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Tunis
تونس Tūnis
Tunis at dusk

Seal
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Tunis
Coordinates: 36°48′N 10°11′E / 36.8°N 10.183°E / 36.8; 10.183
Country  Tunisia
Governorates Tunis Governorate
Government
 - Mayor Abbès Mohsen
Area
 - City 212.63 km2 (82.1 sq mi)
Population (2008 census)
 - City 1,200,000
 Density 19,847.9/km2 (51,405.8/sq mi)
 Metro 3,980,500
  [1]
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Website commune-tunis.gov.tn

Tunis (Arabic: تونس‎, Tūnis) is the capital of Tunisia and also the Tunis Governorate, with a population of 1,200,000 in 2008 and over 3,980,500 in the greater Tunis area. It is Tunisia's largest city.

Situated on a large Mediterranean Sea gulf (the Gulf of Tunis), behind the Lake of Tunis and the port of La Goulette (Halq al Wadi), the city extends along the coastal plain and the hills that surround it. At the centre of more modern development (colonial era and after) lies the old medina. Beyond this section lie the suburbs of Carthage, La Marsa, and Sidi Bou Said.

The medina is found at the centre of the city: a dense agglomeration of alleys and covered passages, full of intense scents and colours, boisterous and active trade, a surfeit of goods on offer ranging from leather to plastic, tin to the finest filigree, tourist souvenirs to the works of tiny crafts shops.

Just through the Sea Gate (also known as the Bab el Bahr and the Porte de France) begins the modern city, or Ville Nouvelle, transversed by the grand Avenue Habib Bourguiba (often referred to by popular press and travel guides as "the Tunisian Champs-Élysées"), where the colonial-era buildings provide a clear contrast to smaller, older structures. As the capital city of the country, Tunis is the center of Tunisian commercial activity, as well as the focus of political and administrative life in the country. The expansion of the Tunisian economy in the last decades is reflected in the booming development of the outer city where one can see clearly the social challenges brought about by rapid modernization in Tunisia.

Contents

Etymology

Tunis is the transcription of the Arabic name تونس which can be pronounced as "Tūnus‎", "Tūnas", or "Tūnis". The three variations were mentioned by the Arab geographer al-Rumi Yaqout in his Mu'jam al-Bûldan (The Dictionary of Countries).

Different explanations exist for the origin of the name Tunis. Some scholars relate it to the Phoenician goddess Tanith (aka Tanit, Tanut), as many ancient cities were named after the names of the deities.[2][3] Some Arab scholars proposed that the name derives from Arabic roots or identified it with the original town of Tarshish.[4] Others claim that it originated from Tynes, which was mentioned by Diodoros and Polybius along descriptions that were very close to the present day Al-Kasba; one of Tunis's suburbs.[4][5]

Another possibility is that it was derived from the Berber verbal root ens which means "to lie down" or "to pass the night".[6] Given the variations of the precise meaning over time and space, the term Tunis can possibly mean "camp at night", "camp", or "stop". In Tunisia there are also some inscribed references in ancient Roman sources mentioning the names of nearby towns, such as Tuniza (currently El Kala), Thunusuda (currently Sidi Meskine), Thinissut (currently Bouregba Bir), Thunisa (currently Ras Jebel), etc. As all of these Berber villages were situated on Roman roads, they undoubtedly served as a rest point or stop.[7]

History

Carthage

Site of Carthage*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Ruines de Carthage.jpg
State Party  Tunisia
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, vi
Reference 37
Region** Arab States
Inscription history
Inscription 1979  (3rd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
Carthage

The historical study of Carthage is problematic. Because its culture and records were destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War, very few Carthaginian primary historical sources survive. While there are a few ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin, as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in North Africa,[8] the main sources are Greek and Roman historians, including Livy, Polybius, Appian, Cornelius Nepos, Silius Italicus, Plutarch, Dio Cassius, and Herodotus. These writers belonged to peoples in competition, and often in conflict, with Carthage.[9] Greek cities contested with Carthage for Sicily,[10] and the Romans fought three wars against Carthage.[11] Not surprisingly, their accounts of Carthage are extremely hostile; while there are a few Greek authors who took a favorable view, these works have been lost.[12]

Recent excavation has brought much more primary material to light. Some of these finds contradict aspects of the traditional picture of Carthage, and much of the material is still ambiguous.

Early history

Artifacts from the siege of 149-146
Punic pillars unearthed in Carthage.

The existence of the town is attested by sources dating from the fourth century BC.[13] In the 2nd millennium BC a town, originally named Tunes, was founded by Berbers and also over time occupied by Numidians. In 146 BC, the Romans destroyed Tunis (along with Carthage). However, the city was subsequently rebuilt under the rule of Augustus and became an important town under Roman control and the center of a booming agricultural industry. Situated on a hill, Tunis served as an excellent point from which the comings and goings of naval and caravan traffic to and from Carthage could be observed. Tunis was one of the first towns in the region to fall under Carthaginian control, and in the centuries that followed Tunis was mentioned in the military histories associated with Carthage. Thus, during Agathocles’ expedition, which landed at Cape Bon in 310 BC, Tunis changed hands on various occasions.


When Agathocles died in 288 BC, a large company of Italian mercenaries who had previously been held in his service found themselves suddenly without employment. Rather than leave Sicily, they seized the city of Messana. Naming themselves Mamertines (or "sons of Mars"), they became a law unto themselves, terrorizing the surrounding countryside.

The Mamertines became a growing threat to Carthage and Syracuse alike. In 265 BC, Hiero II, former general of Pyrrhus and the new tyrant of Syracuse, took action against them. Faced with a vastly superior force, the Mamertines divided into two factions, one advocating surrender to Carthage, the other preferring to seek aid from Rome. As a result, embassies were sent to both cities.

While the Roman Senate debated the best course of action, the Carthaginians eagerly agreed to send a garrison to Messana. A Carthaginian garrison was admitted to the city, and a Carthaginian fleet sailed into the Messanan harbor. However, soon afterwards they began negotiating with Hiero. Alarmed, the Mamertines sent another embassy to Rome asking them to expel the Carthaginians.

Hannibal Barca, still considered one of the greatest strategists of all time.

Hiero's intervention had placed Carthage's military forces directly across the narrow channel of water that separated Sicily from Italy. Moreover, the presence of the Carthaginian fleet gave them effective control over this channel, the Strait of Messina, and demonstrated a clear and present danger to nearby Rome and her interests. The Roman senate was unable to decide on a course of action and referred the matter to the people, who voted to intervene.

The Roman attack on the Carthaginian forces at Messana triggered the first of the Punic Wars. Over the course of the next century, these three major conflicts between Rome and Carthage would determine the course of Western civilization. The wars included a Carthaginian invasion led by Hannibal, which nearly prevented the rise of the Roman Empire. Eventual victory by Rome was a turning point which meant that the civilization of the ancient Mediterranean would pass to the modern world via Southern Europe instead of North Africa.

Shortly after the First Punic War, Carthage faced a major mercenary revolt which changed the internal political landscape of Carthage (bringing the Barcid family to prominence), and affected Carthage's international standing, as Rome used the events of the war to base a claim by which it seized Sardinia and Corsica.

During the Mercenary War, it is possible that Tunis served as a center for the native population of the area,[13] and that its population was mainly composed of peasants, fishermen, and craftsmen. Compared to the ancient ruins of Carthage, the ruins of ancient Tunis are not as large. According to Strabo, it was destroyed by the Romans during the Third Punic War. Both Tunis and Carthage were destroyed; Tunis, however, was rebuilt first.[14] The city is mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana as Thuni.[14] In the system of Roman roads for the Roman province of Africa, Tunis had the title of mutatio (“way station, resting place”).[14] Tunis, increasingly Romanized, was also eventually Christianized and became the seat of a bishop. However, Tunis remained modestly sized compared to Carthage during this time.[15] In the 9th century BC, the city was taken over by Phoenicians from Carthage. The Berbers took control of Tunis in 395 BC but it was soon lost when Agathocles invaded Africa and established his headquarters there. When Agathocles left Africa, the Carthaginians took control of the city once again.

Islamic conquest

It was not until the 7th century, after the final destruction of Carthage, that Tunis achieved its own importance under the control of Arab Muslims. The medina of Tunis, the oldest section of the city, dates from this period. During the 7th century the region was conquered by Arab troops led by the Ghassanid general Hassan Ibn Numan. The city had the natural advantage of coastal access, via the Mediterranean, to the major ports of southern Europe. Early on, Tunis played a military role — the Arabs recognized the strategic importance of its proximity to the Strait of Sicily. From the earliest years of the 8th century, Tunis was the chef-lieu of this area: it became the Arabs' naval base in the western Mediterranean Sea, and took on considerable military importance.[15] Under the reign of the Aghlabids, the people of Tunis revolted numerous times,[15] but Tunis profited from economic improvements and quickly became the second-most important city of the kingdom. It became the national capital at the end of the reign of Ibrahim II (902) and remained so until 909,[16] (the date at which the Shi'ite Berbers took over Ifriqiya and founded the Fatimid Caliphate), then becoming the area's chef-lieu again. The opposition against the authorities intensified, from September 945, when the Kharijite insurgents occupied Tunis, resulting in general pillaging.[15][17] With the rise of the Zirid dynasty, Tunis gained importance, but the Sunni population tolerated less and less the Shi'ite rule, and carried out massacres against the Shi'ite community.[17] That is why, in 1048, the Zirid ruler Al-Muizz ibn Badis rejected his city's obedience to the Fatimids and re-established the Sunni rites throughout all of Ifriqiya. This decision infuriated the Shi'ite caliph Al-Mustansir Billah. To punish the Zirids, he unleashed the Banu Hilal Arab tribe on Ifriqaya; a large part of Ifriqiya was put to fire, the Zirid capital Kairouan was razed in 1057, and only several coastal villages, including Tunis and Mahdia, escaped destruction. Nevertheless, exposed to the violence of the hostile tribes that settled around the city, the population of Tunis, which no longer recognized the authority of the Zirids, swore allegiance to the Hammadid prince El Nacer ibn Alennas, based in Béjaïa, in 1059. The governor named for Béjaïa, having reestablished order in the country, didn't hesitate to free himself from the Hammadids and found the Khourassanid dynasty with Tunis as its capital. This small independent kingdom picked up the threads of trade and commerce with other nations, and brought the nation back to peace and prosperity.

