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Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Flag Presidential Seal
MottoYurtta Barış, Dünyada Barış
Peace at Home, Peace in the World
Anthemİstiklâl Marşı
The Anthem of Independence
Location of Turkey
Capital Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833
Largest city Istanbul
Official language(s) Turkish
Demonym Turkish
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  Founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
 -  President Abdullah Gül
 -  Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
 -  Speaker of the Parliament Mehmet Ali Şahin
 -  President of the Constitutional Court Haşim Kılıç
Succession to the Ottoman Empire² 
 -  Treaty of Lausanne July 24, 1923 
 -  Declaration of Republic October 29, 1923 
Area
 -  Total 783,562 km2 (37th)
302,535 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.3
Population
 -  2009 census 72,561,312[1] (18th³)
 -  Density 92.6/km2 (108th³)
239.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $915.212 billion[2] (15th)
 -  Per capita $13,138[2] (61st)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $729.983 billion[2] (17th)
 -  Per capita $10,479[2] (54th)
Gini (2005) 38 
HDI (2007) 0.806[3] (high) (79th)
Currency Turkish lira5 (TRY)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .tr
Calling code 90
2 Treaty of Lausanne (1923).
3 Population and population density rankings based on 2005 figures.
4 .Human Development Report 2007/2008, page 230. United Nations Development Programme (2007).^ The statutes and programmes of political parties shall not be in conflict with the indivisible integrity of the State with its territory and nation, human rights, national sovereignty, and the principles of the democratic and secular Republic.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
5 The Turkish lira (Türk Lirası, TL) replaced the Turkish new lira on January 1, 2009.
.Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey (About this sound Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia and Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.^ Turkish state to foreign states and to receive the representatives of foreign states appointed to the Republic of Turkey, .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To accredit representatives of the Turkish State to foreign states and to receive the representatives of foreign states to the Republic of Turkey, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ (After being drafted by the Consultative Assembly, the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey was accepted by 92% of the Turkish public in a referendum on November 7, 1982, and published in Official Gazette no.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast.^ HARRAN City on the border between Syria, Turkey, and Iraq, with a long and complex history.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It straddled the border between modern Turkey and Iran, north of Adiabene and south of Lake Van.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TRABIZOND A city and coastal region in northeastern Turkey, along the shores of the Black Sea; west-southwest of Georgia.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north.^ A natolia Anatolia is that region lying to the south of the Black Sea, to the east of the Aegean Sea, north of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and, inland, the Fertile Crescent, and west of the Caucasus-Azerbaijani districts.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ ANTIOCH (Antakya) Located at the northeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea, at the point where the coast abruptly turns south towards Sinai.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TRABIZOND A city and coastal region in northeastern Turkey, along the shores of the Black Sea; west-southwest of Georgia.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

Separating Anatolia and Thrace are the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits (the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles), which are commonly reckoned to delineate the boundary between Europe and Asia,[4] thereby making Turkey a country of significant geostrategic importance.[5][6] Ethnic Turks form the majority of the population, followed by the Kurds. The predominant religion in Turkey is Islam and its official language is Turkish.
.Turkey is the successor state to the Ottoman Empire.^ Capital of the Ottoman Empire.....................1453-1923 To Turkey.........................................1922- Note as well...
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To the Ottoman Empire.............................1393-1402 To Jandar.........................................1402-1458/62 To Ottoman Turkey thereafter...
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To the Ottoman Empire.............................1423-1919 Occupied by Italy.................................1919-1921 To Turkey.........................................1921- .
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

[7] .It is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic, with an ancient and historical cultural heritage.^ These restrictions shall not be in conflict with the letter and spirit of the Constitution and the requirements of the democratic order of the society and the secular Republic and the principle of proportionality.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The statutes and programmes of political parties shall not be in conflict with the indivisible integrity of the State with its territory and nation, human rights, national sovereignty, and the principles of the democratic and secular Republic.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The status, the administration, and the functioning of the labour unions and their higher bodies should not be inconsistent with the characteristics of the Republic as defined in the Constitution, or with democratic principles.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.Its political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I.^ OTTOMAN EMPIRE The ancestors of the Ottomans (Osmanli, Uthmanli) were Oghuz Turks who followed the victorious Seljuqs into Anatolia in the 11th century.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ His naiveté and utopianism in dealing with the aftermath of World War I make Thomas Jefferson's foreign policy look positively Machiavellian.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Capital of the Ottoman Empire.....................1453-1923 To Turkey.........................................1922- Note as well...
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

Since then, Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organizations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, WEOG, OSCE and the G-20 major economies.
.Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005, having been an associate member of the European Economic Community since 1963 and having reached a customs union agreement in 1995. Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the Eastern world, particularly with the Middle East and the Turkic states of Central Asia, through membership in organizations such as the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and Economic Cooperation Organization.^ (As amended on October 17, 2001) Employees and employers have the right to form labour unions employers’ associations and higher organizations, without obtaining permission, and they also possess the right to become a member of a union and to freely withdraw from membership, in order to safeguard and develop their economic and social rights and the interests of their members in their labour relations.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone shall be free to become a member of or withdraw from membership in a union.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Political parties shall not have political ties and engage in political cooperation with associations, unions, foundations, cooperatives, and public professional organisations and their higher bodies in order to implement and strengthen their party policies, nor shall they receive material assistance from these bodies.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

Turkey is classified as a developed country[8] by the CIA and as a regional power[9][10] by political scientists and economists worldwide.

Contents

Etymology

The name of Turkey, Türkiye in the Turkish language, can be divided into two words: Türk, which means "Strong" or "Mighty" in Old Turkic[11] and usually signifying the inhabitants of Turkey or a member of the Turkish or Turkic peoples,[11] a later form of "Tu–kin", a name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia as early as 177 BCE;[12] and the abstract suffix –iye (derived from the Arabic suffix –iyya, but also associated with the Medieval Latin suffix –ia in Turchia and the Turkic suffix –iye, known as iyelik eki), which means "owner" or "related to".
.The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Göktürks (Celestial Turks) of Central Asia (c.^ The GREAT SELJUQS The original Seljuqs, who swarmed out of Central Asia in the first half of the 11th century.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

8th century CE). The English word "Turkey" is derived from the Medieval Latin "Turchia" (c. 1369).[12]

History

Antiquity

Portion of the legendary walls of Troy (VII), identified as the site of the Trojan War (ca. 1200 BCE)
.The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited regions in the world.^ The RUM SELJUQS A large state taking up most of the interior of modern Turkey.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

The earliest Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük (Pottery Neolithic), Çayönü (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to Pottery Neolithic), Nevali Cori (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B), Hacilar (Pottery Neolithic), Göbekli Tepe (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and Mersin are considered to be among the earliest human settlements in the world.[13]
The settlement of Troy starts in the Neolithic and continued into the Iron Age. .Through recorded history, Anatolians have spoken Indo-European, Semitic and Kartvelian languages, as well as many languages of uncertain affiliation.^ The populations was Luwian, and spoke an Indo-European language related to Hittite.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical center from which the Indo-European languages have radiated.^ The populations was Luwian, and spoke an Indo-European language related to Hittite.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Kingdom of TABAL Neo-Hittite kingdom in central Anatolia, centered around the city of Kanesh (modern Kul-Tepe, Turkey).
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hittite letters refer to a kingdom called Wilusa , which some scholars believe is a Hittite version of Ilos, the legendary ancestor-king of Troy.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

[14]
The Celsus Library in Ephesus, dating from 135 CE
.The first major empire in the area was that of the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BCE. The Assyrians occupied parts of South East Turkey as far back as 1900 BCE. Subsequently, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BCE.[15] The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia.^ Kingdom of MILID - a Hittite successor state Pugnus-mili I ( Son of Kuzi-Teshub of Carchemish )...fl.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fragmented into numerous competing Ghazi states during the 13th and 14th centuries.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The populations was Luwian, and spoke an Indo-European language related to Hittite.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Lydians and Lycians spoke languages that were fundamentally Indo-European, but both languages had acquired non-Indo-European elements prior to the Hittite and Hellenistic periods.^ He read both Latin and Greek, and read Dante in the original Italian, since he spoke several languages.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Publication of periodicals or non-periodicals shall not be subject to prior authorisation or the deposit of a financial guarantee.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was settled by Aeolian and Ionian Greeks. The entire area was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th and 5th centuries and later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BCE.[16] Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms (including Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pergamum, and Pontus), all of which had succumbed to Rome by the mid-1st century BCE.[17]
.In 324 CE, the Roman emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome (later Constantinople and Istanbul).^ It was certainly associated with the Roman Republic by the Founding Fathers, but it had been used for many centuries for Empires, including the Roman Empire itself, the Holy Roman Empire, Russia, and later the French, Austrian, and German Empires.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire).^ This city served as the capital of Byzantine opposition to the Latin Empire established at Constantinople in 1204, and was the springboard from which the Paleologoi recaptured the Imperial City in 1261.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To the Roman Republic ..............................128-27 To the Roman Empire .............................27 BCE-395 CE To the Byzantine Empire ............................395-c.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To Vaspurakan......................................904-1021 To the Byzantine Empire...........................1021-1071 To the Seljuqs....................................1071-1207 To Aleppo.........................................1207-1242 To the Mongols....................................1242-1308 To the Ilkhanate Mongols of western Persia........1308-c.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

[18]

