure.^ Low pressure area 2.

^ Turning a disaster into a learning experience: "When Hurricane Isabel came through, I tracked the air pressure every hour to see how low it was.

^ As you have said, the cyclonic flow, or general direction of wind flow around an area of low pressure in the Northern Hemisphere, is counter clockwise.  However, the cyclonic flow around a low in the Southern Hemisphere is clockwise.  “Cyclonic” only refers to the inward-flowing air around a low pressure center due to Earth’s rotation, and that can be either clockwise or counter clockwise, depending on which hemisphere you’re talking about.  So in the Southern Hemisphere, tropical cyclones, which, as you say, rotate clockwise, are appropriately named.  Of course we have tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere as well.  In the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific we call them hurricanes, and in the Western Pacific they’re known as typhoons, and they rotate counter clockwise.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

.This can strengthen the resultant system, although it may no longer be a tropical cyclone.^ No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical   Cyclone Linda.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical Cyclone Fili.

^ The system no longer exhibited any deep   convection due to the advection of cooler, drier air as indicated by   the presence of cold-air stratocumulus clouds near the center.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] .Studies in the 2000s have given rise to the hypothesis that large amounts of dust reduce the strength of tropical cyclones.^ Tropical cyclones can bring great amounts of rain and frequently cause floods.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Seven tropical cyclone basins (Table 1.2) are considered in this study.

^ Recent advances in construction, forecasting, warning systems, evacuation, and sheltering have sharply reduced tropical cyclone-associated mortality and morbidity in developed nations.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[67]

Artificial dissipation

.In the 1960s and 1970s, the United States government attempted to weaken hurricanes through Project Stormfury by seeding selected storms with silver iodide.^ Government forecasters are lowering their outlook for this Atlantic hurricane season after a quiet start with no named storms so far.
  • Houston Hurricane Help, KPRC Local 2, Click2Houston 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.click2houston.com [Source type: General]

^ The hypothesis of storm seeding originates from Dr. Irwin Langmuir, who explored the idea that if a plane flew into the eye of a hurricane, and dropped a payload of dry ice, or silver iodide aerosols, the hurricane would form rain, and thus weaken its wind strength.

^ Hurricane information and tropical weather outlooks around the United States.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was thought that the seeding would cause supercooled water in the outer rainbands to freeze, causing the inner eyewall to collapse and thus reducing the winds.^ In other words, this is the highest wind you would find in some part of the center of the tropical storm or hurricane over water, not over land.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For cloud seeding to work, there must be a lot of “supercooled” water in the clouds; that is, water droplets that have remained liquid at temperatures below freezing.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem with seeding hurricanes is that most hurricanes are warmer than other storm systems, so they don’t have enough supercooled water for cloud seeding to work.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[68] .The winds of Hurricane Debbie—a hurricane seeded in Project Stormfury—dropped as much as 31%, but Debbie regained its strength after each of two seeding forays.^ The hypothesis of storm seeding originates from Dr. Irwin Langmuir, who explored the idea that if a plane flew into the eye of a hurricane, and dropped a payload of dry ice, or silver iodide aerosols, the hurricane would form rain, and thus weaken its wind strength.

^ At its peek, the storm had winds of 150 MPH. Sept 2007 -Hurricane Felix set two records with help from two other storms.

^ Voluntary Market: As of 2007 (latest data available), two of the top 5 homeowners insurers use a hurricane deductible; two use a wind and hail deductible.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69] .In an earlier episode in 1947, disaster struck when a hurricane east of Jacksonville, Florida promptly changed its course after being seeded, and smashed into Savannah, Georgia.^ Hurricane Allison made landfall in the “Big Bend” area of Florida the morning of 5 June, then continued north-northeast into Georgia and the Carolinas, where it became extratropical ( Fig.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On August 27, 1893, a category 3 hurricane struck Savannah, Georgia and submerged the Sea Islands in South Carolina killing more than 2,000 people, and leaving more than 30,000 homeless.

^ Disaster medical assistance teams: providing health care to a community struck by Hurricane Iniki.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[70] .Because there was so much uncertainty about the behavior of these storms, the federal government would not approve seeding operations unless the hurricane had a less than 10% chance of making landfall within 48 hours, greatly reducing the number of possible test storms.^ That pissed me off, but there's not much I can do about it.

^ That occurred less than an hour after the murders.
  • Rubin "Hurricane" Carter: The Other Side of the Story 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.graphicwitness.com [Source type: General]

^ Government forecasters are lowering their outlook for this Atlantic hurricane season after a quiet start with no named storms so far.
  • Houston Hurricane Help, KPRC Local 2, Click2Houston 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.click2houston.com [Source type: General]

.The project was dropped after it was discovered that eyewall replacement cycles occur naturally in strong hurricanes, casting doubt on the result of the earlier attempts.^ The initial weakening was likely due to an eyewall replacement cycle which was evident in satellite imagery.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, it is known that silver iodide seeding is not likely to have an effect because the amount of supercooled water in the rainbands of a tropical cyclone is too low.^ Tropical cyclones can bring great amounts of rain and frequently cause floods.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical   Cyclone Linda.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones ususally form in each hemisphere’s summer and early fall, when ocean waters are warmest.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71]
.Other approaches have been suggested over time, including cooling the water under a tropical cyclone by towing icebergs into the tropical oceans.^ This is the time when all the ingredients for tropical cyclones come together, including warm ocean waters, a warm moist atmosphere that is most conducive to thunderstorms, a lot of large-scale spin in the atmosphere, and not much vertical shear (turning of winds with height).
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ N. Only those bands for which the number of tropical cyclones exceeded 10 were included in the analysis.

^ Tropical cyclones (the generic name) are called “hurricanes” in the North Atlantic and the Northeast Pacific Ocean east of the international dateline (180W).
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[72] .Other ideas range from covering the ocean in a substance that inhibits evaporation,[73] dropping large quantities of ice into the eye at very early stages of development (so that the latent heat is absorbed by the ice, instead of being converted to kinetic energy that would feed the positive feedback loop),[72] or blasting the cyclone apart with nuclear weapons.^ Stages of development of a tropical cyclone * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The hypothesis of storm seeding originates from Dr. Irwin Langmuir, who explored the idea that if a plane flew into the eye of a hurricane, and dropped a payload of dry ice, or silver iodide aerosols, the hurricane would form rain, and thus weaken its wind strength.

^ For example, some of the statistics in the North Atlantic are due to the inclusion of the early portions of the extratropical stage in the tropical cyclone archives.

[18] Project Cirrus even involved throwing dry ice on a cyclone.[74] .These approaches all suffer from one flaw above many others: tropical cyclones are simply too large and short-lived for any of the weakening techniques to be practical.^ Those who lost loved ones or suffered extensive damage will be focusing on coping with these loses and rebuilding their lives more than on physical restoration.
  • Hurricanes 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC eden.lsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In terms of the number of warnings issued, the long-lived Kujira was thirteen short of the longest-lived Western Pacific tropical cyclone on record, Typhoon Rita of 1972, and three shy of Typhoon Opal (1967).

^ Tropical cyclones can pick up speed after landfall, but the winds within the system will usually weaken.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[75]

Effects

.Tropical cyclones out at sea cause large waves, heavy rain, and high winds, disrupting international shipping and, at times, causing shipwrecks.^ This is the time when all the ingredients for tropical cyclones come together, including warm ocean waters, a warm moist atmosphere that is most conducive to thunderstorms, a lot of large-scale spin in the atmosphere, and not much vertical shear (turning of winds with height).
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tropical cyclones can bring great amounts of rain and frequently cause floods.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Parenthesis gives the number of tropical cyclones with maximum winds > 118 km h -1 (64 kt).

[76] .Tropical cyclones stir up water, leaving a cool wake behind them, which causes the region to be less favourable for subsequent tropical cyclones.^ Tropical cyclones can bring great amounts of rain and frequently cause floods.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes .
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical cyclones cause a range of public health consequences, including mortality, injury, and infectious diseases (1 , 5 , 18 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[24] .On land, strong winds can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, and other outside objects, turning loose debris into deadly flying projectiles.^ Trees, shrubs, buildings, and other objects damaged by the first winds can be broken or destroyed by the second winds.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Flooding near the coast destroys smaller structures, with larger structures damaged by battering from floating debris.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much of the damage to records came from a storm surge that swept through buildings, destroyed their contents, and then retreated.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

.The storm surge, or the increase in sea level due to the cyclone, is typically the worst effect from landfalling tropical cyclones, historically resulting in 90% of tropical cyclone deaths.^ Storm surge is increasing -- and the worst is yet to come.
  • Hurricane Ike Notes, Stats, Facts 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

^ Tropical cyclone (64-90 kts.

^ Includes six deaths from tropical storms.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77] .The broad rotation of a landfalling tropical cyclone, and vertical wind shear at its periphery, spawns tornadoes.^ This is the time when all the ingredients for tropical cyclones come together, including warm ocean waters, a warm moist atmosphere that is most conducive to thunderstorms, a lot of large-scale spin in the atmosphere, and not much vertical shear (turning of winds with height).
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Weiss, S. J., 1985: On the operational forecasting of tornadoes associated with tropical cyclones.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parenthesis gives the number of tropical cyclones with maximum winds > 118 km h -1 (64 kt).

.Tornadoes can also be spawned as a result of eyewall mesovortices, which persist until landfall.^ It spawned 115 tornadoes in southeast Texas after it made landfall in September 1967.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[78]
.Over the past two centuries, tropical cyclones have been responsible for the deaths of about 1.9 million people worldwide.^ Responses to “Tropical Cyclones workshop” .
  • RealClimate: Tropical Cyclones workshop 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones are classified as follows: * Sustained winds A 1-minute average wind measured at about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Tropical cyclones have caused an estimated 1.9 million deaths worldwide during the past two centuries (77 ) and between 300,000 and 500,000 deaths in North America and the Caribbean since the "discovery" of the Americas in 1492, of which 75,000 occurred during the 20th century (78 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Large areas of standing water caused by flooding lead to infection, as well as contributing to mosquito-borne illnesses.^ T hurricane-related deaths are caused by floods, and most flood fatalities are caused by wo feet (0.6 meter) of water will carry away most automobiles, SUVs, and pickup trucks.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Most flood fatalities are caused by people attempting to drive through water or people playing in high water.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes and tropical storms often drop large amounts of rain and cause severe flooding, even when they are weakening or are no longer a named storm.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

Crowded evacuees in shelters increase the risk of disease propagation.[79] .Tropical cyclones significantly interrupt infrastructure, leading to power outages, bridge destruction, and the hampering of reconstruction efforts.^ In the immediate aftermath of major tropical cyclones, public health professionals conduct rapid health assessments, typically documenting widespread destruction, homelessness and displacement, severe damage to the infrastructure, loss of electrical power, lack of access to usual health-care services, and food shortages (20 –29 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only tropical cyclones, which have warm air at their center, become the powerful storms that are called hurricanes.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coast Residential Power Generator Market Growing Significantly With the increase in destructive tropical weather systems in the past decade, along with significant winter storms, portable power generators are becoming more popular among consumers.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[79][80]
.Although cyclones take an enormous toll in lives and personal property, they may be important factors in the precipitation regimes of places they impact, as they may bring much-needed precipitation to otherwise dry regions.^ Practice bringing your pets indoors, into your safe room, so that if you are required to shelter in place, they will be comfortable.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to the dry air the cyclone was moving into a region of increasing vertical shear.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What they may not realize is that it is the people who have chosen to live in New Orleans who make it that way.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

[81] .Tropical cyclones also help maintain the global heat balance by moving warm, moist tropical air to the middle latitudes and polar regions.^ In contrast, hurricanes (tropical cyclones) have warm air over their centers.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The heating released by condensation then helps to warm the air, and eventually the extratropical cyclone transitions into a tropical cyclone.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82] .The storm surge and winds of hurricanes may be destructive to human-made structures, but they also stir up the waters of coastal estuaries, which are typically important fish breeding locales.^ These experts are specialists in a variety of fields, and their areas of expertise include hurricane forecasting and tracking; evacuation and emergency preparation; waves, wind and storm surge; water and environmental issues, including coastal land loss; and the history and societal effects of hurricanes."
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes are classified by using the Saffir/Simpson intensity scale which measures atmospheric pressure in terms of millibars (mb) or inches of mercury, along with wind speeds, storm surge and damage.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hurricane-force winds can extend well inland from the coast, with the strongest sustained winds normally in the eastern half of the storm.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

.Tropical cyclone destruction spurs redevelopment, greatly increasing local property values.^ Relation of tropical cyclone properties to epidemiologic parameters .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since warm ocean waters and warm, moist air fuel storms, theory predicts that global warming should increase the number and intensity of tropical cyclones.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The global variation in tropical-cyclone motion steadiness, as defined by the above index multiplied by 100 and rounded off the nearest integer value, is presented in Fig.