Historic map of Tunis by Piri Reis

From the 12th century to the 16th century, the old city was controlled by the Almohad and the Hafsid Berber dynasties. During this time, Tunis was one of the richest and grandest cities in the Islamic world, with a population of about 100,000.

New Capital of Tunisia

In 1159, the Almohad 'Abd al-Mumin took Tunis, overthrew the last Khourassanide leader and installed in its place a new government in the kasbah of Tunis.[15] The Almohad conquest marked a new period in the history of Tunis, particularly with the beginning of the dominance of the city in Tunisia. The early settlement which had previously played a minor role behind Kairouan and Mahdia, was promoted to the rank of provincial capital. In 1228, Governor Abû Zakariya Yahyâ seized power and a year later, took the title of Emir and founded the Hafsids dynasty. With the advent of this dynasty, the city became the capital of a kingdom stretching towards Tripoli and Fez. In addition city walls were built to protect the emerging town of the kingdom including a wall surrounding the Medina, the Kasbah and the new suburbs of Tunis. In 1270, Tunis was taken briefly by Louis IX of France, who was hoping to convert the Hafsid sovereign to Christianity. Louis IX easily captured Carthage, but his army was quickly victim of an outbreak of dysentery. Louis IX himself died before the walls of the capital and the army was forced out. At the same time, driven by the reconquest of Spain, the first Andalusian Muslims and Jews arrived in Tunis and would become of fundamental importance to the economic prosperity and development of intellectual life in the Hafsid capital.[15]

Middle ages

The Ottoman Empire took nominal control of the city in 1534 when Barbarossa Hayreddin captured it from the Hafsid Sultan, Mulai Hassan. Mulai Hassan fled to the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor King of Spain. Charles, who suffered at the hands of the corsairs operating out of Djerba, Tunis and Algiers, agreed to reinstate Mulai-Hassan in exchange for an acceptance of Spanish suzerainty by Mulai-Hassan. A naval expedition led by Charles himself was dispatched in 1535 and the city was quickly recaptured. The victory against the corsairs is recorded in a tapestry at the Royal Palace of Madrid. The resulting protectorate lasted until the Ottomans retook Tunis in 1574. After 1591, the Ottoman governors (Beys) were relatively independent and piracy and trade continued to flourish.

In April 1655, English Admiral Robert Blake was sent to the Mediterranean to extract compensation from states that had been attacking English shipping. Only the Bey of Tunis refused to comply, with the result that Blake's 15 ships attacked the Bey's arsenal at Porto Farina (Ghar el Melh), destroying nine Algerian ships and two shore batteries, the first time in naval warfare that shore batteries had been taken out without landing men ashore.

Entry of Charles V into Tunis in 1535

In the sixteenth century, Tunis was one of the principal theatres of confrontation between the Spanish monarchy and Ottoman Empire.[15] The Ottoman troops, under the leadership of Hayreddin Barbarossa, appeared before the Bab El Jazira on 18 August 1534[18] pillaged the city. Charles V, called to the rescue by European leaders menaced by the Ottoman advance in the Mediterranean, retook the city on 6 August 1535, and restored the Hafsid sovereignty.

Confronting the difficulties previously encountered, the Ottoman Uluç Ali Reis, at the head of an army of janissaries and Kabyles retook Tunis in 1569. However, following the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the Spanish succeeded in retaking the city and re-establishing the Hafsid sovereign. Following these conflicts, the city finally fell into Ottoman hands in August 1574. Having become an Ottoman province governed by a Pasha appointed by the Ottoman Sultan based in Istanbul, the country was not slow to attain a certain autonomy (1591). Under the rule of deys and Moorish beys, the capital sprang into new life. Its population grew by additions from various ethnicities, among which were the Moors hounded from Spain, and economic activities diversified. To traditional industry and trade with distant lands was added the activity of the Barbary pirates, then in their golden age. An estimated 30,000 died of plague in Tunis in 1622, 1644, and 1787–88.[19]

Mustapha Khaznadar was Prime Minister of Tunis, from 1837 to 1873.[20] and one of the most influential persons in Tunisian modern history.[21]

At the beginning of the 18th century, Tunisia entered into a new period in its history, with the advent of the Husseinites dynasty. In this context, numerous successive rulers in power made a great progression in developing the city and its buildings. During this period, the city prospered as a center of commerce but was also threatened by. During the nineteenth century, the population is estimated, according to various sources, to range from 90,000 to 110,000 inhabitants.[22] Taking advantage of divisions within the dynasty, Algerians captured Tunis in 1756 and put the country under supervision. At the beginning of the 19th century, Hammouda Bey faced the bombing of the Venetian fleet and the city experienced a rebellion in 1811.[23] Under the reign of Hussein Bey II , the English naval victories (1826) and French (1827) saw the French become increasingly active in the city and in the economy.[24]

During the later nineteenth century, Tunis became increasingly populated by Europeans, particularly the French and Italians, and the new population dramatically increased the size of the city.[25] This resulted in the first demolition of the old city walls, from 1860, to accommodate for growth on the suburbs of the city. The city spilled outside the area of the earlier town and the banks of the lake, to accommodate these new people. Accordingly the new areas of the city became modernised with water supply (1860), light gas ( 1872), roads, and trash collection (1873) as well as communications with the nearby suburbs and city centre.[26] In addition, the crafts and traditional trade declined somewhat, and the newcomers introduced the first modern industries and increased trade with Europe, and new forms of urban life.

Development under the Protectorate

View of Tunis c. 1890-1900. Zaytuna Mosque is slightly right of center.
Urban evolution between 1890 and 1914

The French occupied the city from 1881 to 1956, having established a protectorate system of administration that recognized the nominal authority of local government. In those years there were huge European colonies (like the Tunisian Italians) in Tunis. The city expanded and created new boulevards and neighborhoods.

The creation of the French protectorate in 1881 was a turning point in Tunis history, causing rapid redevelopment of the city in the span of two to three decades. The city rapidly spread out of its fortifications: it split between a traditional Arab-populated old city, and a new city populated by newcomers, with a different structure than the traditional Medina. Tunis also benefited from French construction of a water supply, natural gas and electricity networks, Public transport services and other public infrastructures.

Tunis was quiet during he First World War. After the war, the city faced new transformations as the modern city grew in importance and extended its network of boulevards and streets in all directions. In addition, a series of satellite cities emerged on the urban rim and pushed the limits of the municipality of Tunis. At an economic level, activities were expanding and diversifying as the modern industries continued to grow, while traditional industry continued to decline.

During World War II, Tunis was held by Axis forces from November 1942 to May 1943. It was their last base in Africa, as they escaped to Italy after being pushed by Allied forces from Algeria in the west and Libya in the east.[27] Tunis fell to the Allies on 7 May 1943 at 15:30 in the afternoon, who defeated most of the German Fifth Panzer Army left guarding the city. At midday on 20 May 1943, the Allies held a victory parade on the Avenue Maréchal Galliéni and Avenue Jules Ferry to signal the end of fighting in North Africa.[28] After the Allies successfully pushed the Axis powers out of Tunisia, they used Tunis as a base of operation to stage assaults against the island of Pantelleria, then Sicily, and finally Italy.[29]

Following the Second World War, suburbs grew up quickly around Tunis to facilitate rapid industrialization.

Growth since independence

Extension of the city in the 1950s with the district of El Menzah

After independence in 1956, Tunis has consolidated its role as the capital, first with the establishment of a constitution stating that the Chamber of Deputies and the Presidency of the Republic must have their headquarters in Tunis and its suburbs. In a very short time, a rapid transforming of the colonial city proceeded. As the city has grown and native Tunisians gradually began to replace the extensive European population, conflict between the Arab city and the European city has gradually decreased with the arabization of the population.

Because of population pressure and the rate of migration to the capital, the city continued to grow, even with the creation of new districts in the suburbs. Old buildings have gradually been renovated and upgraded and new buildings have come to influence the urban landscape. At the same time, an active policy of industrialization is developing the municipal economy.

The Arab League was headquartered in Tunis from 1979 to 1990.The Arab League, which represents 22 Arab nations, transferred its headquarters to Tunis in 1979 because of Egypt's peace with Israel but has been headquartered back in Egypt since 1990.

The Palestine Liberation Organization also had its headquarters in Tunis, from 1970s to 2003. In 1985, the PLO's headquarters was bombed by the Israeli Air Force (F-15), killing approximately 60 people.

Geography

A summer night in Tunis
Tunis bay at sunrise
Tunis lake
Satellite view
A Tunis suburb

Tunis is located in north-eastern Tunisia on the Lake of Tunis, and is connected to the Mediterranean sea's Gulf of Tunis by a canal which terminates at the port of La Goulette / Halq al Wadi. The ancient city of Carthage is located just north of Tunis along the coastal part.

The city of Tunis is built on a hill slope down to the lake of Tunis. These hills contain the places, Notre-Dame de Tunis, Ras Tabia, La Rabta, La Kasbah, Montfleury and La Manoubia which altitudes beyond just 50 meters.[30] The city is located at the crossroads of a narrow strip of land between Lake Tunis and Séjoumi. The isthmus between them is what geologists call the "Tunis dome", which includes hills of limestone and sediments. It forms a natural bridge and since ancient times several major roads linking to Egypt and elsewhere in Tunisia have branched out from. The roads are also dependent with Carthage, emphasising its political and economic importance not only in Tunisia but in Africa in Roman Times.