Turks and the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (ca. 1680)
The Selimiye Mosque is one of the most famous architectural legacies of the Ottoman Empire
The House of Seljuk was a branch of the Kınık Oğuz Turks who in the 10th century resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral Seas in the Yabghu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy.[19] In the 11th century, the Seljuks started migrating from their ancestral homelands towards the eastern regions of Anatolia, which eventually became the new homeland of Oğuz Turkic tribes following the Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt) in 1071.
.The victory of the Seljuks gave rise to the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate; which developed as a separate branch of the larger Seljuk Empire that covered parts of Central Asia, Iran, Anatolia and Southwest Asia.^ HITTITE EMPIRE The Hittites, arising in central Anatolia within what later was known as Cappadocia , were one of the earliest peoples to make extensive use of iron.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

[20]
In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols and the power of the empire slowly disintegrated. .In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I was to evolve over the next 200 years into the Ottoman Empire, expanding throughout Anatolia, the Balkans and the Levant.^ HITTITE EMPIRE The Hittites, arising in central Anatolia within what later was known as Cappadocia , were one of the earliest peoples to make extensive use of iron.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ OTTOMAN EMPIRE The ancestors of the Ottomans (Osmanli, Uthmanli) were Oghuz Turks who followed the victorious Seljuqs into Anatolia in the 11th century.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To Seleucid Empire.................................301-190 But much of the interior of Anatolia broken up into other states ( Cappadocia , Galatia , Paphlagonia , Pontus , etc.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

[21] .In 1453, the city of Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman armies of Mehmed II, marking the abolition of the Byzantine Empire.^ BYZANTIUM (Byzantion, Nova Roma, Constantinople, Istanbul) It may seem peculiar to provide a separate listing for the capital of both the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, but this city - one of the truly great cities of the world - is historically interesting in it's own right.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This city served as the capital of Byzantine opposition to the Latin Empire established at Constantinople in 1204, and was the springboard from which the Paleologoi recaptured the Imperial City in 1261.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Capital of the Byzantine Empire....................330-1453 By the 13th century, Muslims were referring to the place by any of several variants on the Arabic "Istinpolin", an Arab attempt at pronouncing the Greek phrase " Eis ten polin " ("in the city").
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the 16th and 17th centuries and particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was among the world's most powerful political entities, controlling territories on three continents.^ The Ghazi state in ancient Bithynia , the Uthmanli (Ottomans), eventually absorbed all it's neighbours, and was in control of most of Anatolia by the 1420's...
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On the other hand, the 2004 election did indeed signal a political trend :  The Republicans controlled the House of Representatives since 1995 and the Senate for most of that time.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ OTTOMAN EMPIRE The ancestors of the Ottomans (Osmanli, Uthmanli) were Oghuz Turks who followed the victorious Seljuqs into Anatolia in the 11th century.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.It often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.^ It was certainly associated with the Roman Republic by the Founding Fathers, but it had been used for many centuries for Empires, including the Roman Empire itself, the Holy Roman Empire, Russia, and later the French, Austrian, and German Empires.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] At sea the empire contended with the combined forces (Holy Leagues) of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Venice and the Knights of St. John for the control of the Mediterranean basin. In the Indian Ocean it frequently confronted Portuguese fleets defending the empire's monopoly over the ancient maritime trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe, which had become increasingly compromised since the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488.
.After nearly a century of decline, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated.^ OTTOMAN EMPIRE The ancestors of the Ottomans (Osmanli, Uthmanli) were Oghuz Turks who followed the victorious Seljuqs into Anatolia in the 11th century.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At a much later era, Bithynia was the heartland of Byzantine opposition to the Latin Empire in the 13th century (see Nicaea ), and the cradle of Ottoman power, during the 14th century CE. Far western Bithynia the site of ancient Ilium .
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

Following the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918, the victorious Allied Powers sought the dismemberment of the Ottoman state through the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920.[21]

Republic era

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey
.The occupation of İstanbul and İzmir by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement.^ His naiveté and utopianism in dealing with the aftermath of World War I make Thomas Jefferson's foreign policy look positively Machiavellian.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] .Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres.^ Relations between military judges and the office of commander under which they serve, regarding the requirements of military service apart from judicial functions, shall also be prescribed by law.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The term of office of members who are not military judges shall not exceed four years.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Relations between military judges and the office of commander under which they serve, regarding the requirements of military service apart from the judicial functions, shall also be prescribed by law.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.By September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were repelled, and the new Turkish state was established.^ The oath he took as Head of State on 18 September 1980 shall remain valid.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The unique radio and television administration established by the state as a public corporate body and the news agencies which receive aid from public corporate bodies shall be autonomous and their broadcasts shall be impartial.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The oath taken as Head of State on 18 September 1980, shall remain valid.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. .The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara.^ Now that 2005 has come and gone, it is clear that nothing significant, however, has changed in the form of American history in the "New Republic," whose defining characteristic is the New Deal.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ratification of treaties concluded with foreign states and international organisations on behalf of the Republic of Turkey, shall be subject to adoption by the Turkish Grand National Assembly by a law approving the ratification.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The history of the United States may conveniently be divided into three parts, the " Old Republic ," 1789-1861, the " Middle Republic ," 1861-1933, and the " New Republic ," 1933-2005.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President of Turkey and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.^ No provision of the Constitution shall be construed or interpreted as rendering unconstitutional the Reform Laws indicated below, which aim to raise Turkish society above the level of contemporary civilisation and to safeguard the secular character of the Republic, and which were in force on the date of the adoption by referendum of the Constitution of Turkey.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ In the event of a decision to hold new elections under Article 116, the Council of Ministers shall resign and the President of the Republic shall appoint a Prime Minister to form a Provisional Council of Ministers.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ It was certainly associated with the Roman Republic by the Founding Fathers, but it had been used for many centuries for Empires, including the Roman Empire itself, the Holy Roman Empire, Russia, and later the French, Austrian, and German Empires.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish parliament presented Mustafa Kemal with the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father Turk) in 1934.[5]
.Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II but entered on the side of the Allies on February 23, 1945, as a ceremonial gesture and in 1945 became a charter member of the United Nations.^ The oath they took on 18 September 1980, as members of the Council of National Security shall remain valid.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The determination to safeguard the everlasting existence, prosperity and material and spiritual well-being of the Republic of Turkey, and to attain the standards of contemporary civilization as an honourable member with equal rights of the family of world nations; .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The end of World War II brought the final addition to American territories.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in large-scale U.S. military and economic support.^ At the same time Truman had desegregated the United States military.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mexican War was the first large military campaign outside the territory of the United States.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Did the United States have the right to conquer the Southern States just to preserve the Union?
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[23]
.After participating with the United Nations forces in the Korean conflict, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean.^ On its adoption by referendum and its publication in the Official Gazette, this Constitution shall become the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey and shall come into force in its entirety, subject to the following exceptions and the provisions relating to their entry into force: a.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On its adoption by referendum and its publication in the Official Gazette, this Constitution shall become the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey and shall come into force in its entirety, subject to the following exceptions and the provisions relating to their entry into force: .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ However until their entry into force, existing legislation and the decrees and decisions of the Council of National Security shall apply.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.Following a decade of intercommunal violence on the island of Cyprus and the Greek military coup of July 1974, overthrowing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as dictator, Turkey invaded the Republic of Cyprus in 1974. Nine years later the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was established.^ The President of the Republic shall be elected by a two-thirds majority of the total number of members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and by secret ballot.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The Office of Commander-in-Chief is inseparable from the spiritual existence of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and is represented by the President of the Republic.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Within a period of six years following the formation of the Bureau of the Turkish Grand National Assembly which is to convene after the first general elections, the President of the Republic may refer to the Turkish Grand National Assembly for further consideration any Constitutional amendments adopted by the Assembly.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

Turkey is the only country to recognise the TRNC [24]
.Following the end of the single-party period in 1945, the multi-party period created tensions over the next decades, and the period between the 1960s and the 1980s was particularly marked by periods of political instability that resulted in a number of military coups d'états in 1960, 1971, 1980 and a military memorandum in 1997.^ The Bureau of the Assembly shall be so composed as to ensure proportionate representation to the number of members of each political party group in the Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The number of members to be taken from political party groups shall be determined by the President of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, and shall be communicated to the Prime Minister.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ If more than one political party is in power, the right of the parties in power to apply for annulment action shall be exercised by the party having the greatest number of members.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[25] In the 1980s the Kurdistan Workers' Party began an insurgency which has claimed over 40,000 lives. [26] .The liberalization of the Turkish economy that started in the 1980s changed the landscape of the country, with successive periods of high growth and crises punctuating the following decades.^ Turkey is an emerging commercial and financial center that has been liberalizing its economy since the late 1980s.
  • MERIA RESEARCH GUIDE 20 September 2009 1:27 UTC www.biu.ac.il [Source type: Academic]

^ The economy turned around with the implementation of economic reforms, and 2004 GDP growth reached 9%, followed by roughly 5% annual growth from 2005-07.
  • Country Fast Facts: Turkey - CBS News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: News]
  • Flag Counter » Turkey 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country has developed a strong, diversified economy, but it has also experienced periods of political and civic turmoil between Islamists and secularists and ongoing ethnic tension with Kurdish separatists.
  • Turkey -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]

Government and politics

The Grand Chamber of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in Ankara
Turkey is a parliamentary representative democracy. Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism.[28] Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. .It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralized state.^ Due to proximity and Turkic linguistic and ethnic ties, the Turkish Government and businesses continue to develop links with most of the Central Asian and Caucasian states.
  • President's Trip to Europe: Background Information: Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC clinton3.nara.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The businessman pointed out that Turkey recently signed an agreement whereby Syrians will no longer need visas to enter Turkey, that the government also signed 40 separate trade agreements with Iraq and that Turkey also signed an agreement to establish diplomatic relations with Armenia.

