The Full Wiki

Tudor dynasty: Wikis

  
  

























Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tudor dynasty
Tudor rose.svg
The Tudor rose.
Country Kingdom of England, Principality of Wales, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of France
Parent house Dinefwr (paternal)
Titles
Founder Henry VII of England
Final ruler Elizabeth I of England
Founding year 1485
Dissolution 1603
Ethnicity Welsh, English
.The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a prominent European royal house of Welsh origin[1] that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship and Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch Henry Tudor, descended patrilineally from the rulers of the Welsh principality of Deheubarth,[citation needed] and maternally from a legitimized branch of the English royal House of Lancaster.^ Tudor England 1485 to 1603 .
  • History in Focus: Medical History: Elizabeth I and James VI and I - Web Resources 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Encyclopedia Tudor Tudor, royal family that ruled England from 1485 to 1603.
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/people/A0849632.html 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses, which left the House of Lancaster, to which the Tudors were aligned, extirpated.^ Tudor's influence was a powerful one in her family.

^ The Tudor family is represented by the Tudor Rose.
  • College project on Tudors. Help!? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Tudor Rose - Heraldry, Chivalry & Renaissance Gallery of Medallions - Quick Silver Mint 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.quicksilvermint.com [Source type: General]

^ (The Tudor rose combined the red rose of the House of Lancaster, with the white rose of the House of York.
  • Phlit: A Newsletter on Philosophy and Literature: Shakespeare, Southampton, Elizabeth I, etc.: 2005-7C 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ljhammond.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry Tudor was able to establish himself as a candidate not only of the traditional Lancastrian supporters, but of discontented supporters of the rival House of York, and rose to capture the throne in battle, becoming Henry VII.^ This Henry VII ‑ Henry Tudor ‑ a Welsh prince ascended the throne of England.
  • do all Scottish, Irish and Welsh speak English? | Antimoon Forum 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.antimoon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry Tudor won the battle of Bosworth, became King Henry VII, and established the Tudor dynasty on English throne.
  • England 1485-1660 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC history.wisc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth I, red rose of the House of Tudor .
  • Provo City Library Catalog 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC pac.provo.lib.ut.us [Source type: General]
  • Keene-Link /KPL YOUTH 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC ksclib.keene.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His victory was re-inforced by his marriage to Elizabeth of York, symbolically uniting the former warring factions under a new dynasty.^ Henry secured the Tudor dynasty by his marriage to Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV and a first cousin of Lady Margaret Poyntz.

^ Intertwining at the centre bottom is a white and red rose to symbolise the marriage of Henry to Elizabeth of York, Richards niece.
  • Stoke Golding - Birthplace of The Tudor Dynasty 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stokegolding.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ He also married Edward's eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York , thus uniting the warring royal houses of Lancaster and York (also, any issue would be descended from a legitimate royal house through his wife).
  • WikiAnswers - What is the tudor period 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.The Tudors extended their power beyond modern England, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542, (Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542); and successfully asserting English authority over the Kingdom of Ireland.^ Henry also oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 .
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tudors ruled over England, Wales and part of Ireland.
  • An interactive site designed for 7-10 year olds to learn some facts about the Tudors, Henry VIII and his wives 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.brims.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Henry also oversaw the legal union of England and Wales (see Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 ).
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

They also maintained the traditional (i.e. nominal) claims to the Kingdom of France, but none tried to make substance of it.
.The Plantagenet strategy of wooing Portuguese and Spanish marriages paid off under the Tudors, which ultimately was the bridge by which England crossed into the New World, from Newfoundland via John Cabot under Henry VII, to Virginia via Walter Raleigh, New Albion via Francis Drake, and the Northwest Passage (the future Rupert's Land) via Martin Frobisher, all under Elizabeth.^ Elizabeth Tudor (daughter of King Henry VII) .
  • Biography of Elizabeth Tudor (daughter of King Henry VII) - RoyaList Online 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.royalist.info [Source type: General]

^ This Henry VII ‑ Henry Tudor ‑ a Welsh prince ascended the throne of England.
  • do all Scottish, Irish and Welsh speak English? | Antimoon Forum 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.antimoon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Francis Drake is knighted by Queen Elizabeth.
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth also gave assent for John Hawkins to raid the dominions of Mary's former husband - New Spain.^ Elizabeth also gave assent for John Hawkins to raid on Mary's old dominions of New Spain.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, however, Mary Queen of Scots' death opened the way for Mary Tudor's husband, Philip II of Spain, to assert his rights as the strongest surviving Catholic candidate for the throne held by (in Catholic eyes) the illegitimate Elizabeth.

^ After Philip had launched a surprise attack on the English privateers Sir Francis Drake and John Hawkins in 1568, Elizabeth assented to the detention of a Spanish treasure ship in 1569.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.In total, five Tudor monarchs ruled their domains for just over a century (Lady Jane Grey, the granddaughter of Henry VIII's younger sister Mary, was declared Queen for a period of nine days in 1553, but is usually regarded as a usurper rather than a monarch).^ Mary ruled England for five years.
  • Mary Tudor (I of England) (Pepys' Diary) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alternative line descended from Henry VIII's younger sister, Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Mary pardons Lady Jane Grey.
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.Henry VIII of England was the only male-line male heir of Henry VII to live to the age of majority; and issues around the Royal succession (including marriage, divorce, and the succession rights of women) became major political themes during the Tudor era.^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ He was the only bastard that Henry VIII acknowledged.
  • About Henry FITZROY (D. Richmond) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ This Henry VII ‑ Henry Tudor ‑ a Welsh prince ascended the throne of England.
  • do all Scottish, Irish and Welsh speak English? | Antimoon Forum 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.antimoon.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Tudor line failed in 1603 with the death of Elizabeth I of England, who died without issue.^ The Tudor dynasty ended with the death of Elizabeth, who never married.

^ Tudor England 1485 to 1603 .
  • History in Focus: Medical History: Elizabeth I and James VI and I - Web Resources 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elizabeth died without having any children.

.Through secret negotiations with her cousin James, King of Scotland, (whose great-grandmother was Henry VIII's elder sister, Margaret) Elizabeth arranged the succession of the House of Stuart to the English throne, uniting the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in a personal union.^ King Henry VIII, year 27 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

^ Elizabeth was the third child of Henry VIII of England.

^ King Henry VIII, year 17 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

Contents

Ascent to the throne

Earlier arms of the Tudors as Welsh noble house.
.The Tudors descended matrilineally from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of the 14th century English Prince John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (the third surviving son of Edward III of England) by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford.^ Edward 1st 'Longshanks' King of England .

^ John of Gaunt cr Duke of Lancaster .

^ Henry PLANTAGENET 1st Duke Lancaster .

.The descendants of an illegitimate child of English Royalty would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth).^ The descendants of an illegitimate child of English Royalty would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This would cement his claim to the throne.
  • Arthur Tudor - English Culture 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bellaonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Beaufort's claim on the English throne had once been declared illegitimate, but it was later legalised.

.In view of the marriage, the church retroactively declared the Beauforts legitimate by way of a papal bull the same year, confirmed by an Act of Parliament in 1397. A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV, also recognized the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible to ever inherit the throne.^ King Henry VII, year 22 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

^ King Henry VIII, year 27 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

^ King Henry VIII, year 17 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

.Nevertherless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's legitimate descendants from his first marriage, the Royal House of Lancaster.^ Nevertherless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's legitimate descendants from his first marriage, the Royal House of Lancaster .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He also married Edward's eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York , thus uniting the warring royal houses of Lancaster and York (also, any issue would be descended from a legitimate royal house through his wife).
  • WikiAnswers - What is the tudor period 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ However, Margaret Beaufort's marriage to a prominent Yorkist, Thomas Stanley , the first Earl of Derby , brought the Tudors influence at Court.
  • WikiAnswers - What is the tudor period 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.John Beaufort's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort, a considerable heiress, was married to Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond.^ John Beaufort's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort , a considerable heiress, was married to Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lady Margaret Beaufort was the Tudor dynasty's matriarch.
  • Margaret Beaufort: My Lady The King's Mother 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudorhistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Margaret Beaufort countess of Richmond and Derby .
  • Margaret Tudor Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Margaret Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tewdr (anglicised to "Owen Tudor") and Katherine of Valois, widowed Queen Consort of the Lancastrian King Henry V.^ Margaret's son, Henry Tudor .
  • Margaret Beaufort: My Lady The King's Mother 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudorhistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Henry (VII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

.Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the good will of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI.^ Henry was a very good king.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry was an important but not really a good king.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first Tudor king was Henry Vll .

.When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed.^ When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tudors The Tudor reign began with the succession of Henry Tudor (Henry VII) in 1485, after he defeated Richard III in the War of Roses, uniting the Houses of York and Lancaster.
  • Tudortastic 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudortastic.com [Source type: General]

^ The House of Lancaster retakes the throne -- Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, illegitimate heir of the Duke of Lancaster, defeats Richard's forces at the Battle of Bosworth Field, 1485.
  • Dr. Vess's World Civilization Virtual Library 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hercules.gcsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Edmund's son Henry Tudor, born in Pembroke, grew up in south Wales and in exile in Brittany, while his mother Lady Margaret remained in England and remarried, quietly advancing the cause of her son in a Kingdom now ruled by the rival House of York.^ Margaret's son, Henry Tudor .
  • Margaret Beaufort: My Lady The King's Mother 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudorhistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Anne remained in England, and never remarried.
  • About Henry VIII TUDOR (King of England) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

.With most of the House of Lancaster now dead, Henry proclaimed himself the Lancastrian heir.^ With most of the House of Lancaster now dead, Henry proclaimed himself the Lancastrian heir.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Young Henry was now heir to the throne.
  • About Henry VIII TUDOR (King of England) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ Tudor Place: Henry VII He married Elizabeth of York, combining the two houses of York and Lancaster, and passed a law declaring himself king before the Battle of Bosworth , thus making his enemies traitors.
  • Henry VII of England 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

.Capitalising on the unpopularity of King Richard III, his mother was able to forge an alliance with discontented Yorkists in support of her son, who landed in England and defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, proclaiming himself King Henry VII.^ King Henry VII, year 22 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

^ Henry III Plantagenet, 23rd King of England .

^ Henry III of england .

.By marrying Richard III's niece, Elizabeth of York, Henry VII successfully bolstered his own disputed claim to the throne, whilst moving to end the Wars of the Roses by presenting England with a new dynasty, of both Lancastrian and Yorkist descent.^ After the death of Richard III during the War of the Roses, Henry gained the throne himself in 1485 as Henry VII. .

^ In order to further consolidate his claim Henry married Elizabeth of York.
  • Vallieres. Tudor Succession Problems. 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VII became King of England, founding the Tudor dynasty, when he defeated Richard III at what final battle of the Wars of the Roses?
  • House of Tudor - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The new dynasty was symbolized by the "Tudor Rose", a fusion of the White Rose symbol of the House of York, and the Red Rose of the House of Lancaster.^ The new dynasty was symbolized by the " Tudor Rose ", a fusion of the White Rose symbol of the House of York, and the Red Rose of the House of Lancaster.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry created the Tudor rose , containing both the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster.

^ The white rose of the Yorks and the red rose of the Lancasters were united in the Tudor rose.