The Greater Tunis area has an area of 300,000 hectares, 30,000 of which is urbanized, the rest being shared between bodies of water (20,000 hectares of lakes or lagoons) and agricultural or natural land (250,000 hectares). However, urban growth, which is estimated to be increasing by 500 hectares per year, is gradually changing the landscape with urban sprawl.

Suburbs

After World War II, suburbs began to rapidly spring up on the outskirts of Tunis. These form a large percentage of the population of the Tunis metropolitan area. It grew from 27% of the total population in 1956, to 37 % in 1975 and 50 % in 2006.

Municipality Population (2004) Municipality Population (2004)
Ettadhamen-Mnihla 118,487 La Goulette 28,407
Ariana 97,687 La Manouba 26,666
La Soukra 89,151 Mornag 26,406
El Mourouj 81,986 Djedeida 24,746
La Marsa 77,890 Den Den 24,732
Douar Hicher 75,844 Tebourba 24,175
Ben Arous 74,932 Mégrine 24,031
Mohamedia-Fouchana 74,620 Kalâat el-Andalous 15,313
Le Bardo 70,244 Mornaguia 13,382
Le Kram 58,152 Sidi Thabet 8,909
Raoued 53,911 Sidi Bou Saïd 4,793
Oued Ellil 47,614 El Batan 5,761
Radès 44,857 Borj El Amri 5,556
Hammam Lif 38,401 Total 1,265,060
Carthage 28,407
Sources : Institut national de la statistique[1]

Climate

Former Carthaginian port
Tunis bay

Tunis has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Koppen climate classification Csa) [31], characterized by a hot and dry season and a cool and rainy season. The local climate is also affected somewhat by the latitude of the city, the moderating influence of the Mediterranean and the terrain of the hills.

Winter is the wettest season of the year, when more than a third of the annual rainfall falls during this period, raining on average every two or three days. The sun may still increase the temperature from 7°C in the morning to 16°C in the afternoon on average during the winter. Frosts are rare or nonexistent. In spring, rainfall declines by half. The sunshine becomes dominant in May when it reaches 10 hours a day on average. In March temperatures may vary between 8° and 18°C, and between 13° and 24°C in May. However it is common for temperatures so soar even as early as April with record temperatures reaching 40°C. In summer, rain is completely absent and the sunlight is at a maximum. The average temperatures in the summer months of June, July, and August, are very high. Sea breezes may mitigate the heat, but sometimes the sirocco winds reverse the trend. In fall, it began to rain, often with short storms, which can sometimes create rapid flood or floods in some parts of the city.[32][33] The month of November marks a break in general heat with temperatures moving on average between 11° and 20°C.

Climate data for Tunis
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25
(77)
29
(84)
33
(91)
40
(104)
40
(104)
43
(109)
48
(118)
47
(117)
44
(111)
40
(104)
32
(90)
27
(81)
48
(118)
Average high °C (°F) 14
(57)
16
(61)
18
(64)
21
(70)
24
(75)
29
(84)
32
(90)
33
(91)
31
(88)
25
(77)
20
(68)
16
(61)
23
(73)
Average low °C (°F) 6
(43)
7
(45)
8
(46)
11
(52)
13
(55)
17
(63)
20
(68)
21
(70)
19
(66)
15
(59)
11
(52)
7
(45)
13
(55)
Record low °C (°F) -1
(30)
0
(32)
1
(34)
3
(37)
6
(43)
9
(48)
10
(50)
11
(52)
11
(52)
7
(45)
1
(34)
-1
(30)
-1
(30)
Precipitation mm (inches) 64
(2.52)
51
(2.01)
41
(1.61)
36
(1.42)
18
(0.71)
8
(0.31)
3
(0.12)
8
(0.31)
33
(1.3)
51
(2.01)
48
(1.89)
61
(2.4)
422
(16.61)
Source: BBC Weather [34] 2009-08-16

Politics

Capital

Kasbah Square comprising the finance ministry and the prime ministry of Tunisia

Tunis has been the capital of Tunisia since 1159. Under Articles 43 and 24 of the Constitution of 1959,[35] Tunis and its suburbs host the national institutions;President of the Tunisian Republic, who sits on the presidential palace, the Chamber of Deputies and the House of Councilors and parliament, the Constitutional Council and the main judicial institutions, the Bardo National Museum and various other government departments and public bodies.

Municipality

Institutions

City Hall

The City Council is composed of 60 members including 20 assistants elected by the council after taking office.[36] During the term 2005-2010, the distribution of seats is the following; 48 for the Democratic Constitutional Rally (the ruling party at national level), 4 for the Movement of Socialist Democrats, 4 for the Party of Popular Unity, 3 for the Unionist Democratic Union and 1 for the Social Liberal Party.[37]

The City Council meets four times a year but may meet by special request of the mayor. The council's responsibility may include regulating the municipal budget, building development and actions to be undertaken under the National Development Plan.[36] It also provides advice on all projects to be implemented by the state, the governorate or a public body.

Unlike other mayors in Tunisia, the mayor in Tunis is appointed by decree of President of the Republic among the members of the City Council. Abbes Mohsen is the current Mayor of Tunis, and has been in office since 2000 when he succeeded Mohamed Ali Bouleymane. He was re-elected and confirmed in his post after the municipal elections of 2005.[38]

In addition to the municipal institutions, each of 15 districts has a municipal council meeting each month in the presence of elected officials and representatives of the administrations to address issues on the agenda.

Budget

The President of Tunisia Zine El Abidine Ben Ali is based in Tunis

The 2008 budget adopted by the City Council is structured as follows: 61.61 million dinars for the operation and 32,516 million dinars for investment.[39] It reflects the improved financial situation of the municipality, the year 2007 was a year registering a surplus in resources that allowed the settlement of debts of the municipality and the strengthening of its credibility with respect its suppliers and public and private partners.

Revenues are generated by the proceeds of taxes on buildings and vacant lots, fees for the rental of municipal property, income from the operation of the public, advertising, and that the fact that the municipality has capital shares in some companies. On the expenditure side, provision is made for the consolidation of hygiene and cleanliness, the state of the environment and urban design, infrastructure maintenance, rehabilitation and renovation of facilities, and strengthening the logistics and means of work and transport.[39]

Administrative divisions

Map of the arrondissements of Tunis

The city of Tunis, whose size has increased significantly during the second half of the twentieth century, now extends over several governorates in the Tunis Governorate with the surrounding areas extending over parts of the governorates of Ben Arous, Ariana and Manouba.

The municipality of Tunis is divided into 15 municipal districts:[40] These include El Bab Bhar, Bab Souika, Cité El Khadra, Jelloud Jebel El Kabaria, El Menzah, El Ouardia, Ettahrir, Ezzouhour, Hraïria, Medina, El Omrane, El Omrane Higher Séjoumi, Sidi El-Bashir and Sidi Hassine.

Demography

Tunis
Muslims in Tunis attend the mosque in 1899.
A souk shopkeeper
Year Municipality Metropolitan area
1891 114,121
1901 146,276
1911 162,479
1921 171,676 192,994
1926 185,996 210,240
1931 202,405 235,230
1936 219,578 258,113
1946 364,593 449,820
1956 410,000 561,117
1966 468,997 679,603
1975 550,404 873,515
Sources : Paul Sebag, Tunis. Histoire d'une ville, éd. L’Harmattan, 1998
Old man in Tunis

In the years following independence, the population of the metropolitan area continues to grow: the increase of 21.1% from 1956 to 1966 and by 28.5% from 1966 to 1975 (55.6% between 1956 and 1975).[41] This steady growth is accompanied by changes which affect the nature of the settlement of the capital. Decolonization led to the exodus of some minorities whose numbers are dwindling every year. The gaps created by their departure are abundantly filled by Tunisians who are emigrating to Tunis from other parts of the country.

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the city of Tunis exceeds 2,000,000 inhabitants. After independence, the Tunisian government implemented a plan to cope with population growth of the city and country, a system of family planning, to attempt to lower the rate of population growth. However, between 1994 and 2004, the population of the governorate of Tunis grew more than 1.03% per annum. It represents, in the 2004 census, 9.9% of the total population of Tunisia.[42] As in the rest of Tunisia, literacy in the region of Tunis has evolved rapidly during the second half of the 20th century and reaches a level slightly higher than the national average. However education is only exceeded by the neighbouring governorate of Ariana which has many institutions of education.

Economy

Overview

Central Bank of Tunisia
The headquarter of the Banque internationale arabe de Tunisie
The Africa Hotel in the heart of the city
Headquarters of Tunis channel

Products include textiles, carpets, and olive oil. Tourism also provides a significant portion of the city's income.


Because of the concentration of political command (headquarters of the central government, presidency, parliament, ministries and central government) and culture (festivals and mainstream media), Tunis is the only national ranking metropolis. Tunis is the heartland of the Tunisian economy and is the industrial and economic hub of the country, home to one third of Tunisian companies - including almost all the head offices of companies with more than 50 employees with the exception of the Compagnie des Phosphates de Gafsa with the decentralization of its headquarters in Gafsa - and produces a third of national gross domestic product.[43] Tunis attracts foreign investors (33% of companies, 26% of investments and 27% of employment), excluding several areas due to economic imbalances. The urban unemployment rate of university graduates is increasing and the illiteracy rate remains high among the elderly (27% of women and 12% of men).[43] The number of people living below the poverty line, falling at the national level, remains higher in urban areas. In addition, unemployment is high in young people aged 18 to 24 with one in three unemployed compared to one in six at the national level. In Greater Tunis, the proportion of young unemployed is at 35%.[43]

Sectors

The economic structure of Tunis, as well as that of the country, is overwhelmingly tertiary industry. The city is the largest financial center in the country hosting the headquarters of 65% of financial companies - while the industrial sectors are gradually declining in importance.[43] However the secondary industry is still very represented and Tunis hosts 85% of industrial establishments in the four governorates, with a trend towards the spread of specialized industrial zones in the suburbs.