[83]

Observation and forecasting

Observation

Sunset view of Hurricane Isidore's rainbands photographed at 7,000 feet (2,100 m)
.Intense tropical cyclones pose a particular observation challenge, as they are a dangerous oceanic phenomenon, and weather stations, being relatively sparse, are rarely available on the site of the storm itself.^ Hurricanes and tropical storms are cyclones with tropical origins (tropical cyclones).
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the tropical cyclones that have impacted this area have been tropical storms.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclones can affect the northern countries of South America if they originate far south enough.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

.Surface observations are generally available only if the storm is passing over an island or a coastal area, or if there is a nearby ship.^ He said, "The storm has yet to pass and I know there are people concerned about their lives."
  • Hurricane Ike Notes, Stats, Facts 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

^ High waves and a heavy surge generated by Ami caused coastal and inland inundation in many areas along its path, some quite severe.

^ Hurricane deductibles are “triggered” only when there is a hurricane, or a tropical storm.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually, real-time measurements are taken in the periphery of the cyclone, where conditions are less catastrophic and its true strength cannot be evaluated.^ Parker D. Criteria for evaluating the condition of a tropical cyclone warning system.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It's a been a real test of their character and strength.  Many Thanks to them and all of the Church Groups that gave of their time to help rebuild.

.For this reason, there are teams of meteorologists that move into the path of tropical cyclones to help evaluate their strength at the point of landfall.^ The greatest forecast errors are typically associated with rapidly moving or highly variable tropical cyclones.

^ Severe Tropical Cyclone Inigo continued moving slowly toward the west-southwest on 3 April while rapidly intensifying.

^ While it’s true that there have been, and there will certainly again be tropical cyclones in the Caribbean during the month of August in any year, the chances of a cruise ship directly encountering one is pretty remote.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

[84]
.Tropical cyclones far from land are tracked by weather satellites capturing visible and infrared images from space, usually at half-hour to quarter-hour intervals.^ The ability to detect and track severe storms has been dramatically enhanced by the advent of weather satellites.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes .
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]

^ However, Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclones can affect the northern countries of South America if they originate far south enough.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a storm approaches land, it can be observed by land-based Doppler radar.^ To increase warning skill, an improved understanding of storm-scale characteristics and radar interpretation utilizing WSR-88 Doppler technology is essential.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

.Radar plays a crucial role around landfall by showing a storm's location and intensity every several minutes.^ At 1800 UTC the storm was located about 350 nm north of Learmonth, moving south-southeastward at 8 kts, and the winds had come down to around 80 kts.

^ The storm reached its peak intensity (per MFR) at 10/0600 UTC when located approximately 725 nm south of Diego Garcia.

^ Bento was similar to its predecessor Tropical Storm Arola in two regards: (1) it moved rather slowly, most of the time around 5 kts or less, and (2) it intensified rather quickly to its peak intensity and then weakened slowly for several days.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85]
.In-situ measurements, in real-time, can be taken by sending specially equipped reconnaissance flights into the cyclone.^ Real-Time Tropical Cyclone Products - Currently Active Tropical Cyclones Various analysis are produced in real-time for currently active tropical cyclones worldwide.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (This information on Tropical Cyclone Felicie was taken   in part from the summary of the 1970-71 tropical cyclone season published   by the Mauritius Meteorological Department, and in part from information   supplied by Patrick Hoareau--a special thanks to Patrick for sending the   data.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Atlantic basin, these flights are regularly flown by United States government hurricane hunters.^ Two of these unnamed storms were hurricanes, thus giving 1969 a total of 12 hurricanes--the current record for the Atlantic.

^ In 1955, the Miami office of the United States Weather Bureau is designated the primary hurricane warning center responsible for coordinating all forecasting and warnings issued for hurricanes in the Atlantic.

^ Insurance companies determine the level of the hurricane or windstorm or wind/hail deductible and where it should apply, except in Florida where state law dictates these variables.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86] .The aircraft used are WC-130 Hercules and WP-3D Orions, both four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft.^ NOAA’s hurricane-hunting aircraft WP-3D Orion and Gulfstream IV fly in tandem to take detailed measurements (top).
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These aircraft fly directly into the cyclone and take direct and remote-sensing measurements.^ NOAA’s hurricane-hunting aircraft WP-3D Orion and Gulfstream IV fly in tandem to take detailed measurements (top).
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it’s true that there have been, and there will certainly again be tropical cyclones in the Caribbean during the month of August in any year, the chances of a cruise ship directly encountering one is pretty remote.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Scientists take advantage of hurricane-hunting aircraft to study hurricanes from close vantage points directly over the storm.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The aircraft also launch GPS dropsondes inside the cyclone. .These sondes measure temperature, humidity, pressure, and especially winds between flight level and the ocean's surface.^ Both statistical and physics based dynamical models are used, both of which use much more data than just the SOI. Dynamical models in particular are initialized with large numbers of temperature, pressure, and wind measurements from many different locations.
  • RealClimate: Tropical Cyclones workshop 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the oceans soak up extra heat from the atmosphere, ocean surface temperatures rise, increasing the extent of warm water that can support a hurricane.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By this time Ami was tracking poleward of the upper- level ridge axis and encountering increasing vertical wind sheer and cooler sea surface temperatures.

.A new era in hurricane observation began when a remotely piloted Aerosonde, a small drone aircraft, was flown through Tropical Storm Ophelia as it passed Virginia's Eastern Shore during the 2005 hurricane season.^ Tropical Storm Franklin July 2005 .
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical Storm Tammy October 2005 .
  • NASA - Specific Hurricanes in History 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hurricane is much bigger then a Tropical Storm .
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.A similar mission was also completed successfully in the western Pacific ocean.^ The most active area is the western Pacific Ocean, which contains a wide expanse of warm ocean water.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Atlantic and the western North Pacific basins, and to a lesser extent in the southwestern Indian Ocean.

^ Indian Ocean, Australia and the western South Pacific Ocean were considered as a single entity.

This demonstrated a new way to probe the storms at low altitudes that human pilots seldom dare.[87]
A general decrease in error trends in tropical cyclone path prediction is evident since the 1970s

Forecasting

.Because of the forces that affect tropical cyclone tracks, accurate track predictions depend on determining the position and strength of high- and low-pressure areas, and predicting how those areas will change during the life of a tropical system.^ Best track positions of Tropical Cyclone Gordon.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Low pressure area 2.

^ A subtropical storm is a low pressure area that has characteristics of both a tropical cyclone and a regular mid-latitude cyclone (the kind that normally brings precipitation across the U.S.)  Subtropical storms usually form between about 20 to 35 degrees north latitude over water.  The winds are strongest about 10-15 thousand feet high, and weaker near the surface, where winds are in the 39-73 mile an hour range, which is less than hurricane strength.  .
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

.The deep layer mean flow, or average wind through the depth of the troposphere, is considered the best tool in determining track direction and speed.^ The JTWC warnings are also the   source of the 1-minute average maximum sustained wind values included   in the tracks file.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can choose to delete the Tracking Technologies through the "Internet Options" sub-option of the "Tools" menu option of your browser or otherwise as directed by your browser's support feature.
  • Hurricane | SPIKE 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Wind direction and speed (kt) are plotted at selected levels.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

.If storms are significantly sheared, use of wind speed measurements at a lower altitude, such as at the 700 hPa pressure surface (3,000 metres / 9,800 feet above sea level) will produce better predictions.^ Tropical cyclones are classified as follows: * Sustained winds A 1-minute average wind measured at about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes are classified by using the Saffir/Simpson intensity scale which measures atmospheric pressure in terms of millibars (mb) or inches of mercury, along with wind speeds, storm surge and damage.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hurricane Hunters drop instruments from airplanes above the storm to measure mid and upper level winds and barometric pressure, and formulas are used to derive the surface wind speed from those readings.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

.Tropical forecasters also consider smoothing out short-term wobbles of the storm as it allows them to determine a more accurate long-term trajectory.^ Tropical storm forecast and other information.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical Storm 02W did not intensify significantly on the 10th and 11th as it moved generally northwestward, turning more to the west- northwest on the 11th.

^ Tropical Storms Hurricanes More Dangerous After the Winds Stop Blowing Hurricanes rapidly weaken after hitting land, but that doesn't mean their destructive rampages are over.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[88] .High-speed computers and sophisticated simulation software allow forecasters to produce computer models that predict tropical cyclone tracks based on the future position and strength of high- and low-pressure systems.^ Forecast of tropical cyclone activity and its verification.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Best track positions of Tropical Cyclone Gordon.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Combining forecast models with increased understanding of the forces that act on tropical cyclones, as well as with a wealth of data from Earth-orbiting satellites and other sensors, scientists have increased the accuracy of track forecasts over recent decades.^ Forecast of tropical cyclone activity and its verification.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By combining models with field and satellite data, NASA scientists are working to more fully understand the structure and mechanics of hurricanes and the large-scale climate patterns that influence them.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89] .However, scientists are not as skillful at predicting the intensity of tropical cyclones.^ However, Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclones can affect the northern countries of South America if they originate far south enough.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Seasonal prediction of tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific and South China Sea City University of Hong Kong.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There also is a suggestion that the number of tropical cyclones reaching hurricane intensity is greater over the Northern than over the Southern Hemisphere.

[90] .The lack of improvement in intensity forecasting is attributed to the complexity of tropical systems and an incomplete understanding of factors that affect their development.^ The frequency and severity of injuries incurred during a tropical cyclone are inversely related to the degree of physical protection from the storm; therefore, understandably, developing nations bear the major burden of cyclone-attributable injury.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Human factors include land use and settlement patterns, building design and construction, forecasting and warning systems, risk perception, evacuation, and sheltering.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The system was forecast to track westward across the Northern Territory   during the following days, but since the system would be over land, no   tropical cyclone formation was expected.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Classifications, terminology, and naming

Intensity classifications

.
Three tropical cyclones at different stages of development.
^ The potential for development into a tropical cyclone was assessed as moderate after a couple of days.

^ (Editor's Note: Regarding the first sentence in the above paragraph-- the unlikely development of a June tropical cyclone did happen with the formation of Tropical Cyclone Gina during the first week in June.

^ If a tropical cyclone were to be in your ship’s path, you might end up visiting a different destination than you had planned, or your ship might encounter heavier than normal waves.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

The weakest (left) demonstrates only the most basic circular shape. A stronger storm (top right) demonstrates spiral banding and increased centralization, while the strongest (lower right) has developed an eye.
.Tropical cyclones are classified into three main groups, based on intensity: tropical depressions, tropical storms, and a third group of more intense storms, whose name depends on the region.^ Hurricanes and tropical storms are cyclones with tropical origins (tropical cyclones).
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical cyclones are classified as follows: * Sustained winds A 1-minute average wind measured at about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Torrential rains from decaying hurricanes and tropical storms can produce extensive urban and river flooding, landslides, and mudslides in mountainous regions.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

.For example, if a tropical storm in the Northwestern Pacific reaches hurricane-strength winds on the Beaufort scale, it is referred to as a typhoon; if a tropical storm passes the same benchmark in the Northeast Pacific Basin, or in the Atlantic, it is called a hurricane.^ The hurricane is much bigger then a Tropical Storm .
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes and tropical storms are cyclones with tropical origins (tropical cyclones).
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ A tropical storm is smaller than a hurricane.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[55] .Neither "hurricane" nor "typhoon" is used in either the Southern Hemisphere or the Indian Ocean.^ Dear Mr. Walker, Are there hurricanes or typhoons in the southern hemisphere?
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the International Dateline (eastern hemisphere) they are called Typhoons.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes .
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]

In these basins, storms of tropical nature are referred to simply as "cyclones".
.Additionally, as indicated in the table below, each basin uses a separate system of terminology, making comparisons between different basins difficult.^ A separate table is given for each of the four Southern Hemisphere basins.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data from neighbouring met services were utilised to develop the data base for the southern-hemisphere basin definitions used in Table 1.2.