King Henry VII, the founder of the royal house of Tudor
.Henry VII and Queen Elizabeth bore several children, four of which survived infancy: Arthur, Prince of Wales, Henry, Duke of Richmond, Margaret, who married James IV of Scotland, and Mary, who married Louis XII of France.^ I have put an end to the War of the Roses and I have married the rose of York, Queen Elizabeth, who has bore me four surviving children - Prince Arthur, Princess Margaret, Prince Henry and Princess Mary!
  • MySpace - Henry VII - 20 - Hombre - Lancaster, UK - myspace.com/house_of_lancaster 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, Henry's daughter Margaret married James IV, King of Scots.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Katherine of Aragon and Arthur, Prince of Wales marry .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.Henry VII married his eldest son Arthur to Catherine of Aragon, cementing an alliance with the Spanish monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, and the two spent their honeymoon at Ludlow Castle, the traditional seat of the Prince of Wales.^ Katherine of Aragon and Arthur, Prince of Wales marry .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Married: Catherine of Aragon, 1509, 1 daughter.

^ Henry's father had previously prevented him from marrying Catherine of Aragon.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, four months after the marriage, Arthur died, leaving his younger brother Henry as heir apparent.^ Henrys older brother Arthur had died in 1502.

^ However, four months after the marriage, Arthur died, leaving his younger brother Henry as heir apparent.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His older brother Arthur was first in line but when Arthur died, Henry became the heir.
  • Monarchy with David Starkey: Previous Broadcasts | KQED Public Media for Northern CA 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]
  • Monarchy with David Starkey: Previous Broadcasts | KQED Public Media for Northern CA 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]

.Henry VII acquired a Papal dispensation allowing Prince Henry to marry Arthur's widow; however, Henry VII delayed the marriage, so it did not occur during his lifetime.^ Pope Julius grants a papal dispensation to allow the marriage of Prince Henry to Catherine of Aragon.
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She was the widow of Henry VIII's brother Arthur, Prince of Wales, when Henry married her.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 19 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC thedon.cac.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His grandfather, Owen Tudor, however, had married Catherine , the widow of Henry V .
  • Henry VII of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Catherine of Aragon: divorced for not producing a male heir to the Tudor dynasty
.The new King Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon; the two wed on 11 June 1509, and crowned at Westminster Abbey on 24 June the same year.^ King Henry VII, year 22 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

^ King Henry VIII, year 27 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

^ King Henry VIII, year 17 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

.However, Catherine did not bear Henry the sons he was desperate for; Catherine's first child, a daughter, was stillborn, and her second child, a son named Henry, Duke of Cornwall, died 52 days after the birth.^ Shortly after the birth of the child, Jane died.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Birth of stillborn child .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Catherine did not bear Henry the sons he was desperate for; Catherine's first child, a daughter, was stillborn, and her second child, a son named Henry, Duke of Cornwall , died 52 days after the birth.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A further set of stillborn children were conceived, until a daughter Mary was born in 1516. When it became clear to Henry that the Tudor dynasty was at risk, he consulted his chief minister Thomas Cardinal Wolsey about the possibility of divorcing Catherine.^ When it became clear to Henry that the Tudor dynasty was at risk, he consulted his chief minister Thomas Cardinal Wolsey about the possibility of divorcing Catherine.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry TUDOR was born in 1534 in Unknown.
  • http://www.cookfamilyforest.com/Neil/b455.htm 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.cookfamilyforest.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally in 1516 the daughter Mary was born.
  • Christian History Handbook: Early Modern: Lecture Fourteen 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC users.sbuniv.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Wolsey visited Rome, where he hoped to get the Pope's consent for a divorce.^ Wolsey visited Rome, where he hoped to get the Pope's consent for a divorce.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Without informing Cardinal Wolsey, Henry directly appealed to the Pope for a divorce.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cardinal Wolsey : [regarding Henry's desired divorce] It is my considered opinion that we should apply to His Holiness, Pope Clement, for a ruling on this matter.
  • The Tudors - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the church was reluctant to rescind the earlier papal dispensation and felt heavy pressure from Catherine's nephew, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in support of his aunt.^ Under pressure from Catherine's nephew, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, the Pope refused.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the church was reluctant to rescind the earlier papal dispensation and felt heavy pressure from Catherine's nephew, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor , in support of his aunt.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry and Cromwell feared that Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King Francis I of France would join forces and attack England.
  • On This Day: King Henry VIII Marries Fourth Wife 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.findingdulcinea.com [Source type: News]

.Catherine contested the divorce, and a protracted legal battle followed.^ Catherine contested the divorce, and a protracted legal battle followed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Wolsey fell from favour as a result of his failure to procure a divorce, and Henry appointed Thomas Cromwell in his place.^ Wolsey fell from favour as a result of his failure to procure a divorce, and Henry appointed Thomas Cromwell in his place.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Reluctantly, Henry agreed, and he appointed Thomas Cromwell as his replacement.
  • Sir Thomas More: A Martyr to Conscience | Socyberty 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 28, 1540, Thomas Cromwell was beheaded after having arranged an unfortunate marriage for Henry with Anne of Cleves from Flanders.
  • Christian History Handbook: Early Modern: Lecture Fourteen 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC users.sbuniv.edu [Source type: Original source]

Break with Roman Catholicism

Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, Henry VIII's chief minister responsible for the Dissolution of the Monasteries
.In order to allow Henry to divorce his wife, the English parliament enacted laws breaking ties with Rome, and declaring the king Supreme Governor of the Church of England.^ It was the Valhalla of England's kings and the Coronation church.
  • Westminster Abbey and the history those buried there | Culture | Houses for sale, properties for sale - Country Life 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.countrylife.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In view of this evidence Parliament declared Gloucester Englands King.

^ Henry VIII breaks with Rome and becomes head of the Church.
  • College of St George - Windsor Castle - St George's Timeline 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.stgeorges-windsor.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, was then able to declare Henry's marriage to Catherine annulled.^ Henry sought to annul his marriage to Catherine.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Cranmer is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry has his marriage annulled by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • The Tudors - Season 2, Jonathan Rhys Meyers, DVD - Barnes & Noble 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC video.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

.This allowed Henry to marry one of his courtiers Anne Boleyn, the daughter of a minor diplomat Sir Thomas Boleyn.^ By her he had one daughter, Anne.
  • http://www.cookfamilyforest.com/Neil/b455.htm 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.cookfamilyforest.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She was the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn.
  • Queen Elizabeth I Message Board 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC mb.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anne Boleyn, 1533, 1 Daughter.

.Anne became pregnant in 1533, but the child, born in September that year, was a girl, named Elizabeth in honour of Henry's mother.^ On September 7, 1533, Elizabeth Tudor was born.
  • Christian History Handbook: Early Modern: Lecture Fourteen 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC users.sbuniv.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth Tudor I Born September 7, 1533 [place of birth?
  • Wiki Tree - Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.wikitree.com [Source type: General]

^ Born: Greenwich Palace, 7 September 1533.

.Anne may have had later pregnancies which ended in miscarriage or stillbirth.^ Anne may have had later pregnancies which ended in miscarriage or stillbirth.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The couple's first child was stillborn, their second lived for just 52 days, the third pregnancy ended as a miscarriage and the product of the fourth pregnancy died soon after birth.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Catherine's first pregnancy ended in a miscarriage in 1510.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Thomas Cromwell stepped in again, claiming that Anne had taken lovers during her marriage to Henry, and she was tried for high treason, witchcraft and incest; these charges were most likely fabricated, but she was found guilty, and executed in 1536.

Protestant alliance

Henry VIII of England: Henry's quarrels with the Pope led to the creation of the Church of England
.Henry married again, for a third time, to Jane Seymour, the daughter of a Wiltshire knight.^ His third wife was Jane Seymour.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry, now forty-five, marries Jane Seymour.
  • Information Portal 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC hip.hclibrary.org [Source type: General]

^ Henry immediately married wife number three, Jane Seymour.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jane became pregnant, and in 1537 produced a son, who became King Edward VI following Henry's death in 1547. Jane died of puerperal fever only a few days after the birth, and Henry was devastated.^ Edward's mother, Jane Seymour, died shortly after giving birth.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly after the birth of the child, Jane died.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jane and Henry had one child - Edward Tudor/Edward VI (1537-1553).
  • Courtly Lives - Tudor Family Tree 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell continued to gain the king's favour when he designed and pushed through the Laws in Wales Acts, uniting England and Wales, and continued to hold favour even when Henry faced the biggest threat to his rule.^ Cromwell loses the king's favour.
  • The Tudors on TV.com 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.tv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cromwell continued to gain the king's favour when he designed and pushed through the Laws in Wales Acts , uniting England and Wales, and continued to hold favour even when Henry faced the biggest threat to his rule.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry also oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 .
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry married for a fourth time, to the daughter of a Protestant German duke, Anne of Cleves, thus forming an alliance with the Protestant German states.^ Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves married .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anne of Cleves (1515-1557), daughter of John, Duke of Cleves, married Henry VIII on January 6, 1539.
  • Courtly Lives - Tudor Family Tree 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry married for a fourth time, to the daughter of a Protestant German duke, Anne of Cleves , thus forming an alliance with the Protestant German states.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Henry was reluctant to marry again, especially to a Protestant, but he was persuaded when the court painter Hans Holbein the Younger showed him a flattering portrait of her.^ Henry VIII, c1540 , after Hans Holbein the Younger.
  • Portraits of King Henry VIII: Born 1491, Ruled 1509 to 1547 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.marileecody.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII, c1536 , by Hans Holbein the Younger.
  • Portraits of King Henry VIII: Born 1491, Ruled 1509 to 1547 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.marileecody.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII, c1536 , after Hans Holbein the Younger.
  • Portraits of King Henry VIII: Born 1491, Ruled 1509 to 1547 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.marileecody.com [Source type: Original source]

.She arrived in England in December 1539, and Henry rode to Rochester to meet her on 1 January 1540. Although the historian Gilbert Burnet claimed that Henry called her a Flanders Mare, there is no evidence that he said this; court ambassadors negotiating the marriage praised her beauty.^ There were no children by their marriage.
  • Courtly Lives - Tudor Family Tree 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On Anne's arrival in England, Henry is said to have found her utterly unattractive, privately calling her a "Flanders Mare".
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no issue of this marriage.
  • Courtly Lives - Tudor Family Tree 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whatever the circumstances were, the marriage failed, and Anne agreed to a peaceful annulment, assumed the title My Lady, the King's Sister, and received a massive divorce settlement, which included Richmond Palace, Hever Castle, and numerous other estates across the country.^ They were divorced and Anne received a palace and a pension and the title of the king's "dear sister."
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever the circumstances were, the marriage failed, and Anne agreed to a peaceful annulment, assumed the title My Lady, the King's Sister , and received a massive divorce settlement, which included Richmond Palace , Hever Castle , and numerous other estates across the country.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The marriage was subsequently dissolved and Anne received the title of "The King's Sister", and was granted Hever Castle , the former residence of the Boleyn family.
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

Henry chose to blame Cromwell for the failed marriage, and ordered him beheaded on 28 July 1540.
Thomas Cranmer, Henry's first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, responsible for the Book of Common Prayer during Edward VI's reign
.The fifth marriage was to the Catholic Catherine Howard, a cousin of Thomas Howard, the third Duke of Norfolk, who was promoted by Norfolk in the hope that she would persuade Henry to restore Roman Catholicism in England.^ Henry sought to annul his marriage to Catherine.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord Edmund Howard, niece of Thomas, 2nd Duke of Norfolk.
  • tudors 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudortimes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So Henry moved onto Catherine Howard.
  • The House Of Tudor - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: Original source]

.Henry called her his “rose without a thorn”, but the marriage ended in failure.^ Henry saw her as perfect and unspoiled, a " rose without a thorn ".
  • About Henry VIII TUDOR (King of England) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry called her his “rose without a thorn”, but the marriage ended in failure.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She revisits Henry VIIIs long marriage to Katherine of Aragon, Marys mother, and the failure to produce a male heir that prompted Katherines repudiation and Henrys break with Rome.
  • Linda Porter - Mary Tudor Reviews (US) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC lindaporter.net [Source type: General]

.Catherine, forced into a marriage to an unattractive, obese man over 30 years her senior, had never wanted to marry Henry, and conducted an affair with the King's favourite, Thomas Culpeper, while Henry and she were married.^ King Henry VII, year 22 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

^ Henry sought to annul his marriage to Catherine.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King Henry VIII, year 27 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

.She was accused of treason and was executed on 13 February 1542, destroying the Roman Catholic hopes of a reconciliation with the Roman church.^ She was soon betrayed, charged with treason and executed on 13 February 1542.