Primary industry such as agriculture, however, is active in specialized agricultural areas on the suburbs, particularly in the wine and olive oil industries. Indeed, thanks to a generally flat terrain and the two main rivers in Tunisia, the Medjerda to the north and the Milian to the south, soils are fertile.[44] Tunis has several large plains, the most productive are in Ariana and La Soukra (north), the plain of Manouba (west) and the plain of Mornag (south). In addition, groundwater is easily accessible through the drilling of deep wells, providing water for the different agriculture crops. The soils are heavy and contain limestone in the north but are lighter and sandy containing clay in the south.[45] There is much diversification in the municipality of Tunis, with Durum grown in Manouba, Olives and olive oil in Ariana and Mornag, wine (Mornag), and fruit, vegetable and legumes are grown in all regions.[46]

Tunisair has its head office near Tunis-Carthage Airport in Tunis.[47]

Architecture and landscape

Urban landscape

Ave Habib Bourguiba nighttime
Statue of Ibn Khaldoun in Independence Square
Tunis - Ave. Habib Bourguiba as seen from Carlton Hotel
Finance museum in Money Square (city centre)
Avenue Mohamed V in the financial district
Overview of the city

The Médina, built on a gentle hill slope on the way down to the Tunis Lake, is the historical heart of the city and home to many monuments, including palaces, such as the Dar Ben Abdallah and Dar Hussein, the mausoleum of Tourbet El Bey or many mosques such as Zitouna Mosque. Some of the fortifications have now largely disappeared around it, and it is flanked by the two suburbs of Bab Souika to the north and Bab El Jazira to the south. Located near the Bab Souika, the neighborhood of Halfaouine which gained international attention through the dissemination of the film Halfaouine, l'enfant des terrasses.

But east of the original nucleus, first with the construction of the French Consulate, the modern city was built gradually with the introduction of the French protectorate at the end of the nineteenth century, on open land between the city and the lake. The axis to the structure of this part of the city is the Avenue Habib Bourguiba, designed to by the French to be a Tunisian form of Champs-Elysees in Paris with its cafes, major hotels, shops and cultural venues. On both sides of the tree lines avenue, north and south, the city was extended in various districts, with the northern end welcoming residential and business districts while the south receives industrial districts and poorer peoples.

North of the Bourguiba Avenue is the district of La Fayette, which is still home to the Great Synagogue of Tunis and the Habib Thameur Gardens, built on the site of the ancient Jewish cemetery which lies outside the walls. South-east, the district of La Petite Sicile (Little Sicily) is adjacent to the old port area and takes its name from its original population of workers from Italy. It is now the subject of a redevelopment project including the construction of the twin towers. North of it, is the long avenue Mohamed V, which leads to the Boulevard of 7 November through the neighborhood of the big banks where there are hotels and Abu Nawas Lake and the headquarters of the ruling party of Tunisia. It leads to the Belvedere area around the place Pasteur. This is where the Belvedere Park lies, the largest in the city and its zoo and the Pasteur Institute founded by Adrien Loir in 1893. By continuing to the north are the most exclusive neighborhoods of Mutuelleville which houses the French Lycée Pierre-Mendès-France, the Sheraton Hotel and some embassies.

Still further north of the Belvedere Park, behind the Boulevard of 7 November are the neighborhoods of El Menzah and El Manar now reaching the peaks of the hills overlooking the north of the town . They support a range of residential and commercial buildings. To the west of the park lies the district of El Omrane which holds the main Muslim cemetery in the capital and the warehouses of public transport. Heading east is the Tunis-Carthage International Airport and the neighborhoods of Borgel, giving his name to the existing Jewish and Christian cemeteries in the capital, and the neighbourhood of Montplaisir. Beyond that, several kilometers north-east, on the road to La Marsa, the Berges du Lac was built on land reclaimed from the north shore of the lake near the airport, which has holds offices of Tunisian and foreign companies, many embassies as well as shops.

Southwest of the Medina, on the crest of the hills across the Isthmus of Tunis, is the Montfleury district then on down to the foothills of Séjoumi, the poor neighborhood of Mellassine. Northwest of the latter, north of the National Route 3 leading to the west, is the city of Ezzouhour (formerly El Kharrouba), which spans more than three kilometers and is divided into five sections. It is still surrounded with farmland and vegetables are grown which supply many of the souks in the region.

The south of Tunis is made up of disadvantaged neighborhoods, especially due to the strong industry in this part of the metropolis. These include Jebel Jelloud, located in the south-east of Tunis, which concentrates on the heavy industry of cement production, the treatment plant of phosphate s, etc. .) .The main cemetery in Tunis, the Djellaz Cemetery dominates this part of town, perched on the slopes of a rocky outcrop.

Médina

El Menzeh-El Manar District
Roofs of the medina
Court of Dar Ben Abdallah
"Porte de France" or "Sea Gate", Tunis
Court of Dar Soulaimania, once the boarding lodge of Zeitouna University

The medina of Tunis has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979. The Medina contains some 700 monuments, including palaces, mosques, mausoleums, madrasas and fountains dating from the Almohad and the Hafsid periods. These ancient buildings include:

  • The Great Mosque (including the Muslim University and library)
  • Aghlabid Ez-Zitouna Mosque ("Mosque of the Olive") built in 723 by Obeid Allah Ibn-al-Habhab to celebrate the new capital.
  • The Dar-al-Bey, or Bey's Palace, comprises architecture and decoration from many different styles and periods and is believed to stand on the remains of a Roman theatre as well as the tenth century palace of Ziadib-Allah II al Aghlab.

With an area of 270 hectares (over 29 hectares for the Kasbah)[48] and more than 100,000 people, the Medina comprises one-tenth of the population of Tunis. The planning of the Medina of Tunis has the distinction of not grid lines or formal geometric compositions. However, studies were undertaken in the 1930s with the arrival of the first anthropologists who found that the space of the Medina is not random: the houses are based on a socio-cultural code according to the types of complex human relations.

Domestic architecture (palaces and townhouses), official and civilian (libraries and administrations), religious (mosques and zaouïas) and services (commercial and fondouks) are located in the Medina. The notion of public space is ambiguous in the case of Medina where the streets are seen as an extension of the houses and subject to social tags. The concept of ownership is low however and souks often spill out onto public roads. Today, each district has its culture and rivalries can be strong.

The northern end supports the football club of Esperance Sportive de Tunis while at the other end is the rival African Club. The Medina also has a social sectorization: with the neighborhood of El Bey Tourbet and the Kasbah district being aristocratic, with a population of judges and politicians, while the streets of Pacha often being military and bourgeois.

Founded in 698 is the Zitouna Mosque and the surrounding area which developed throughout the Middle Ages,[48] dividing Tunis into a main town in two suburbs, in the north (Bab Souika) and the south (Bab El Jazira). The area became the capital of a powerful kingdom during the Hafsid era, and was considered a religious and intellectual home and economic center for the Middle East, Africa and Europe. A great fusion of influences can be seen blending Andalusian styles with eastern influences, and Roman or Byzantine columns, and typical Arab architecture, characterized by the archways. The architectural heritage is also omnipresent in the homes of individuals and small palace officials as well as in the palace of the sovereign of Kasbah. Although some palaces and houses date back to the Middle Ages, a greater number of prestigious houses were build in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries such as Dar Othman (early 17th century) Dar Ben Abdallah (18th century), Dar Hussein, Dar Cherif and other houses. The main palace beys are those of La Marsa, Bardo and Ksar Said. If we add the mosques and oratories (about 200), the Madrassah (El Bachia, Slimania, El Achouria, Bir El Ahjar, El Nakhla, etc..), The zaouias (Mahrez Sidi Sidi Ali Azouz, Sidi Abdel Kader, etc.) and Tourbet El Fellari, Tourbet Aziza Othman and Tourbet El Bey the number of monuments in Tunis approaches 600. Unlike Algiers, Palermo and Naples, its historical heart has never suffered from major natural disasters or urban radical interventions. The main conflicts and potentially destructive human behavior has been experienced in the city occurred relatively recently following the country's independence which it why it made into a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the Medina is one of the best preserved urban locations in the Arab world.[49]

Furthermore, along the boulevards, the contribution of the architectural period 1850-1950 can be felt in the buildings, such as the government buildings of the nine ministries and the headquarters of the municipality of Tunis.

Other landmarks

  • The Bardo Museum was originally a 13th century Hafsid palace, located in the (then) suburbs of Tunis. It contains a major collection of Roman empires and other antiquities of interest from Ancient Greece, Tunisia, and from the Arab period.
  • The ruins of Carthage are nearby, along the coast to the northeast, with many ancient ruins.

Souks

Medina Alleys

The souks are a network of covered streets lined with shops and traders and artisans ordered by specialty.[50] Clothing merchants, perfumers, fruit sellers, booksellers and wool merchants have goods at the souks, while fishmongers, blacksmiths and potters tend to be relegated to the periphery of the markets.[50]

Souk En Nhas with items of copper

North of the Zitouna Mosque is the Souk El Attarine, built in the early eighteenth century. It is known for its essences and perfumes. From this souk, there is a street leading to the Souk Ech-Chaouachya (Chechya). The main company that operates it is one of the oldest in the country and they are generally descendants of Andalusian immigrants expelled from Spain. Attached to El Attarine are two other souks: the first, which runs along the western coast of Zitouna Mosque, is the Souk El Kmach which is noted for its fabrics, and the second, the Souk El Birka, which was built in the seventeenth century and houses embroiderers and jewelers. Given the valuable items it sells, it is the only souk whose doors are closed and guarded during the night. In the middle there is a square where the former slave market stood until the middle of the nineteenth century.

Souk El Birka leads to Souk El Leffa, a souk that sells all kinds of carpets, blankets and other weavings, and extends with the Souk Es Sarragine, built in the early eighteenth century and specializing in leather. At the periphery are the souks Et Trouk, El Blat, El Blaghgia, El Kébabgia, En Nhas (copper), Es Sabbaghine (dyeing) and El Grana that sell clothing and blankets and was occupied by Jewish merchants.