^ The principles governing the auditing, by the Turkish Grand National Assembly of the accounts of public establishments and partnerships in which more than half of the capital directly or indirectly belongs to the state, shall be regulated by law.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The head of state is the President of the Republic and has a largely ceremonial role.^ June 1981; and as President, Chief Public Prosecutor, deputy presidents and heads of division of the Council of State under Provisional Article 14, paragraph 2 of Act No.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ June 1981; and as president, chief public prosecutor, deputy presidents and heads of division of the Council of State under Provisional Article 14, paragraph 2 of Act No.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The members and the Chairman to be designated from among the member of the State Supervisory Council shall be appointed by the President of the Republic from among those with the qualifications set forth in the law.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.The president is elected for a five-year term by direct elections.^ The president, chief public prosecutor, deputy president, and heads of division of the Council of State shall be elected by the Plenary Assembly of the Council of State from among its own members for a term of four years by secret ballot and by an absolute majority of the total number of members.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The elections for local administrations shall be held every five years in accordance with the principles set forth in Article 67.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elections for the Turkish Grand National Assembly shall be held every five years.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

Abdullah Gül was elected as president on August 28, 2007, by a popular parliament round of votes, succeeding Ahmet Necdet Sezer.[29]
.Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers which make up the government, while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.^ Turkish Grand National Assembly to be reconsidered, .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Council of Ministers shall consist of the Prime Minister and the ministers.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Turkish Grand National Assembly on the first day of the legislative year, .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution.^ The history of the Court is the history of the destruction of the Constitution and of the failure of the Rule of Law.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitutional Court shall examine the constitutionality in respect of both form and substance of laws, decrees having force of law, and the Rules of Procedure of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The right to apply for annulment directly to the Constitutional Court shall lapse sixty days after publication in the Official Gazette of the contested law, the decree having the force of law, or the Rules of Procedure.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the High Court of Appeals for all others.^ The provisions of Part III relating to the functions and powers of the President of the Republic and to the State Supervisory Council under the heading "President of the Republic"; to regulations, National Defence, procedures governing emergency rule under the heading "Council of Ministers"; to all other provisions under the heading "Administration," except local administration, and except the Ataturk High Institution of Culture, Language, and History; and all the provisions relating to the judiciary power, except the Courts of the Security of the State, shall come into force on the publication in the Official Gazette of the adoption by referendum of the Constitution.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The provisions of Part III relating to the functions and powers of the President of the Republic and to the State Supervisory Council under the heading “President of the Republic”; to regulations, National Defence, procedures governing emergency rule under the heading “Council of Ministers”; to all other provisions under the heading “Administration”, except local administration, and except the Atatürk High Institution of Culture, Language and History; and all the provisions relating to the judiciary, except the Courts of the Security of the State, shall come into force on publication in the Official Gazette of the adoption by referendum of the Constitution.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The High Court of Appeals is the last instance for reviewing decisions and judgements given by courts of justice and which are not referred by law to other judicial authority.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[30]
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has twice been elected Prime Minister since 2002, and his party won 47% of the votes in the 2007 general elections
.The prime minister is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in the government and is most often the head of the party having the most seats in parliament.^ The Prime Minister, as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, shall ensure cooperation among the ministers, and supervise the implementation of the government’s general policy.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to unseat the Council of Ministers or a minister, an absolute majority of the total number of members shall be required in the voting, in which only the votes of no-confidence shall be counted.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ In the course of the debate on the motion of interpellation, a motion of no-confidence with a statement of reasons tabled by deputies or party groups, or the request for a vote of confidence by the Council of Ministers, shall be put to vote only after a full day has elapsed.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.The current prime minister is the former mayor of İstanbul, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, whose conservative AKP party won an absolute majority of parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections, organized in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 2001, with 34% of the suffrage.^ (As amended on October 17, 2001) The Constitutional Court shall convene with its president and ten members, and shall take decisions by absolute majority.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Prime Minister, as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, shall ensure cooperation among the ministers, and supervise the implementation of the government’s general policy.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ministers of Justice, Internal Affairs and Communications shall resign prior to general elections from the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[31]
In the 2007 general elections, the AKP received 46.6% of the votes and could defend its majority in parliament.[32] .Neither the prime minister nor the ministers have to be members of the parliament, but in most cases they are (one notable exception was Kemal Derviş, the minister of state in charge of the economy following the financial crisis of 2001;[33] he is currently the president of the United Nations Development Programme).^ (As amended on October 17, 2001) The Constitutional Court shall convene with its president and ten members, and shall take decisions by absolute majority.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this case the resubmission of the Constitutional amendment draft in its unchanged form to the President of the Republic by the Turkish Grand National Assembly, is only possible with a three-fourths majority of the votes of the total number of members.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ In draft amendments entailing an increase in appropriations under the budget for the current fiscal year and, in draft laws and law proposals providing for additional financial commitments in the budgets for the current or following year, the financial resources which would meet the stated expenditure shall be indicated.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[34]
In 2007, a series of events regarding state secularism and the role of the judiciary in the legislature has occurred. .These included the controversial presidential election of Abdullah Gül, who in the past had been involved with Islamist parties;[35] and the government's proposal to lift the headscarf ban in universities, which was annulled by the Constitutional Court, leading to a fine and a near ban of the ruling party.^ No appeal to the Constitutional Court shall be made with regard to these agreements, on the grounds that they are unconstitutional.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The organisation and trial procedures of the Constitutional Court shall be determined by law; its method of work and the division of labour among its members shall be regulated by the Rules of Procedure made by the Court.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No appeal shall be made to any legal authority, including the Constitutional Court, against the decisions and orders signed by the President of the Republic on his or her own initiative.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[36]
.Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote.^ All Turkish citizens over 18 years of age shall have the right to vote in elections and to take part in referenda.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Primary education is compulsory for all citizens of both sexes and is free of charge in state schools.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The State shall take measures to develop the physical and mental health of Turkish citizens of all ages, and encourage the spread of sports among the masses.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

As of 2004, there were 50 registered political parties in the country.[37] .The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether.^ The auditing of political parties shall be carried out by the Constitutional Court.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitutional Court shall decide on the matter and make public its judgment within five months of receiving the contention.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitutional Court shall decide on the matter and make public its judgement within five months of receiving the contention.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[38][39]
.There are 550 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey (İstanbul is divided into three electoral districts, whereas Ankara and İzmir are divided into two each because of their large populations).^ The term of office of members who are not military judges shall not exceed four years.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The term of office of those elected in the first round is two years and the term of office of those elected in the second round is three years.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ In terms of central administrative structure, Turkey is divided into provinces on the basis of geographical situation and economic conditions, and public service requirements; provinces are further divided into lower steps of administrative districts.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.To avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation, only parties winning at least 10% of the votes cast in a national parliamentary election gain the right to representation in the parliament.^ Political party groups in the Assembly shall not hold discussions or take decisions regarding Parliamentary investigations.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Constituent Assembly until the convening of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and the formation of the Bureau of the Assembly following the first general elections held under the Political Parties Act and the Elections Act prepared in accordance with the Constitution.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bureau of the Assembly shall be so composed as to ensure proportionate representation to the number of members of each political party group in the Assembly.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[37]
As a result of this threshold, in the 2007 elections three parties formally entered the parliament (compared to two in 2002).[40][41] However, because of a system of alliances and independent candidatures, seven parties are currently represented in the parliament. .Independent candidates may run; to be elected, however, they also must win at least 10% of the vote in their circonscription.^ They may be re-elected at the end of their term of office.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[37]

Foreign relations

Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005
Turkey is a founding member of the OECD and the G-20 major economies
.Turkey is a founding member of the United Nations (1945), the OECD (1961), the OIC (1969), the OSCE (1973), the ECO (1985), the BSEC (1992) and the G-20 major economies (1999).^ The President of the Republic shall be elected by a two-thirds majority of the total number of members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and by secret ballot.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The founding members and administrators at every level of a political party which has been permanently dissolved shall not become founding members, administrators, or comptrollers of a new political party; nor shall any new political party be founded, the majority of whose members are former members of a political party previously dissolved.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.On October 17, 2008, Turkey received the votes of 151 countries and was elected as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, on behalf of the Western European and Others Group, together with Austria which received 132 votes.^ To call the National Security Council to meet, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ December 1980 on the Council of National Security; .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ This CONSTITUTION was prepared by the Consultative Assembly, given final form by the Council of National Security, which are the legitimate representatives of the Turkish Nation, and adopted, approved and directly enacted by the Turkish Nation, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[42] Turkey's membership of the council effectively began on January 1, 2009.[42] Turkey had previously been a member of the U.N. Security Council in 1951–1952, 1954–1955 and 1961.[42]
.In line with its traditional Western orientation, relations with Europe have always been a central part of Turkish foreign policy.^ An important aim of Atatrk's economic policies was to prevent foreign interests from exercising undue influence on the Turkish economy.
  • Chronology of Turkey: Timeline of Anatolia, Turkey, T�rkiye 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.transanatolie.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the 20th century there was a transition from Islamic artistic traditions under the Ottoman Empire ( see Islamic Art and Architecture) to a more secular, Western orientation.
  • TURKEY, 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In foreign policy, Turkey sought friendly relations with all its neighbors.
  • Turkey News - Breaking World Turkey News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Turkey (Republic) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Turkey (Republic) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Turkey became a founding member of the Council of Europe in 1949, applied for associate membership of the EEC (predecessor of the European Union) in 1959 and became an associate member in 1963. After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, became an associate member of the Western European Union in 1992, reached a Customs Union agreement with the EU in 1995 and has officially begun formal accession negotiations with the EU since October 3, 2005.[43]
It is believed that the accession process will take at least 15 years because of Turkey's size and the depth of disagreements over certain issues.[44] .These include disputes with EU member Republic of Cyprus over Turkey's 1974 military invasion.^ However, in disputes arising from the obligation to perform military service, there shall be no condition that the person concerned be a member of the military body.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