^ Again, this point was ignored, and Catherine was executed on 13 February 1542.
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

^ She was accused of treason and was executed on 13 February 1542, destroying the Roman Catholic hopes of a reconciliation with the Roman church.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.By the time Henry conducted another Protestant marriage with his final wife Catherine Parr in 1543, the old Roman Catholic advisers, including the powerful third Duke of Norfolk had lost all their power and influence.^ Henry sought to annul his marriage to Catherine.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry married his last wife, the wealthy widow Catherine Parr , in 1543.
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry married his last wife, the wealthy widow Catherine Parr, in 1543.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Henry himself was still a committed Catholic, and he was nearly persuaded to arrest Catherine for preaching Lutheran doctrines to Henry while she attended his ill health.^ Henry himself was still a committed Catholic, and he was nearly persuaded to arrest Catherine for preaching Lutheran doctrines to Henry while she attended his ill health.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Production is under way in Ireland on Season Two, which begins with Henry and Catherine still not quite divorced, and the nation in upheaval.
  • ‘The Tudors’ is over, long live ‘The Tudors’ < PopWire | PopMatters 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.popmatters.com [Source type: General]

^ The King's chaplin, Thomas Cranmer, makes a fact-finding visit to Lutheran Germany while Henry withdraws both the authority and taxes of the Catholic Church at home.
  • The Tudors: Season 1-2 - DVD 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bbcamericashop.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Tudors on Showtime 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.However, his son Edward was brought up a strict and devout Protestant by numerous tutors, including Bishop Richard Cox, John Belmain, and Sir John Cheke.^ Edward, however, was brought up Protestant.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, his son Edward was brought up a strict and devout Protestant by numerous tutors, including Bishop Richard Cox , John Belmain , and Sir John Cheke .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard of Gloucester, brought up in this world, was not originally intended to play the role of King.
  • http://robertwernick.com/articles/RichardIII.htm 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC robertwernick.com [Source type: Original source]

.Further, the lady in charge of his upbringing was Blanche Herbert Lady Troy whose ancestors had residual Lollard connections [2].^ Further, the lady in charge of his upbringing was Blanche Herbert Lady Troy whose ancestors had residual Lollard connections [ 1 ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She had been brought up by Blanche Herbert Lady Troy .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A Kerry lady named Fitzgerald, who was charged with inciting the peasantry "to public violence ;" and further^ " practising witchcraft," was hanged by Lord Ormonde.
  • Full text of "Historical portraits of the Tudor dynasty and the reformation period" 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.Her elegy includes the lines: ...To King Edward she was a true - (And) wise lady of dignity, - In charge of his fosterage (she was pre-eminent)...^ Father: King Edward IV Plantagenet Of England (1442-1483) 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 Mother: Elizabeth Lucy Lady ( - ) 3 4 5 .
  • 700000 people connected with European Royalty 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.e-familytree.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After Jane Seymour died, King Henry determined that the line of succession to the throne would be that Prince Edward would be first, then Mary, then Elizabeth.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ King Edward VI signs a statement naming Lady Jane Grey as his successor.
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

[3].

Edward VI: Protestant extremity

.After Henry led troops during the Siege of Boulogne in 1544–an attempt to take French territory for England–he died on 28 January 1547. His will had reinstated his daughters by his annulled marriages to Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn to the line of succession, but did not legitimise them.^ Henry sought to annul his marriage to Catherine.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Died: 28 Jan 1547, Whitehall Palace, London, England .
  • About Henry VIII TUDOR (King of England) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ Died: Whitehall, 28 January 1547, aged 55.

.(Because his marriages had been annulled, they legally never occurred, so his children by those marriages were illegitimate.^ (Because his marriages had been annulled, they legally never occurred, so his children by those marriages were illegitimate.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon Anne's arrival to England, Henry was disappointed in her looks and soon found a legal way to have the marriage annulled.
  • Joss Stone Is The Tudors' Anne of Cleves 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.buzzsugar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That marriage occurred in 1509 and was scarred by several tragedies involving their children.
  • UK Constitution and Government/House of Tudor - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

) .In the event that all 3 of his children died without heir, the will stipulated that the descendant of his younger sister Mary would take precedence over the descendants of his elder sister, Margaret, Queen of Scotland.^ In the event that all 3 of his children died without heir, the will stipulated that the descendant of his younger sister Mary would take precedence over the descendants of his elder sister, Margaret, Queen of Scotland.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All of Catherine's children died in infancy except their daughter Mary .
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of Catherine's children died in infancy except his daughter Mary .
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

.Edward, his nine-year old son by Jane Seymour, succeeded as Edward VI of England.^ King Edward VI, year 4 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

^ Edward VI is Henry VIII son.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ King Edward VI, year 2 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

Duke of Somerset's England

.Although Henry had specified a group of men to act as regents during Edward's minority, Edward Seymour, Edward's uncle, quickly seized complete control, and created himself Duke of Somerset on 15 February 1547. His domination of the Privy Council, the king's most senior body of advisers, was unchallenged.^ His domination of the Privy Council , the king's most senior body of advisers, was unchallenged.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset was executed on January 22, 1552.

^ Although Henry had specified a group of men to act as regents during Edward's minority, Edward Seymour , Edward's uncle, quickly seized complete control, and created himself Duke of Somerset on 15 February 1547.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Somerset aimed to unite England and Scotland by marrying Edward to the young Scottish queen Mary, and aimed to forcibly impose the English Reformation on the Church of Scotland.^ As Queen, Mary was very concerned about heresy and the English church.
  • Mary Tudor (I of England) (Pepys' Diary) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To marry her, he breaks with the Pope, starts the English Reformation and sets up the Church of England.
  • The Tudors - Season 2, Jonathan Rhys Meyers, DVD - Barnes & Noble 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC video.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

^ Queen Mary of Scotland and France assumes the title Queen of England also .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.Somerset led a large and well equipped army to Scotland, where he and the Scottish regent James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran, commanded their armies at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh on 10 September 1547. Somerset's army eventually defeated the Scots, but the young Queen Mary was smuggled to France, where she was betrothed to the Dauphin, the future Francis II of France.^ Mary Queen of Scots beheaded .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Mary of Scotland and France assumes the title Queen of England also .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Somerset's army eventually defeated the Scots, but the young Queen Mary was smuggled to France, where she was betrothed to the Dauphin , the future Francis II of France .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Despite Somerset's disappointment that no Scottish marriage would take place, his victory at Pinkie Cleugh made his position appear unassailable.^ Despite Somerset's disappointment that no Scottish marriage would take place, his victory at Pinkie Cleugh made his position appear unassailable.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Somerset led a large and well equipped army to Scotland, where he and the Scottish regent James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran , commanded their armies at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh on 10 September 1547.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The play roughly takes place around the first century BC or AD, when mothers would have been young.

The title page of Archbishop Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer, 1549
.Meanwhile, Edward VI, despite the fact that he was only a child of nine, had his mind set on religious reform.^ The title page of Archbishop Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer , 1549 Meanwhile, Edward VI, despite the fact that he was only a child of nine, had his mind set on religious reform.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward VI was an extremely sickly child.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon his death my young sickly nine-year old brother, Edward, became King Edward VI. Edward and I always had a difference on our religious beliefs thanks to our father.
  • The Website of the Tudor Dynasty - Issue 1 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.tudordynasty.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In 1549, Edward ordered the publication of the Book of Common Prayer, containing the forms of worship for daily and Sunday church services.^ Thomas Cranmer introduced the Book of Common Prayer for use in all Church services.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1549, Edward ordered the publication of the Book of Common Prayer , containing the forms of worship for daily and Sunday church services.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time, a new Act of Uniformity was passed, which made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer compulsory, though the penalties for disobedience were not extreme.
  • Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.The controversial new book was not welcomed by either reformers or Catholic conservatives; and it was especially condemned in Devon and Cornwall, where traditional Catholic loyalty was at its strongest.^ The controversial new book was not welcomed by either reformers or Catholic conservatives; and it was especially condemned in Devon and Cornwall , where traditional Catholic loyalty was at its strongest.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As Supreme Head of the English church, Henry used his authority to "reform" its traditional institutions, especially its monastic establishments.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious reform was among those new ideas, making life more hazardous for some outspoken Protestants and Catholics.

.In Cornwall at the time, many of the people could only speak the Cornish language, so the uniform English bibles and church services were not understood by many.^ Too many people only skim the headlines in...
  • » Cable Finales: The Sopranos and The Tudors Liberal Values 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC liberalvaluesblog.com [Source type: General]

^ In Cornwall at the time, many of the people could only speak the Cornish language , so the uniform English bibles and church services were not understood by many.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Several hundred were burned at the stake, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, several other bishops, many clergymen, and many, many ordinary English people whose only crime was to refuse to give up their faith.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.This caused the Prayer Book Rebellion, in which groups of Cornish non-conformists gathered round the mayor.^ This caused the Prayer Book Rebellion , in which groups of Cornish non-conformists gathered round the mayor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The rebellion did not persuade Edward to tread carefully, and only hardened his attitude towards Catholic non-conformists.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The rebellion worried Somerset, now Lord Protector, and he sent an army to impose military solution to the rebellion.^ The rebellion worried Somerset, now Lord Protector , and he sent an army to impose military solution to the rebellion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeths brother, Lord Leonard Grey, was sent to put down the rebellion.

^ Alfred gathered a force of Wiltshire and Somerset men reinforced by men from Hampshire and faced the Danish army in battle at Ethandun, now identified as Edington, near Westbury.
  • http://www.trowbridge.gov.uk/towninfo.asp?id=194 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.trowbridge.gov.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One in ten of the indigenous Cornish population was slaughtered.^ One in ten of the indigenous Cornish population was slaughtered.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The rebellion did not persuade Edward to tread carefully, and only hardened his attitude towards Catholic non-conformists.^ The rebellion did not persuade Edward to tread carefully, and only hardened his attitude towards Catholic non-conformists.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This caused the Prayer Book Rebellion , in which groups of Cornish non-conformists gathered round the mayor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By early 1553 Edward was dying, and, having been brought up a Protestant, did not wish to be succeeded by his Roman Catholic half-sister, Mary.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.This extended to Edward's elder sister, the daughter of Catherine of Aragon, Mary Tudor, who was a pious and devout Catholic.^ Married: Catherine of Aragon, 1509, 1 daughter.

^ Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon had Henry's first daughter Mary.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She had a half-brother Edward and a half-sister Mary.
  • Queen Elizabeth I Message Board 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC mb.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although called before the Privy Council several times to renounce her faith and stop hearing the Catholic Mass, she refused.^ Although called before the Privy Council several times to renounce her faith and stop hearing the Catholic Mass , she refused.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At another time priests were hanged upon the evidence of one witness, who swore that he saw them celebrating ]\Iass, although the said informer could not distinguish between tlie Mass and any other Catholic ceremony.
  • Full text of "Historical portraits of the Tudor dynasty and the reformation period" 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholic family set at odds when the father renounces the Catholic faith and the son becomes an undercover Jesuit priest during the reign of Henry VIII. .