Walls and gates

Walls and gates of the city in 1888
Bab El Bhar

From the early days of its founding, Tunis has been considered an important military base. The Arabs geographer El Yacoubi has written that in the ninth century Tunis was surrounded by a wall of brick and clay except the side of the sea where it was stone.[51] Bab El-Jazeera, perhaps the oldest gate of the south wall, opened onto the southern road. Bab Cartagena gave access to Carthage, important for bringing in construction materials needed for the city. Bab Souika (initially known as Bab El Saqqayin) had a strategic role to keep the roads to Bizerte, Béja and Le Kef. Bab Menara (initially known as Bab El Artha) opened onto the medina and on the suburb of El Haoua. As for El Bab Bhar, it allowed access to some fondouks where Christian merchants lived in Tunis.

With the development of the capital under the reign of the Hafsids, two emerging suburbs grew outside the walls; Bab El Jazira in the south and Bab Souika to the north. In the early fourteenth century, Hafsid Darba Abû al-Muhammad al-Mustansir Lihyânî ordered the construction of a second chamber including the Medina and two suburbs outside.[52] Six new gates were built including Bab El Khadra, Bab Saadoun, Bab El Allouj (initially called Bab Er-Rehiba), Khalid or Bab Bab Sidi Abdallah Cherif, Bab El Fellah and Bab Alioua. In the Ottoman period, four new gates were established: Bab Laassal, Bab Sidi Abdesselam, Bab El Bab Gorjani and Sidi Kacem. The city retains some of these gates including Bab El Khadra, Bab El Bhar and Bab Jedid but some of the earlier ones have long disappeared.

Religious buildings

St. Louis Cathedral on the Byrsa hill at Carthage

As in the rest of Tunisia, a very large majority of the population of Tunis (around 98%) is Sunni Muslim. The capital is home to a large number of mosques in various architectural styles, signs of construction of their respective eras. The main and oldest of them, is the Zitouna Mosque, founded in 698 and built in 732 and is in the heart of the Medina. It was completely rebuilt in 864 and is a prestigious place of worship, and was long an important place of culture and knowledge with the Zitouna University on the premises until the independence of Tunisia. It still hosts the main ceremonies marking the dates on the Muslim calendar and is regularly attended by the president.

The medina contains most of the major mosques in the capital which were built before the advent of the French protectorate. The mosque in the Kasbah, was founded in 1230. Practicing the Hanafi rite since 1584, it is recognisable mainly by the dome as well as its minaret, similar to the Koutoubia in Marrakesh and is the highest in the city.[53] Ksar Mosque, also of the Hanafi rite, is located in front of Dar Hussein (Bab Menara) and was built in the 12th centry.[53] The Hammouda Pasha Mosque, built in 1655, is the second mosque built by the Hanafi rite in Tunis.[53] Youssef Dey Mosque operated primarily as public speaking venue before becoming a real mosque in 1631.[53] Sidi Mahrez mosque is the largest mosque Hanafi mosque in terms of area but not the tallest. Built in 1692, it resembles the Ottoman Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul.[53] The Saheb Ettabaâ Mosque, built between 1808 and 1814 was the last mosque built by the Tunis Husseinites before the French occupation.[53]


The presence of modern churches in Tunis are also testimony to the French presence for half a century. Tunis is the seat of the Diocese of Tunis, with the seat located at the Cathedral of St Vincent de Paul, The church was built in 1897 on the site of the old Christian cemetery of Saint-Antoine.[53] This includes a network of Catholic buildings, including the Church of St. Joan of Arc, but also with the Protestant Reformed Church and the Anglican church Saint-Georges.[54] The small Orthodox community is in it centered around the Greek Orthodox Church (1862), managed by the Greek Embassy and the Russian Orthodox Church (1957), reflecting the presence in Tunisia of a small colony of white Russian refugees and immigrants.[53]

Judaism meanwhile enjoys a long tradition of presence in the city despite the emigration of a large part of the community after independence. Among the places of worship are Beit Yaacouv Synagogue and especially the Great Synagogue of Tunis, built at the end of the 1940s to replace the former Great Synagogue which was demolished as part of the Jewish redevelopment area, the Hara.

Parks and greenery

Belvédère Park dominating the city

Tunis has some large parks, many of which were installed at the end of the nineteenth century by the authorities of the French protectorate. The largest of them, is Belvedere Park, made from 1892 in a strategical position in the city and overlooking Lake Tunis. It is the oldest public park in the country and is built in the landscape style common to France.[55] The park covers an area of more than one hundred hectares across roads that can be explored on foot or by car. It is also home to Tunis Zoo, which presents the African fauna, and the Museum of Modern Art.

Habib Thameur garden in Tunis has a central pond and flower beds. The Gorjani garden, is an English garden located southwest of the city, which notably takes an irregular form, partly due to the steep topography of the land.[56]

Culture

Museums

Bardo National Museum

Located in an old beylic palace (the palace of the Bey of Tunis since the end of the 18th century, the Bardo National Museum is the most important archaeological museum in the Maghreb, and has one of the richest Roman mosaic collections in the world. Its collections developed rapidly, thanks to numerous archaeological discoveries in the surrounding territory.

In 1964 the Dar Ben Abdallah, a palace probably dating back to the 18th century, became the seat of the capital's Museum of Arts and Popular Traditions. In its exposition halls it holds numerous traditional items, witnesses of the everyday lives of families of the Medina quarter.

The Museum of the National Movement is situated in Dar Maâkal Az-Zaïm, which was the residence of nationalist Habib Bourguiba for the entirety of the fight for independence. After the advent of independence, a museum was built there to relate the details of the national struggle between 1938 and 1952.

The National Military Museum, opened in 1989 in the suburbs west of the city, holds a collection of 23,000 weapons, 13,000 of which date back to the 19th century, and some of which were used by the Tunisian troops during the Crimean War.

Music

Tunis holds some of the most prestigious musical institutions in the country.[citation needed] The group La Rachidia was founded there in 1934 to safeguard Arab music, and in particular to promote Tunisian music. The group is made up of 22 members (both instrument players and choral musicians).[57]

The Musical Troupe of the City of Tunis was created in 1954 by Salah El Mahdi. In 1955 he charged his student Mohamed Saâda to direct the ensemble, which at that time assembled the best artists, and later integrated the ensemble of Radio Tunis.[58] This group contributed to the rise to stardom of numerous Tunisian singers, including Oulaya.

The Association of Arab Orchestra of the City of Tunis began its activities at the end of April 1982, as a workshop linked to the cultural center of the city. It worked on promoting Arab music, on music education and training, and on cooperation with various partners both in Tunisia and abroad. The Tunisian Symphonic Orchestra, created in 1969 by the Minister of Culture, has also produced monthly concerts at the Municipal Theater and in various cultural spaces in the city.

Performing Arts

Tunis Municipal Theatre

Tunis is a center of Tunisian culture. The Théâtre municipal de Tunis, upon creation on 20 November 1902, showcases opera, ballet, symphonic concerts, drama, etc. On the stage of this theater, many performances are regularly given by Tunisian, Arabic and international actors.[59] The National Theatre of Tunisia is an important public enterprise in Tunis,[60] and since 1988 been located in the Khaznadar palace (dating from the middle of the 19th century and situated in the Halfaouine quarter), renamed "Theater Palace." In 1993, it also took possession of the former movie theater Le Paris, with a 350-person seating capacity. During each "cultural season" (from October 1 to 30 June) the theater holds over 80 showings.[60] The Al Hamra theater was the second theater to be opened in Tunis, situated on El Jazira Road. Al Hambra was one of the most famous theaters in the capital during the 1930s and 1940s.[61] After being closed for fifteen years, it was turned into a small theater in 1986, and since 2001 has held the first Arab-African center for theater training and research.[61] One should also note the El Teatro and Étoile du Nord theater groups.

Other arts are also represented in the capital. The National Center of the Arts established the puppet theatre in 1976.[60] The National School of Circus Arts was founded following a meeting between the Director of the National Theater and the Director General of the National Center for Arts of Châlons-en-Champagne (France) in 1998. In addition, various small theatres and cultural centres are scattered throughout the city and display various artistic performances.

Film producers and cinema have long been present in the city of Tunis. Indeed, the first animated film was shown in Tunis by the Lumiere brothers as early as 1896.[62] The first screenings were held the following year and the first cinema, the Omnia Pathé, opened on October 1908. The first film club opened in Tunis in 1946 and the Globe, in 1965.

In 1990, Ferid Boughedir shot the notable film Halfaouine, l'enfant des terrasses in Halfaouine district. The films The English Patient (1996) and The Last Days of Pompeii (2003) were also shot in studios in Tunis.

Festivals

The city holds several festivals each year, of which the largest is the Carthage International Festival which takes place in July and August with international attraction. Founded in 1964, much of the festival is held in an old amphitheater of Carthage (with a capacity of 7,500 seats), and hosts the performances of singers, musicians, actors, dancers and films on display on outdoor screens.

Education

Faculty of the Human and Social Sciences

Tunis and its suburbs have many of the major Tunisian universities including University of Tunis, Tunisia Private University, Zitouna University, the University of Tunis - El Manar, the University of 7 November at Carthage and the University of Manouba. Therefore, it has the highest concentration in the number of students in Tunisia with a student population of 75,597 as of 2006.[63]

Bourguiba High School

There are also a number higher education institutions such as the National School of Engineers of Tunis, the National School of science, the Graduate School of Communications of Tunis, and the Higher Institute of Technological Studies in Communications of Tunis etc. In addition, private training institutes include the Open University of Tunis, the Central University Private Business Administration and Technology, the Graduate School of Private Engineering and Technology and the North African Institute of Economics and Technology.

