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Qiqihar
齐齐哈尔
—  Prefecture-level city  —
Chinese transcription(s)
 - Simplified 齐齐哈尔
 - Traditional 齊齊哈爾
 - Pinyin Qíqíhāěr
Qiqihar (red) in Heilongjiang province (orange) and China
Country China
Province Heilongjiang
Area
 - Prefecture-level city 42,469 km2 (16,397.4 sq mi)
Population
 - Prefecture-level city 6,011,000
 Density 141.5/km2 (366.6/sq mi)
 Metro 1,438,550
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Area code(s) 0452
Website http://www.qqhr.gov.cn/

Qiqihar (simplified Chinese: 齐齐哈尔traditional Chinese: 齊齊哈爾pinyin: Qíqíhāěr; Manchu: Cicigar hoton) is a major city in the Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. The municipal area has 1,438,550 inhabitants. These are mainly Han Chinese; there are thirty-four minorities including Manchu, Daur, and Mongolians[1]. Close to Qiqihar are numerous wetlands and the Zhalong Nature Reserve, famous in China for being home to numerous red-crowned cranes. In 2007 it had a GDP of RMB 56.9 billion with a 14.6% growth rate.

Contents

History

Qiqihar is one of the oldest cities in the northeast of China and was founded in 1691. From 1931 until 1945 it was an important military base for the Japanese control of northeastern China, going by the name Tsitsihar. During the occupation, the Imperial Japanese Army established in Qiqihar chemical research unit 516 for chemical warfare.

A major mustard gas tank leftover from the Second Sino-Japanese War buried underground was accidentally damaged in 2003. It caused major injuries and one death.

Geography

The population is about 6.011 million, where 1,438,550 (January 1, 2005) people live in the city. The area is 4,310 km²; 42,469 km² including suburbs. It is at about 146 m above sea level. Qiqihar is a principal Chinese city, the second largest in Heilongjiang Province and the 13th largest in China (based on total population).

Under the Koppen climate classification system, Qiqihar has a cold semi-arid climate, with four distinct seasons. It has long, severely cold, but dry winters, with an average January temperature of −18.1 °C (−0.6 °F). Spring and fall are mild, but short and quick transitions. Summers are very warm and humid, with an average July temperature of 23.3 °C (73.9 °F). The average annual precipitation is 415 millimetres (16.3 in), with the majority of it falling from June to August.

Qiqihar
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
1.5
 
-12
-24
 
 
1.7
 
-7
-19
 
 
5.6
 
3
-10
 
 
17
 
13
-0
 
 
30
 
21
8
 
 
67
 
26
15
 
 
129
 
28
19
 
 
90
 
26
17
 
 
46
 
20
9
 
 
20
 
11
-0
 
 
4.4
 
-1
-11
 
 
3.6
 
-10
-20
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
Climate data for Qiqihar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) -12.4
(10)
-6.5
(20)
2.7
(37)
13.1
(56)
21.2
(70)
26.2
(79)
28.0
(82)
26.3
(79)
20.3
(69)
11.1
(52)
-1.1
(30)
-10.1
(14)
9.9
(50)
Average low °C (°F) -23.7
(-11)
-19.3
(-3)
-10.1
(14)
-0.2
(32)
8.0
(46)
14.9
(59)
18.5
(65)
16.6
(62)
9.1
(48)
-0.2
(32)
-11.3
(12)
-20.4
(-5)
-1.5
(29)
Precipitation mm (inches) 1.5
(0.06)
1.7
(0.07)
5.6
(0.22)
17.3
(0.68)
29.6
(1.17)
67.1
(2.64)
128.8
(5.07)
90.0
(3.54)
45.5
(1.79)
20.1
(0.79)
4.4
(0.17)
3.6
(0.14)
415.2
(16.35)
Sunshine hours 190.6 208.6 260.4 248.5 282.7 282.2 269.4 271.7 247.3 227.6 185.4 164.9 2,839.3
% Humidity 67 58 47 46 46 62 73 73 66 57 60 67 60.2
Source: China Meteorological Agency [2] 2010-03-07

Subdivisions

Qiqihar is divided into 16 divisions: 7 districts (区 ), 8 counties (县 xiàn) and 1 county-level city (县级市 xiànjí shì).

Qiqihar mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Longsha District 龙沙区 Lóngshā Qū 300,000 283 1,060
2 Jianhua District 建华区 Jiànhuá Qū 220,000 81 2,716
3 Tiefeng District 铁峰区 Tiěfēng Qū 300,000 695 432
4 Ang'angxi District 昂昂溪区 Áng'ángxī Qū 90,000 623 144
5 Fularji District 富拉尔基区 Fùlā'ěrjī Qū 270,000 375 720
6 Nianzishan District 碾子山区 Niǎnzishān Qū 80,000 290 276
7 Meilisi Daur District 梅里斯达斡尔族区 Méilǐsī Dáwò'ěrzú Qū 170,000 1,948 87
8 Nehe City 讷河市 Nēhé Shì 640,000 6,664 96
9 Longjiang County 龙江县 Lóngjiāng Xiàn 600,000 6,197 97
10 Yi'an County 依安县 Yī'ān Xiàn 490,000 3,780 130
11 Tailai County 泰来县 Tàilái Xiàn 320,000 4,061 79
12 Gannan County 甘南县 Gānnán Xiàn 380,000 4,384 87
13 Fuyu County 富裕县 Fùyù Xiàn 280,000 4,335 65
14 Keshan County 克山县 Kèshān Xiàn 460,000 3,632 127
15 Kedong County 克东县 Kèdōng Xiàn 280,000 2,083 134
16 Baiquan County 拜泉县 Bàiquán Xiàn 550,000 3,569 154

Tourism

  • Zhalong Nature Reserve
  • Longsha Park
  • Zen Monastery
  • Labor Lake
  • New cultural sites at Ang'angxi
  • Wan Shin Buddhist Temple
  • St. Michael's Cathedral
  • Mingyue Island

Sports

Qiqihar was previously home to an Asia League Ice Hockey team which used the snow leopard as a mascot. The team later became Changchun Fuao, relocating to Changchun, Jilin Province. Qiqihar played host to the 2007 IIHF World Championships Division I, Group A.

Education

Transport

Qiqihar has a domestic airport (Qiqihar Airport), a railway station, a bus network, and taxis.

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Gallery

Notes

External links

Coordinates: 47°20′N 123°58′E / 47.333°N 123.967°E / 47.333; 123.967


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