.He had a good relationship with his sister Elizabeth, who was a Protestant, albeit a moderate one, but this was strained when Elizabeth was accused of having an affair with the Duke of Somerset's brother, Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley, the husband of Henry's last wife Catherine Parr.^ Henry married his last wife, the wealthy widow Catherine Parr , in 1543.
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Seymour, baron Seymour of Sudeley is executed .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile Catherine Parr was married to Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley, Lord High Admiral.

.Elizabeth was interviewed by one of Edward's advisers, and she was eventually found not to be guilty, despite forced confessions from her servants Catherine Ashley and Thomas Parry.^ This time Elizabeth was found guilty and hanged.

^ Elizabeth was interviewed by one of Edward's advisers, and she was eventually found not to be guilty, despite forced confessions from her servants Catherine Ashley and Thomas Parry .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mark Smeaton was the only one to claim guilty, and then it was believed the confession was tortured out of him.
  • "The Tudors" (2007) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thomas Seymour was arrested and beheaded on 20 March 1549.

Problematic succession

A small boy with a big mind: Edward VI, desperate for a Protestant succession, changed his father's will to allow Lady Jane Grey to become queen
.Lord Protector Somerset was also losing favour.^ A small boy with a big mind: Edward VI , desperate for a Protestant succession, changed his father's will to allow Lady Jane Grey to become queen Lord Protector Somerset was also losing favour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A well-informed Londoner recalls the moves by councillors and nobles in October 1549 to overthrow Lord Protector Somerset After the rebellions were crushed, many of the lords and councillors secretly plotted to overthrow the Lord Protector.
  • Mid Tudor Crisis Revision 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She chose as her chief minister Sir William Cecil , a Protestant, and former secretary to Lord Protector the Duke of Somerset and then to the Duke of Northumberland .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After forcibly removing Edward VI to Windsor Castle, with the intention of keeping him hostage, Somerset was removed from power by members of the council, led by his chief rival, John Dudley, the first Earl of Warwick, who created himself Duke of Northumberland shortly after his rise.^ In his wake the over ambitious John Dudley, earl of Warwick (and soon to be created duke of Northumberland) came to power, operating as protector in all but name.

^ Because he was too young to rule himself, a small council, led by the Duke of Somerset, ruled in his stead, making Edward VI a puppet king.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ John Dudley, earl of Warwick, duke of Northumberland would succeed him in the role of protector.
  • Vallieres. Tudor Succession Problems. 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

.Northumberland effectively became Lord Protector, but he did not use this title, learning from the mistakes his predecessor made.^ Northumberland effectively became Lord Protector, but he did not use this title, learning from the mistakes his predecessor made.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Warwick did not make himself Lord Protector, and encouraged Edward VI to declare his majority as soon as he was sixteen.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lord Protector thus became the real ruler of England; Edward VI was demoted to a ceremonial role.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Northumberland was furiously ambitious, and aimed to secure Protestant uniformity while making himself rich with land and money in the process.^ Northumberland was furiously ambitious, and aimed to secure Protestant uniformity while making himself rich with land and money in the process.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In her aim to restore England to the Catholic faith and to secure her throne from Protestant threats, she had many Protestants burnt at the stake between 1555 and 1558.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Northumberland married Jane to his youngest son Guildford Dudley , allowing himself to get the most out of a necessary Protestant succession.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He ordered churches to be stripped of all traditional Catholic symbolism, resulting in the plainness often seen in Church of England churches today.^ Catholic symbols in churches were desecrated by mobs.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He ordered churches to be stripped of all traditional Catholic symbolism, resulting in the plainness often seen in Church of England churches today.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then they were seen less and less often, and after about the month of August they were not seen at all.
  • http://robertwernick.com/articles/RichardIII.htm 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC robertwernick.com [Source type: Original source]

.A revision of the Book of Common Prayer was published in 1552. When Edward VI became ill in 1553, his advisers looked to the possible imminent accession of the Catholic Lady Mary, and feared that she would overturn all the reforms made during Edward's reign.^ Edward VI 1547-1553 .

^ When Edward VI became ill in 1553, his advisers looked to the possible imminent accession of the Catholic Lady Mary, and feared that she would overturn all the reforms made during Edward's reign.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament became important during his reign.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Perhaps surprisingly, it was the dying Edward himself who feared a return to Catholicism, and wrote a new will repudiating the 1544 will of Henry VIII. This gave the succession to his cousin Lady Jane Grey, the granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary Tudor, who, after the death of Louis XII of France in 1515 had married Henry VIII's favourite Charles Brandon, the first Duke of Suffolk.^ Lady Mary Grey 1545April 20, 1578 , sometimes spelled Marie, was the third and last daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon.

^ The alternative line descended from Henry VIII's younger sister, Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Mary pardons Lady Jane Grey.
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.Lady Jane's mother was Lady Frances Brandon, the daughter of Suffolk and Princess Mary.^ Charles and Mary had a daughter Frances Brandon.
  • Courtly Lives - Tudor Family Tree 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lady Jane's mother was Lady Frances Brandon , the daughter of Suffolk and Princess Mary.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Frances Brandon, mother of Lady Jane Grey, marries Adrian Stokes.
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.Northumberland married Jane to his youngest son Guildford Dudley, allowing himself to get the most out of a necessary Protestant succession.^ Northumberland married Jane to his youngest son Guildford Dudley , allowing himself to get the most out of a necessary Protestant succession.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A small boy with a big mind: Edward VI , desperate for a Protestant succession, changed his father's will to allow Lady Jane Grey to become queen Lord Protector Somerset was also losing favour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Duke of Northumberland, who had matched one of his sons with Jane in a hasty marriage in May 1553, stood behind the effort to place Jane on the throne.
  • Book Review: The Sisters Who Would Be Queen - WSJ.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]
  • Book Review: The Sisters Who Would Be Queen - WSJ.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.Most of Edward's council signed the Devise for the Succession, and when Edward VI died on 6 July 1553, Lady Jane was proclaimed queen.^ Edward VI , son of Jane Seymour .
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII (Pepys' Diary) 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward VI was dying and was considering the matter of his own succession.

^ Edward VI died on July 6, 1553.

.However, the popular support for the proper Tudor dynasty–even a Catholic member–overruled Northumberland's plans, and Jane, who had never wanted to accept the crown, was deposed after just nine days.^ Jane retained the title of queen for just nine days.

^ Who was Queen of England for just nine short days?
  • House of Tudor - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the popular support for the proper Tudor dynasty–even a Catholic member–overruled Northumberland's plans, and Jane, who had never wanted to accept the crown, was deposed after just nine days.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Mary's supporters joined her in a triumphal procession to London, accompanied by her younger sister Elizabeth.^ Mary died childless and was succeeded by her younger half-sister Elizabeth.

^ Mary's supporters joined her in a triumphal procession to London, accompanied by her younger sister Elizabeth .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth I inherited a devastated country: a great disagreetment between Catholics and Protestants divided the society; the total royal treasure was spent her half-sister Mary.
  • Queen Elizabeth I Message Board 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC mb.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jane and her husband were later executed.^ Jane and her husband were later executed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lady Jane Grey and her husband are executed .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For this crime, Jane, her husband and the Duke of Suffolk were executed.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Mary I: A troubled queen's reign

Mary I of England, who tried to return England to the Roman Catholic Church
.The early reign of Queen Mary I was successful.^ Mary I: A troubled queen's reign .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Mary reigned for five years.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now reconciled with his daughter, Lady Mary, Queen Jane unveils the girl at court in a bid to see her restored to the succession.
  • The Tudors: The Complete Third Season : DVD Talk Review of the DVD Video 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.dvdtalk.com [Source type: General]

.The politicians formerly loyal to Lady Jane Grey flocked to support Mary, and she pardoned most of those who would have kept her off the throne.^ Putting her on the throne would keep the Catholic Mary Tudor off it.
  • Book Review: The Sisters Who Would Be Queen - WSJ.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]
  • Book Review: The Sisters Who Would Be Queen - WSJ.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ She was a younger sister of Lady Jane Grey and an older sister of Lady Mary Grey.

^ The politicians formerly loyal to Lady Jane Grey flocked to support Mary, and she pardoned most of those who would have kept her off the throne.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Lady Jane herself was locked in the Tower of London in relative comfort, and allowed to walk outside (within the Tower walls) with relative freedom.^ Lady Jane was held in the Tower of London until she was executed.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lady Jane herself was locked in the Tower of London in relative comfort, and allowed to walk outside (within the Tower walls) with relative freedom.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Seymour arrested and sent to Tower of London for having schemed to marry Edward VI to Lady Jane Grey (age 12) and himself to Princess Elizabeth (age 16) .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, when Jane's father Henry Grey, the first Duke of Suffolk, attempted to depose Mary and put Jane back on the throne, Mary executed both the Dukes of Suffolk and Northumberland.^ In 1554, when Mary faced Wyatt's Rebellion, the Duke of Suffolk once again attempted to put his daughter on the Throne.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lady Jane Grey and her husband are executed .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For this crime, Jane, her husband and the Duke of Suffolk were executed.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.After some hesitation, and having failed to convert Lady Jane to Catholicism, Mary sent Lady Jane to the scaffold on 12 February 1554, to avoid any further attempts to re-instate her to the throne.^ Jane Grey was not involved in it but paid for it with her life on February 12, 1554.

^ JANE GREY (1537-February 12,1554) .

^ After some hesitation, and having failed to convert Lady Jane to Catholicism, Mary sent Lady Jane to the scaffold on 12 February 1554, to avoid any further attempts to re-instate her to the throne.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Tudor dynasty's hold on the throne of England was once again secure.^ The Tudor dynasty's hold on the throne of England was once again secure.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Strong Tudor dynasty in England .
  • World TIMELINE 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ England, 918 - 1603, Tudor Dynasty 1485 - 1603.
  • World History Maps, Countries of the World 1/1/1536 Historical Map 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldhistorymaps.com [Source type: Reference]
  • World History Maps, Countries of the World 1/1/1536 Historical Map 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldhistorymaps.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, Mary soon announced that she was intending to marry the Spanish prince Philip, son of her mother's nephew Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.^ Mary Tudor married Prince Phillip.
  • House of Tudor - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary married Prince Philip of Spain, who was her cousins son.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary chose to marry Philip of Spain, the heir to Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The prospect of a marriage alliance with Spain proved unpopular with the English people, who were worried that Spain would use England as a satellite, involving England in wars without the popular support of the people.^ The prospect of a marriage alliance with Spain proved unpopular with the English people, who were worried that Spain would use England as a satellite, involving England in wars without the popular support of the people.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Mary, by Hans Eworth Mary enjoyed popular support and sympathy during the earliest parts of her reign, especially by the Roman Catholic population, who recalled her mistreatment by Henry VIII and Edward VI.[ citation needed ] However, her marriage to Philip was unpopular among her subjects.
  • Mary Tudor (I of England) (Pepys' Diary) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mary's reign, however, introduced a new coining system that would be used until the 18th century, and her marriage to Philip II created new trade routes for England.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Popular discontent grew; a Protestant courtier, Thomas Wyatt the younger led a rebellion against Mary, with the aim of deposing and replacing her with her half-sister Elizabeth.^ Mary died childless and was succeeded by her younger half-sister Elizabeth.