Among the high schools in the capital, the best-known are the Lyceum of the Rue du Pacha (founded 1900), Lycée Bab El Khadhra, the Lycée de la rue de Russie, Lycée Bourguiba (former Lycee Carnot de Tunis), and the Lycée Alaoui. Until independence, Sadiki College (founded 1875) and Khaldounia (founded 1896) were also among the most recognized. A legacy of the French presence in the country remains, and the city retains many French schools, the most important is the Lycée Pierre Mendes-France at Mutuelleville.

Libraries

National Library of Tunisia

Tunis has some of the most important libraries in Tunisia including the National Library of Tunisia which was first installed in 1924 in the Medina, in a building built in 1810 by Hammouda Bey to serve as barracks for troops and then a jail.[64] Now too small, the library moved to its current location on Boulevard 9 April in 1938. The new building contains a reading room, conference room, laboratories, an exhibition gallery, a block of technical and administrative services, a restaurant, a parking and green space areas.

Housed in a former home of a Hafsid scholar, the library of the Khaldounia was founded in 1896 along with the creation of the educational institution. After independence and following the consolidation of programs of education, the association ceased operations but the library is now linked to the National Library, which provides for its management.[65]

Built in the seventeenth century, the Dar Ben Achour also contains a library. Acquired in the late 1970s by the municipality of Tunis, the house was restored in 1983 into a library.[64]

Transport

Public transport

Tunis railway station
Tunis-Marsa expressway
Tunis-Beja motorway

Tunis is served by the Tunis-Carthage International Airport. The growing metropolitan area is served by an extensive network of public transportation including buses, an above-ground light rail system (le Metro), as well a regional train line (le TGM) that links the city center to its closest northern suburbs. Multi-lane autoroutes surround the city and serve the increasing number of privately owned cars one encounters in Tunisia.

The Tunis area is served by the métro léger (Ar.: المترو الخفيف لمدينة تونس) and TGM (Tunis-Goulette-Marsa), as well as bus services, and is linked to other places in Tunisia by SNCFT, the national railways. The important transport authorities are the Société des Transports de Tunis (STT)[66] and the Ministry of Transport (Airports) [67] The A1 motorway connects Tunis with Sfax to the south, the A3 make the connection with Oued Zarga and Béja to the west while the A4 is the link with Bizerte.

The city has at the beginning of the twenty first century a public transportation system developed under the management of the Société des transports de Tunis (STT). In addition to some 200 bus routes, the first light rail line opened in 1985. The Métro léger de Tunis network has extended gradually since then to reach the suburbs. The capital is also linked to its northern suburbs by the railway line that crosses the lake, dividing the lake into two. In addition, a new mass transit is planned for the Greater Tunis in 2009. This is the RTS (rapid rail network), which is the equivalent of the Paris RER, which will carry tens of thousands of travellers from the distant suburbs of Tunis to the center by using existing tracks or new tracks to be built.[68] It will be broken into lines whose priority will be based on certain criteria such as population density or the lack of coverage of a given area. Among the priorities are the following: Tunis-Borj Cédria (23 km) where modernization and electrification are already planned; Tunis-Mohamedia-Fouchana (19.4 km); The Tunis-Manouba-Mnihla (19.2 km); Tunis-Ezzouhour-Sidi Hassine Séjoumi (13.9 kilometers). In addition, the TGM will be integrated into the network of light rail and a new line built around Ayn Zaghouan and Bhar Lazrag (8.4 km). Such an operation would require the upgrading of the docks TGM stations so that they becone suitable for light rail trains.[68] Among other projects are a line to the city of Ennasr (8.4 km) and the extension of the Tunis-Ettadhamen to Mnihla (1.7 km). For its part, the south line of light rail was extended in November 2008 to El Mourouj with a length of 6.8 kilometers. The total length of the network will eventually be in the range of 84 km.[68]

Infrastructure

(Terminal 2)

Tunis is served by the Tunis-Carthage International Airport, located 8 kilometers (5 mi) northeast of downtown, which has been operational since 1940 under the name of Tunis El Aouina. The terminal had 4.4 million passengers (35.98% of total airport traffic in the country) in 2006. In 2007 that increased to 6 million passengers with a rise in tourism to the city. After independence, in the 1960s the National Board of Seaports, which supports all ports in the country, modernized the infrastructure of the port of Tunis.[69] In the 21st Century, the port of Tunis underwent further transformation with a marina as part of the redevelopment district of La Petite Sicily. Tunis is the central point in which the main roads and all highways that serve different parts of the country of Tunis originate. This city has a high density rate of traffic because the increase of vehicles is rising at a rate of 7.5% per year.[70] The capital is home to approximately 40% of the cars in Tunisia, with 700,000 cars on average used in the city per day.[70] In this context, major road infrastructure (bridges, interchanges, roads, etc..) were initiated in the late 1990s to decongest the main areas of the capital.[71] The main roads to other Tunisian cities include: Autoroute A1, Tunis-Sfax; Autoroute A3, Tunis-Oued Zarga; and Autoroute A4, Tunis-Bizerte.

Sport

At the beginning of the twentieth century a number of sports institutions were established in Tunis, especially in a school or college setting. The Muslim Association of Tunisia in 1905 brought together students from Lycée Alaoui and Sadiki College to organize gymnastics. A regional gymnastics competition has held in Tunis in 1912 with the participation of thousands of French gymnasts. Football made its appearance in the capital on 15 September 1904 with the creation of the first football of the country, the Racing Club Tunis which formalized on 11 May 1905. It took some time to run properly but soon organized meetings between the teams in schools. The first took place on 9 June 1907 between the team from Lycée Alaoui and the Lycée Carnot (1-1).

The 2005 World Championship final for men in team handball was played in Tunis on February 6, 2005.

But football is not the only discipline to emerge.Between 1928 and 1955 the city competed for nine editions of the Grand Prix of Tunis where notable drivers such as Marcel Lehoux, Achille Varzi, Tazio Nuvolari and Rudolf Caracciola once raced. The Grand Prix of Tunis has re-emerged since 2000.[72] The city has also held the Mediterranean Games twice, in 1967 and 2001 and the intertational tennis tournament, the Tunis Open, which is included in the ATP Challenger Series. In total the governorate of Tunis is 2007 registed 24,095 licensees for various clubs in the municipal area.[73]

Club Stadium Foundation Championships
of Football
Championships
of volley-ball
Championships
of handball
Championships
of basketball
Club Africain Stade El Menzah 1920 12 7 8 1
Espérance Sportive de Tunis Stade El Menzah 1919 20 15 24 3
Stade Tunisien Stade Chedli Zouiten 1948 4 0 0 0
7 November Radès Stadium

The Esperance Sportive de Tunis (EST), Club Africain (CA) and Stade Tunisien are the major sports clubs in the city. A symbolic class difference is present between the two sets of supporters of EST and CA supporters despite playing at the same stadium. The EST supported by the wealthy bourgeois and middle classes (EST) and the CA, a poorer club supported by the masses and working class generally.[74] The first true sports facilities were managed under the French protectorate, as illustrated by the development of the Ksar Said racecourse or construction of the Stade Chedli Zouiten in the neighborhood of Belvedere, which had long been the main stadium in the capital before being supplanted by the Olympic stadium, Stade El Menzah where EST and CA play their football today. The olympic stadium and olympic village area was built to accommodate the Mediterranean Games in 1967. The 60,000-seat stadium was also built in Radès for the Mediterranean Games in 2001 with an estimated cost of 170 million dinars, with nearly half of the loans financed by South Korean businessmen. The Olympic Village was financed by an investment estimated at 50 million dinars.[75] In 2008, the government announced the start of construction of a large sports complex that includes several sports academies, a 20,000-seat stadium and a swimming center. Known as Tunis Sports City, it will expand around the lake of Tunis, on the road to La Marsa.[76]