Since 1974, Turkey does not recognize the essentially Greek Cypriot Republic of Cyprus as the sole authority on the island, but instead supports the Turkish Cypriot community in the form of the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus which is recognized only by Turkey.[45]
.The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign relations has been its ties with the United States.^ Turkish state to foreign states and to receive the representatives of foreign states appointed to the Republic of Turkey, .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To accredit representatives of the Turkish State to foreign states and to receive the representatives of foreign states to the Republic of Turkey, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Other provisions relating to the functioning, the duties and jurisdiction and the trial procedures of the State Security Court shall be prescribed by law.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

Based on the common threat posed by the Soviet Union, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with Washington throughout the Cold War. In the post-Cold War environment, Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans. .As well as hosting an important NATO air base near Syria and Iraq for U.S. operations in the region, Turkey's status as a secular democracy and its positive relations with Israel made Ankara a crucial ally for Washington.^ HARRAN City on the border between Syria, Turkey, and Iraq, with a long and complex history.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ SAM'AL (Yadiya) An Aramean kingdom in the extreme north of ancient Syria, near the modern town of Zincirli Hüyük, Turkey.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.In return, Turkey has benefited from the United States' political, economic and diplomatic support, including in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union.^ The horrible lie that Soviet Russia was more economically successful than the United States was soon to be decisively exploded.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Did the United States have the right to conquer the Southern States just to preserve the Union?
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1952 Puerto Rico was made a "Commonwealth," the only such designation for any possession of the United States.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1980s, Turkey began to increasingly cooperate with the leading economies of East Asia, particularly with Japan and South Korea, on a large number of industrial sectors; ranging from the co-production of automotive and other transportation equipment, such as high-speed train sets, to electronical goods, home appliances, construction materials and military hardware.^ To ensure that everyone lead their lives in conditions of physical and mental health and to secure cooperation in terms of human and material resources through economy and increased productivity, the State shall regulate central planning and functioning of the health services.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Providing of land to farmers with no or insufficient land shall not lead to a fall in production, or to the depletion of forests and other land and underground resources.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ To ensure that everyone leads their lives in conditions of physical and mental health and to secure cooperation in terms of human and material resources through economy and increased productivity, the state shall regulate central planning and functioning of the health services.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with whom Turkey shares a common cultural and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia.^ Kansas was the last chance for the South to get another Slave State into the Union.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In terms of central administrative structure, Turkey is divided into provinces on the basis of geographical situation and economic conditions, and public service requirements; provinces are further divided into lower steps of administrative districts.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The financial assistance to be extended to political parties, as well as procedures related to collection of membership dues and donations are regulated by law.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[46] The most salient of these relations saw the completion of a multi billion dollar oil and natural gas pipeline from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey. .The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline, as it is called, has formed part of Turkey's foreign policy strategy to become an energy conduit to the West.^ CE), refers to the southeastern flanking chain of the Caucasus Mountains as the "Moschici Mons" and even today, in fact, the mountain chain forming part of the frontier between Georgia and Turkey is called (in Russian) the "Meschetskii Chrebet".
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, Turkey's border with Armenia, a state in the Caucasus, remains closed following its occupation of Azeri territory during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.^ These periods may be extended during a state of emergency, under martial law or in time of war.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, no action shall be brought before the Constitutional Court alleging unconstitutionality as to the form or substance of decrees having the force of law issued during a state of emergency, martial law or in time of war.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That Lincoln responded to this as war and Rebellion set off the secession of four Border States, four years of terrible war, and the deaths of over 600,000 soldiers from combat and disease.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[47]

Military

.The Turkish Armed Forces consists of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.^ Turkish Armed Forces, .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Institutions of Higher Education attached to the Turkish Armed Forces and to the security organisation are subject to the provisions of their respective special laws.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ To represent the Office of the Commander-in-Chief of the Turkish Armed Forces on behalf of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard operate as parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime, although they are subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in wartime, during which they have both internal law enforcement and military functions.[48]
.The Turkish Armed Forces is the second largest standing armed force in NATO, after the U.S. Armed Forces, with a combined strength of 1,043,550 uniformed personnel serving in its five branches.^ Institutions of Higher Education attached to the Turkish Armed Forces and to security organisations are subject to the provisions of their respective special laws.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Council of Ministers shall be responsible to the Turkish Grand National Assembly for national security and for the preparation of the Armed Forces for the defence of the country.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Turkish Armed Forces, .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[49] .Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a time period ranging from three weeks to fifteen months, dependent on education and job location.^ Relations between military judges and the office of commander under which they serve, regarding the requirements of military service apart from the judicial functions, shall also be prescribed by law.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ No language other than Turkish shall be taught as mother tongue to Turkish citizens at any institutions of training or education.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Extension of the period of martial law for a maximum of four months each time, shall require a decision of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[50] Turkey does not recognise conscientious objection and does not offer a civilian alternative to military service.[51]
.Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands.^ State Security Courts shall consist of a president, two regular members and one substitute, one chief public prosecutor and a sufficient number of public prosecutors.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Court of the Security of the State shall consist of a President, two regular and two substitute members, one public prosecutor, and a sufficient number of deputy public prosecutors.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitutional Court, one- fourth of the members of the Council of State, the Chief Public Prosecutor and the Deputy Chief Public Prosecutor of the High Court of Appeals, the members of the Military High Court of Appeals, the members of the Supreme Military Administrative Court and the members of the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[52] .A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force.^ Laws of empowering and decrees having the force of law which are based on these, shall be discussed in the committees and in the plenary sessions of the Turkish Grand National Assembly with priority and urgency.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[53]
MEKO 200 TN type frigates of the Turkish Navy in formation
In 1998, Turkey announced a program of modernization worth US$160 billion over a twenty year period in various projects including tanks, fighter jets, helicopters, submarines, warships and assault rifles.[54] Turkey is a Level 3 contributor to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program.[55]
.Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since 1950, including peacekeeping missions in Somalia and former Yugoslavia, and support to coalition forces in the First Gulf War.^ The Mexican War was the first large military campaign outside the territory of the United States.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ National or international arbitration may be suggested to settle the disputes which arise from conditions and contracts under which concessions are granted concerning public services.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Power to authorise the declaration of a state of war in cases deemed legitimate by international law and except where required by international treaties to which Turkey is a party or by the rules of international courtesy to send Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries and to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey, is vested in the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Turkey maintains 36,000 troops in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since 2001.[49][56] In 2006, the Turkish parliament deployed a peacekeeping force of Navy patrol vessels and around 700 ground troops as part of an expanded United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the wake of the Israeli-Lebanon conflict.^ The last paragraph of Article 67 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey shall not be implemented in the first by-elections to be held during the 22nd Term of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Institutions of Higher Education attached to the Turkish Armed Forces and to the security organisation are subject to the provisions of their respective special laws.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The ratification of treaties concluded with foreign states and international organisations on behalf of the Republic of Turkey, shall be subject to adoption by the Turkish Grand National Assembly by a law approving the ratification.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[57]
.The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the president and is responsible to the prime minister.^ The Chief of the General Staff shall be responsible to the Prime Minister in the exercise of his duties and powers.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ To appoint the Prime Minister and to accept his resignation, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ To appoint and dismiss ministers on the proposal of the Prime Minister, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.The Council of Ministers is responsible to the parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country.^ The prime minister and the Council of Ministers are responsible to Parliament.
  • President's Trip to Europe: Background Information: Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC clinton3.nara.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Article 118 : National Security Council .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ National Security Council to meet, .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the parliament.^ Turkey's parliament rejected a proposal to allow American troops to use Turkish bases for the invasion of Iraq , undoing weeks of bargaining with the United States over a multi-billion-dollar fee.
  • Turkey (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Power to authorise the declaration of a state of war in cases deemed legitimate by international law and except where required by international treaties to which Turkey is a party or by the rules of international courtesy to send Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries and to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey, is vested in the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Turkish Grand National Assembly and submitted to the President of the Republic concerning: the fundamental rights and freedoms and duties, the principle of secularism, the preservation of the reforms of Atatürk, national security and public order set forth in the Constitution, the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, international treaties, the sending of Armed Forces to foreign countries and the stationing of foreign forces in Turkey, emergency rule, martial law and the state of war, and other laws deemed necessary by the President of the Republic, within the first ten days of the period of fifteen days granted to the President of the Republic for his consideration; .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[48] The actual commander of the armed forces is the Chief of the General Staff General İlker Başbuğ since August 30, 2008.[58]

Administrative divisions


The capital city of Turkey is Ankara. .The territory of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes.^ Administratively, Turkey is divided into 81 provinces.
  • Turkey News - Breaking World Turkey News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces (iller in Turkish; singular il).
  • Info About Turkey - Information About Turkey - Turkey Info - Turkey. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC hotels.ellada.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkey is divided into 73 provinces (ils), administered by governors (valis).
  • History of Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkishnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The provinces are organized into 7 regions for census purposes; however, they do not represent an administrative structure.^ What seemed to be his inexperience, however, led Castro and Khrushchev into thinking that they could get away with placing nuclear missles in Cuba.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In terms of central administrative structure, Turkey is divided into provinces on the basis of geographical situation and economic conditions, and public service requirements; provinces are further divided into lower steps of administrative districts.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Galatians settled into their province, they organized themselves into a system of "Tetrarchies", four per tribe.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.Each province is divided into districts, for a total of 923 districts.^ Turkey is divided into 73 provinces (ils), administered by governors (valis).
  • History of Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkishnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkey is divided administratively into eighty provinces ( iller ), which are subdivided into subprovinces ( ilçeler ), which in turn are divided into districts ( bucaklar ).
  • Culture of Turkey - History and ethnic relations, Food and economy, Social stratification, Political life 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each province is divided into subprovinces (ilçeler; singular ilçe).
  • Info About Turkey - Information About Turkey - Turkey Info - Turkey. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC hotels.ellada.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Provinces usually bear the same name as their provincial capitals, also called the central district; exceptions to this custom are the provinces of Hatay (capital: Antakya), Kocaeli (capital: İzmit) and Sakarya (capital: Adapazarı). Provinces with the largest populations are Istanbul (+12.9 million), Ankara (+4.6 million), İzmir (+3.8 million), Bursa (+2.5 million) and Adana (+2.0 million).
The biggest city and the pre-Republican capital Istanbul is the financial, economic and cultural heart of the country.[59] An estimated 75.5% of Turkey's population live in urban centers.[60] .In all, 19 provinces have populations that exceed 1 million inhabitants, and 20 provinces have populations between 1 million and 500,000 inhabitants.^ In cases where the law forbids all meetings or demonstration marches in districts of a province for the same reasons, the postponement may not exceed three months.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

Only two provinces have populations less than 100,000.

