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Tropical monsoon climate, occasionally also known as a tropical wet climate or tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate, is a relatively rare type of climate that corresponds to the category Am under the Köppen climate classification. Like Tropical savanna climates, Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18º C in every month of the year and features wet and dry seasons. Unlike tropical savanna climates however, a tropical monsoon climate's driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation but more than (100 − [total annual precipitation {mm}/25]). In essence, a tropical monsoon climate typically features less pronounced dry seasons than a tropical savanna climate. Finally, a tropical monsoon climate tends to see less variance in temperatures during the course of the year than a tropical savanna climate. This climate has a driest month which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator.[1]

Tropical monsoon climates are most commonly found in South Asia and West Africa. However, there are sections of Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, North and South America that also features this climate.

The major controlling factor over a tropical monsoon climate is its relationship to the monsoon circulation. The monsoon is a seasonal change in wind direction. In Asia, during the summer (or high-sun season) there is an onshore flow of air (air moving from ocean towards land). In the “winter” (or low-sun season) an offshore air flow (air moving from land toward water) is prevalent. The change in direction is due to the difference in the way water and land heat. Changing pressure patterns that affect the seasonality of precipitation also occur in Africa though it generally differs from the way it operates in Asia. During the high-sun season, the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) induces rain. During the low-sun season, the subtropical high creates dry conditions [2]. The monsoon climate of Africa, and the Americas for that matter, are typically located along tradewind coasts.

Notable Cities with Tropical Monsoon Climates

Charts of Selected cities

Miami
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
51
 
24
15
 
 
53
 
25
16
 
 
61
 
26
18
 
 
72
 
28
20
 
 
158
 
30
22
 
 
237
 
31
24
 
 
145
 
32
25
 
 
193
 
32
25
 
 
194
 
31
24
 
 
143
 
29
22
 
 
68
 
27
19
 
 
47
 
25
16
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: WMO
Medellin
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
55
 
27
17
 
 
77
 
27
16
 
 
114
 
27
16
 
 
179
 
28
16
 
 
191
 
28
16
 
 
153
 
28
16
 
 
108
 
28
16
 
 
154
 
28
16
 
 
178
 
27
16
 
 
218
 
27
16
 
 
150
 
27
17
 
 
79
 
27
17
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: [2]
Monrovia
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
31
 
30
23
 
 
56
 
29
23
 
 
97
 
31
23
 
 
216
 
31
23
 
 
516
 
30
22
 
 
973
 
27
23
 
 
986
 
27
22
 
 
373
 
27
23
 
 
744
 
27
22
 
 
772
 
28
22
 
 
236
 
29
23
 
 
130
 
30
23
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: BBC [3]
Chittagong
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
5
 
26
13
 
 
28
 
28
15
 
 
64
 
31
19
 
 
150
 
32
23
 
 
264
 
32
24
 
 
533
 
31
25
 
 
597
 
30
25
 
 
518
 
30
24
 
 
320
 
31
24
 
 
180
 
31
23
 
 
56
 
29
18
 
 
15
 
26
14
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: BBC [4]
Mangalore
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
0
 
31
21
 
 
0
 
31
22
 
 
0
 
32
24
 
 
30
 
32
25
 
 
150
 
35
26
 
 
940
 
28
24
 
 
980
 
27
23
 
 
590
 
27
23
 
 
260
 
28
23
 
 
200
 
30
23
 
 
70
 
31
23
 
 
10
 
31
22
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: [5]
Abidjan
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
41
 
31
23
 
 
53
 
32
24
 
 
99
 
32
24
 
 
125
 
32
24
 
 
361
 
31
24
 
 
495
 
29
23
 
 
213
 
28
23
 
 
53
 
28
22
 
 
71
 
28
23
 
 
168
 
29
23
 
 
201
 
31
23
 
 
79
 
31
23
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: [6]
Cairns
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
392
 
31
24
 
 
453
 
31
24
 
 
426
 
31
23
 
 
198
 
29
22
 
 
91
 
28
20
 
 
46
 
26
18
 
 
29
 
26
17
 
 
27
 
27
17
 
 
33
 
28
19
 
 
40
 
30
21
 
 
92
 
31
22
 
 
180
 
31
23
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: [7]
Thiruvananthapuram
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
23
 
32
22
 
 
24
 
32
23
 
 
40
 
33
24
 
 
117
 
33
25
 
 
230
 
32
25
 
 
321
 
30
24
 
 
227
 
29
23
 
 
138
 
29
23
 
 
175
 
30
23
 
 
282
 
30
23
 
 
185
 
30
23
 
 
66
 
31
23
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: IMD

References

  1. ^ McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types: The Köppen System". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pg. 208. ISBN 0-13-020263-0
  2. ^ [1]
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