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Tunis is twinned with:[77]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b (French) Census of 2004 information National Statistical Institute
  2. ^ Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites. McFarland. p. 385. ISBN 0786422483. 
  3. ^ Taylor, Isaac (2008). Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 281. ISBN 0559296681. 
  4. ^ a b Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. Brill. p. 838. ISBN 9004082654. 
  5. ^ Livy, John Yardley, Dexter Hoyos (2006). Hannibal's War: Books Twenty-one to Thirty. Oxford University Press. p. 705. ISBN 0192831593. 
  6. ^ Rossi, Peter M.; White, Wayne Edward (1980). Articles on the Middle East, 1947-1971: A Cumulation of the Bibliographies from the Middle East Journal. Pierian Press, University of Michigan. p. 132. 
  7. ^ Paul Sebag, Tunis. Histoire d’une ville, éd. L’Harmattan, 1998, p. 54
  8. ^ Jongeling, K. (2005). "The Neo-Punic Inscriptions and Coin Legends". University of Leiden. http://website.leidenuniv.nl/~jongelingk/projects/neopunic-inscr/puninscr.html. Retrieved April 14, 2006. 
  9. ^ Carthage by B. H. Warmington p11
  10. ^ Herodotus, V2. 165–7
  11. ^ Polybius, World History: 1.7–1.60
  12. ^ Warmington, B. H. Carthage, p.11.
  13. ^ a b Paul Sebag, op. cit., p. 60
  14. ^ a b c Paul Sebag, op. cit., p. 70
  15. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.saisonstunisiennes.com/articles/tunishistoire/
  16. ^ Paul Sebag, op. cit., p. 87
  17. ^ a b Paul Sebag, op. cit., p. 88
  18. ^ Mohamed Sadek Messikh, Tunis. La mémoire, éd. Du Layeur, 2000, p. 25
  19. ^ "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800". Robert Davis (2004) ISBN 1403945519
  20. ^ Morsy, Magali (1984). orth Africa, 1800-1900: a survey from the Nile Valley to the Atlantic. Longman. p. 185. ISBN 0582783771. "Mustafa Khaznadar became Prime Minister in 1837, a position he maintained under three successive bey-s, more or less continuously until 1873." 
  21. ^ Ziadeh, Nicola A. (1969). Origins of nationalism in Tunisia. Librarie du Liban. p. 11. OCLC 3062278. "Mustafa Khaznadar was of Greek origin (b. 1817), and proved to be one of the most influential persons Tunisia saw in her modern history. He took the interest of his master and the country to heart and did all he could to prevail on Ahmad Bey to see that Tunisia acquired as much as she could" 
  22. ^ Paul Sebag, op. cit., p. 280
  23. ^ Mohamed Sadek Messikh, op. cit., p. 32
  24. ^ Mohamed Sadek Messikh, op. cit., p. 34
  25. ^ "Tunis". Encyclopædia Britannica 11th edition (1911).
  26. ^ Paul Sebag, op. cit., p. 261
  27. ^ Rolf, David. - The Bloody Road to Tunis: Destruction of the Axis Forces in North Africa, November 1942-May 1943. - London: Greenhill Books. - ISBN 9781853674457
  28. ^ Atkinson, Rick (2002). - An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942-1943. - New York: Henry Holt. - ISBN 9780805062885
  29. ^ Atkinson, Rick (2007). - The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944. - New York: Henry Holt. - ISBN 9780805062892
  30. ^ Paul Sebag, op. cit., p. 18
  31. ^ http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pics/kottek_et_al_2006.gif
  32. ^ (French) Imen Haouari, « Pluies torrentielles sur la capitale », La Presse de Tunisie, 25 septembre 2007
  33. ^ (French) Mongi Gharbi, « Trombes d’eau sur Tunis et certains gouvernorats du pays », La Presse de Tunisie, 14 octobre 2007
  34. ^ "Average Conditions Tunis, Tunisia". BBC Weather. http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT000720. Retrieved August 16, 2009. 
  35. ^ (French) Constitution de la République tunisienne (Jurisite Tunisie)
  36. ^ a b (French) Conseil municipal (Municipalité de Tunis)
  37. ^ (French) Conseillers élus 2005-2010 (Municipalité de Tunis)
  38. ^ (French) Maire de Tunis (Municipalité de Tunis)
  39. ^ a b (French) Budget de la municipalité de Tunis pour l’année 2008 (Municipalité de Tunis)
  40. ^ (French) Plan d’ensemble (Municipalité de Tunis).
  41. ^ Paul Sebag, op. cit., p. 608
  42. ^ (French) Population, répartition proportionnelle et taux d’accroissement par gouvernorat (Institut national de la statistique)
  43. ^ a b c d (French) Stratégie de développement de la ville de Tunis (Municipalité de Tunis).
  44. ^ Paul Sebag, op. cit., p.13.
  45. ^ Paul Sebag, op. cit., p.40.
  46. ^ Paul Sebag, op. cit, pp.41-42.
  47. ^ "Tunis." Tunisair. Retrieved on 16 March 2010.
  48. ^ a b (French) Fiche de présentation de la médina (Association de sauvegarde de la médina de Tunis).
  49. ^ (French) Entretien avec Jamila Binous sur la médina de Tunis (TV5).
  50. ^ a b (French) Promenade de Marie-Ange Nardi et Lotfi Bahri dans les souks de Tunis (TV5)
  51. ^ Mohamed Sadek Messikh, op. cit., p. 41.
  52. ^ Mohamed Sadek Messikh, op. cit., p. 46
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h (French) Lieux de culte (Municipalité de Tunis)
  54. ^ Cette dernière est construite sur ordre du souverain Romdhane Bey en 1696 pour y inhumer la dépouille de sa mère d’origine italienne et de culte protestant. Elle est gérée par l’ambassade du Royaume-Uni à Tunis.
  55. ^ (French) Sami Yassine Turki et Imène Zaâfrane Zhioua, « Analyse de la répartition spatiale et de l’aménagement des espaces verts programmés par les documents d’urbanisme dans le Grand Tunis », Actes du séminaire « Étapes de recherches en paysage », n°8, éd. École nationale supérieure du paysage, Versailles, 2006, p. 24PDF (355 KB)
  56. ^ Sami Yassine Turki et Imène Zaâfrane Zhioua, op. cit., p. 28
  57. ^ (French) Musique et conservatoires (Municipalité de Tunis)
  58. ^ (French) Musique et conservatoires (Municipalité de Tunis)
  59. ^ (French) Théâtres (Municipalité de Tunis)
  60. ^ a b c (French) Théâtres (Municipalité de Tunis)
  61. ^ a b (French) Théâtres (Municipalité de Tunis)
  62. ^ (French) Filming in Tunisia (CTV Services)
  63. ^ (French) Statistiques officielles (Ministère de l’éducation nationale)
  64. ^ a b (French) Bibliothèques (Municipalité de Tunis)
  65. ^ (French) Bibliothèques (Municipalité de Tunis)
  66. ^ http://www.snt.com.tn/
  67. ^ http://www.oaca.nat.tn/ OACA
  68. ^ a b c Chokri Gharbi, La métamorphose d’une capitale au cœur de la Méditerranée, La Presse de Tunisie
  69. ^ Paul Sebag, op. cit., p.659.
  70. ^ a b (French) « Le grand Tunis en chantier », Webmanagercenter, 1
  71. ^ (French) Chokri Ben Nessir, « Une véritable requalification routière », La Presse de Tunisie.
  72. ^ (French) « Grand Prix historique de Tunis : un rendez-vous magique », Turbo, M6, 23 novembre 2007
  73. ^ (French) Statistiques du sport en Tunisie (Ministère de la jeunesse, des sports et de l’éducation physique)
  74. ^ Franck Moroy, Football et politique. Le derby tunisois Espérance sportive de Tunis - Club Africain, éd. Institut d’études politiques, Aix-en-Provence, 1997
  75. ^ (French) Abdelaziz Barrouhi, Combien ça coûte ? , Jeune Afrique
  76. ^ Modélisation de la future Tunis Sports City (Mosaïque FM)
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Cooperation Internationale" (in French). © 2003-2009 City of Tunis Portal. http://www.commune-tunis.gov.tn/fr/mairie_cooperation1.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 

Bibliography

  • Jellal Abdelkafi, La médina de Tunis, éd. Presses du CNRS, Paris, 1989
  • Alia Baccar-Bournaz [sous la dir. de], Tunis, cité de la mer (acte d’un colloque de 1997), éd. L’Or du temps, Tunis, 1999
  • Philippe Di Folco, Le goût de Tunis, éd. Mercure de France, Paris, 2007
  • Abdelwahab Meddeb, Talismano, éd. Christian Bourgois, Paris, 1979
  • Mohamed Sadek Messikh, Tunis. La mémoire, éd. Du Layeur, Paris, 2000
  • Paul Sebag, Tunis. Histoire d’une ville, éd. L’Harmattan, Paris, 2000
  • Paul Sebag, Tunis. Une cité barbaresque au temps de la course, éd. L’Harmattan, Paris,
  • Wagner, Horst-Günter, Die Altstadt von Tunis. Funktionswandel von Handwerk und Handel 1968 - 1995. (The Medina of Tunis. Functional change of handicraft and commerce 1968 - 1995). Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 140, 1996, 5/6, S. 343-365.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Courtyard of the Zitouna Mosque
Courtyard of the Zitouna Mosque
Hôtel de Ville
Hôtel de Ville

Tunis (تونس) is the capital of Tunisia.

Understand

Located on the Mediterranean coast but lacking much in the way of beaches, Tunis has been spared the onslaught of package tourism in the resorts to the north and south. With a population of less than 700,000, the entire city feels small and compact. There isn't much in the way of must-see attractions, but Carthage is easily accessed from here and the souq is one of the most authentic and hassle-free in North Africa.

Orientation

Tunis is divided into the old city, known as the medina, and the new city, or ville nouvelle in French.

Get in

By plane

Tunis-Carthage Airport (TUN), 8 km away from the center, is small and in reasonable shape with all standard facilities. You can exchange money here at decent rates. A taxi into the city center — insist on the meter — should cost around 3 dinars during the day and 5 dinars at night. Alternatively, buses depart fairly regularly during the day (but not at night) and charge a fraction of the price.

Beware of the Taxi drivers at the taxi stand, at night they will ask 20 - 25 TD. During the day, the drivers will use the meter without argument but it is often tampered with and thus reads high. If it reads more than 2 dinar before the end of the airport road, you are being ripped off and you should contemplate getting out (without paying) and catching another taxi.

A better idea is to go upstairs to the departure area and catch a taxi that has just dropped someone off. This increases the odds of an honest driver immensely and is often done by locals (especially those who work at the airport).

The food and drinks near the check in counters are very reasonably priced and good quality but those in the transit area are extremely expensive and poor quality (low turnover).

By train

Tunis Central Station is near Place de Barcelone for easy interchange onto the light metro. Trains are generally cheap and comfortable, but if you want to ride first class during peak season, do reserve your seat in advance. Trains are run by SNCFT.

By car

It is not highly recommended to drive in Tunisia, due to poor quality of roads, driving habits, and poor signage. It is also more dangerous to drive at night, and outside of the city and major tourist areas.

By bus

Tunisia has over 70 bus lines, with Tunis at the hub. There are two bus stations in town, with Gare Bab el Fellah serving southern destinations and Gare Bab Saadoun serving those to the north. Buses are run by SNTRI at both stations.

By boat

Ferries connect Tunis to a number of international destinations including Trapani, Pantelleria, Genova, Naples and Marseille. The main ferry terminal is at La Goulette, but check your departure terminal carefully as there are also other ports. Operators include GNV [1].

Illuminated clock tower, a good landmark
Illuminated clock tower, a good landmark

Tunis is well-served by a convenient four-line light metro system run by Société des Transports de Tunis [2] (French/Arabic only). The interchange hub for all lines is in the center of town at Place de la République/Place de Barcelone. Single trips cost 0,410 TD.

The TGM suburban train line, starting at Tunis Marine station on Lines 1-4, connects to La Goulette (ferries), Sidi Bou Saïd, Carthage and the beaches of Marsa.

Taxis are also a good option if you need to go a bit farther than the metro, though cabs picking up in front of nice hotels will charge much higher rates.