Geography and climate

Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, connecting Europe (left) and Asia (right)
Turkey is a transcontinental[61] Eurasian country. .Asian Turkey (made up largely of Anatolia), which includes 97% of the country, is separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles (which together form a water link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea).^ A natolia Anatolia is that region lying to the south of the Black Sea, to the east of the Aegean Sea, north of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and, inland, the Fertile Crescent, and west of the Caucasus-Azerbaijani districts.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (Lake )VAN A large saltwater body of water with no outlet, located in eastern Anatolia.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The RUM SELJUQS A large state taking up most of the interior of modern Turkey.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

European Turkey (eastern Thrace or Rumelia in the Balkan peninsula) comprises 3% of the country.[62]
.The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) long and 800 km (500 mi) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape.^ However, Cambodian neutrality was already no more than a polite fiction when Cambodian territory had become a major invasion route and sanctuary for the Communists.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than once, in fact, in 1919, I heard bold whispers that the Second Coming, after long delays, was at last upon us.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[59] Turkey's area, including lakes, occupies 783,562[63] square kilometres (300,948 sq mi), of which 755,688 square kilometres (291,773 sq mi) are in Southwest Asia and 23,764 square kilometres (9,174 sq mi) in Europe.[59] Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. .The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.^ A natolia Anatolia is that region lying to the south of the Black Sea, to the east of the Aegean Sea, north of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and, inland, the Fertile Crescent, and west of the Caucasus-Azerbaijani districts.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ ANTIOCH (Antakya) Located at the northeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea, at the point where the coast abruptly turns south towards Sinai.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TRABIZOND A city and coastal region in northeastern Turkey, along the shores of the Black Sea; west-southwest of Georgia.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.[64]
The European section of Turkey, Eastern Thrace, forms the borders of Turkey with Greece and Bulgaria. .The Asian part of the country, Anatolia, consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, between the Köroğlu and Pontic mountain ranges to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south.^ PAMPHYLIA A fertile coastal region in southern Anatolia, nestled between Cilicia in the east and Lycia in the west., with the Taurus Mountains and Pisidia as a backdrop in the north.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It straddled the border between modern Turkey and Iran, north of Adiabene and south of Lake Van.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ KASTAMONU A town in Paphlagonia, north-central Anatolia, about 40 miles (64 km.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and Aras, and contains Lake Van and Mount Ararat, Turkey's highest point at 5,165 metres (16,946 ft).^ Hasankeyf) An ancient settlement in southeastern Turkey, on the Tigris River.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (Lake )VAN A large saltwater body of water with no outlet, located in eastern Anatolia.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It straddled the border between modern Turkey and Iran, north of Adiabene and south of Lake Van.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

[64][65]
.Turkey is divided into seven census regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean.^ A natolia Anatolia is that region lying to the south of the Black Sea, to the east of the Aegean Sea, north of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and, inland, the Fertile Crescent, and west of the Caucasus-Azerbaijani districts.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Kingdom of TABAL Neo-Hittite kingdom in central Anatolia, centered around the city of Kanesh (modern Kul-Tepe, Turkey).
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In terms of central administrative structure, Turkey is divided into provinces on the basis of geographical situation and economic conditions, and public service requirements; provinces are further divided into lower steps of administrative districts.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt.^ Directly north is the Black Sea.
  • Turkey Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkey's landscape is made up of low, rolling hills, the fertile river valleys that open to the Aegean Sea, the warm plains along the Mediterranean Sea, the narrow coastal region along the Black Sea, and the rugged mountain ranges that surround and intersect the high, desert-like Anatolian plateau.

^ Asian Turkey is mostly made up of highland and mountains, with some narrow strips of lowland in the west on the coasts of the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara and along the Simav, Gediz, and Menderes rivers; in the north on the Black Sea coast and along the Sakarya and Kizil Irmak rivers; and in the south on the Mediterranean coast and along the Aksu, Gksu, Seyhan, and Ceyhan rivers.
  • Turkey News - Breaking World Turkey News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area.^ Steep slopes are common throughout the country, and flat or gently sloping land makes up barely one-sixth of the total area.
  • Turkey -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rick Moore A "military brat" used to traveling the world, lands duty in the high eastern plateau area of Turkey: Erzurum!
  • Main Page: The American Military in Turkey at MerhabaTurkey.com                             28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.merhabaturkey.com [Source type: General]

^ Although about one-fourth of Turkey's area is classified as forested, lumbering is relatively unimportant, with no more than one-third of the forests having commercial value.
  • TURKEY, 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.^ Terrain: Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia, an inland plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.
  • President's Trip to Europe: Background Information: Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC clinton3.nara.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The western coastal plains are generally more densely populated and industrial than are the central and eastern regions, except for Ankara on the central Anatolian plateau.
  • Culture of Turkey - History and ethnic relations, Food and economy, Social stratification, Political life 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]
Mt. Ararat (Ağrı Dağı) is the highest peak in Turkey at 5,165 m (16,946 ft)
Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The Bosporus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east, which caused a major earthquake in 1999.[66]
The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Black Sea have a temperate Oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and cool to cold, wet winters. .The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year.^ To accredit representatives of the Turkish State to foreign states and to receive the representatives of foreign states to the Republic of Turkey, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Turkish state to foreign states and to receive the representatives of foreign states appointed to the Republic of Turkey, .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

The eastern part of that coast averages 2,500 millimeters annually which is the highest precipitation in the country.
.The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Sea of Marmara including Istanbul, which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate Oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters.^ HARRAN City on the border between Syria, Turkey, and Iraq, with a long and complex history.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A natolia Anatolia is that region lying to the south of the Black Sea, to the east of the Aegean Sea, north of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and, inland, the Fertile Crescent, and west of the Caucasus-Azerbaijani districts.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It straddled the border between modern Turkey and Iran, north of Adiabene and south of Lake Van.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.Snow does occur on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but it usually lies no more than a few days.^ Applications for annulment on the grounds of defect in form shall not be made more than ten days after the date on which the law was promulgated; nor shall objection be raised.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

Snow on the other hand is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea.
Conditions can be much harsher in the more arid interior. Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons.
Winters on the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of −30 °C to −40 °C (−22 °F to −40 °F) can occur in eastern Anatolia, and snow may lie on the ground at least 120 days of the year. .In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 °C (34 °F).^ Its winters are cool, but temperatures almost never fall below freezing; summers are very hot, averaging 38 C (100 F) for most of July and August.
  • Interests Section of the Islamic Republic of Iran 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.daftar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These areas are subject to severe winters, with average daily temperatures below freezing, and warm summers, averaging 25 C (77 F) in the northwest and 33 C (91 F) in the central and southern Zagros.
  • Interests Section of the Islamic Republic of Iran 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.daftar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winter temperatures rarely fall below freezing, and maximum summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 C (85 F).
  • Interests Section of the Islamic Republic of Iran 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.daftar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures generally above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day.^ Its winters are cool, but temperatures almost never fall below freezing; summers are very hot, averaging 38 C (100 F) for most of July and August.
  • Interests Section of the Islamic Republic of Iran 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.daftar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and mild, humid winters.
  • Culture of Turkey - History and ethnic relations, Food and economy, Social stratification, Political life 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In summer, because of the evaporation the lake dries out and a 30 cm / 12 in layer of salt forms.
  • Turkish Odyssey/Central Anatolia/Cappadocia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkishodyssey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (15 in), with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest regions are the Konya plain and the Malatya plain, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimetres (12 in). May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.[67]

Economy

Levent financial district in Istanbul
Turkey has the world's 15th largest GDP-PPP[68] and 17th largest Nominal GDP.[69] .The country is a founding member of the OECD and the G-20 major economies.^ The founding members and administrators at every level of a political party which has been permanently dissolved shall not become founding members, administrators, or comptrollers of a new political party; nor shall any new political party be founded, the majority of whose members are former members of a political party previously dissolved.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.During the first six decades of the republic, between 1923 and 1983, Turkey has mostly adhered to a quasi-statist approach with strict government planning of the budget and government-imposed limitations over private sector participation, foreign trade, flow of foreign currency, and foreign direct investment.^ The last paragraph of Article 67 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey shall not be implemented in the first by-elections to be held during the 22nd Term of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Turkish state to foreign states and to receive the representatives of foreign states appointed to the Republic of Turkey, .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To accredit representatives of the Turkish State to foreign states and to receive the representatives of foreign states to the Republic of Turkey, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