^ She had a half-brother Edward and a half-sister Mary.
  • Queen Elizabeth I Message Board 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC mb.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Popular discontent grew; a Protestant courtier, Thomas Wyatt the younger led a rebellion against Mary, with the aim of deposing and replacing her with her half-sister Elizabeth .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The plot was discovered, and Wyatt's supporters were hunted down and killed.^ The plot was discovered, and Wyatt's supporters were hunted down and killed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Wyatt himself was tortured, in the hope that he would give evidence that Elizabeth was involved so that Mary could have her executed for treason.^ Wyatt himself was tortured, in the hope that he would give evidence that Elizabeth was involved so that Mary could have her executed for treason.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary hoped that he would return England to Catholicism.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Wyatt's Rebellion in 1554 sought to prevent Mary from marrying Philip, and after its failure, Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London for her alleged involvement.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.Wyatt never implicated Elizabeth, and he was beheaded.^ Wyatt never implicated Elizabeth, and he was beheaded .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth spent her time between different prisons, including the Tower of London.^ She placed her sister, the well-known Elizabeth I, in the Tower, a prison in London.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth spent her time between different prisons, including the Tower of London .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth I inherited a devastated country: a great disagreetment between Catholics and Protestants divided the society; the total royal treasure was spent her half-sister Mary.
  • Queen Elizabeth I Message Board 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC mb.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

Protestants Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley being burned at the stake during Mary's reign
.Mary married Philip at Winchester Cathedral, on 25 July 1554. Philip found her unattractive, and only spent a minimal amount of time with her.^ Mary married Philip on 25 July 1554 at Winchester Cathedral.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Philip found her unattractive, and only spent a minimal amount of time with her.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary's marriage with Philip went ahead in July 1554.

.Despite Mary believing she was pregnant numerous times during her five-year reign, she never reproduced.^ Despite Mary believing she was pregnant numerous times during her five-year reign, she never reproduced.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Mary reigned for five years.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 16th century during the reign of Mary (1553-1558) nearly 300 Protestants were burned to death in England.

.Devastated that she rarely saw her husband, and anxious that she was not bearing an heir to Catholic England, Mary became bitter.^ Mary then became the Queen of England and turned England back in to being Catholic.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth I inherited a devastated country: a great disagreetment between Catholics and Protestants divided the society; the total royal treasure was spent her half-sister Mary.
  • Queen Elizabeth I Message Board 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC mb.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary I of Scotland (not to be confused with Mary I 'Tudor'' of England, see above) became Queen at six days old, when her father died of what was probably cholera.
  • The House Of Tudor - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: Original source]

.In her aim to restore England to the Catholic faith and to secure her throne from Protestant threats, she had many Protestants burnt at the stake between 1555 and 1558. Mary's main goal was to restore the Catholic faith to England, however the Marian Persecutions were unpopular with the Protestant majority of England, while supported by the Catholic minority of England.^ Mary's main goal was to restore the Catholic faith to England, however the Marian Persecutions were unpopular with the Protestant majority of England, while supported by the Catholic minority of England.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary I of England , 1516–1558 20c.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To what extent had England become Catholic by 1558?
  • Mid Tudor Crisis Revision 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mary's dream of a resurrected Catholic Tudor dynasty was finished, and her popularity further declined when she lost the last English area on French soil, Calais, to Francis, Duke of Guise on 7 January 1558. Mary's reign, however, introduced a new coining system that would be used until the 18th century, and her marriage to Philip II created new trade routes for England.^ Putting her on the throne would keep the Catholic Mary Tudor off it.
  • Book Review: The Sisters Who Would Be Queen - WSJ.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]
  • Book Review: The Sisters Who Would Be Queen - WSJ.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Mary I of England , 1516–1558 20c.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She was devoutly Catholic and England would have remained Catholic as long as she reigned, presumably until 1558.
  • The Website of the Tudor Dynasty - Issue 1 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.tudordynasty.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Mary also welcomed the first Russian ambassador to England, creating relations between England and Russia for the first time.^ Mary also welcomed the first Russian ambassador to England, creating relations between England and Russia for the first time.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Had Mary Tudor lived another eight months then England would have been ruled by a king and queen of Spain at the same time that Scotland was ruled by a king and queen of France.

^ On 18 February 1516, Queen Catherine bore Henry his first child, Princess Mary of England, who later reigned as Mary I of England.
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

.Mary died on 17 November 1558. Elizabeth Tudor, age 25, was now Elizabeth I of England.^ Ruled: England 17 November 1558-24 March 1603.

^ Elizabeth Tudor, age 25, was now Elizabeth I of England .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On 6 November, Mary recognized Elizabeth as her heir.
  • Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

The Age of Intrigues and Plots: Elizabeth I

Elizabeth I at her coronation on 15 January 1559
.Elizabeth I, who was staying at Hatfield House at the time of her accession, rode to London to the cheers of both the ruling class and the common people.^ Elizabeth I at her coronation on 15 January 1559 Elizabeth I, who was staying at Hatfield House at the time of her accession, rode to London to the cheers of both the ruling class and the common people.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After seeing off Lady Jane, Mary rode into London as Queen, triumphantly and unchallenged, with her half-sister, Elizabeth, at her side, on 3 August 1553.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On August 7, 1567, she was transferred to the care of her step-grandmother, Catherine Willoughby, dowager duchess of Suffolk, who was then at her house in the Minories in London.

.She chose as her chief minister Sir William Cecil, a Protestant, and former secretary to Lord Protector the Duke of Somerset and then to the Duke of Northumberland.^ Her most able minister was William Cecil.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She chose as her chief minister Sir William Cecil , a Protestant, and former secretary to Lord Protector the Duke of Somerset and then to the Duke of Northumberland .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A small boy with a big mind: Edward VI , desperate for a Protestant succession, changed his father's will to allow Lady Jane Grey to become queen Lord Protector Somerset was also losing favour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Under Mary, he had been spared, and often visited Elizabeth, ostensibly to review her accounts and expenditure.^ Under Mary, he had been spared, and often visited Elizabeth, ostensibly to review her accounts and expenditure.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The massacre of IMullaghmast has been ascribed to the reign of Queen Mary, but it occurred in that of Elizabeth, under the Viceroyalty of Lord Sussex.
  • Full text of "Historical portraits of the Tudor dynasty and the reformation period" 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Communion with the Catholic Church, reinstated under Mary I, was ended by Elizabeth.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was the cousin and friend of Blanche Parry, the closest person to Elizabeth for 56 years [4].^ He was the cousin and friend of Blanche Parry , the closest person to Elizabeth for 56 years [ 3 ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Amongst those ladies was the Queen's faithful friend, Blanche Parry, one of the most learned women of Elizabeth's reign.
  • Full text of "Historical portraits of the Tudor dynasty and the reformation period" 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert Parry, Virgin and the Crab (2009), about John Dee and Elizabeth Tudor during their adolescent years after the death of Henry VIII; self-published.

.Elizabeth also appointed her personal favourite, the son of the Duke of Northumberland Lord Robert Dudley, her Master of the Horse, giving him constant personal access to the queen.^ She was probably in love with her childhood friend and Master of the Horse, Robert Dudley.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Duke of Northumberland, Edward, replaced him Dudley.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth also appointed her personal favourite, the son of the Duke of Northumberland Lord Robert Dudley , her Master of the Horse , giving him constant personal access to the queen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Imposing the Church of England

.Elizabeth was a moderate Protestant; she was the daughter of Anne Boleyn, who played a key role in the English Reformation in the 1520s.^ Elizabeth was a moderate Protestant ; she was the daughter of Anne Boleyn , who played a key role in the English Reformation in the 1520s.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, Elizabeth—Henry's daughter from his second marriage, to Anne Boleyn—ultimately came to power, managing to stay on the throne for nearly half a century.
  • Book Review: The Sisters Who Would Be Queen - WSJ.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]
  • Book Review: The Sisters Who Would Be Queen - WSJ.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ He was key in getting Henry’s first divorce so he could marry Anne Boleyn.

.She had been brought up by Blanche Herbert Lady Troy.^ She had been brought up by Blanche Herbert Lady Troy .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Further, the lady in charge of his upbringing was Blanche Herbert Lady Troy whose ancestors had residual Lollard connections [ 1 ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At her coronation in January 1559, many of the bishops–Catholic, appointed by Mary, who had expelled many of the Protestant clergymen when she became queen in 1553–refused to perform the service in English.^ At her coronation in January 1559, many of the bishops–Catholic, appointed by Mary, who had expelled many of the Protestant clergymen when she became queen in 1553–refused to perform the service in English.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth's coronation was on January 15, 1559.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary then became the Queen of England and turned England back in to being Catholic.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Eventually, the relatively minor Bishop of Carlisle, Owen Oglethorpe, performed the ceremony; but when Oglethorpe attempted to perform traditional Catholic parts of the Coronation, Elizabeth got up and left.^ Eventually, the relatively minor Bishop of Carlisle , Owen Oglethorpe , performed the ceremony; but when Oglethorpe attempted to perform traditional Catholic parts of the Coronation, Elizabeth got up and left.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the senior bishops declined to participate in the coronation because Elizabeth was illegitimate under both canon law and statute, the relatively unknown Owen Oglethorpe, Bishop of Carlisle crowned her.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The following day, January 15, 1559, Elizabeth was crowned at Westminster Abbey and anointed by the Catholic Bishop of Carlisle.
  • Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following the Coronation, two important Acts were passed through parliament: the Act of Uniformity and the Act of Supremacy, establishing the Protestant Church of England and creating Elizabeth Supreme Governor of the Church of England (Supreme Head, the title used by her father and brother, was seen as inappropriate for a woman ruler).^ Following the Coronation, two important Acts were passed through parliament: the Act of Uniformity and the Act of Supremacy , establishing the Protestant Church of England and creating Elizabeth Supreme Governor of the Church of England ( Supreme Head , the title used by her father and brother, was seen as inappropriate for a woman ruler).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward was England's first Protestant ruler.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament passes an Act of Uniformity which forbids other prayer books .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.These acts, known collectively as the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, made it compulsory to attend church services every Sunday; and imposed an oath on clergymen and statesmen to recognise the Church of England, the independence of the Church of England from the Catholic Church, and the authority of Elizabeth as Supreme Governor.^ Elizabeth and the 1559 Religious Settlement .
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These acts, known collectively as the Elizabethan Religious Settlement , made it compulsory to attend church services every Sunday; and imposed an oath on clergymen and statesmen to recognise the Church of England , the independence of the Church of England from the Catholic Church , and the authority of Elizabeth as Supreme Governor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His uncle, Henry VIII, King of England, tried to induce James to repudiate the authority of the Roman Catholic Church, but James refused, and relations between England and Scotland became strained; in 1542 war broke out.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 19 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC thedon.cac.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elizabeth made it clear that if they refused the oath the first time, they would have a second opportunity, after which, if the oath was not sworn, the offender would be deprived of their offices and estates.^ Elizabeth made it clear that if they refused the oath the first time, they would have a second opportunity, after which, if the oath was not sworn, the offender would be deprived of their offices and estates.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas More and Bishop Fisher of Rochester went to the Tower because they refused to take such an oath on the grounds that it would imply the repudiation of papal authority and commit them to declaring Catherine's child Mary illegitimate.
  • Christian History Handbook: Early Modern: Lecture Fourteen 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC users.sbuniv.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rumor spread through the court that she was sleeping with him; William Cecil , Elizabeth's most trusted advisor, made clear his disapproval.
  • Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

