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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Toucouleurs (or Haalpulaar’en) are a Fula agricultural people who live primarily in West Africa: the north of Senegal (where they comprise 10% of the population) in the Senegal River valley, Mauritania, Mali and Guinea.

Contents

History

The name Toucouleur has a debatable origin, with some sources stating it as a French creation meaning "all colors", and other sources citing it as a term that predates colonialization meaning "people from Tekrur", considering them the descendants of the Iron Age state of Takrur, which would make the present French form popular etymology.

Umar Tall founded a jihad state, the Toucouleur Empire, in present Mali in the nineteenth century.

People and society

The Toucouleurs speak the Fouta-Toro dialect of Pulaar (Fula). They call themselves Haapulaar’en, which means "those who speak Pulaar". They are largely Muslim, although a small number are animist. Culturally, the Toucouleur only differ from other Fulas by the sedentary nature of their society.

Toucouleur society is patriarchal and divided into strict hierarchies, with 12 castes subdivided into 3 classes.

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Marriage

When girls turn thirteen years old, they are considered eligible for marriage, or dewgal, which is arranged by her parents. While the bride-to-be celebrates with her friends, the groom goes to the mosque to validate the marriage. Later, the bride and her family go to the husband's house, where they will sit with elders and discuss the marriage. The next day, the bride's aunt will determine if the girl is a virgin, and then bathe and massage her. The bride greets the village and then her husband, and food is prepared, and eventually the celebration ends.

Childbirth and naming

One week after pémbougale (childbirth), the baby is named and a googo (sister of the father) cuts its hair. The father tells the marabout the name he has chosen, after which the marabout whispers the name in the infant's ear and prays. Following this, the marabout informs a griot or gawlo, of the name that has been chosen, and the griot announces the name to the village.

References

This article is based on a translation of the corresponding article from the French Wikipedia, accessed July 5, 2005.


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

TUKULOR (TUCULERS), the name, by some said to be the French tout-couleur, for the negro half-castes of Senegal, who are principally of Fula-Wolof descent. By others the word is identified with Tacurol, an old name of the country, which took the form of Tacurores in the Portuguese writers of the 16th century. The Tukulor are settled chiefly in the Damga, Futa, Toro and Dimar districts of Senegal, and are remarkable for their fanaticism as Mahommedans. An intelligent, energetic and fierce people, they offered strenuous opposition to the conquest of their country by the French in the latter half of the 19th century.


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