^ The 4% difference lies well within the variations arising from analysis methods for determining maximum intensity and is too small to justify any additional homogenisation of the statistics in Table 1.3.

.In the Pacific Ocean, hurricanes from the Central North Pacific sometimes cross the International Date Line into the Northwest Pacific, becoming typhoons (such as Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke in 2006); on rare occasions, the reverse will occur.^ Hurricanes affect not only the United States, but also Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean islands.  In the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the International Dateline (Eastern Hemisphere) they are called Typhoons.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By comparison, relatively warm SSTs in the western North Pacific and the North Atlantic allow tropical cyclones to be sustained well into the subtropics, even after recurvature into the westerlies.

^ The last major typhoon (> =100 kts) to occur in January was Roy (1988), which rampaged across much of the Northwest Pacific.

[91] .It should also be noted that typhoons with sustained winds greater than 67 metres per second (130 kn) or 150 miles per hour (240 km/h) are called Super Typhoons by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.^ Major hurricanes have sustained winds above 110 miles (177 kilometers) per hour.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ JTWC data obtained from Joint Typhoon Warning Centre Best Tracks .
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]

^ The storm is producing super strong gusts -- an oil platform in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico recently reported sustained winds of 89 mph, the NHC says.
  • Hurricane Ike Notes, Stats, Facts 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

[92]

Tropical depression

.A tropical depression is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined, closed surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 metres per second (33 kn) or 39 miles per hour (63 km/h).^ MAXIMUM WIND REACHING AT LEAST 63 km h -1 (34 kt) .

^ Tropical storms have winds of 39 to 73 miles (63 to 117 kilometers) per hour.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ That occurred less than an hour after the murders.
  • Rubin "Hurricane" Carter: The Other Side of the Story 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.graphicwitness.com [Source type: General]

.It has no eye and does not typically have the organization or the spiral shape of more powerful storms.^ If the wind comes into a hurricane from all directions and rises to form the eye, why is the "right" side of the storm the most powerful?
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Flash Flood The Causes and Remedies for Hurricanes A hurricane is a powerful spiraling storm that begins over warm seawater.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ A hurricane does not do more damage of the last 10 major damages 4 have been of tropical storms.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.However, it is already a low-pressure system, hence the name "depression".[15] The practice of the Philippines is to name tropical depressions from their own naming convention when the depressions are within the Philippines' area of responsibility.^ Low pressure area 2.

^ The LOW   brought heavy rainfall to an extensive area, which although helping to   relieve drought conditions in many areas, nonetheless was responsible for   widespread flooding.
  • TROPICAL-SUMM: SUMMARY: January Tropical Cyclone Summary 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.weathermatrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical systems evolve through a life cycle that includes the successive stages of tropical wave, tropical disturbance, tropical depression, and tropical storm ( table 1 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[93]

Tropical storm

. A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 metres per second (33 kn) (39 miles per hour (63 km/h)) and 32 metres per second (62 kn) (73 miles per hour (117 km/h)).^ When steady winds reach 39 miles an hour, the cyclone is called a tropical storm and it gets a name.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUM WIND REACHING AT LEAST 63 km h -1 (34 kt) .

^ Tropical storms have winds of 39 to 73 miles (63 to 117 kilometers) per hour.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

At this point, the distinctive cyclonic shape starts to develop, although an eye is not usually present. .Government weather services, other than the Philippines, first assign names to systems that reach this intensity (thus the term named storm).^ Tropical Storm Merbok added to the misery caused by Typhoon Muifa/ Unding in the Philippines, killing 31 people and injuring 187 others.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Weather Service local office for Houston/Galveston reports storm surge up to 8 feet at the Galveston pier.
  • Hurricane Ike Notes, Stats, Facts 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

^ However, the name was not assigned until the first advisory as a tropical storm was issued at 30/2100 UTC. NHC employs a fairly restrictive definition of a subtropical storm, i.e., not all "hybrid" storm systems--not even all non-frontal systems--are considered subtropical storms.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]

Hurricane or typhoon

.A hurricane or typhoon (sometimes simply referred to as a tropical cyclone, as opposed to a depression or storm) is a system with sustained winds of at least 33 metres per second (64 kn) or 74 miles per hour (119 km/h).^ Tropical storms have winds of 39 to 73 miles (63 to 117 kilometers) per hour.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ When these winds reach 74 miles (119 kilometers) per hour or more, the storm is called a hurricane.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ FAQ : HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TROPICAL CYCLONES FAQ about hurricanes, typhoons, and tropical cyclones.
  • Digital Typhoon: Link Collection 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC agora.ex.nii.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .A cyclone of this intensity tends to develop an eye, an area of relative calm (and lowest atmospheric pressure) at the center of circulation.^ The low pressure in the eye allows the surrounding atmosphere to compress the ocean surface into a small bulge.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the earliest stages of tropical cyclone formation, winds start to circle around a low-pressure region at a mid-level in the atmosphere.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the top of the hurricane in the upper atmosphere is an area of high pressure where the air is flowing outward.
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

.The eye is often visible in satellite images as a small, circular, cloud-free spot.^ As the easterly wave, visible as a circular area of clouds, approached the African coast it began to rotate.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cold cloud tops appear white in these thermal-infrared images, acquired by the Meteosat-8 satellite.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data from the SeaWinds scatterometer augments traditional satellite images of clouds by providing direct measurements of surface winds.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Surrounding the eye is the eyewall, an area about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) to 80 kilometres (50 mi) wide in which the strongest thunderstorms and winds circulate around the storm's center.^ (Top) Surrounding the eye of the hurricane is a ring of thunderstorms, called the eyewall.
  • Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth : Feature Articles 25 January 2010 1:41 UTC earthobservatory.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when we see a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained wind speeds of 39 mph (34 knots), we also usually see the thunderstorms in the cyclone concentrated near the center, and we also see rainfall in the outer part of the cyclone organizing into distinct bands, and we call it a Tropical Storm.  When sustained winds reach around 74 mph (64 knots), we begin to see an eyewall and spiral rain bands forming in the tropical cyclone, and it officially becomes a hurricane.    .
  • Questions on Hurricanes and Tropical Cyclones 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC www.wxdude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The cyclone is accompanied by thunderstorms and, in the Northern Hemisphere, a counterclockwise circulation of winds near the earth's surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Maximum sustained winds in the strongest tropical cyclones have been estimated at about 85 metres per second (165 kn) or 195 miles per hour (314 km/h).^ Major hurricanes have sustained winds above 110 miles (177 kilometers) per hour.
  • Red Flare store:hurricanes and tropical storms 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.redflarekits.com [Source type: General]

^ Maximum winds were estimated at 20 kts.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has wind speed that can travel over 75 miles per hour.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[94]
Tropical Cyclone Classifications (all winds are 10-minute averages)[95][96]
Beaufort scale 10-minute sustained winds (knots) N Indian Ocean
IMD
SW Indian Ocean
MF
Australia
BOM
SW Pacific
FMS
NW Pacific
JMA
NW Pacific
JTWC
NE Pacific &
N Atlantic
NHC, CHC & CPHC
0–6 <28 knots (32 mph; 52 km/h) Depression Trop. Disturbance Tropical Low Tropical Depression Tropical Depression Tropical Depression Tropical Depression
7 28–29 knots (32–33 mph; 52–54 km/h) Deep Depression Depression
30–33 knots (35–38 mph; 56–61 km/h) Tropical Storm Tropical Storm
8–9 34–47 knots (39–54 mph; 63–87 km/h) Cyclonic Storm Moderate Tropical Storm Tropical Cyclone (1) Tropical Cyclone (1) Tropical Storm
10 48–55 knots (55–63 mph; 89–102 km/h) Severe Cyclonic Storm Severe Tropical Storm Tropical Cyclone (2) Tropical Cyclone (2) Severe Tropical Storm
11 56–63 knots (64–72 mph; 104–117 km/h) Typhoon Hurricane (1)
12 64–72 knots (74–83 mph; 119–133 km/h) Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Tropical Cyclone Severe Tropical Cyclone (3) Severe Tropical Cyclone (3) Typhoon
73–85 knots (84–98 mph; 135–157 km/h) Hurricane (2)
86–89 knots (99–102 mph; 159–165 km/h) Severe Tropical Cyclone (4) Severe Tropical Cyclone (4) Major Hurricane (3)
90–99 knots (100–110 mph; 170–180 km/h) Intense Tropical Cyclone
100–106 knots (120–120 mph; 190–200 km/h) Major Hurricane (4)
107–114 knots (123–131 mph; 198–211 km/h) Severe Tropical Cyclone (5) Severe Tropical Cyclone (5)
115–119 knots (132–137 mph; 213–220 km/h) Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Super Typhoon
>120 knots (140 mph; 220 km/h) Super Cyclonic Storm Major Hurricane (5)

Origin of storm terms

Taipei 101 endures a typhoon in 2005
The word typhoon, which is used today in the Northwest Pacific, may be derived from Urdu, Persian and Arabic ţūfān (طوفان), which in turn originates from Greek tuphōn (Τυφών), a monster in Greek mythology responsible for hot winds.[97] The related Portuguese word tufão, used in Portuguese for typhoons, is also derived from Greek tuphōn.[98] .It is also similar to Chinese "dafeng" ("daifung" in Cantonese) (大風 – literally big winds), which may explain why "typhoon" came to be used for East Asian cyclones.^ Several metrics are used to categorize the destructive potential of cyclones, based on a combination of pressure, wind speed, storm surge, and structural damage.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The reported maximum sustained winds (MSW) are based on a 1-minute averaging period, which is used by all U. S. civilian and military weather services for tropical cyclone warnings.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.The word hurricane, used in the North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific, is derived from the name of a native Caribbean Amerindian storm god, Huracan, via Spanish huracán.^ A hurricane is smaller than a tornado but larger than a tropical storm.  A hurricane starts out as a tropical storm and as it grows can become a hurricane.  A hurricane has winds of over 74 miles per hour.  They norrmally form in the southern Atlantic Ocean,Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the eastern Pacific Ocean .
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ As the system moved north into the eastern Gulf of Mexico, it gradually strengthened and was named Tropical Storm Allison at 1500 UTC 3 June, then reached hurricane status 24 h later.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The names of all the continents end with the same letter that they start with (not counting the words “North” and “South).
  • Hurricane Shutters | Be Prepared for a Hurricane 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC hurricaneshutterinfo.com [Source type: General]

[99] (Huracan is also the source of the word Orcan, another word for the European windstorm. These events should not be confused.) .Huracan became the Spanish term for hurricanes.^ Preparedness Hurricane: How the Word Hurricane Became Part of Our Language How Columbus and other Spanish Explorers encountered the vengeful Mayan god of storms.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Naming

.Storms reaching tropical storm strength were initially given names to eliminate confusion when there are multiple systems in any individual basin at the same time, which assists in warning people of the coming storm.^ Tropical systems evolve through a life cycle that includes the successive stages of tropical wave, tropical disturbance, tropical depression, and tropical storm ( table 1 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mean error statistics for all tropical cyclones (of at least tropical storm strength) which have ended this month are shown below.
  • Met Office: Tropical cyclone activity and forecasts - September 2008 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metoffice.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The last time that a tropical storm was named on 30 November was in 1989 when Tropical Storm Karen formed in the northwestern Caribbean Sea.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100] .In most cases, a tropical cyclone retains its name throughout its life; however, under special circumstances, tropical cyclones may be renamed while active.^ Tropical cyclones active during the month .
  • Met Office: Tropical cyclone activity and forecasts - September 2008 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metoffice.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical Storms Predictions for the 2007 Hurricane Season Unfortunately most all the forecasters seem to agree that 2007 will be an active hurricane season.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ However, tropical cyclones in this region are named by the sub-regional warning centres on Mauritius and Madagascar with longitude 55E being the demarcation line between their respective areas of warning responsibility.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These names are taken from lists that vary from region to region and are usually drafted a few years ahead of time.^ I went to work yesterday, certain that it was pink-slip time since it's been so slow these past few weeks.