Pressure to marry

Mary, Queen of Scots, who conspired with English nobles to take the English throne for herself
.The popularity of Elizabeth was extremely high, but her Privy Council, her Parliament and her subjects thought that the unmarried queen should take a husband; it was generally accepted that, once a queen regnant was married, the husband would relieve the woman of the burdens of head of state.^ Mary, Queen of Scots , who conspired with English nobles to take the English throne for herself The popularity of Elizabeth was extremely high, but her Privy Council , her Parliament and her subjects thought that the unmarried queen should take a husband; it was generally accepted that, once a queen regnant was married, the husband would relieve the woman of the burdens of head of state .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He enraged Elizabeth by accepting the post of Governor-General from the Dutch States-General.
  • Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do drive by the "King Takes Queen" billboard on my way home from work, and I wondered if it would show up here.
  • I'm sure some of you love The Tudors... - Feministing 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, without an heir, the Tudor dynasty would end; the risk of civil war between rival claimants was a possibility if Elizabeth died childless.^ In 1603, Elizabeth I died childless.
  • The House Of Tudor - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, without an heir, the Tudor dynasty would end; the risk of civil war between rival claimants was a possibility if Elizabeth died childless.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The dynasty of the Tudors include Kings and Queens such as King Henry VIII and his daughters, Bloody Mary and Queen Elizabeth I. But King Henry VIII is perhaps most famous for his number of wives - six in...
  • The Tudors - Boxxet 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.boxxet.com [Source type: General]

.Numerous suitors from nearly all European nations sent ambassadors to the English court to put forward their suit.^ Numerous suitors from nearly all European nations sent ambassadors to the English court to put forward their suit.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The people of Scotland, of all parties, were justly indignant at Robert Dudley being put forward for their Queen's hand.
  • Full text of "Historical portraits of the Tudor dynasty and the reformation period" 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He became one of Henry's leading ambassadors and was sent on numerous missions in Europe.

.Risk of death came dangerously close in 1564 when Elizabeth caught smallpox; when she was most at risk, she named Robert Dudley as Lord Protector in the event of her death.^ Robert Dudley, Elizabeth's court favorite is named to the privy council .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Risk of death came dangerously close in 1564 when Elizabeth caught smallpox ; when she was most at risk, she named Robert Dudley as Lord Protector in the event of her death.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Seymour, on Henry's death, became Lord Protector of his son and successor, Edward VI. Such high status in those dangerous days had its risks and Seymour was executed in 1552.
  • http://www.trowbridge.gov.uk/towninfo.asp?id=194 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.trowbridge.gov.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After her recovery, she appointed Dudley to the Privy Council and created him Earl of Leicester, in the hope that he would marry Mary, Queen of Scots.^ Mary Queen of Scots beheaded .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sidney was created earl of Leicester in 1618.

^ After her recovery, she appointed Dudley to the Privy Council and created him Earl of Leicester , in the hope that he would marry Mary, Queen of Scots .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Mary rejected him, and instead married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, a descendant of Henry VII, giving Mary a stronger claim to the English throne.^ Henry VII's claim to the English throne was primarily by right of conquest, not by descent.

^ Mary rejected him, and instead married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley , a descendant of Henry VII , giving Mary a stronger claim to the English throne.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary Stuart refused, and in 1565 married the Catholic Lord Darnley.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although many Catholics were loyal to Elizabeth, many also believed that, because Elizabeth was declared illegitimate after her parents' marriage was annulled, Mary was the strongest legitimate claimant.^ Although many Catholics were loyal to Elizabeth, many also believed that, because Elizabeth was declared illegitimate after her parents' marriage was annulled , Mary was the strongest legitimate claimant.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas More and Bishop Fisher of Rochester went to the Tower because they refused to take such an oath on the grounds that it would imply the repudiation of papal authority and commit them to declaring Catherine's child Mary illegitimate.
  • Christian History Handbook: Early Modern: Lecture Fourteen 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC users.sbuniv.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII's marriages made these calculations especially important because both of his daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, faced charges of illegitimacy from one royal faction or another.
  • Book Review: The Sisters Who Would Be Queen - WSJ.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]
  • Book Review: The Sisters Who Would Be Queen - WSJ.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.Despite this, Elizabeth would not name Mary her heir; as she had experienced during the reign of her predecessor Mary I, the opposition could flock around the heir if they were disheartened with Elizabeth's rule.^ Despite this, Elizabeth would not name Mary her heir; as she had experienced during the reign of her predecessor Mary I, the opposition could flock around the heir if they were disheartened with Elizabeth's rule.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On 6 November, Mary recognized Elizabeth as her heir.
  • Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 16th century during the reign of Mary (1553-1558) nearly 300 Protestants were burned to death in England.

Pope St. Pius V, who issued the Papal bull excommunicating Elizabeth and relieving her subjects of their allegiance to her
.Numerous threats to the Tudor dynasty occurred during Elizabeth's reign.^ By far the most dangerous threat to the Tudor dynasty during Elizabeth's reign was the Spanish Armada of 1588.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The dynasty of the Tudors include Kings and Queens such as King Henry VIII and his daughters, Bloody Mary and Queen Elizabeth I. But King Henry VIII is perhaps most famous for his number of wives - six in...
  • The Tudors - Boxxet 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.boxxet.com [Source type: General]

^ Pope St. Pius V , who issued the Papal bull excommunicating Elizabeth and relieving her subjects of their allegiance to her Numerous threats to the Tudor dynasty occurred during Elizabeth's reign.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1569, a group of Earls led by Charles Neville, the sixth Earl of Westmorland, and Thomas Percy, the seventh Earl of Northumberland attempted to depose Elizabeth and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.^ Both Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots wore them.

^ In 1569, a group of Earls led by Charles Neville , the sixth Earl of Westmorland , and Thomas Percy , the seventh Earl of Northumberland attempted to depose Elizabeth and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth came under pressure from Parliament to execute Mary, Queen of Scots to prevent any further attempts to replace her; though faced with several official requests, she vacillated over the decision to execute an anointed queen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1571, the Protestant-turned-Catholic Thomas Howard, the fourth Duke of Norfolk, had plans to marry Mary, Queen of Scots, and then replace Elizabeth with Mary.^ Mary Queen of Scots beheaded .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk is imprisoned in the Tower for attempting to marry Mary, Queen of Scots.
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He married Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and was the father of three children, Mary, Anne and George.

.The plot, masterminded by Roberto di Ridolfi, was discovered and Norfolk was beheaded.^ The plot , masterminded by Roberto di Ridolfi , was discovered and Norfolk was beheaded .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Catholic Ridolfi Plot was discovered (much to Elizabeth's shock) and foiled, Mary lost the little liberty she had remaining.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 4th Duke of Norfolk was also involved in the first of these plots, the Ridolfi Plot of 1571.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.The next major uprising was in 1601, when Robert Devereux, the second Earl of Essex, attempted to raise the city of London against Elizabeth's government.^ Elizabeth makes Robert Devereux, earl of Essex the earl marshal of England .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex (1591-1646) .

^ The next major uprising was in 1601, when Robert Devereux , the second Earl of Essex , attempted to raise the city of London against Elizabeth's government.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The city of London proved unwilling to rebel; Essex and most of his co-rebels were executed.^ The city of London proved unwilling to rebel; Essex and most of his co-rebels were executed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The next major uprising was in 1601, when Robert Devereux , the second Earl of Essex , attempted to raise the city of London against Elizabeth's government.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Grace rode from the Tower of London through the said city [London] to her most glorious coronation at the monastery of Westminster (Scattergood 60).
  • The Battle of the Books: An Attack on Nationalism 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Threats also came from abroad.^ Threats also came from abroad.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1570, Pope Pius V issued a Papal bull, Regnans in Excelsis, excommunicating Elizabeth, and releasing her subjects from their allegiance to her.^ Pope Pius V aided the Catholic Rebellion by excommunicating Elizabeth and declaring her deposed in a Papal Bull.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1570, Pope Pius V excommunicated her, calling her the "pretended queen of England" .
  • Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope St. Pius V , who issued the Papal bull excommunicating Elizabeth and relieving her subjects of their allegiance to her Numerous threats to the Tudor dynasty occurred during Elizabeth's reign.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth came under pressure from Parliament to execute Mary, Queen of Scots, to prevent any further attempts to replace her; though faced with several official requests, she vacillated over the decision to execute an anointed queen.^ Mary Queen of Scots beheaded .
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth came under pressure from Parliament to execute Mary, Queen of Scots to prevent any further attempts to replace her; though faced with several official requests, she vacillated over the decision to execute an anointed queen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary, queen of Scots had worn an auburn wig to her execution.
  • Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, she was persuaded of Mary's (treasonous) complicity in the plotting against her, and she signed the death warrant in 1586. Mary was executed at Fotheringay Castle on 8 February 1587, to the outrage of Catholic Europe.^ Mary was executed at Fotheringay Castle on 8 February 1587, to the outrage of Catholic Europe.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, she was persuaded of Mary's (treasonous) complicity in the plotting against her, and she signed the death warrant in 1586.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary was executed at Fotheringay Castle in January, 1587.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

Last hopes of a Tudor heir

The Spanish Armada: Catholic Spain's attempt to depose Elizabeth and take control of England
.Despite the uncertainty of Elizabeth's–and therefore the Tudor dynasty's–hold on England, Elizabeth never married.^ The Tudor dynasty's hold on the throne of England was once again secure.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Strong Tudor dynasty in England .
  • World TIMELINE 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spanish Armada : Catholic Spain's attempt to depose Elizabeth and take control of England Despite the uncertainty of Elizabeth's–and therefore the Tudor dynasty's–hold on England, Elizabeth never married.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The closest she came to marriage was between 1579 and 1581, when she was courted by Francis, Duke of Anjou, the son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.^ The closest she came to marriage was between 1579 and 1581, when she was courted by Francis, Duke of Anjou , the son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jeanne Kalogridis, The Devil's Queen (2009), about Catherine de Medici and her marriage to Henry of France.

^ Paul de Faix to Catherine de Medicis.
  • Full text of "Historical portraits of the Tudor dynasty and the reformation period" 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite Elizabeth's government constantly begging her to marry in the early years of her reign, it now was persuading Elizabeth not to marry the French prince; his mother, Catherine de' Medici, was suspected of ordering the St Bartholomew's Day massacre of tens of thousands of French Protestant Hugenots in 1572. Elizabeth bowed to public discontent against the marriage, learning from the mistake her sister made when she married Philip II of Spain, and sent the Duke of Anjou away.^ This is the same Philip II who later sent the Great Armada against Mary's sister Elizabeth.
  • House of Tudor - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However the following year the queen announced her intention to marry Philip II of Spain.

^ Elizabeth bowed to public discontent against the marriage, learning from the mistake her sister made when she married Philip II of Spain , and sent the Duke of Anjou away.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth knew that the continuation of the Tudor dynasty was now impossible; she was forty-eight in 1581, and too old to bear children.^ Elizabeth knew that the continuation of the Tudor dynasty was now impossible; she was forty-eight in 1581, and too old to bear children.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The dynasty of the Tudors include Kings and Queens such as King Henry VIII and his daughters, Bloody Mary and Queen Elizabeth I. But King Henry VIII is perhaps most famous for his number of wives - six in...
  • The Tudors - Boxxet 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.boxxet.com [Source type: General]

^ I wished Elizabeth got more than children out of her marriage to Henry Tudor.