Port de France
Port de France
  • Bardo Museum (Le Musée National du Bardo), Le Bardo-2000, (nearest station Bardo on Metro line 4), 1 513-650 (Fax: 1 513-842), [3]. Nov-Apr daily 9:30AM-4:30PM. May-Oct daily 9AM-5PM. Occupying the 13th century palace of the Ottoman-era bey (ruler) and renowned for its extensive collection of Roman mosaics, although the (huge) collection covers Tunisia's entire existence from the prehistoric era until the Ottoman days. Exhibits from Carthage, Mahdia, Sousse, many from the Roman period in addition to presentations of Arabian culture old and new.
  • Dar Ben Abdallah (Musée du Patrimoine Traditionnel). Tu-Su 9:30AM-4:30PM. A small but interesting folk museum within an 18th-century palace in the medina, covering the everyday life of a rich merchant in the Ottoman era with exhibits including faience, stucco ornament, costumes and furniture.
  • Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul Built in 1882, this is the largest surviving building from Tunis' colonial era, in the neo-Romanesque style.
  • Zitouna Mosque (Jemaa ez-Zitouna). The largest mosque in Tunisia and an important landmark, this Aghlabite mosque dates back to the 8th century, although the distinctive square minaret is a much later 19th century addition. Modest dress essential, but non-Muslims can only enter the courtyard (3 TND), not the mosque itself. It is open every day but Friday, from 8-11am. The mosque is also surrounded on three sides by souks, which are worth exploring.
  • Bab el Bahr (Porte de France). The Gate to the sea, which remains unchanged since its erection in 1848. It can be found on the Avenue de France.
  • Bab Saadoun. Another gate, constructed originally in 1350 with one arch, then rebuilt in 1881 with three arches to facilitate commerce.
view from government store
view from government store
  • Take a walking tour of the ancient buildings, mosques, and gates of the medina.
  • See an opera, ballet, or other production at the Théâtre municipal de Tunis.
  • Wander through Tunis' largest park, Belvedere Park, which houses the Museum of Modern Art and the municipal zoo, and overlooks Lake Tunis.

Learn

There is an American school in Tunis, the American Cooperative School of Tunis. It is a private, non-profit day school. If you would like to study Arabic or French while in Tunis, there are a few options, including The Language Academy [ [4]], or private tutors.

the Souk
the Souk
Camel skin and other lamps for sale
Camel skin and other lamps for sale
  • ATMs are a convenient way of getting money without going to a bureau de change and there are many VISA cashpoints around the city [5]
  • The souq in the medina makes for a fascinating stroll. Tiny shops overflowing with stuff; people selling, buying, milling about; skeletal cats lurking in the shadows; the smells of essential oils, spices, frying food and rotting garbage; the sounds of the muezzin, raï, football on the radio, Arabic and French... The Tunis medina's main routes are labeled "touristique", but even a few steps off the beaten track it's a real, working market. Behind the often scruffy facades hide old palaces, mosques, medrasas (Islamic schools). Compared to Morocco or even Sousse you will not be hassled here. Bab El Bahr (The large stone-arch "French Gate" at the head of Avenue DeFrance) is a good starting point for the Souk. The goldsmiths are close to Bab Bnet. Haggle if you wish to buy anything.
  • Halfaouine a cheap, traditional food market, located at Place Halfaouine, near the Habib Thameur metro stop.

There are little stores near every hotel in Tunis, where you can buy everything you need, but it's difficult to call their prices loyal. So it's better to go shopping to other parts of the city. Aproximate 90% of presented in Tunis goods are of local origin. There are networks of state supermarkets Monoprix and General in the capital.

Eat

Most hotels include breakfast, and some include dinner. If you want to enjoy a cup of coffee and a french pastry, you may have to search, as most coffee shops do not offer pastries.

  • Abid, 98 rue de Yogoslavie, tel: 216 1257052. You can get a solid meal such as lamb in macaroni for TD5.
  • Restaurante Les 3 Étoiles, Rue Mustafa M'barek. Very cheap and filling food such as couscous and salads.
  • L'Orient 7, Rue Ali Bach Hamba, tel: 216 71 252 061. close to porte de France. The steaks are bland, the fish good and local food such as Berber Lamb is excellent. The service is prompt.
  • La Mamma, Av de Carthage, tel: 216 71340423, email: lamamma@planet.tn. Very cosy restaurant on several floors. Good italian inspired food. Has live music and is open to 3 am.
  • El Khalifa, rue d'Iran, tel: 216 22428470. close to Metro stop Nelson Mandela. Delicious West African food at very reasonable prices, popular with employees of the African Development Bank. Far tastier and friendlier than the typical mediocre Tunisian restaurant experience. Open for lunch only until 3pm, Monday through Saturday.
  • Dar el-Jeld, 5-10 rue Dar el-Jeld (near the Prime Minister's residence, and the Youth Hostel), 71 560 916. Perhaps the best of the restaurants in Tunis, this restaurant pays attention to every single detail. You don't even open the door - just knock on the large yellow door, and they open it (this gives it the appearence of not being open). The food is excellent, and the management speaks English and French fluently, and can recommend various dishes. The menu is a bit complicated, with price categories, rather than prices, listed (check the last page for what each price category costs). The physical setting is inside a beautiful, tiled covered courtyard, and has private areas off to the side. As of March '09, prices for a main course ranged from 20-30, appetizer 7-9, and water or tea 3.5. Everything is recommended, though the couscous is simply good, but not incredible. 25-40 TD.  edit

Drink

Ladies, try to bring a man out with you, and be careful about what bars you frequent, because many are frequented only by men and prostitutes, and can get a bit rowdy.

  • Café M'Rabet cafe and restaurant.
  • Le Boeuf sur le Toit, 3 avenue Fatouma Bourguiba. The name means The Beef on the Roof, and trendy people come for food, drinks, live music, DJs, and a dance floor.  edit
  • Bar Jamaica, 49 Avenue Habib Boutguiba. On the 10th floor of the Hotel el-Hana International, this is a funky and popular destination for locals and foreigners, with music and outdoor seating available.  edit

Sleep

Most tourists will be interested in accommodation in either the Medina or in Ville Nouvelle. The medina includes the youth hostel and several other budget accomdations, and the high end Dar El Jed. The Ville Nouvelle offers a large number of budget and mid-range accomodation, many grouped within a few blocks of each other north of Place Barcelone.

  • Tunis Youth Hostel, +216 71 567 850. Buried deep within the Medina and a bit of a challenge to find (although there are intermittent signs along the way), this former palace of a sultan is architecturally impressive. Rooms are basic and cooled only by fan. The included evening meal is filling. Breakfast, a simple affair of French bread and coffee, is a bit ropey and is served in the large open courtyard. The communal bathrooms, however, are not cleaned regularly, and may border on offensive. The shower times are limited to an hour in the morning and at night, though hot water may not be available at these times. Plan on using the local hammams for all hot water and cleaning needs. 8TD incl. breakfast.  edit
  • La Maison Doree, 6 bis rue de Hollande, +216 71 240 632 (fax: +216 71 240 631). This hotel captures a slightly faded, colonial era charm. Rooms are basic (the hotel building is old) but clean. Excellent restaurant with bar (2.5 TD Celtia) that provides room service. Breakfast is included in the price, and the croissants are better than average. Rooms come with ensuite sink and shower, but shared toilets - a room with a toilet is an extra 10 TD. Some rooms overlook the local tram, which can be excessively loud - you may want to look out the window to the street below, and possibly listen to the noise of the passing tram. Located half a block north of Place Barcelone. 32-52 TD.  edit
  • Dar El-Medina, 64 Rue Sidi ben Arous. A luxury hotel in a century old mansion in the Medina, this is best accessed (at least until you get your bearings) by taking a taxi to Place du Government on the West side of the Medina - it's a few blocks walk from there. Google for more info, sadly no web page. 200-250.  edit
  • Sheraton Tunis Hotel and Towers, Avenue de la Ligue Arabe · B.P. 345 · Tunis Carthage Cedex 1080, (216)(71) 782 100, [6].  edit Modern hotel overlooking the entire city. Conviently located in the Central Business District.

Stay safe

Touts and unofficial "guides" hang around near tourist spots. Shoo them off if they start to launch into a spiel on the architectural wonders of this or that, or they will expect to some baksheesh for their unwanted efforts.

Cope

One thing that can get really annoying in Tunis is the number of "friends" a tourist will attract. There is a decent number of men who hang out on avenue Bourguiba, the main drag in Tunis. They work individually. They approach tourists and start talking to them. The tourist may think that this person is just being friendly but don't buy it. Also beware of teens approaching you on or around Av. Habib Bourguiba. They often "prey" on male tourists and try to talk you into joining them to the cinema. Later on your new "friend" will ask you for 10 Dinars or a pack of Marlborros or this or that. It is best to just avoid these people or to shoo them off. They also have different techniques to get your attention. They include: asking for a cigarette, asking for the time, asking for a lighter, bumping into you on the street. The most common one seems to be when they ask you for a cigarette or a lighter. It is wise to get rid of anyone who tries to just bluntly start a conversation with you on the street. Chances are that there are no good intentions involved whatsoever. Tunisian people are nice and curious towards strangers but avoid the ones who seem too friendly.

  • Carthage, famously razed by the Romans with the few remnants now safely encased in a museum, easily reached by train
  • Kerkouane, Phoenician and Punic historical site 80 kilometers west of Tunis
  • Sidi Bou Saïd, a lovely village of white-and-blue houses and fancy cafés and restaurants, easily reached by train
  • Quamart - A resort on Tunisia’s Mediterranean coast.
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1911 encyclopedia

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Tunis

Plural
-

Tunis

  1. The capital of Tunisia.

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of instu
  • units

Croatian

Proper noun

Tunis m.

  1. Tunisia

Simple English

Tunis (Arabic: تونس, Tūnis) is the capital city of Tunisia. As of 2004 728.463 people live in the city. About 1.6 million live in the metropolitan area.

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