^ Remember, I was coming to Vegas for a long long time before I ever lived here, and was also an admin and moderator over on Sonya's T2V site for a few years.

^ Nws Know Your Hurricane as the Season Begins An introduction to hurricane basics, and a listing of this year's hurricane names for 2006.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.The lists are decided on, depending on the regions, either by committees of the World Meteorological Organization (called primarily to discuss many other issues), or by national weather offices involved in the forecasting of the storms.^ Occasionally some information may be gleaned from the daily tropical weather outlooks and other bulletins issued by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), which is the World Meteorological Organization's Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) for the basin.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trigger: Hurricane warning or watch issued by the National Weather Service.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advisories issued by authoritative sources such as the National Weather Service effectively cue protective action (124 , 125 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Each year, the names of particularly destructive storms (if there are any) are "retired" and new names are chosen to take their place.^ They will rebuild as they have after storms of the past; and they will stay in New Orleans because it is where they have always lived, where their mothers and their fathers lived, where their churches were built by their ancestors, where their family graves carry names that go back 200 years.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Learn the ins and outs of naming tropical storms and hurricanes from year to year.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Hurricane Preparedness Storm Hits New Orleans The same area that was hit by Hurricane Katrina faces damage and destruction as a powerful storm hits early Tuesday morning.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Notable tropical cyclones

.Tropical cyclones that cause extreme destruction are rare, although when they occur, they can cause great amounts of damage or thousands of fatalities.^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ AUTHOR'S NOTE: This summary should be considered a very preliminary overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones cause a range of public health consequences, including mortality, injury, and infectious diseases (1 , 5 , 18 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The 1970 Bhola cyclone is the deadliest tropical cyclone on record, killing more than 300,000 people[101] and potentially as many as 1 million[102] after striking the densely populated Ganges Delta region of Bangladesh on 13 November 1970. Its powerful storm surge was responsible for the high death toll.^ Donkeys kill more people than plane crashes.
  • Hurricane Shutters | Be Prepared for a Hurricane 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC hurricaneshutterinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ Locations of 77 tropical cyclones causing more than 1,000 deaths each, 1900–2004 * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On average people fear spiders more than they do death.
  • Hurricane Shutters | Be Prepared for a Hurricane 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC hurricaneshutterinfo.com [Source type: General]

[101] .The North Indian cyclone basin has historically been the deadliest basin.^ North Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for November ------------------------------------------------- Two tropical cyclones came to life in the North Indian Ocean during the month of November, both in the Arabian Sea.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southwest Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for November ----------------------------------------------------- The first two named tropical cyclones of the Southern Hemisphere season formed in the Southwest Indian Ocean basin during November.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79][103] .Elsewhere, Typhoon Nina killed nearly 100,000 in China in 1975 due to a 100-year flood that caused 62 dams including the Banqiao Dam to fail.^ Floods and landslides triggered by the typhoon killed about 40 people, and 40 more people were reported missing.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical Storm Merbok added to the misery caused by Typhoon Muifa/ Unding in the Philippines, killing 31 people and injuring 187 others.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104] .The Great Hurricane of 1780 is the deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record, killing about 22,000 people in the Lesser Antilles.^ Floods and landslides triggered by the typhoon killed about 40 people, and 40 more people were reported missing.
  • Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This page provides a record of how people and institutions in Louisiana and beyond reacted to the information needs of the victims of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Coconuts kill about 150 people each year.
  • Hurricane Shutters | Be Prepared for a Hurricane 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC hurricaneshutterinfo.com [Source type: General]

[105] .A tropical cyclone does need not be particularly strong to cause memorable damage, primarily if the deaths are from rainfall or mudslides.^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones cause a range of public health consequences, including mortality, injury, and infectious diseases (1 , 5 , 18 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Analysis of EM-DAT data for the period 1900–2004 identified 77 tropical storms and cyclones causing a minimum of 1,000 deaths each.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Tropical Storm Thelma in November 1991 killed thousands in the Philippines,[106] while in 1982, the unnamed tropical depression that eventually became Hurricane Paul killed around 1,000 people in Central America.^ Well, have you ever found your self wondering how tropical storms/hurricanes receive their names?

^ Tropical systems evolve through a life cycle that includes the successive stages of tropical wave, tropical disturbance, tropical depression, and tropical storm ( table 1 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hurricane deductibles are “triggered” only when there is a hurricane, or a tropical storm.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107]
.Hurricane Katrina is estimated as the costliest tropical cyclone worldwide,[108] causing $81.2 billion in property damage (2008 USD)[109] with overall damage estimates exceeding $100 billion (2005 USD).^ Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes .
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical cyclones cause a range of public health consequences, including mortality, injury, and infectious diseases (1 , 5 , 18 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Beginning January 1, 2008, insurers are prohibited from not issuing or renewing a homeowners policy because the homeowner has not installed storm shutters to mitigate hurricane or other storm damage.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108] .Katrina killed at least 1,836 people after striking Louisiana and Mississippi as a major hurricane in August 2005.[109] Hurricane Andrew is the second most destructive tropical cyclone in U.S history, with damages totaling $40.7 billion (2008 USD), and with damage costs at $31.5 billion (2008 USD), Hurricane Ike is the third most destructive tropical cyclone in U.S history.^ ALABAMA HURRICANE DEDUCTIBLES (August 2008) .
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyons warns Hurricane Ike's effect on water rise could have damaging impacts.
  • Hurricane Ike Notes, Stats, Facts 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

^ In the United States, tornadoes account for as much as 10% of the total deaths associated with tropical cyclones ( Novlan and Gray 1974 ).
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 is the deadliest natural disaster in the United States, killing an estimated 6,000 to 12,000 people in Galveston, Texas.^ While cumulative hurricane mortality for the United States for the period 1900–2004 was approximately 15,000, half of these deaths occurred in 1900 when the deadliest hurricane (and the deadliest natural disaster) in US history killed 7,200 citizens in Galveston, Texas (86 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Medline] Deaths associated with Hurricanes Marilyn and Opal—United States, September–October 1995.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones—variously defined as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones—regularly impact human populations and periodically produce devastating weather-related natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[110] .Hurricane Mitch caused more than 10, 000 fatalities in Latin America.^ Two developed nations, the United States and Japan, have experienced cyclones associated with more than 1,000 deaths.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, for homes that are insured for less than $500,000, the deductible can be higher than 10 percent if the homeowner states the dollar value of the deductible in a letter to the insurer.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locations of 77 tropical cyclones causing more than 1,000 deaths each, 1900–2004 * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hurricane Iniki in 1992 was the most powerful storm to strike Hawaii in recorded history, hitting Kauai as a Category 4 hurricane, killing six people, and causing U.S. $3 billion in damage.^ Morbidity on Kauai before and after Hurricane Iniki.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The climatology of this basin has most hurricanes moving away from the shore, so chances are rare that these storms would adversely affect people necessitating the name be retired.
  • FAQ: Tropical Cyclone Names :: Hurricane Preparedness 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.onestorm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Storms Hurricanes and Disaster Preparedness The most important thing you can do to be safe from hurricanes is to keep informed and be prepared.

[111] .Other destructive Eastern Pacific hurricanes include Pauline and Kenna, both causing severe damage after striking Mexico as major hurricanes.^ A hurricane does not do more damage of the last 10 major damages 4 have been of tropical storms.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ In the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew, four hurricane experience variables—damage, loss, life threat, and injury—predicted both PTSD symptoms and immune suppression (100 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several metrics are used to categorize the destructive potential of cyclones, based on a combination of pressure, wind speed, storm surge, and structural damage.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[112][113] .In March 2004, Cyclone Gafilo struck northeastern Madagascar as a powerful cyclone, killing 74, affecting more than 200,000, and becoming the worst cyclone to affect the nation for more than 20 years.^ There is about 200 times more gold in the oceans than has been mined throughout history.
  • Hurricane Shutters | Be Prepared for a Hurricane 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC hurricaneshutterinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ The average number of cyclone impacts on individual nations was 46 per year, with many cyclones affecting multiple nations.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Donkeys kill more people than plane crashes.
  • Hurricane Shutters | Be Prepared for a Hurricane 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC hurricaneshutterinfo.com [Source type: General]

[114]
The relative sizes of Typhoon Tip, Cyclone Tracy, and the Contiguous United States
.The most intense storm on record was Typhoon Tip in the northwestern Pacific Ocean in 1979, which reached a minimum pressure of 870 mbar (25.69 inHg) and maximum sustained wind speeds of 165 knots (85 m/s) or 190 miles per hour (310 km/h).^ At the same time, wind speeds strengthened, reaching 25 m s −1 between 0.6 and 1.5 km.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sustained wind speed .
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hurricanes are classified by using the Saffir/Simpson intensity scale which measures atmospheric pressure in terms of millibars (mb) or inches of mercury, along with wind speeds, storm surge and damage.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[115] Tip, however, does not solely hold the record for fastest sustained winds in a cyclone. .Typhoon Keith in the Pacific and Hurricanes Camille and Allen in the North Atlantic currently share this record with Tip.^ Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes .
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]

^ The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (14 ) classifies Atlantic and North Pacific hurricanes ( table 5 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Current activity maps on this page are from Hurricanes, Typhoons & Tropical Cyclones by Thomas R. Metcalf.
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]

[116] .Camille was the only storm to actually strike land while at that intensity, making it, with 165 knots (85 m/s) or 190 miles per hour (310 km/h) sustained winds and 183 knots (94 m/s) or 210 miles per hour (340 km/h) gusts, the strongest tropical cyclone on record at landfall.^ Hurricane deductibles are “triggered” only when there is a hurricane, or a tropical storm.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attesting to the accuracy of forecasts, the US National Hurricane Center reports that the mean error for their 24-hour storm track is less than 100 miles ( <160 km), and the mean error for storm intensity is 10 miles/hour (16 km/hour) (119 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Forecasting Tropical cyclones can be detected at formation and are being tracked with increasing precision in terms of location, trajectory, central pressure, wind speed, storm surge, point of landfall, wind fields, and rainfall production—thus facilitating timely and targeted warnings.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[117] .Typhoon Nancy in 1961 had recorded wind speeds of 185 knots (95 m/s) or 215 miles per hour (346 km/h), but recent research indicates that wind speeds from the 1940s to the 1960s were gauged too high, and this is no longer considered the storm with the highest wind speeds on record.^ It has wind speed that can travel over 75 miles per hour.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ A hurricane is smaller than a tornado but larger than a tropical storm.  A hurricane starts out as a tropical storm and as it grows can become a hurricane.  A hurricane has winds of over 74 miles per hour.  They norrmally form in the southern Atlantic Ocean,Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the eastern Pacific Ocean .
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Corpus Christi Hurricane Season Gets Off to an Early Start Subtropical Storm Andrea is swirling off the Florida/Georgia coast with top sustained winds of around 45 miles per hour, according to local news reports.

[94] .Similarly, a surface-level gust caused by Typhoon Paka on Guam was recorded at 205 knots (105 m/s) or 235 miles per hour (378 km/h).^ A cyclonic storm having winds ranging from approximately 48 to 121 kilometers (30 to 75 miles) per hour.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ American Red Cross Hurricane Isabel, Riding Out the Storm Hurricane Isabel slammed into the Outer Banks of North Carolina with winds of 105 miles per hour.