.By far the most dangerous threat to the Tudor dynasty during Elizabeth's reign was the Spanish Armada of 1588. Launched by Elizabeth's old suitor Philip II of Spain, and commanded by Alonso de Guzmán El Bueno, the seventh Duke of Medina Sidonia, the Spanish had 22 galleons and 108 armed merchant ships; however, the English and the Dutch Republic outnumbered them.^ In 1588 he sent a huge expedition against the English, the Spanish Armada.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Launched by Elizabeth's old suitor Philip II of Spain , and commanded by Alonso de Guzmán El Bueno , the seventh Duke of Medina Sidonia , the Spanish had 22 galleons and 108 armed merchant ships; however, the English and the Dutch Republic outnumbered them.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By far the most dangerous threat to the Tudor dynasty during Elizabeth's reign was the Spanish Armada of 1588.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Spanish lost as a result of bad weather on the English Channel and poor planning and supplies, and the skills of Sir Francis Drake and Charles Howard, the second Baron Howard of Effingham (later first Earl of Nottingham).^ The Spanish attempt was defeated by the English fleet under Charles Howard, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham, and Sir Francis Drake, aided by bad weather.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spanish attempt was defeated by the English fleet under Lord High Admiral Charles Howard, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham, aided by inclement weather.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ English merchants wanted to break into the lucrative American trade and the "Sea Dogs" like Sir Francis Drake preyed on Spanish trade, with the tacit consent of England's queen.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.While Elizabeth declined physically with age, her running of the country continued to benefit her people.^ The wealth of the country increased and most people benefitted.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Mary returned to Scotland in 1561 to take up the reins of power, the country had an established Protestant church and was run by a council of Protestant nobles supported by Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Elizabeth declines offers by the Dutch commission for soverignty of the Low Countries.
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.In response to famine across England due to bad harvests in the 1590s, Elizabeth introduced the poor law, allowing peasants that were too ill to work a certain amount of money from the state.^ Elizabeth's first pressing responsibility was to resolve the religious division in England.

^ What is known for certain is that marrying anyone would have cost Elizabeth large amounts of money and independence for all of the estates and incomes Elizabeth inherited from her father, Henry VIII, were hers only until she wed.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However other factors such as population densities and bad weather leading to poor harvests should not be ignored.
  • Mid Tudor Crisis Revision 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All the money Elizabeth had borrowed from Parliament in 12 of the 13 parliamentary sessions was paid back; by the time of her death, Elizabeth not only had no debts, but was in credit.^ If we all pool our money, we can turn it into a time share.
  • Mel Gibson’s Tudor-Style Mansion in Greenwich 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC hookedonhouses.net [Source type: General]

^ Elizabeth set out to join her troops wearing little armour over her dress and no guards to accompany her, only pages.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth and her parliament's failure to send Dudley sufficient money and troops, combined with his own incompetence as a military leader, doomed the campaign to impotence.
  • Elizabeth Tudor 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth died childless at Richmond Palace on 24 March 1603. She never named a successor.^ Elizabeth died in 1603.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ELIZABETH AGLIONBY ELIZABETH I (September 7,1533-March 24,1603) .

^ Died: Richmond Palace, 24 March 1603, aged 69.

.However, her chief minister Sir Robert Cecil had corresponded with the Protestant King James VI of Scotland son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and James's succession to the English throne was unopposed.^ If, however, the rules of primogeniture were upheld, the successor would be James VI, King of Scotland.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sir James Melville was specially charged to an- * Hosack's Mary Queen of Scots and her Accusers, p.
  • Full text of "Historical portraits of the Tudor dynasty and the reformation period" 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James VI of Scotland (1566-1625) .

.The Tudor dynasty was survived only in the female line, with the House of Stuart occupying the English throne for most of the following century.^ The dynasty of the Tudors include Kings and Queens such as King Henry VIII and his daughters, Bloody Mary and Queen Elizabeth I. But King Henry VIII is perhaps most famous for his number of wives - six in...
  • The Tudors - Boxxet 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.boxxet.com [Source type: General]

^ The Tudor dynasty continued the Plantagenet line, albeit in a diluted form.

^ By the time Henry VII, the first Tudor king, ascended to the throne in 1485, the literary Arthur was a well-established English hero.
  • The Battle of the Books: An Attack on Nationalism 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Before and after comparisons

.Public disorder regarding the Roses dynasties was always a threat until the 17th century Stuart/Bourbon re-alignment occasioned by a series of events such as the execution of Lady Jane Grey, despite her brother in law, Leicester's reputation in Holland, the Rising of the North (in which the old Percy-Neville feud and even anti-Scottish sentiment was discarded on account of religion; Northern England shared the same Avignonese bias as the Scottish court, on par with Valois France and Castile, which became the backbone of the Counter-Reformation, with Protestants being solidly anti-Avignonese) and death of Elizabeth I of England without children.^ Lady Jane was held in the Tower of London until she was executed.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lady Jane Grey is tried to for treason.
  • Tudor Chronology 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Public disorder regarding the Roses dynasties was always a threat until the 17th century Stuart/Bourbon re-alignment occasioned by a series of events such as the execution of Lady Jane Grey , despite her brother in law, Leicester's reputation in Holland , the Rising of the North (in which the old Percy-Neville feud and even anti-Scottish sentiment was discarded on account of religion; Northern England shared the same Avignonese bias as the Scottish court, on par with Valois France and Castile, which became the backbone of the Counter-Reformation, with Protestants being solidly anti-Avignonese) and death of Elizabeth I of England without children.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Tudors made no substantial changes in their foreign policy from either Lancaster or York, whether the alliance was with Aragon or Cleves, the chief foreign enemies continuing as the Auld Alliance, but the Tudors resurrected old ecclesiastic arguments once pursued by Henry II of England and his son John of England.^ Life in the court of England's volatile King Henry VIII is a perilous one for Elizabeth I. Her mother was beheaded by the king when Elizabeth was only two years old.
  • Elizabeth I, Red Rose of the House of Tudor Television show - Elizabeth I, Red Rose of the House of Tudor TV Show - Yahoo! TV 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC tv.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering Henry, Prince of Wales, in marriage to Prince Arthur's widow, Catherine of Aragon , the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile .
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A marriage treaty was signed; that provided that Mary would marry either Francis or his second son, Henry, Duke of Orléans.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Yorkists were tied so much to the old order that Catholic rebellions (such as the Pilgrimage of Grace) and aspirations (exemplified by William Allen (cardinal)) were seen as continuing in their reactionary footsteps, when in opposition to the Tudors' reformation policies, although the Tudors were not uniformly Protestant according to Continental definition--instead were true to their Lancastrian Beaufort allegiance, in the appointment of Reginald Pole.^ The Tudor age was a tumultuous one – a time of the Reformation, conspiracies, uprisings and rebellions.
  • Pearson - Tudor Rebellions, 5/E - Anthony Fletcher & Diarmaid Macculloch 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the rebellion known as the Pilgrimage of Grace began, Lord Hussey fled, leaving Lady Hussey behind.

^ The Beaufort-Lancastrian side of her ancestry has been cut out, let alone the far more dubious “Tudor” one.

.The essential difference between the Tudors and their predecessors, is the nationalisation and integration of John Wycliffe's ideas to the Church of England, holding onto the alignment of Richard II of England and Anne of Bohemia, in which Anne's Hussite brethren were in alliance to her husband's Wycliffite countrymen against the Avignon Papacy.^ The essential difference between the Tudors and their predecessors, is the nationalisation and integration of John Wycliffe 's ideas to the Church of England , holding onto the alignment of Richard II of England and Anne of Bohemia , in which Anne's Hussite brethren were in alliance to her husband's Wycliffite countrymen against the Avignon Papacy .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tudors made no substantial changes in their foreign policy from either Lancaster or York, whether the alliance was with Aragon or Cleves, the chief foreign enemies continuing as the Auld Alliance , but the Tudors resurrected old ecclesiastic arguments once pursued by Henry II of England and his son John of England .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary Tudor contracted a marriage with Prince Philip of Spain (later King Philip II), seeking to strengthen the Catholic influence in England.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Tudors otherwise rejected or suppressed other religious notions, whether for the Pope's award of Fidei Defensor or to prevent them from being in the hands of the common laity, who might be swayed by cells of Foreign Protestants, with whom they had conversation as Marian exiles, pursuing a strategy of containment which the Lancastrians had done (after being vilified by Wat Tyler), even though the phenomenon of "Lollard knights" (like John Oldcastle) had become almost a national sensation all on its own.^ The principal theme, though, is that all of these extended families are of mixed blood, politically unified by matrimonial alliances stretching from Norway to Yugoslavia, but that such ties did not prevent national feuds.
  • Royal & Noble Bibliography: Dynastic Studies 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC book-smith.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the one hand, he wanted to underscore that Britain was still the best of all lands even though the British people had been separated into two nations: those who remained on the island to fight against the Saxons (the Welsh), and those who crossed the Channel and settled in Armorica (the people of Brittany).
  • The Battle of the Books: An Attack on Nationalism 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry’s victory was assured when Margaret Beaufort’s husband, Lord Stanley, and his brother refused to ride to Richard’s aid even though they were supposed to be on Richard’s side.
  • Shakespeare's History Plays as Propaganda 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In essence, the Tudors followed a composite of Lancastrian (the court party) and Yorkist (the church party) policies.^ Elizabeth, indeed, went further, not only ignoring “Tudor” but emphasizing her Yorkist descent above the dubious Lancastrianism of the Beauforts.

^ Eventually, Elizabeth and Henry are married which united the red rose of the Lancastrians with the white rose of the Yorkists, forming the red and white Tudor rose.

.Henry VIII tried to extend his father's balancing act between the dynasties for opportunistic interventionism in the Italian Wars, which had unfortunate consequences for his own marriages and the Papal States; the King furthermore tried to use similar tactics for the "via media" concept of Anglicanism.^ King Henry VIII, year 14 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

^ King Henry VIII, year 6 .
  • East-West Timelines > A.D. 1501-1600 | DavidAppleyard.com 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.davidappleyard.com [Source type: News]

^ Henry VIII was 18 when his father died and he became king.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.A further parallelism was effected by turning Ireland into a kingdom and sharing the same episcopal establishment as England, whilst enlarging England by the annexation of Wales.^ A further parallelism was effected by turning Ireland into a kingdom and sharing the same episcopal establishment as England, whilst enlarging England by the annexation of Wales.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tudors extended their power beyond England, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542, ( Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 ); and successfully asserting English authority over the Kingdom of Ireland .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time as England was fighting Spain, it also faced a rebellion in Ireland, known as the Nine Years War.
  • WikiSlice 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.The progress to Northern/Roses government would thenceforth pass across the border into Scotland, in 1603, due not only to the civil warring, but also because the Tudors' own dynasty was fragile and insecure, trying to reconcile the mortal enemies who had weakened England to the point of having to bow to new pressures, rather than dictate diplomacy on English terms.^ The progress to Northern/Roses government would thenceforth pass across the border into Scotland, in 1603, due not only to the civil warring, but also because the Tudors' own dynasty was fragile and insecure, trying to reconcile the mortal enemies who had weakened England to the point of having to bow to new pressures, rather than dictate diplomacy on English terms.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ England, 918 - 1603, Tudor Dynasty 1485 - 1603.
  • World History Maps, Countries of the World 1/1/1536 Historical Map 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldhistorymaps.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Tudor dynasty ruled England from 1485 to 1603.