However, starting from 1983, Turkey began a series of reforms that were initiated by Prime Minister Turgut Özal and designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model.[27]
.The reforms spurred rapid growth, but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999 (following the earthquake of that year),[70] and 2001,[71] resulting in an average of 4% GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003.[72] Lack of additional fiscal reforms, combined with large and growing public sector deficits and widespread corruption, resulted in high inflation, a weak banking sector and increased macroeconomic volatility.^ In draft amendments entailing an increase in appropriations under the budget for the current fiscal year and, in draft laws and law proposals providing for additional financial commitments in the budgets for the current or following year, the financial resources which would meet the stated expenditure shall be indicated.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[73]
.Since the economic crisis of 2001 and the reforms initiated by the finance minister of the time, Kemal Derviş, inflation has fallen to single-digit numbers, investor confidence and foreign investment have soared, and unemployment has fallen.^ In order to unseat the Council of Ministers or a minister, an absolute majority of the total number of members shall be required in the voting, in which only the votes of no-confidence shall be counted.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.The IMF forecasts a 6% inflation rate for Turkey in 2008.[74] Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and the privatisation of publicly owned industries, and the liberalisation of many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate.^ Principles and rules concerning the privatisation of enterprises and assets owned by the State, State Economic Enterprises and other public corporate bodies shall be prescribed by law.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those investments and services carried out by the State, State Economic Enterprises and other public corporate bodies which could be performed by or delegated to real or corporate bodies through private law contracts shall be determined by law.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ II. Supervision of Markets and Regulation of Foreign Trade .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[75]
.The GDP growth rate from 2002 to 2007 averaged 7.4%,[76] which made Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world during that period.^ No allegation of unconstitutionality shall be made in respect of decisions or measures taken under laws or decrees having force of law enacted during this period or under Act No.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

.However, GDP growth slowed down to 4.5% in 2008,[77] and in early 2009 the Turkish economy was affected by the global financial crisis, with the IMF forecasting an overall recession of 5.1% for the year, compared to the Turkish government estimate of 3.6%.^ Meanwhile, McCain as well as Obama want to turn control of the entire economy over to the government in order to fight Global Warming .
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ P.J. O'Rourke Thus the allegedly "far right" current Bush administration has merely slowed the growth of government rather than reversed it.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[78]
.Turkey's economy is becoming more dependent on industry in major cities, mostly concentrated in the western provinces of the country, and less on agriculture, however traditional agriculture is still a major pillar to the Turkish economy.^ However, Cambodian neutrality was already no more than a polite fiction when Cambodian territory had become a major invasion route and sanctuary for the Communists.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

In 2007, the agricultural sector accounted for 8.9% of the GDP, while the industrial sector accounted for 30.8% and the services sector accounted for 59.3%.[77] However agriculture still accounted for 27.3% of employment [79]
According to Eurostat data, Turkish PPS GDP per capita stood at 45 per cent of the EU average in 2008.[80]
.The tourism sector has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy.^ The tourism sector has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy.
  • Low Cost Travel Cheap Airfare Tickets on Flights to Turkey, Ankara 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.travelpapa.com [Source type: General]

^ Northern bluefin tuna have long been an important part of the Mediterranean economy and way of life.
  • The suicidal tendencies of the Turkish tuna fishery | Greenpeace International 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

^ With respect to the organic agricultural sector, it therefore can be said that although still a small percentage (0.5%) of the total agricultural producers over the last ten years, the share of the organic agriculture has increased considerably.

In 2008, there were 30,929,192 visitors to the country, who contributed $21.9 billion to Turkey's revenues.[81]
Turkish brands like BEKO and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe
Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are banking, construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, machine industry and automotive. Turkey has a large and growing automotive industry, which produced 1,147,110 motor vehicles in 2008, ranking as the 6th largest producer in Europe (behind the United Kingdom and above Italy) and the 15th largest producer in the world.[82][83] .Turkey is also one of the leading shipbuilding nations; in 2007 the country ranked 4th in the world (behind China, South Korea and Japan) in terms of the number of ordered ships, and also 4th in the world (behind Italy, USA and Canada) in terms of the number of ordered mega yachts.^ The constitutional amendment shall be proposed in writing by at lest one-third of the total number of members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Two elections to the Bureau of the Turkish Grand National Assembly shall be held in the course of one legislative term.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[84]
.In recent years, the chronically high inflation has been brought under control and this has led to the launch of a new currency, the Turkish new lira, on January 1, 2005, to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy.^ Training and education shall be conducted along the lines of the principles and reforms of Atatürk, on the basis of contemporary science and educational methods, under the supervision and control of the state.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the holding of new elections is found impossible because of war, the Turkish Grand National Assembly may decide to defer elections for a year.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[85] On January 1, 2009, the New Turkish Lira was renamed once again as the Turkish Lira, with the introduction of new banknotes and coins. .As a result of continuing economic reforms, inflation has dropped to 8.2% in 2005, and the unemployment rate to 10.3%.^ LATVIA - Latvia is currently a terrific opportunity for a real estate investment as property inflation continues to rise at over 10% as a result of recent EU membership, its strategic location and thriving economy.
  • Property in Europe, Africa, Asia & Americas for Sale. Buying Overseas. Bulgaria,Croatia,Czech Republic,Cyprus,Estonia,France,Greece,Italy,Latvia,Malta,Montenegro,Portugal,Romania,Spain,Turkey,South Africa,Cape Verde,Belize,Nicaragua,Morocco,Thailand,Barbados,UAE,Goa,Egypt,Brazil. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.sunshineestates.net [Source type: News]
  • Property in Europe, Africa, Asia & Americas for Sale. Buying Overseas. Bulgaria,Croatia,Czech Republic,Cyprus,Estonia,France,Greece,Italy,Latvia,Malta,Montenegro,Portugal,Romania,Spain,Turkey,South Africa,Cape Verde,Belize,Nicaragua,Morocco,Thailand,Barbados,UAE,Goa,Egypt,Brazil. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.sunshineestates.net [Source type: News]

^ Low inflation, low unemployment, balanced budgets , steady economic growth, and a falling poverty rate were all indicators of prosperty such as would not be combined in the same way for the rest of the century.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A high birth rate eventually resulted in both urban and rural unemployment, due to the limited availability of land and to highly restrictive economic policies enforced by the urban guilds.
  • TURKEY, 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86] In 2004, it was estimated that 46.2% of total disposable income was received by the top 20% income earners, while the lowest 20% received 6%.[87]
.Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country.^ Measures to increase national efficiency and production, to ensure stability in prices and balance in foreign trade transactions, to promote investment and employment, shall be included in the plan; investments, public benefit and requirements shall be taken into account; the efficient use of resources shall be aimed at.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to regulate foreign trade for the benefit of the economy of the country, the Council of Ministers may be empowered by law to introduce or lift additional financial impositions on imports, exports and other foreign transactions in addition to tax and similar impositions.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Membership in more than one labour union cannot be obtained at the same time and in the same work branch.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[88] In 2007 the exports reached $115.3 billion[77] (main export partners: Germany 11.2%, UK 8%, Italy 6.95%, France 5.6%, Spain 4.3%, USA 3.88%; total EU exports 56.5%.) However, larger imports which amounted to $162.1 billion in 2007[77] threatened the balance of trade (main import partners: Russia 13.8%, Germany 10.3%, China 7.8%, Italy 6%, USA 4.8%, France 4.6%, Iran 3.9%, UK 3.2%; total EU imports 40.4%; total Asia imports 27%).[89][90] Turkey's exports amounted to $141.8 billion in 2008, while imports amounted to $204.8 billion.[77]
After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), Turkey succeeded in attracting $21.9 billion in FDI in 2007 and is expected to attract a higher figure in following years.[91] A series of large privatizations, the stability fostered by the start of Turkey's EU accession negotiations, strong and stable growth, and structural changes in the banking, retail, and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to a rise in foreign investment.[75]

Demographics

İstiklal Avenue in Istanbul's cosmopolitan Beyoğlu district
The population of Turkey stood at 72.5 million with a growth rate of 1.45% per annum, based on the 2009 census. It has an average population density of 92 persons per km². The proportion of the population residing in urban areas is 75.5%. .People within the 15–64 age group constitute 67% of the total population, the 0–14 age group corresponds 26% of the population, while 65 years and higher of age correspond to 7% of the total population.^ The elections for local administrative bodies shall be held every five years in accordance with the principles set forth in Article 67 of the Constitution.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitutional Court shall elect a President and Deputy President from among its regular members for a term of four years by secret ballot and by an absolute majority of the total number of members.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[92]
Life expectancy stands at 71.1 years for men and 75.3 years for women, with an overall average of 73.2 years for the populace as a whole.[93] .Education is compulsory and free from ages 6 to 15. The literacy rate is 96% for men and 80.4% for women, with an overall average of 88.1%.^ Primary education is compulsory for all citizens of both sexes and is free of charge in state schools.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[94] The low figures for women are mainly due to the traditional customs of the Arabs and Kurds who live in the southeastern provinces of the country.[95]
.Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition.^ (As amended on October 17, 2001) Everyone bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship is a Turk.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone bound to the Turkish State through the bond of citizenship is a Turk.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 66 : Turkish Citizenship .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity.
Other major ethnic groups (large portions of whom have been extensively Turkicized since the Seljuk and Ottoman periods) include the Abkhazians, Adjarians, Albanians, Arabs, Assyrians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Hamshenis, Kurds, Laz, Pomaks, Roma, Zazas and the three officially recognized minorities (per the Treaty of Lausanne), i.e. the Armenians, Greeks and Jews. Signed on January 30, 1923, a bilateral accord of population exchange between Greece and Turkey took effect in the 1920s, with close to 1.5 million Greeks moving from Turkey and some 500,000 Turks coming from Greece.[96]
Minorities of West European origin include the Levantines (or Levanter, mostly of French, Genoese and Venetian descent) who have been present in the country (particularly in Istanbul[97] and İzmir[98]) since the medieval period.
The Kurds, a distinct ethnic group concentrated mainly in the southeastern provinces of the country, are the largest non-Turkic ethnicity, estimated at about 18% of the population according to the CIA.[8] Minorities other than the three officially recognized ones do not have any special group privileges, while the term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey. Reliable data on the exact ethnic repartition of the population is not available since the Turkish census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity.[99]
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul

Language

.Turkish is the sole official language throughout Turkey.^ (After being drafted by the Consultative Assembly, the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey was accepted by 92% of the Turkish public in a referendum on November 7, 1982, and published in Official Gazette no.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

Reliable figures for the linguistic repartition of the populace are not available for reasons similar to those cited above.[99] Nevertheless, the public broadcaster TRT broadcasts programmes in local languages and dialects of Arabic, Bosnian, Circassian and Kurdish a few hours a week.[100] A fully fledged Kurdish language television channel, TRT 6, was opened in early 2009.[101]

Religion

.Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience.^ No provision of the Constitution shall be construed or interpreted as rendering unconstitutional the Reform Laws indicated below, which aim to raise Turkish society above the level of contemporary civilisation and to safeguard the secular character of the Republic, and which were in force on the date of the adoption by referendum of the Constitution of Turkey.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ In the event of a declaration of a state of emergency under the provisions of Articles 119 and 120 of the Constitution this decision shall be published in the Official Gazette and shall be submitted immediately to the Turkish Grand National Assembly for approval.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ To accredit representatives of the Turkish State to foreign states and to receive the representatives of foreign states to the Republic of Turkey, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[102][103] According to 2009 data on the world's Muslim populations, 71.1 million people in Turkey are Muslims or 98% of the total population.[104] The majority of the Muslims are Sunni (85–90%) and a large minority are Alevi (10–15%), a community within Twelver Shi'a Islam, numbering from 7–11 million.[104] .The highest Islamic religious authority is the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Turkish: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı), it interprets the Hanafi school of law, and is responsible for regulating the operation of the country's 75,000 registered mosques and employing local and provincial imams.^ The organisation, functions, authority, responsibility and operating principles of the Council shall be regulated by law.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The organisation, functions, authority, responsibilities and operating principles of the Council shall be regulated by law.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The principles governing the functioning of private primary and secondary schools shall be regulated by law in keeping with the standards set for state schools.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

[105] .Based on a nationwide survey in 2007 however, it showed 96.8% of Turkish citizens have a religion, while 3.2% are irreligious and atheists.^ However, the conditions under which the Turkish citizens who are abroad shall be able to exercise their right to vote, are regulated by law.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Turkey - Wikisource 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[106]
There are less than 100,000 minorities which follow other religions,[107] mainly Christians, mostly Armenian Apostolic, Assyrian Church of the East and Greek Orthodox (64,000 people) and Jews, mainly Sephardi (26,000 people).[108][109] According to a Pew Research Center report in 2002, 65% of the people believe religion is very important,[110] while according to a Eurobarometer poll in 2005, 95% of citizens responded that they believe there is a God.[111]
The Eastern Orthodox Church, led by Patriarch Bartholomew I has been headquartered in Istanbul since the fourth century AD. However, the Turkish government does not recognize the Patriarch as the leader of Orthodox Christianity, and forces the Church to operate under significant restrictions. Most of the Church's properties and schools have been expropriated, while Christians remain widely persecuted in Turkey.[112]

Culture

Orhan Pamuk is one of the leading contemporary Turkish novelists and the winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature
One of the main entrance gates of the Dolmabahçe Palace
Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Oğuz Turkic, Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures) and Western culture and traditions, which started with the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today. This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West.[113][114]
.As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the methods of artistic expression followed.^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey , 1976.
  • Culture of Turkey - History and ethnic relations, Food and economy, Social stratification, Political life 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkish States before Ottoman State/Empire .

^ Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks."
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Turkey 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts; such as museums, theatres, opera houses and architecture. Diverse historical factors play important roles in defining the modern Turkish identity. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values.[113]
Turkish music and literature form great examples of such a mix of cultural influences, which were a result of the interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe, thus contributing to a blend of Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts.[115] Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era, though towards the end of the Ottoman Empire, particularly after the Tanzimat period, the effect of both Turkish folk and European literary traditions became increasingly felt. The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols [of] the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the works of Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.[116]
.Architectural elements found in Turkey are also testaments to the unique mix of traditions that have influenced the region over the centuries.^ Architecture and the use of space have been influenced by economic factors, political ideology, environment, tradition, and foreign ideas.
  • Culture of Turkey - History and ethnic relations, Food and economy, Social stratification, Political life 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 20th century there was a transition from Islamic artistic traditions under the Ottoman Empire ( see Islamic Art and Architecture) to a more secular, Western orientation.
  • TURKEY, 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On Christmas Eve, nearly the entire country eats the traditional breaded and fried carp, and on Christmas Day, roast turkey is found on many tables.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In addition to the traditional Byzantine elements present in numerous parts of Turkey, many artifacts of the later Ottoman architecture, with its exquisite blend of local and Islamic traditions, are to be found throughout the country, as well as in many former territories of the Ottoman Empire. Mimar Sinan is widely regarded as the greatest architect of the classical period in Ottoman architecture. Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by Western styles, and this can be particularly seen in Istanbul where buildings like Dolmabahçe and Çırağan Palaces are juxtaposed next to numerous modern skyscrapers, all of them representing different traditions.[117]

Sports

The most popular sport in Turkey is football.[118] Turkey's top teams include Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş. In 2000, Galatasaray cemented its role as a major European club by winning the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup. .Two years later the Turkish national team finished third in the 2002 World Cup Finals in Japan and South Korea, while in 2008 the national team reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Euro 2008 competition.^ This CONSTITUTION was prepared by the Consultative Assembly, given final form by the Council of National Security, which are the legitimate representatives of the Turkish Nation, and adopted, approved and directly enacted by the Turkish Nation, .
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The Turkish Grand National Assembly shall convene of its own accord on the first day of September each year.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Local elections shall be held within a year of the first session of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

The Atatürk Olympic Stadium in Istanbul hosted the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final, while the Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium in Istanbul hosted the 2009 UEFA Cup Final.
Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular. Turkey hosted the finals of EuroBasket 2001 and will also host the finals of the 2010 FIBA World Championship. .The men's national basketball team finished second in EuroBasket 2001 and reached the quarter-finals of the 2006 FIBA World Championship; while Efes Pilsen S.K. won the Korac Cup in 1996, finished second in the Saporta Cup of 1993, and made it to the Final Four of Euroleague and Suproleague in 2000 and 2001.[119] Turkish basketball players such as Mehmet Okur and Hidayet Türkoğlu have also been successful in the NBA.^ However, in such situations the competent authority shall notify the Turkish Grand National Assembly immediately and directly.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The Turkish Grand National Assembly may hold closed sessions in accordance with the provisions of its Rules of Procedure; the publication of debates of such sessions shall be subject to the decision of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ In such cases, these agreements must be brought to the knowledge of the Turkish Grand National Assembly within two months of their promulgation.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.cecl.gr [Source type: Original source]

Women's volleyball teams, namely Eczacıbaşı and Vakıfbank Güneş Sigorta, have won numerous European championship titles and medals.
The traditional Turkish national sport has been the yağlı güreş (oiled wrestling) since Ottoman times.[120] Edirne hosts the annual Kırkpınar oiled wrestling tournament since 1361.[121] International wrestling styles governed by FILA such as Freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling are also popular, with many European, World and Olympic championship titles won by Turkish wrestlers both individually and as a national team.[122]
Weightlifting has been a successful Turkish sport. Turkish weightlifters, both male and female, have broken numerous world records and won several European,[123] World and Olympic[124] championship titles. Naim Süleymanoğlu and Halil Mutlu have achieved legendary status as one of the few weightlifters to have won three gold medals in three Olympics.
Istanbul Park racing circuit a few hours before the F1 Turkish Grand Prix
Motorsports have become popular recently, especially following the inclusion of the Rally of Turkey to the FIA World Rally Championship calendar in 2003,[125] and the inclusion of the Turkish Grand Prix to the Formula One racing calendar in 2005.[126] Other important annual motorsports events which are held at the Istanbul Park racing circuit include the MotoGP Grand Prix of Turkey, the FIA World Touring Car Championship, the GP2 Series and the Le Mans Series. From time to time Istanbul and Antalya also host the Turkish leg of the F1 Powerboat Racing championship; while the Turkish leg of the Red Bull Air Race World Series, an air racing competition, takes place above the Golden Horn in Istanbul. Surfing, snowboarding, skateboarding, paragliding and other extreme sports are becoming more popular every year.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Turkish Statistical Institute: Address-based Population Register System (December 31, 2009 census.) Results announced on January 25, 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d "Turkey". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=186&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=&pr.x=62&pr.y=7. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ [1]Human Development Report 2009
  4. ^ National Geographic Atlas of the World (7th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic. 1999. ISBN 0-7922-7528-4.  "Europe" (pp. 68–9); "Asia" (pp. 90–1): "A commonly accepted division between Asia and Europe ... is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."
  5. ^ a b c Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7011-1. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Shaw, Stanford Jay; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). .History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey.^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey , 1976.
    • Culture of Turkey - History and ethnic relations, Food and economy, Social stratification, Political life 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Here we learn about the artificial coinages, supposedly "true" Turkish, and the confusion that has now alienated modern Turkey from its own heritage, the best of Ottoman literature.
    • The Ottoman Sultans of Turkey & Successors in Romania 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Capital of the Ottoman Empire.....................1453-1923 To Turkey.........................................1922- Note as well...
    • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

    .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
    • Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC quake.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-5212-9163-1.
     
