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Tropicamide
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-ethyl-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-N- (pyridin-4-ylmethyl) propanamide
Identifiers
CAS number 1508-75-4
ATC code S01FA06
PubChem 5593
DrugBank APRD00287
Chemical data
Formula C 17H20N2O2  
Mol. mass 284.353 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Protein binding 45%
Metabolism  ?
Half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status
Routes  ?
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Tropicamide (Mydriacyl) is an anticholinergic used as a mydriatic.

Uses

Tropicamide is a parasympatholytic that produces short acting mydriasis (dilation of the pupil) and cycloplegia[1] when applied as eye drops. It is used to allow better examination of the lens, vitreous humor, and retina. Due to its relatively short duration of effect (4–8 hours), it is typically used during eye examinations such as the dilated fundus examination, but it may also be used before or after eye surgery. Cycloplegic drops are often also used to treat anterior uveitis, decreasing risk of posterior synechiae and decreasing inflammation in the anterior chamber of the eye.

Tropicamide is occasionally administered in combination with p-hydroxyamphetamine (brand name Paremyd), which is a sympathomimetic. The use of the sympathomimetic drug causes the iris dilator muscle to be directly stimulated, causing increased dilation. In the United States, the sympathomimetic drop most commonly used along with Tropicamide, is 2.5% Phenylephrine Hydrochloride (brand name AK-Dilate).

Side effects

Systemic side effects are very rare. Tropicamide is often preferred to atropine because atropine has a longer half-life, causing prolonged dilation and blurry vision for up to a week. Atropine has less sting effect, but can be toxic or fatal if ingested in large quantities by children or adults.

References

  1. ^ Manny RE, Hussein M, Scheiman M, Kurtz D, Niemann K, Zinzer K (July 2001). "Tropicamide (1%): an effective cycloplegic agent for myopic children". Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 42 (8): 1728–35. PMID 11431435. http://www.iovs.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11431435.  
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