^ Winds are plotted every 0.5 km above ground level (AGL) from the surface to 7 km and labeled every 1 km.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

.Had it been confirmed, it would be the strongest non-tornadic wind ever recorded on the Earth's surface, but the reading had to be discarded since the anemometer was damaged by the storm.^ Storm Damage Tropical Storm Fay Makes Landfall in Florida Keys, Miami Tropical storm Fay has come ashore in the Florida Keys and will head north and spread winds and heavy rain.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Greenhouse Gasses Hurricanes - The Eye of a Storm It has flooding rains, strong winds and can damage trees, cars and buildings?
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Hazard Insurance Protects Property from Mother Nature Hazard insurance covers property damage caused by fire, wind, storms, and other similar events.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[118]
.In addition to being the most intense tropical cyclone on record, Tip was the largest cyclone on record, with tropical storm-force winds 2,170 kilometres (1,350 mi) in diameter.^ In developing nations, cyclone mortality continues to be periodically catastrophic, with deaths occurring primarily during the impact phase and being predominantly due to storm surge.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This website has the most comprehensive database of tropical storm tracks for the southern hemisphere.
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 20 September 2009 0:34 UTC australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]
  • Tropical Cyclone Cyclones Tracking Maps Hamish Larry Tracy Australian Australia Region South Pacific and South Indian Oceans including typhoons and hurricanes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.australiasevereweather.com [Source type: General]

^ Subject: E10) What are the average, most, and least tropical cyclones occurring in each basin?
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The smallest storm on record, Tropical Storm Marco, formed during October 2008, and made landfall in Veracruz.^ Includes one hurricane (Hanna) which made landfall as a tropical storm.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Weather Service classifies tropical storms as low pressure systems forming over tropical areas, with winds of a minimum of 40 mph.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones are thus constrained to form within two tropical belts: above the Equator, where two thirds of storms develop, and below the Equator.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Marco generated tropical storm-force winds only 37 kilometres (23 mi) in diameter.^ Since warm ocean water is the generative element, only the planet's midsection can conceive tropical cyclones.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I could not believe my luck--just 45 minutes earlier I only had $37 in front of me, and I parlayed that into almost five hundred bucks.

^ Hours Tropical Storm Fay Makes Landfall in Florida Keys, Miami Tropical storm Fay has come ashore in the Florida Keys and will head north and spread winds and heavy rain.

[119]
.Hurricane John is the longest-lasting tropical cyclone on record, lasting 31 days in 1994.^ This study provides a radar-based analysis of known tornadic mesocyclones associated with two mature tropical cyclones that were not landfalling in the vicinity of the tornado occurrence, namely, Tropical Storm Gordon (1994) and Hurricane Allison (1995).
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones—variously defined as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones—regularly impact human populations and periodically produce devastating weather-related natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically, tropical cyclones are detected multiple days to weeks prior to landfall, providing time for serial public warnings.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Before the advent of satellite imagery in 1961, however, many tropical cyclones were underestimated in their durations.[120] .John is the second longest-tracked tropical cyclone in the Northern Hemisphere on record, behind Typhoon Ophelia of 1960, which had a path of 8,500 miles (12,500 km).^ The cyclone is accompanied by thunderstorms and, in the Northern Hemisphere, a counterclockwise circulation of winds near the earth's surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Best track positions of Tropical Cyclone Gordon.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are often called typhoons or tropical cyclones in different parts of the world but they are basically the same kind of storm.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Reliable data for Southern Hemisphere cyclones is unavailable.^ Cyclonic systems rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[121]

Changes due to El Niño-Southern Oscillation

.Most tropical cyclones form on the side of the subtropical ridge closer to the equator, then move poleward past the ridge axis before recurving into the main belt of the Westerlies.^ Tropical cyclones are thus constrained to form within two tropical belts: above the Equator, where two thirds of storms develop, and below the Equator.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones are formidable storm systems that have produced some of the world's most catastrophic natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[122] .When the subtropical ridge position shifts due to El Nino, so will the preferred tropical cyclone tracks.^ Best track positions of Tropical Cyclone Gordon.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

.Areas west of Japan and Korea tend to experience much fewer September-November tropical cyclone impacts during El Niño and neutral years.^ In developing nations, cyclone mortality continues to be periodically catastrophic, with deaths occurring primarily during the impact phase and being predominantly due to storm surge.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Second, most of the storm-related mortality and much of the morbidity now occurs during the post-impact period.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

During El Niño years, the break in the subtropical ridge tends to lie near 130°E which would favor the Japanese archipelago.[123] .During El Niño years, Guam's chance of a tropical cyclone impact is one-third of the long term average.^ In developing nations, cyclone mortality continues to be periodically catastrophic, with deaths occurring primarily during the impact phase and being predominantly due to storm surge.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During 1980–2000, an average of 11,800 deaths per year were attributed to cyclones (3 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[124] .The tropical Atlantic ocean experiences depressed activity due to increased vertical wind shear across the region during El Niño years.^ Calculations of shear surpassed 0.010 s −1 due to the increased rotational velocities combined with the core contraction.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A significant transformation occurred within the vertical wind profile over east-central Florida during 15–16 November as convergent rainbands moved across the region.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Graham NE, Barnett TP. Sea surface temperature, surface wind divergence, and convection over tropical oceans.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[125] .During La Niña years, the formation of tropical cyclones, along with the subtropical ridge position, shifts westward across the western Pacific ocean, which increases the landfall threat to China.^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since warm ocean water is the generative element, only the planet's midsection can conceive tropical cyclones.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The arrow indicates the approximate position of Gordon during the time of the tornadoes across east-central Florida.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

[123]

Long-term activity trends

Atlantic Multidecadal Cycle since 1950, using accumulated cyclone energy (ACE)
 
Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Timeseries, 1856–2009
.While the number of storms in the Atlantic has increased since 1995, there is no obvious global trend; the annual number of tropical cyclones worldwide remains about 87 ± 10. However, the ability of climatologists to make long-term data analysis in certain basins is limited by the lack of reliable historical data in some basins, primarily in the Southern Hemisphere.^ Tropical cyclone season, by basin .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (Tropical Cyclone Programme report no.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So I shall remain 'excited' about 1-2 no limit for now.

[126] In spite of that, there is some evidence that the intensity of hurricanes is increasing. .Kerry Emanuel stated, "Records of hurricane activity worldwide show an upswing of both the maximum wind speed in and the duration of hurricanes.^ A hurricane is an intense tropical weather system with a well defined circulation and maximum sustained winds of 74 mph (64 knots) or higher."
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes are much larger than tornadoes and tropical storms and tornadoes have much more wind speeds but hurricanes are the biggest .
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ A hurricane is not smaller than a tornado, a tornado being maybe 200 meters wide but with windspeeds of upto 250 mph and a hurricane being maybe 350 miles wide but with wind speeds of upto 175 mph.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.The energy released by the average hurricane (again considering all hurricanes worldwide) seems to have increased by around 70% in the past 30 years or so, corresponding to about a 15% increase in the maximum wind speed and a 60% increase in storm lifetime."^ Tropical Storms Predictions for the 2007 Hurricane Season Unfortunately most all the forecasters seem to agree that 2007 will be an active hurricane season.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Insect stings accounted for 21 percent of all hurricane-related inland emergency department visits in South Carolina following Hurricane Hugo (70 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hurricane Season 2007 Top Myths About Hurricanes and Tropical Storms Think you know everything there is to know about hurricanes and tropical storms?
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[127]
.Atlantic storms are becoming more destructive financially, since five of the ten most expensive storms in United States history have occurred since 1990. According to the World Meteorological Organization, “recent increase in societal impact from tropical cyclones has largely been caused by rising concentrations of population and infrastructure in coastal regions.”[128] Pielke et al. (2008) normalized mainland U.S. hurricane damage from 1900–2005 to 2005 values and found no remaining trend of increasing absolute damage.^ After Hurricane Andrew, Shaw et al.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (Tropical Cyclone Programme report no.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A hurricane does not do more damage of the last 10 major damages 4 have been of tropical storms.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.The 1970s and 1980s were notable because of the extremely low amounts of damage compared to other decades.^ Beginning January 1, 2008, insurers are prohibited from not issuing or renewing a homeowners policy because the homeowner has not installed storm shutters to mitigate hurricane or other storm damage.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The decade 1996–2005 was the second most damaging among the past 11 decades, with only the decade 1926–1935 surpassing its costs. .The most damaging single storm is the 1926 Miami hurricane, with $157 billion of normalized damage.^ Storms Hurricanes and Disaster Preparedness The most important thing you can do to be safe from hurricanes is to keep informed and be prepared.

^ Hurricanes generating economic costs of at least 1 billion dollars ("billion-dollar storms"), United States, 1980–2004 .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Miami Hurricanes Preparing for Hurricane Gustav One hundred miles from the Gulf of Mexico means storm surge isn't a worry.

[129]
.Often in part because of the threat of hurricanes, many coastal regions had sparse population between major ports until the advent of automobile tourism; therefore, the most severe portions of hurricanes striking the coast may have gone unmeasured in some instances.^ I believe the gentlemen named John Allen may have some facts incorrect of Hurricane Andrew Aug 1992.
  • Hurricane | SPIKE 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Many citizens living in coastal areas in the major hurricane basins improvise evacuation arrangements, often sheltering in the homes of family members and friends (135 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ LSU’s researchers are studying all aspects of hurricanes and tropical storms as part of a comprehensive research effort that will benefit the citizens of Louisiana and the entire Gulf Coast region.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

.The combined effects of ship destruction and remote landfall severely limit the number of intense hurricanes in the official record before the era of hurricane reconnaissance aircraft and satellite meteorology.^ Several metrics are used to categorize the destructive potential of cyclones, based on a combination of pressure, wind speed, storm surge, and structural damage.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest hurricane of record in Texas - and the 10th most intense U.S. hurricane at landfall - Carla has a local and personal significance for this author.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Although the record shows a distinct increase in the number and strength of intense hurricanes, therefore, experts regard the early data as suspect.^ Fundamental to the early recognition of suspect cells is the interrogation of the most intense cells within the rainband, regardless of their actual intensity values.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Following Hurricane Mitch (1998), rates of dengue fever increased in Guatemala and Honduras and numbers of malaria cases increased in Guatemala and Nicaragua (64 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest hurricane of record in Texas - and the 10th most intense U.S. hurricane at landfall - Carla has a local and personal significance for this author.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[130]
.The number and strength of Atlantic hurricanes may undergo a 50–70 year cycle, also known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.^ Hurricane Gustav How to Prepare for the Coming Hurricane Season of 2006 and Beyond As a horribly active hurricane season comes to an end, residents in Florida and other coastal states need to prepare for a 20-30 year "busy" cycle in the Atlantic.

^ Hurricane Predictions Released by NOAA Hurricane season begins June 1 for the Atlantic and May 15 for the Eastern Pacific.

^ Hurricane Survival Get Ready for Hurricane Season This year's National Hurricane Preparedness Week is May 24th to the 30th.

.Nyberg et al. reconstructed Atlantic major hurricane activity back to the early 18th century and found five periods averaging 3–5 major hurricanes per year and lasting 40–60 years, and six other averaging 1.5–2.5 major hurricanes per year and lasting 10–20 years.^ After Hurricane Andrew, Shaw et al.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Downward trends in the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes during the past five decades.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And remember--I turned on my heater last week for the first time in five years.