.Again, the Roses war's ending was not without consequences; much as the Black Death largely spawned this fratricidal suffering, as it did in France (not only once, but twice), revolutions were underway in England's constitutional framework, which culminated in the throne passing from the low-born Tudors, out of the country and into the hands of England's traditional enemies among the Scottish establishment, although these eventually sowed their own destruction by resurrecting the distant Anglo-Bohemian links once in vogue under Richard II of England and Anne of Bohemia.^ He won the war of the roses and the throne of England in 1485.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tudors emerged from the Wars of the Roses as England's rulers.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But he was born and raised under Tudor rule.

It is ironic that the process of change in England's government began and ended (i.e. the lineage of Elizabeth of Bohemia and Sophia of Hanover) with the Bohemian alliance, as much as the Burgundo-Flemish or Orangist Dutch relationship had been there, that the Scots were allowed to take the reigns of government only to be subsumed into an English Britain and that England's traditional mercenaries would be invited from Germany to thenceforth exile the aforesaid Scots, with the reward being both the English and Scottish thrones in the name of Great Britain. .It may thus be argued that without this conflict, England would be a very different country today.^ It may thus be argued that without this conflict, England would be a very different country today.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His son's policies would bankrupt the treasury, divide the country, impoverish his people, and lead England into futile foreign adventures.
  • All About Romance Novels - Tudor Times 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This may be because of a different importance placed on being “Within” or “Without” the City wall in the pre –modern world view.

Tudor monarchs of England

The six Tudor monarchs were:
Image Name Claim to the throne Birth date Accession date Death date Marriage(s)
Henry Seven England.jpg Henry VII Descent from Edward III of England 28 January 1457 22 August 1485 (crowned 30 October 1485) 21 April 1509 Elizabeth of York
Henry-VIII-kingofengland 1491-1547.jpg Henry VIII Son of Henry VII 28 June 1491 21 April 1509 (crowned 24 June 1509) 28 January 1547 (I) Catherine of Aragon, (II) Anne Boleyn, (III) Jane Seymour, (IV) Anne of Cleves, (V) Catherine Howard, (VI) Catherine Parr
Edward VI of England c. 1546.jpg Edward VI Son of Henry VIII by Jane Seymour 12 October 1537 28 January 1547 (crowned 20 February 1547) 6 July 1553
Streathamladyjayne.jpg Jane
(disputed)
Great granddaughter of Henry VII; granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister, Mary Brandon (née Tudor), Duchess of Suffolk 1537 10 July 1553 (never crowned) 12 February 1554 executed Lord Guildford Dudley
Mary I of England.jpg Mary I Daughter of Henry VIII by Catherine of Aragon 18 February 1516 19 July 1553 (crowned 1 October 1553) 18 November 1558 Philip II of Spain
Elizabeth1England.jpg Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry VIII by Anne Boleyn 7 September 1533 17 November 1558 (crowned 15 January 1559) 24 March 1603
.To the Tudor period belongs the elevation of the English-ruled state in Ireland from a Lordship to a Kingdom (1541).^ To the Tudor period belongs the elevation of the English-ruled state in Ireland from a Lordship to a Kingdom (1541).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tudors extended their power beyond England, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542, ( Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 ); and successfully asserting English authority over the Kingdom of Ireland .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, in Ireland, Kildares brothers and his sons by his first marriage rebelled against English rule.

Tudor Family Tree

England-Tudor.png

Patrilineal descent

.Patrilineal descent, the descent from a male ancestor in which all intervening ancestors are also male, is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the paternal line.^ Patrilineal descent , the descent from a male ancestor in which all intervening ancestors are also male, is the principle behind membership in royal houses , as it can be traced back through the paternal line.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Royal Status: Second in line to the British throne, behind his drop dead gorgeous older brother, it's unlikely that Harry will be king one day.

^ This unified the warring houses, and gave him a greater claim to the throne due to Elizabeth's line of descent (though there is evidence that Edward was born illegitimate).
  • 700000 people connected with European Royalty 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.e-familytree.net [Source type: Original source]

.[5] Note that as siblings, Edward, Mary and Elizabeth, share a generation number.^ Note that as siblings, Edward , Mary and Elizabeth , share a generation number.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She was succeeded by her half-sister, who became Elizabeth I. Mary was interred in Westminster Abbey on 14 December, in a tomb she would eventually share with Queen Elizabeth.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After Jane Seymour died, King Henry determined that the line of succession to the throne would be that Prince Edward would be first, then Mary, then Elizabeth.
  • Tudor Monarch Links 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

Royal House of Tudor

.
  1. Marchudd ap Cynan, c.^ Marchudd ap Cynan , c.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .846
  2. Kerwit, Lord of Brnffenigl
  3. Senylt, Lord of Brnffenigl
  4. Nathen of Brnffenigl
  5. Edryt ap Nathen, Prince in Wales
  6. Idnerth ap Edryd
  7. Gwgon of Brnffenigl
  8. Iorwerth of Brnffenigl
  9. Kendrig of Brnffenigl
  10. Ednyfed Fychan, d.^ He was married to Angharad ferch Ithel Fychan, daughter of Ithel Fychan ap Ithel Gan, Lord of Englefield.
    • http://www.cookfamilyforest.com/Neil/b455.htm 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.cookfamilyforest.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Margaret was daughter to Thomas ap Llewellyn, Lord of Iscoed, South Wales and his wife Eleanor ferch Philip.
    • http://www.cookfamilyforest.com/Neil/b455.htm 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.cookfamilyforest.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Kerwit, Lord of Brnffenigl Senylt, Lord of Brnffenigl Nathen of Brnffenigl Edryt ap Nathen, Prince in Wales Idnerth ap Edryd Gwgon of Brnffenigl Iorwerth of Brnffenigl Kendrig of Brnffenigl Ednyfed Fychan , d.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .1246
  11. Goronwy, Lord of Tres-gastell, d.^ They were parents to Goronwy, Lord of Tref-Gastel (d.
    • http://www.cookfamilyforest.com/Neil/b455.htm 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.cookfamilyforest.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Goronwy, Lord of Tres-gastell, d.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .1268
  12. Tudur Hen, Lord of Pemmynydd, d.^ Tudur Hen, Lord of Pemmynydd, d.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Tudur Fychan, Lord of Pemmynydd, d.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    1311
  13. Goronwy ap Tudur, d. .1331
  14. Tudur Fychan, Lord of Pemmynydd, d.^ They were parents to Tudor Fychan, Lord of Pemmynydd (d.
    • http://www.cookfamilyforest.com/Neil/b455.htm 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.cookfamilyforest.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Tudur Fychan, Lord of Pemmynydd, d.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Tudur Hen, Lord of Pemmynydd, d.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .1352
  15. Maredudd ap Tudur, d.^ OWAIN ap MAREDUDD ap TUDUR .
    • Family of Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.wargs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Maredudd ap Tudur .
    • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]
    • King Henry VIII Tudor: Biography - Classic Cat 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Maredudd ap Tudur m.
    • Family of Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.wargs.com [Source type: Academic]

    1406
  16. Owen Tudor, 1400–1461
  17. Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, 1430–1456
  18. Henry VII of England, 1457–1509
  19. Henry VIII of England, 1491–1547
20a. Edward VI of England, 1537–1553
20b. Mary I of England, 1516–1558
20c. Elizabeth I of England, 1533–1603

See also

.See also information on Blanche Parry and Lady Troy.^ Amongst those ladies was the Queen's faithful friend, Blanche Parry, one of the most learned women of Elizabeth's reign.
  • Full text of "Historical portraits of the Tudor dynasty and the reformation period" 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Further, the lady in charge of his upbringing was Blanche Herbert Lady Troy whose ancestors had residual Lollard connections [ 1 ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Independent of feminine curiosity, clever women like the Queen and Blanche Parry, desired a knowledge then so souglit as preternaturah Blanche Parry was, as I have before said, an erudite lady.
  • Full text of "Historical portraits of the Tudor dynasty and the reformation period" 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

Sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/608456/House-of-Tudor House of Tudor. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 06, 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  2. ^ Richardson, Ruth Elizabeth, 2007 'Mistress Blanche, Queen Elizabeth I's Confidante' Logaston, p 39-46
  3. ^ Richardson 2007, p 40, 167; elegy given in full in modern Welsh and English translation; see also www.blancheparry.com
  4. ^ Richardson 2007; also www.blancheparry.com
  5. ^ Descent from before Ednyfed is from [1] and may be really unreliable.

References

  • Guy, John (ed). The Tudor Monarchy. .St Martin’s Press, 1997.
  • Jones, Michael K. and Malcolm G. Underwood, "Beaufort, Margaret , countess of Richmond and Derby (1443–1509)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Accessed 27 August 2007.
  • Thomas, R. S. "Tudor, Edmund, first earl of Richmond (c.1430–1456)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Accessed 27 August 2007.
  • Turton, Godfrey.^ Articles in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , ed.
    • VITA 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC www2.selu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Henry Tudor (Earl of Richmond; Henry VII : 1457-1509; r.

    ^ This was Henry Tudor, the Earl of Richmond, and he had a very ambitious and very protective mother, Margaret Beaufort.
    • Shakespeare's History Plays as Propaganda 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Dragon’s Breed: The Story of the Tudors from Earliest Times to 1603.^ Get the real story: Please visit Tudor Times Bookstore It is functional again!

    ^ The Dragon’s Breed: The Story of the Tudors from Earliest Times to 1603 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 1:01 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Peter Davies, 1970.

External links

House of Tudor
Preceded by
House of York
Ruling house of the Kingdom of England
1485–1603
Succeeded by
House of Stuart

Simple English

The Tudor dynasty was a series of kings and queens in England. This line of rulers started in 1485, when Henry VII defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. Henry was accepted as the true king.

One of his sons, Arthur (Prince of Wales and son of Elizabeth of York), married Catherine of Aragon (daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile). The marriage ended with Arthur's death in 1502. Arthur's brother and next of kin, Henry VIII, married Catherine and became king in 1509.

During their marriage, Catherine had six children; only one, Mary I of England survived. When Catherine became too old to have any more children, Henry divorced her and married a new wife, Anne Boleyn, and had another daughter, Elizabeth I of England.

Anne Boleyn was executed in 1536 under the plotting of Thomas Cromwell. Shortly after, Henry VIII married Jane Seymour of England. She had one son, Edward VI of England. But, Jane died in 1537 due to medical problems caused by Edward's birth.

Henry was eventually married to three other wives until his death in 1547. Edward, his only living son, succeeded him.

Edward ruled until 1553, when he fell ill. Immediately, he created the "Devise for Succession," naming his cousin Lady Jane Grey his successor. But, Lady Jane was only queen for nine days.

Mary I of England became the next ruler of the Tudor dynasty. Because of her radical Catholicism, Mary used her time as queen to rampage against hundreds of Protestants. Because of all the executions carried-out under her rule, she was given the nick-name "Bloody Mary."

After Mary's death in 1558, her half-sister Elizabeth I of England took over as queen, bringing Protestant faith with her

The dynasty ended when Queen Elizabeth I died. She had not named a person to be ruler after her death, so her cousin's son took over. He became James I of England, and started the Stuart dynasty.

During the Tudor period, there were many changes in religion. Henry VIII, for example, was a Catholic but behaved like a Protestant as he broke away from the Pope's power and named himself as head of the Church. Edward VI was raised a Protestant, and shut down all Catholic churches. Mary I was a strong Catholic, having been raised in Spain because of her Spanish mother, Catharine of Aragon. She shut down the Protestant churches and burnt about 300 people for being Protestant (these were later called martyrs). When Protestant Elizabeth came to the throne, things changed and the Anglican church was introduced. Since then, religion in England has much calmer.

The Tudors also conquered Ireland.

Here are the rulers of the Tudor dynasty:

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Tudor dynasty, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message