The A. M. Turing Award  

Awarded for  Outstanding contributions in Computer Science 
Presented by  Association for Computing Machinery 
Country  New York, (United States) 
First awarded  1966 
Official website  ACM List of Turing Laureates 
The A. M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to "an individual selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. The contributions should be of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".^{[1]} The Turing Award is recognized as the "highest distinction in Computer Science"^{[2]} and the "Nobel Prize of computing".^{[3]}
The award is named after Alan Mathison Turing, a British mathematician who is "frequently credited for being the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence".^{[4]} As of 2007, the award is accompanied by a prize of $250,000, cosponsored by Intel and Google.^{[1]}
The first recipient, in 1966, was Alan Perlis, then of Carnegie Institute of Technology. Frances E. Allen of IBM, in 2006, was the first female recipient in the award's forty year history.^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]} The 2008 award also went to a woman, Barbara Liskov.
The award recipients and the fields in which they earned the recognition are listed below. Refer to the individual recipients for more detailed information on their achievements.
Year  Recipients  Citation 

1966  Alan J. Perlis  For his influence in the area of advanced programming techniques and compiler construction 
1967  Maurice V. Wilkes  Professor Wilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the EDSAC, the first computer with an internally stored program. Built in 1949, the EDSAC used a mercury delay line memory. He is also known as the author, with Wheeler and Gill, of a volume on "Preparation of Programs for Electronic Digital Computers" in 1951, in which program libraries were effectively introduced 
1968  Richard Hamming  For his work on numerical methods, automatic coding systems, and errordetecting and errorcorrecting codes 
1969  Marvin Minsky  artificial intelligence 
1970  James H. Wilkinson  For his research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the highspeed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error analysis 
1971  John McCarthy  McCarthy's lecture "The Present State of Research on Artificial Intelligence" is a topic that covers the area in which he has achieved considerable recognition for his work 
1972  Edsger W. Dijkstra  Edsger Dijkstra was a principal contributor in the late 1950s to the development of the ALGOL, a high level programming language which has become a model of clarity and mathematical rigor. He is one of the principal proponents of the science and art of programming languages in general, and has greatly contributed to our understanding of their structure, representation, and implementation. His fifteen years of publications extend from theoretical articles on graph theory to basic manuals, expository texts, and philosophical contemplations in the field of programming languages 
1973  Charles W. Bachman  For his outstanding contributions to database technology 
1974  Donald E. Knuth  For his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the design of programming languages, and in particular for his contributions to "The Art of Computer Programming" through his wellknown books in a continuous series by this title 
1975  Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon 
In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the RAND Corporation, and subsequentially with numerous faculty and student colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University, they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing 
1976  Michael O. Rabin and Dana S. Scott 
For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem," which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field 
1977  John Backus  For profound, influential, and lasting contributions to the design of practical highlevel programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, and for seminal publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages 
1978  Robert W. Floyd  For having a clear influence on methodologies for the creation of efficient and reliable software, and for helping to found the following important subfields of computer science: the theory of parsing, the semantics of programming languages, automatic program verification, automatic program synthesis, and analysis of algorithms 
1979  Kenneth E. Iverson  For his pioneering effort in programming languages and mathematical notation resulting in what the computing field now knows as APL, for his contributions to the implementation of interactive systems, to educational uses of APL, and to programming language theory and practice 
1980  C. Antony R. Hoare  For his fundamental contributions to the definition and design of programming languages 
1981  Edgar F. Codd  For his fundamental and continuing contributions to the theory and practice of database management systems, esp. relational databases 
1982  Stephen A. Cook  For his advancement of our understanding of the complexity of computation in a significant and profound way 
1983  Ken Thompson and Dennis M. Ritchie  For their development of generic operating systems theory and specifically for the implementation of the UNIX operating system 
1984  Niklaus Wirth  For developing a sequence of innovative computer languages, EULER, ALGOLW, MODULA and PASCAL 
1985  Richard M. Karp  For his continuing contributions to the theory of algorithms including the development of efficient algorithms for network flow and other combinatorial optimization problems, the identification of polynomialtime computability with the intuitive notion of algorithmic efficiency, and, most notably, contributions to the theory of NPcompleteness 
1986  John Hopcroft and Robert Tarjan 
For fundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures 
1987  John Cocke  For significant contributions in the design and theory of compilers, the architecture of large systems and the development of reduced instruction set computers (RISC) 
1988  Ivan Sutherland  For his pioneering and visionary contributions to computer graphics, starting with Sketchpad, and continuing after 
1989  William (Velvel) Kahan  For his fundamental contributions to numerical analysis. One of the foremost experts on floatingpoint computations. Kahan has dedicated himself to "making the world safe for numerical computations." 
1990  Fernando J. Corbató  For his pioneering work organizing the concepts and leading the development of the generalpurpose, largescale, timesharing and resourcesharing computer systems, CTSS and Multics. 
1991  Robin Milner  For three distinct and complete achievements: 1) LCF, the mechanization of Scott's Logic of Computable Functions, probably the first theoretically based yet practical tool for machine assisted proof construction; 2) ML, the first language to include polymorphic type inference together with a typesafe exceptionhandling mechanism; 3) CCS, a general theory of concurrency. In addition, he formulated and strongly advanced full abstraction, the study of the relationship between operational and denotational semantics. 
1992  Butler W. Lampson  For contributions to the development of distributed, personal computing environments and the technology for their implementation: workstations, networks, operating systems, programming systems, displays, security and document publishing. 
1993  Juris Hartmanis and Richard E. Stearns 
In recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory. 
1994  Edward Feigenbaum and Raj Reddy 
For pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology. 
1995  Manuel Blum  In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking. 
1996  Amir Pnueli  For seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification. 
1997  Douglas Engelbart  For an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision. 
1998  Jim Gray  For seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation. 
1999  Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.  For landmark contributions to computer architecture, operating systems, and software engineering. 
2000  Andrew ChiChih Yao  In recognition of his fundamental contributions to the theory of computation, including the complexitybased theory of pseudorandom number generation, cryptography, and communication complexity. 
2001  OleJohan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard 
For ideas fundamental to the emergence of objectoriented programming, through their design of the programming languages Simula I and Simula 67. 
2002  Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard M. Adleman 
For their ingenious contribution for making publickey cryptography useful in practice. 
2003  Alan Kay  For pioneering many of the ideas at the root of contemporary objectoriented programming languages, leading the team that developed Smalltalk, and for fundamental contributions to personal computing. 
2004  Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn 
For pioneering work on internetworking, including the design and implementation of the Internet's basic communications protocols, TCP/IP, and for inspired leadership in networking. 
2005  Peter Naur  For fundamental contributions to programming language design and the definition of ALGOL 60, to compiler design, and to the art and practice of computer programming. 
2006  Frances E. Allen  For pioneering contributions to the theory and practice of optimizing compiler techniques that laid the foundation for modern optimizing compilers and automatic parallel execution. 
2007  Edmund M. Clarke, E. Allen Emerson and Joseph Sifakis 
For [their roles] in developing ModelChecking into a highly effective verification technology, widely adopted in the hardware and software industries.^{[8]} 
2008  Barbara Liskov  For contributions to practical and theoretical foundations of programming language and system design, especially related to data abstraction, fault tolerance, and distributed computing. 
2009  Charles P. Thacker  For his pioneering design and realization of the Alto, the first modern personal computer, and in addition for his contributions to the Ethernet and the Tablet PC. 