These periods are associated with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. .Throughout, a decadal oscillation related to solar irradiance was responsible for enhancing/dampening the number of major hurricanes by 1–2 per year.^ The average number of cyclone impacts on individual nations was 46 per year, with many cyclones affecting multiple nations.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[131]
.Although more common since 1995, few above-normal hurricane seasons occurred during 1970–94.[132] Destructive hurricanes struck frequently from 1926–60, including many major New England hurricanes.^ Papua New Guinea Tropical Storm Erin Forms While Tropical Storm Dean Strengthens Two tropical storms intensify as the southeastern United States prepare for the peak hurricane season.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ While many people experience fear and distress at the time of disaster impact, the majority return to normal functioning (92 , 93 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ American Libraries Online: Hurricane Katrina News: http://www.ala.org/ala/alonline/hurricanekatrinanews/katrinanews.htm Major resource, constantly updated.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

.Twenty-one Atlantic tropical storms formed in 1933, a record only recently exceeded in 2005, which saw 28 storms.^ By a large percentage, tropical cyclones landfalling from the Gulf of Mexico produce more tornadoes than Atlantic storms.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones are thus constrained to form within two tropical belts: above the Equator, where two thirds of storms develop, and below the Equator.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Stewart and Lyons (1996) more recently observed similar features during a WSR-88D interrogation of Tropical Storm Ed’s 1993 landfall on Guam.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tropical hurricanes occurred infrequently during the seasons of 1900–25; however, many intense storms formed during 1870–99. During the 1887 season, 19 tropical storms formed, of which a record 4 occurred after 1 November and 11 strengthened into hurricanes.^ In developing nations, cyclone mortality continues to be periodically catastrophic, with deaths occurring primarily during the impact phase and being predominantly due to storm surge.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Downward trends in the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes during the past five decades.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Few hurricanes occurred in the 1840s to 1860s; however, many struck in the early 19th century, including a 1821 storm that made a direct hit on New York City.^ Drye W. Storm of the century: the Labor Day hurricane of 1935.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sun Herald: South Mississippi's Home Page: http://www.sunherald.com/ Newspaper from Biloxi and Gulfport, cities hit hard by the hurricane.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Impact of Hurricane Katrina - New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/national/2005_HURRICANEKATRINA_GRAPHIC/index_02.html Series of maps.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

.Some historical weather experts say these storms may have been as high as Category 4 in strength.^ Fifty of these high-fatality storms occurred in developing nations of the Asia-Pacific region, and 16 occurred in the Caribbean and Central America ( table 6 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In these circumstances, relatively high SW values (i.e., > 7.5 m s −1 ) may add confidence to the determination of marginally severe cells.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the developing world, the majority of these high-fatality storms and deaths occurred after 1959, while no developed nation has sustained 1,000 deaths from any storm since 1959 ( table 6 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[133]
.These active hurricane seasons predated satellite coverage of the Atlantic basin.^ Polar Ice How to Prepare for the Coming Hurricane Season of 2006 and Beyond As a horribly active hurricane season comes to an end, residents in Florida and other coastal states need to prepare for a 20-30 year "busy" cycle in the Atlantic.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical Storms Predictions for the 2007 Hurricane Season Unfortunately most all the forecasters seem to agree that 2007 will be an active hurricane season.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ That's exactly what happened to FDR in 1933 when the Chesapeake-Potomac storm hit D.C. in the second most active hurricane season ever...
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Before the satellite era began in 1960, tropical storms or hurricanes went undetected unless a reconnaissance aircraft encountered one, a ship reported a voyage through the storm, or a storm hit land in a populated area.^ Tropical Storm Hurricane Preparation Tips The time to prepare for a hurricane is before it strikes.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The hurricane is much bigger then a Tropical Storm .
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ A tropical storm is smaller than a hurricane.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[130] .The official record, therefore, could miss storms in which no ship experienced gale-force winds, recognized it as a tropical storm (as opposed to a high-latitude extra-tropical cyclone, a tropical wave, or a brief squall), returned to port, and reported the experience.^ (Tropical Cyclone Programme report no.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones are thus constrained to form within two tropical belts: above the Equator, where two thirds of storms develop, and below the Equator.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ First, storm-surge drowning deaths have decreased markedly, and by default, the majority of impact phase deaths are now due to high-velocity winds (36 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Proxy records based on paleotempestological research have revealed that major hurricane activity along the Gulf of Mexico coast varies on timescales of centuries to millennia.^ Miami Hurricanes Preparing for Hurricane Gustav One hundred miles from the Gulf of Mexico means storm surge isn't a worry.

^ Hurricane Season Hurricane Gustav Threatens the Gulf Coast, New Orleans The waters in the Gulf of Mexico are very warm and upper level winds are conductive for Gustav to grow in size and strength, and pose a threat by this Labor Day Weekend.

^ June 1st and November 30th is hurricane season, when storm systems that organize in the tropical waters of the Atlantic and Carribean form, threatening millions of Americans who live in the Gulf Coast states and along the eastern seaboard.

[134][135] .Few major hurricanes struck the Gulf coast during 3000–1400 BC and again during the most recent millennium.^ LSU’s researchers are studying all aspects of hurricanes and tropical storms as part of a comprehensive research effort that will benefit the citizens of Louisiana and the entire Gulf Coast region.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Anyone who takes this guys advise and attempts to cross a river during a hurricane will most certainly be killed.
  • Hurricane | SPIKE 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ NOAA today posted online more than 350 aerial images of the U.S. Gulf Coast areas that were decimated by Hurricane Katrina.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

.These quiescent intervals were separated by a hyperactive period during 1400 BC and 1000 AD, when the Gulf coast was struck frequently by catastrophic hurricanes and their landfall probabilities increased by 3–5 times.^ Downward trends in the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes during the past five decades.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In developing nations, cyclone mortality continues to be periodically catastrophic, with deaths occurring primarily during the impact phase and being predominantly due to storm surge.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hurricane Hanna Hurricane Preparation Tropical Storm Fay is approaching the west coast of Florida and it is August 17 the 39th anniversary of Hurricane Camille which destroyed the Mississippi Gulf Coast.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.This millennial-scale variability has been attributed to long-term shifts in the position of the Azores High,[135] which may also be linked to changes in the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation.^ The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (14 ) classifies Atlantic and North Pacific hurricanes ( table 5 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[136]
.According to the Azores High hypothesis, an anti-phase pattern is expected to exist between the Gulf of Mexico coast and the Atlantic coast.^ By a large percentage, tropical cyclones landfalling from the Gulf of Mexico produce more tornadoes than Atlantic storms.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

.During the quiescent periods, a more northeasterly position of the Azores High would result in more hurricanes being steered towards the Atlantic coast.^ NOAA today posted online more than 350 aerial images of the U.S. Gulf Coast areas that were decimated by Hurricane Katrina.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ In developing nations, cyclone mortality continues to be periodically catastrophic, with deaths occurring primarily during the impact phase and being predominantly due to storm surge.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Spitz Preparedness Atlantic Hurricanes and Northeastern Tornadoes August through October is hurricane season in the Atlantic By Linda Curtis   |  Published 8/10/2007 More topics: Preparedness .

.During the hyperactive period, more hurricanes were steered towards the Gulf coast as the Azores High was shifted to a more southwesterly position near the Caribbean.^ LSU’s researchers are studying all aspects of hurricanes and tropical storms as part of a comprehensive research effort that will benefit the citizens of Louisiana and the entire Gulf Coast region.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ NOAA today posted online more than 350 aerial images of the U.S. Gulf Coast areas that were decimated by Hurricane Katrina.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Saving history from a hurricane: Teams of archivists are rushing to the Gulf Coast on an urgent mission: to recover priceless records damaged by Katrina.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

.Such a displacement of the Azores High is consistent with paleoclimatic evidence that shows an abrupt onset of a drier climate in Haiti around 3200 14C years BP,[137] and a change towards more humid conditions in the Great Plains during the late-Holocene as more moisture was pumped up the Mississippi Valley through the Gulf coast.^ He stated that most people who died during andrew were foolishly messing around outside implying that the people who died were not inside the safty of their home he could not be more mistaken.
  • Hurricane | SPIKE 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ NOAA today posted online more than 350 aerial images of the U.S. Gulf Coast areas that were decimated by Hurricane Katrina.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ As for the Amoco building, Wakefield wrote, "The most cost-effective thing we can do to stabilize the research center is to block up the broken windows and pump air conditioning in.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

Preliminary data from the northern Atlantic coast seem to support the Azores High hypothesis. .A 3000-year proxy record from a coastal lake in Cape Cod suggests that hurricane activity increased significantly during the past 500–1000 years, just as the Gulf coast was amid a quiescent period of the last millennium.^ Downward trends in the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes during the past five decades.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Coast Residential Power Generator Market Growing Significantly With the increase in destructive tropical weather systems in the past decade, along with significant winter storms, portable power generators are becoming more popular among consumers.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Deductibles:Hurricane deductibles: Dukes (Martha’s Vineyard), Nantucket and Barnstable (Cape Cod) Counties: mandatory 2 to 5 percent.
  • III - Hurricane and Windstorm Deductibles 14 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.iii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Global warming

.The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory performed a simulation to determine if there is a statistical trend in the frequency or strength of tropical cyclones over time.^ For the purpose of this review, we performed a keyword search on the Internet using a variety of academic search engines and websites, including MEDLINE, PubMed, the National Center for PTSD PILOTS database, the National Hazards Center database, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Hurricane Center website, using combinations of the terms "tropical cyclone," "cyclone," "hurricane," "typhoon," "natural disasters," and "epidemiology."
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration http://www.noaa.gov Hurricane Katrina NOAA Images: http://ngs.woc.noaa.gov/katrina/ Satellite photographs of the Gulf coast of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama after Hurricane Katrina made landfall, from the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Recent advances in construction, forecasting, warning systems, evacuation, and sheltering have sharply reduced tropical cyclone-associated mortality and morbidity in developed nations.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

The simulation concluded "the strongest hurricanes in the present climate may be upstaged by even more intense hurricanes over the next century as the earth's climate is warmed by increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere".[138]
.In an article in Nature, Kerry Emanuel stated that potential hurricane destructiveness, a measure combining hurricane strength, duration, and frequency, "is highly correlated with tropical sea surface temperature, reflecting well-documented climate signals, including multidecadal oscillations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and global warming". Emanuel predicted "a substantial increase in hurricane-related losses in the twenty-first century".[139] In more recent work published by Emanuel (in the March 2008 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society), he states that new climate modeling data indicates “global warming should reduce the global frequency of hurricanes.”[140] The new work suggests that, even in a dramatically warming world, hurricane frequency and intensity may not substantially rise during the next two centuries.^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ American Libraries Online: Hurricane Katrina News: http://www.ala.org/ala/alonline/hurricanekatrinanews/katrinanews.htm Major resource, constantly updated.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Nobody's working the next couple of days anyways, and you all should be spending time with the family and doing more important things than reading my silly scribbles.

[141]
.Similarly, P.J. Webster and others published an article in Science examining the "changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity" over the past 35 years, the period when satellite data has been available.^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For the period 1968–2003, an average of 88 tropical storms developed each year, of which 48 attained tropical cyclone intensity and 21 became major tropical cyclones ( table 4 ) (13 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Analysis of EM-DAT data for the period 1900–2004 identified 77 tropical storms and cyclones causing a minimum of 1,000 deaths each.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Their main finding was although the number of cyclones decreased throughout the planet excluding the north Atlantic Ocean, there was a great increase in the number and proportion of very strong cyclones.^ Hurricane Katrina "I'm OK" Registry: http://katrina.im-ok.org/ Based on telephone numbers: "By using the person's telephone number, you can find out immediately if there is information or not.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Since warm ocean water is the generative element, only the planet's midsection can conceive tropical cyclones.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[142]
Costliest U.S. Atlantic hurricanes
Total estimated property damage, adjusted for wealth normalization[129]
Rank Hurricane Season Cost (2005 USD)
1 “Miami” 1926 $157 billion
2 “Galveston” 1900 $99.4 billion
3 Katrina 2005 $81.0 billion
4 “Galveston” 1915 $68.0 billion
5 Andrew 1992 $55.8 billion
6 “New England” 1938 $39.2 billion
7 “Cuba–Florida” 1944 $38.7 billion
8 “Okeechobee” 1928 $33.6 billion
9 Donna 1960 $26.8 billion
10 Camille 1969 $21.2 billion
Main article: List of costliest Atlantic hurricanes
.The strength of the reported effect is surprising in light of modeling studies[143] that predict only a one half category increase in storm intensity as a result of a ~2 °C (3.6 °F) global warming.^ Greenhouse Effect A Category One Hurricane in Florida While Wilma was no Andrew or Katrina, its effects expose weaknesses in South Florida's overdeveloped infrastructure.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ La Nina NASA Predicts More Severe Storms with Global Warming NASA scientists at the Goddard Space Cents have come up with a new climate model and it shows that, as the earth's climate gets warmer, the storms we have now that we considered to be violent such as hurricanes and tornadoes will probably become even more violent.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Tropical Storms Study Links Increased Hurricane Intensity with Heat Engine Theory According to Florida State University press releases, a new study by FSU researchers has linked global warming more intense storms.
  • Tropical Storms - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 15 September 2009 4:33 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Such a response would have predicted only a ~10% increase in Emanuel's potential destructiveness index during the 20th century rather than the ~75–120% increase he reported.^ The ET product did however help identify the cell as more mature than surrounding echoes with a gradual increase noted from less than 10 km prior to the tornado to nearly 12 km during the touchdown.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

[139] .Secondly, after adjusting for changes in population and inflation, and despite a more than 100% increase in Emanuel's potential destructiveness index, no statistically significant increase in the monetary damages resulting from Atlantic hurricanes has been found.^ A hurricane does way more damage than a tornado and is way bigger than a tornado.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Hurricanes are much larger than tornadoes and tropical storms and tornadoes have much more wind speeds but hurricanes are the biggest .
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ A hurricane does not do more damage of the last 10 major damages 4 have been of tropical storms.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[129][144]
.Sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures are considered vital to the development of tropical cyclones.^ Stages of development of a tropical cyclone * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones are classified as follows: * Sustained winds A 1-minute average wind measured at about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Recent advances in construction, forecasting, warning systems, evacuation, and sheltering have sharply reduced tropical cyclone-associated mortality and morbidity in developed nations.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[38] .Although neither study can directly link hurricanes with global warming, the increase in sea surface temperatures is believed to be due to both global warming and natural variability, e.g.^ Tropical cyclones—variously defined as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones—regularly impact human populations and periodically produce devastating weather-related natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Graham NE, Barnett TP. Sea surface temperature, surface wind divergence, and convection over tropical oceans.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The proportion of emergency department visits for insect bites significantly increased after both Hurricane Opal (1995) (21 ) and Hurricane Floyd (1999) (40 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

the hypothesized Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), although an exact attribution has not been defined.[145] However, recent temperatures are the warmest ever observed for many ocean basins.[139]
.In February 2007, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released its fourth assessment report on climate change.^ (National Climatic Data Center technical report 2003-01).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

The report noted many observed changes in the climate, including atmospheric composition, global average temperatures, ocean conditions, among others. .The report concluded the observed increase in tropical cyclone intensity is larger than climate models predict.^ (Tropical Cyclone Programme report no.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Locations of 77 tropical cyclones causing more than 1,000 deaths each, 1900–2004 * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For the period 1968–2003, an average of 88 tropical storms developed each year, of which 48 attained tropical cyclone intensity and 21 became major tropical cyclones ( table 4 ) (13 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, the report considered that it is likely that storm intensity will continue to increase through the 21st century, and declared it more likely than not that there has been some human contribution to the increases in tropical cyclone intensity.^ (Tropical Cyclone Programme report no.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Attesting to the accuracy of forecasts, the US National Hurricane Center reports that the mean error for their 24-hour storm track is less than 100 miles ( <160 km), and the mean error for storm intensity is 10 miles/hour (16 km/hour) (119 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[146] .However, there is no universal agreement about the magnitude of the effects anthropogenic global warming has on tropical cyclone formation, track, and intensity.^ (Tropical Cyclone Programme report no.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones are classified as follows: * Sustained winds A 1-minute average wind measured at about 33 ft (10 meters) above the surface.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.For example, critics such as Chris Landsea assert that man-made effects would be "quite tiny compared to the observed large natural hurricane variability".[147] A statement by the American Meteorological Society on 1 February 2007 stated that trends in tropical cyclone records offer "evidence both for and against the existence of a detectable anthropogenic signal" in tropical cyclogenesis.^ Tropical cyclones are formidable storm systems that have produced some of the world's most catastrophic natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones—variously defined as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones—regularly impact human populations and periodically produce devastating weather-related natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone, which is a generic term for a low pressure system that generally forms in the tropics.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[148] .Although many aspects of a link between tropical cyclones and global warming are still being "hotly debated",[149] a point of agreement is that no individual tropical cyclone or season can be attributed to global warming.^ Tropical cyclone season, by basin .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (Tropical Cyclone Programme report no.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[145][149] .Research reported in the 3 September 2008 issue of Nature found that the strongest tropical cyclones are getting stronger, particularly over the North Atlantic and Indian oceans.^ (Tropical Cyclone Programme report no.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones are formidable storm systems that have produced some of the world's most catastrophic natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones—variously defined as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones—regularly impact human populations and periodically produce devastating weather-related natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Wind speeds for the strongest tropical storms increased from an average of 140 miles per hour (230 km/h) in 1981 to 156 miles per hour (251 km/h) in 2006, while the ocean temperature, averaged globally over the all regions where tropical cyclones form, increased from 28.2 °C (82.8 °F) to 28.5 °C (83.3 °F) during this period.^ Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In developing nations, cyclone mortality continues to be periodically catastrophic, with deaths occurring primarily during the impact phase and being predominantly due to storm surge.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During this period, the diameter of the detected circulation generally decreased aloft, averaging near 2 km at each level, while the diameter remained nearly constant or increased slightly within the 0.5° slice.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

[150][151]

Related cyclone types

.In addition to tropical cyclones, there are two other classes of cyclones within the spectrum of cyclone types.^ A hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone, which is a generic term for a low pressure system that generally forms in the tropics.
  • What is the difference between a TROPICAL STORM A HURRICANE... - Q&A 20 September 2009 0:40 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The other type of player there is the young guy--wearing his hat, ear buds, and sunglasses, thinking he’s all that.

^ Climatologically, low-level shear is maximized within the northeast quadrant of tropical cyclone circulations.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

.These kinds of cyclones, known as extratropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones, can be stages a tropical cyclone passes through during its formation or dissipation.^ Stages of development of a tropical cyclone * .
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical systems evolve through a life cycle that includes the successive stages of tropical wave, tropical disturbance, tropical depression, and tropical storm ( table 1 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[152] .An extratropical cyclone is a storm that derives energy from horizontal temperature differences, which are typical in higher latitudes.^ Tropical cyclones are low-pressure weather systems that develop over the warm waters of the oceans, typically between the latitudes of 30° N and 30° S (1 , 2 , 5 , 6 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.A tropical cyclone can become extratropical as it moves toward higher latitudes if its energy source changes from heat released by condensation to differences in temperature between air masses; additionally, although not as frequently, an extratropical cyclone can transform into a subtropical storm, and from there into a tropical cyclone.^ While formation is restricted to tropical latitudes, damage and harm from tropical cyclones can extend far into extratropical areas, as is clearly evidenced by the Federal Emergency Management Agency map of federal disaster declarations for hurricanes affecting the United States in 2004 ( http://www.gismaps.fema.gov/2004graphics/storms/ivan/county_map_all_storms.pdf ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The frequency and severity of injuries incurred during a tropical cyclone are inversely related to the degree of physical protection from the storm; therefore, understandably, developing nations bear the major burden of cyclone-attributable injury.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For the period 1968–2003, an average of 88 tropical storms developed each year, of which 48 attained tropical cyclone intensity and 21 became major tropical cyclones ( table 4 ) (13 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] From space, extratropical storms have a characteristic "comma-shaped" cloud pattern.[153] .Extratropical cyclones can also be dangerous when their low-pressure centers cause powerful winds and high seas.^ A cell possessing weak cyclonic shear or rotation at low or midlevels and high reflectivity relative to surrounding cells should be immediately categorized as suspect, especially if persistence is noted or a history of wind damage exists.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones are low-pressure weather systems that develop over the warm waters of the oceans, typically between the latitudes of 30° N and 30° S (1 , 2 , 5 , 6 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several metrics are used to categorize the destructive potential of cyclones, based on a combination of pressure, wind speed, storm surge, and structural damage.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[154]
.A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical cyclone and some characteristics of an extratropical cyclone.^ Tropical cyclones are formidable storm systems that have produced some of the world's most catastrophic natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones—variously defined as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones—regularly impact human populations and periodically produce devastating weather-related natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones are low-pressure weather systems that develop over the warm waters of the oceans, typically between the latitudes of 30° N and 30° S (1 , 2 , 5 , 6 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

They can form in a wide band of latitudes, from the equator to 50°. .Although subtropical storms rarely have hurricane-force winds, they may become tropical in nature as their cores warm.^ Tropical cyclones are formidable storm systems that have produced some of the world's most catastrophic natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tropical cyclones—variously defined as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones—regularly impact human populations and periodically produce devastating weather-related natural disasters.
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ LSU’s researchers are studying all aspects of hurricanes and tropical storms as part of a comprehensive research effort that will benefit the citizens of Louisiana and the entire Gulf Coast region.
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

[155] .From an operational standpoint, a tropical cyclone is usually not considered to become subtropical during its extratropical transition.^ Weiss, S. J., 1985: On the operational forecasting of tornadoes associated with tropical cyclones.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During the past two centuries, 42 percent of tropical cyclone-associated deaths have occurred in Bangladesh, and 27 percent have occurred in India (77 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The occurrence of multiple tornadoes, or tornado outbreaks, associated with tropical cyclones has been a problem facing operational meteorologists for some time.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

[156]

Tropical cyclones in popular culture

.In popular culture, tropical cyclones have made appearances in different types of media, including films, books, television, music, and electronic games.^ Lobu When a cyclone is located or is expected to be located such that two or more tropical cyclone warning centres are involved, every attempt is made to resolve any differences of opinion on the cyclone and its expected behaviour through discussions.
  • FAQ: Tropical Cyclone Names :: Hurricane Preparedness 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.onestorm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning on 1 January 2000, tropical cyclones in the Northwest Pacific basin are being named from a new and very different list of names.
  • FAQ: Tropical Cyclone Names :: Hurricane Preparedness 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.onestorm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical cyclones cause a range of public health consequences, including mortality, injury, and infectious diseases (1 , 5 , 18 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

The media can have tropical cyclones that are entirely fictional, or can be based on real events.[157] .For example, George Rippey Stewart's Storm, a best-seller published in 1941, is thought to have influenced meteorologists into giving female names to Pacific tropical cyclones.^ For the period 1968–2003, an average of 88 tropical storms developed each year, of which 48 attained tropical cyclone intensity and 21 became major tropical cyclones ( table 4 ) (13 ).
  • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This study provides a radar-based analysis of known tornadic mesocyclones associated with two mature tropical cyclones that were not landfalling in the vicinity of the tornado occurrence, namely, Tropical Storm Gordon (1994) and Hurricane Allison (1995).
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Best track positions of Tropical Cyclone Gordon.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

[158] Another example is the hurricane in The Perfect Storm, which describes the sinking of the Andrea Gail by the 1991 Perfect Storm.[159] Also, hypothetical hurricanes have been featured in parts of the plots of series such as The Simpsons, Invasion, Family Guy, Seinfeld, Dawson's Creek, and CSI Miami.[157][160][161][162][163][164] .The 2004 film The Day After Tomorrow includes several mentions of actual tropical cyclones as well as featuring fantastical "hurricane-like" non-tropical Arctic storms.^ Another book that has been selling well is 'Hurricane Camille: Monster Storm of the Gulf Coast,' by Philip Hearn, which was published in 2004 by University Press of Mississippi to commemorate the 35th anniversary of the 1969 storm that Katrina has been compared to."
  • Hurricane Katrina Information Resources - Cavan McCarthy - SLIS/LSU - School of Library and Information Science - Louisiana State University 15 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ This study provides a radar-based analysis of known tornadic mesocyclones associated with two mature tropical cyclones that were not landfalling in the vicinity of the tornado occurrence, namely, Tropical Storm Gordon (1994) and Hurricane Allison (1995).
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By a large percentage, tropical cyclones landfalling from the Gulf of Mexico produce more tornadoes than Atlantic storms.
  • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

[165][166]

See also

Annual seasons
Forecasting and preparation

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External links

Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres
Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers
.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to cyclone article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

From Ancient Greek κυκλῶν (kuklōn), present active participle of κυκλόω (kukloō), I encircle) from κύκλος (kuklos), circle)

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
cyclone
Plural
cyclones
cyclone (plural cyclones)
.
  1. A system of winds rotating around a center of low atmospheric pressure.^ Tropical cyclones are low-pressure weather systems that develop over the warm waters of the oceans, typically between the latitudes of 30° N and 30° S (1 , 2 , 5 , 6 ).
    • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .A cyclone rotates counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere (opposite to that of an anticyclone).^ Cyclonic systems rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
    • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ NORTHERN HEMISPHERE TROPICAL CYCLONE NAMES .
    • FAQ: Tropical Cyclone Names :: Hurricane Preparedness 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.onestorm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Modern meteorology restricts the use of the term cyclone to the cyclonic-scale circulations. .But, it is still applied popularly to the more or less violent, small-scale circulations such as tornadoes, waterspouts, and dust devils (which may in fact exhibit anticyclonic rotation), and even, very loosely, to any strong wind.^ Even with an increased recognition of favorable synoptic-scale TC-tornado environments, many of these tornadoes still occur without official National Weather Service (NWS) warnings or with little (or negative) lead time.
    • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The persistence of the rotational component appeared to have been linked to the large-scale flow feature since the circulation rapidly dissipated once the surge weakened.
    • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Observations indicated that small mesocyclonic circulations were generated more often within persistent bandlike features than within transient, less persistent features.
    • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Because cyclonic circulation and relative low atmospheric pressure usually coexist, in common practice the terms cyclone and low are used interchangeably.^ Tropical cyclones are low-pressure weather systems that develop over the warm waters of the oceans, typically between the latitudes of 30° N and 30° S (1 , 2 , 5 , 6 ).
    • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In the Atlantic basin, tropical cyclone names are "retired" (that is, not to be used again for a new storm) if it is deemed to be quite noteworthy because of the damage and/or deaths it caused.
    • FAQ: Tropical Cyclone Names :: Hurricane Preparedness 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.onestorm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Climatologically, low-level shear is maximized within the northeast quadrant of tropical cyclone circulations.
    • AMS Online Journals - A WSR-88D Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Outer Rainband Tornadoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ams.allenpress.com [Source type: Academic]

    Also, because cyclones nearly always are accompanied by inclement (sometimes destructive) weather, they are frequently referred to simply as storms.
  2. A Southeastern and Indian Ocean weather phenomenon that results in wind speeds of around 150 to 200 km/h.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

.
  • hurricane
  • typhoon
  • Wikipedia-logo.png Cyclone on Wikipedia.^ Tropical cyclones—variously defined as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones—regularly impact human populations and periodically produce devastating weather-related natural disasters.
    • Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development -- Shultz et al. 27 (1): 21 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    Wikipedia

Simple English


A tropical cyclone is a name used to describe circle-shaped weather. All tropical cyclones form over the warm ocean waters in the warm part of Earth near the equator. Most tropical cyclones create strong winds and heavy rain. While some tropical cyclones stay out in the sea, others at times pass over land, which can be dangerous because they can cause a lot of damage.

Contents

Terms

A tropical cyclone is a low-pressure system (where the air pushes down less) and a cyclonic storm found in the warm part of Earth near the equator on Earth. There are several names for tropical cyclones, depending on where they happen and their strength: "tropical depressions", "tropical storms", and "hurricanes", along with other names used in different places on Earth, such as "cyclones" and "typhoons".

When winds get faster than 120 km/h or 74 mph, tropical cyclones are called "hurricanes" in the North Atlantic Ocean and Eastern and Central Pacific Ocean east of the international dateline. They are called "typhoons" or sometimes "super typhoons" if they are really strong in the Pacific Ocean west of the dateline. They are known as "cyclones" in the North Indian Ocean and in the Southern hemisphere.

Tropical cyclone behavior

Formation

A tropical cyclone forms in the warm parts of the earth when moist, hot air rises. It begins as a group of storms when the water gets as hot as 80 degrees or hotter. It then begins to slowly improve and look like a spiral shape. When convection bursts happen and a low-level circulation reaches the surface, it's then called a tropical disturbance.

If winds reach 25 mph or more, it is then called a "tropical depression". When tropical depression strengthens with winds staying at speeds of 39 mph, it is then called a "tropical storm". Tropical storms can turn into hurricanes (or typhoons and cyclones) when winds reach 74 mph. Tropical cyclones can form in the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and in the southern parts of the Earth.

The Coriolis effect causes winds to spiral. Because of this, tropical cyclones form close to the equator only in special conditions. Areas with cold seas, fast winds high up in the air, and/or dry air do not have the right conditions for tropical cyclones to form.

Locations and times

on August 24, 2002]]

Tropical cyclones form in the northern Atlantic, northern Pacific, southwestern Pacific, and Indian Ocean. Tropical cyclones may rarely form elsewhere in the world.

The Atlantic Ocean has around ten hurricanes each year. They can hit Central America, Mexico, the United States, Canada, Bermuda Island, and the Caribbean Islands. Most hurricanes form between June and November. Tropical cyclones rarely form in the south Atlantic.

The northeastern Pacific has around 16 cyclones a year. Most do not hit land. On average, two cyclones hit Mexico each year. They rarely affect Central America, California, or Hawaii. Most form between May and November.

The northwestern Pacific has around 27 tropical cyclones a year. They can hit Japan, China, North and South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, and some Pacific islands. This area has typhoons year-round.

The northern Indian Ocean has around six cyclones each year. They hit India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and nearby countries. Cyclones form year-round in this area.

The southern Indian Ocean has around twenty-one cyclones each year. They can hit Australia, Indonesia, Madagascar, and southern Africa. Most cyclones form between October and May.

The southwest Pacific has around ten cyclones per year. They can hit some Pacific Islands, Australia, and New Zealand. Most cyclones form between October and May.

Breaking up

Tropical cyclones can break up and disappear for several reasons. If they move over land, they no longer get moisture from the ocean waters. But sometimes, tropical cyclones can move over colder waters and begin to become an extra-tropical cyclone. Sometimes, they may be swallowed up by a larger system (like another stronger tropical cyclone, or another extra-tropical system). They may run into wind shear, which destroys convection and tears apart the system. Studies in the 2000s have shown that a lot of dust could also weaken a hurricane.

Naming

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See also: Lists of tropical cyclone names

Tropical cyclones are usually given names because it helps in forecasting, tracking, and reporting. They are named once they have steady winds of 62 km/h. Committees of the World Meteorological Organization pick names. Once named, a cyclone is usually not renamed.

The Atlantic uses a list of twenty-one names, starting with all letters of the alphabet except Q, V, X, Y, and Z. Names switch between male and female, and are taken from the English, Spanish and French languages. The lists repeat every six years. Destructive or deadly hurricanes have their names "retired". When a name is retired, it is removed from the list and replaced by a new name of the same gender.[1]

Beginning in 2002, the naming system for tropical cyclones have also been shared with subtropical cyclones after the National Hurricane Center decided to name both type of cyclonic storm under the same category.

The eastern Pacific used a similar system of lists, but also with names starting in X, Y, and Z. In both the Atlantic and Pacific, if more cyclones form then there are names, the Greek alphabet is used to name more cyclones. The central Pacific uses four lists of Hawaiian names. They are used in order without regard to the year.

The western Pacific uses five lists of twenty-eight names. Each country on the committee offers two names. The names are used in order of the countries' English names without regard to year. Names are also retired from these lists.

The areas around Australia use three separate sets. The south Pacific near Fiji uses another set. All are used without regard to year. Names can also be retired.

The southwestern Indian Ocean uses a list of twenty-six names. A new list is used each year. If the number of cyclones is higher than the number of names, more cyclones are not named.

Impact

When tropical cyclones make landfall, they create some damage as a result. But sometimes, when a strong tropical cyclone makes landfall, it creates high winds, heavy rain, storm surge, and in some cases, even tornadoes. Tropical cyclones are also known to kill people and destroy cities. In the last 200 years, about 1.5 million people have been killed by tropical cyclones.

Some long-term effects from tropical cyclones that can cause problems to a country, such as millions or even billions of dollars in damages can make relief supports difficult. Depending where a tropical cyclone hits, they usually create far more destruction when a tropical cyclone hits big city compared to making landfall in the countryside.

Wind damages can account up to 83% of the total damages caused when broken wreckage pieces from destroyed objects can become deadly flying pieces.[2] Other issues such as flooding can occur when rainfalls and/or storm surges pour water onto land.[3] Storm surges are also statistically known to be the cause of 90% of tropical cyclone-related deaths.

Other problems such as indirect deaths can also occur after a tropical cyclone makes landfall. For example, New Orleans, Louisiana suffered from poor sanitary conditions after Hurricane Katrina hit in 2005, as contaminated flood waters created disease and relief efforts were held up.[4]

Classifications

Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Category Wind speed Storm surge
mph
(km/h)
ft
(m)
5 ≥156
(≥250)
>18 (>5.5)
4 131–155
(210–249)
13–18
(4.0–5.5)
3 111–130
(178–209)
9–12
(2.7–3.7)
2 96–110
(154–177)
6–8
(1.8–2.4)
1 74–95
(119–153)
4–5
(1.2–1.5)
Additional classifications
Tropical
storm
39–73
(63–117)
0–3
(0–0.9)
Tropical
depression
0–38
(0–62)
0
(0)
See also: Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale

Tropical cyclones are classified into different categories depending on their strength and location. The National Hurricane Center which observes hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean and Eastern and Central Pacific Ocean classify them into the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

Tropical cylones in other places such as the Western Pacific Ocean or the Southern Hemisphere are classified on similar scales. For example; if a tropical storm in the western Pacific reaches hurricane-strength winds, it is then officially recognized as a typhoon.

A tropical depression is an organized group of clouds and thunderstorms with a clear surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 m/s (33 kt, 38 mph, or 62 km/h). It has no eye and does not usually have the spiral shape of more powerful storms. Only the Philippines are known to name tropical depressions.

A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a very clear surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 and 32 m/s (34–63 kt, 39–73 mph, or 62–117 km/h). At this point, the cyclonic shape starts to form, although an eye does not usually appear in tropical storms. Most tropical cyclone agencies beginning naming cyclonic storms at this point, except for the Philippines which have their own way of naming cyclones.

A hurricane or typhoon is a cyclonic weather system with sustained winds of at least 33 m/s (64 kt, 74 mph, or 118 km/h). A tropical cyclone of this strength usually develop an eye, an area of calm conditions at the center of circulation. The eye is often seen from space as a small, round, cloud-free spot. Surrounding the eye is the eyewall, an area in which the strongest thunderstorms and winds spin around the storm's center. The fastest sustained windspeed founded in tropical cyclones is thought to be 85 m/s (165 kt, 190 mph, 305 km/h).

What Tropical Cyclone Are Also Called

Many people from different nations and regions around the world call tropical cyclones in other different ways depending on their location. In the North Atlantic Ocean and East & Central Pacific, tropical cyclones are called "hurricanes"; while in the West Pacific, tropical cyclones are also known as "typhoons". But only the North Indian basin and the entire Southern Hemisphere call these storms "tropical cyclones".

Other pages

Cyclones and Tropical cyclones of the World
Cyclone - Tropical - Extratropical - Subtropical - Mesocyclone - Polar cyclone - Polar low

References

  1. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: What are the upcoming tropical cyclone names?". NOAA. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/B2.html. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  2. Chris Landsea (1998). "How does the damage that hurricanes cause increase as a function of wind speed?". Hurricane Research Division. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/D5.html. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  3. James M. Shultz, Jill Russell and Zelde Espinel (2005). "Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development". Oxford Journal. http://epirev.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/27/1/21. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  4. Staff Writer (2005-08-30). "Hurricane Katrina Situation Report #11". Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) United States Department of Energy. http://www.oe.netl.doe.gov/docs/katrina/katrina_083005_1600.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 

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