  7. ^ Full text of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
  8. ^ a b CIA World Factbook
  9. ^ Stratfor: "Turkey and Russia on the Rise", by Reva Bhalla, Lauren Goodrich and Peter Zeihan. March 17, 2009.
  10. ^ Stratfor: "The Geopolitics of Turkey", by George Friedman. July 31, 2007.
  11. ^ a b American Heritage Dictionary (2000). "Turk". Houghton Mifflin Company. http://www.bartleby.com/61/92/T0419200.html. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  12. ^ a b Harper, Douglas (2001). "Turk". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Turk. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  13. ^ Thissen, Laurens (2001-11-23) (PDF). Time trajectories for the Neolithic of Central Anatolia. CANeW – Central Anatolian Neolithic e-Workshop. http://www.canew.org/files/Thissen%20lecture.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  14. ^ Balter, Michael (2004-02-27). "Search for the Indo-Europeans: Were Kurgan horsemen or Anatolian farmers responsible for creating and spreading the world's most far-flung language family?". Science 303 (5662): 1323. doi:10.1126/science.303.5662.1323. PMID 14988549. 
  15. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (October 2000). "Anatolia and the Caucasus, 2000–1000 B.C. in Timeline of Art History.". New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/03/waa/ht03waa.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  16. ^ Hooker, Richard (1999-06-06). "Ancient Greece: The Persian Wars". Washington State University, WA, United States. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/PERSIAN.HTM. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  17. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (October 2000). "Anatolia and the Caucasus (Asia Minor), 1000 B.C. – 1 A.D. in Timeline of Art History.". New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/04/waa/ht04waa.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  18. ^ Daniel C. Waugh (2004). "Constantinople/Istanbul". University of Washington, Seattle, WA. http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/cities/turkey/istanbul/istanbul.html. Retrieved 2006-12-26. 
  19. ^ Wink, Andre (1990). .Al Hind: The Making of the Indo Islamic World, Vol.^ Whether the pro-Israel lobby likes it or not, President Obama is sophisticated enough to recognize these dynamics in selecting the country where he will make his speech to the Islamic world.
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References

History
  • Findley, Carter Vaughn (2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0195177266. 
  • Kinross, Patrick (1977). .The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire.^ During the 20th century there was a transition from Islamic artistic traditions under the Ottoman Empire ( see Islamic Art and Architecture) to a more secular, Western orientation.
    • TURKEY, 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After centuries of intermarriage with Mediterranean and Balkan peoples and the assimilation of those peoples into the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish state, the vast majority of today's Turks physically resemble southern Europeans rather than central Asiatics.
    • Culture of Turkey - History and ethnic relations, Food and economy, Social stratification, Political life 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ottoman Empire The ancestors of the Ottomans (Osmanli, Uthmanli) were Oghuz Turks who followed the victorious Seljuqs into Anatolia in the 11th century.
    • Chronology of Turkey: Timeline of Anatolia, Turkey, T�rkiye 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.transanatolie.com [Source type: Original source]

    Morrow. ISBN 0688030939.
     
  • Mango, Andrew (2000). .Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey.^ Foundation of the modern Republic of Turkey by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
    • Chronology of Turkey: Timeline of Anatolia, Turkey, T�rkiye 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.transanatolie.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Social, political, linguistic, and economic reforms and attitudes decreed by Ataturk from 1924-1934 continue to be referred to as the ideological base of modern Turkey.
    • Turkey (05/09) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Anitkabir (Ataturk Mausoleum): Located on an imposing hill in the Anittepe quarter of the city stands the mausoleum of Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Republic of Turkey.
    • http://www.tourismturkey.org/01-01-RegionsCentralAnatolia.aspx?id=7&gr1=y&mv1=y&bg1=centanatolia&bg2=centanatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.tourismturkey.org [Source type: General]

    Overlook. ISBN 1585670111.
     
  • Mango, Cyril (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0198140983. 
  • Shaw, Stanford Jay; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). .History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey.^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey , 1976.
    • Culture of Turkey - History and ethnic relations, Food and economy, Social stratification, Political life 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Here we learn about the artificial coinages, supposedly "true" Turkish, and the confusion that has now alienated modern Turkey from its own heritage, the best of Ottoman literature.
    • The Ottoman Sultans of Turkey & Successors in Romania 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Capital of the Ottoman Empire.....................1453-1923 To Turkey.........................................1922- Note as well...
    • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

    .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
    • Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC quake.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0521291631.
     
  • Wink, André (1990). .Al Hind: The Making of the Indo Islamic World, Vol.^ Whether the pro-Israel lobby likes it or not, President Obama is sophisticated enough to recognize these dynamics in selecting the country where he will make his speech to the Islamic world.
    • Global Voices Online » Turkey: Prime Minister Storms out of Davos Hearing 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

    1, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th–11th Centuries
    . Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004092498.
     
Politics
Foreign relations and military
Geography and climate
Economy
Demographics
Culture

Further reading

  • Mango, Andrew (2004). The Turks Today. Overlook. ISBN 1585676152. 
  • Pope, Hugh; Pope, Nicole (2004). Turkey Unveiled. Overlook. ISBN 1585675814. 
  • Revolinski, Kevin (2006). The Yogurt Man Cometh: Tales of an American Teacher in Turkey. Citlembik. ISBN 9944424013. 
  • Roxburgh, David J. (ed.) (2005). Turks: A Journey of a Thousand Years, 600–1600. Royal Academy of Arts. ISBN 1903973562.
  • Turkey: A Country Study (1996). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN 0844408646.

External links

Government

Public institutions

General information

Other


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

This entry is about the country; for the bird, see Turkey (bird).
Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in southwestern Asia and the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.

Sourced

  • We became acquainted we found the people, whether Christian or Turkish, prevailingly of a friendly, kindly, progressive type, as is often the case with simple-minded people in times of peace.
    • George Edward White (1940). Adventuring with Anatolia College. Herald-Register. pp. p. 18.  
  • I always liked the common Turkish people unless they were stirred to passion by militarists.
    • George Edward White (1940). Adventuring with Anatolia College. Herald-Register. pp. p. 18.  
  • In the College two classes were called preparatory, while four bore the ordinary college class names. The schools from which our students came did not carry them far. When Americans first came to Turkey, hardly any vernacular was taught anywhere. Instruction was in classic tongues and religious lore. But our students for the most part came with a purpose in modern life. They wanted to attain a worth-while and useful manhood and they felt that the College could give them a start.
    • George Edward White (1940). Adventuring with Anatolia College. Herald-Register. pp. p. 19.  
  • One student told me in after years that when he came to Marsovan [a city in Turkey] he was really illiterate, that is, he could not fairly read his native tongue, or any other. But he had no chance of learning more in his native village. For a number of months he was cow-boy for an American family, and eagerly studying too.
    • George Edward White (1940). Adventuring with Anatolia College. Herald-Register. pp. p. 19.  
  • Another time I was riding alone with a Circassian, and in the talk of man to man in such companionship, asked him a bit about his occupation and his affairs. "Sometimes I get a traveller to escort, like you", he replied, "and then I take him, but my regular business is smuggling tobacco. Every man in our village has a regular job, some are smugglers, some are farmers, and some are thieves". I asked him about his chance of getting caught, and he promptly said, "There are two kinds of smugglers; one kind gets caught and one kind doesn't get caught", and he added a pious expression of gratitude to the good Lord that he never had been put to shame yet. We knew very well that the mounted police of Anatolia were largely recruited from among the robbers and smugglers of the mountain roads. One of the most effective ways of securing official employment, and who knows what promotion later, was to acquire the reputation of a daring hold-up man on the mountains."
    • George Edward White (1940). Adventuring with Anatolia College. Herald-Register. pp. p. 25.  
  • ...I think that I have said that at three or four meetings before rather than us talking about the problem of Cyprus which makes that it becomes a problem for the Republic as it is worldwide known we ought to talk about the problem of Turkey, it is really a 100% Turkish problem that they're not acting in the way in which they should be acting and if that’s the case well shove it to them!
    • Rudi Vis, [At the Friends of Cyprus meeting in the Jubilee Room at the House of Commons, 3rd July 2007] (see External links for transcript)

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Turkey
noframe
Location
Flag
Image:tu-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Ankara
Government Republican parliamentary democracy
Currency Türk Lirası/Turkish Lira (TL)
Area 780,580 km2
Population 73,193,000 (2006 est.)
Language Turkish (official); Kurdish, Zaza, Arabic, Azeri, Laz
Religion Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), Others 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +90
Internet TLD .tr
Time Zone UTC +2
Turkey (Türkiye) [1] is on the Mediterranean, in the Anatolian region of West Asia, with a small section in Southeastern Europe separated by the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles). With the Black Sea to the north and the Aegean Sea in the west and Mediterranean Sea to the southwest, Turkey is surrounded by Bulgaria and Greece to the west, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia to the northeast, Syria, Iraq and Iran to the southeast.

Understand

There is evidence that the bed of the Black Sea was once an inhabited plain, before it was flooded in prehistoric times by rising sea levels. The biblical flood may be an account of this event. Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı), at 5,165 m, is the country's highest point while the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, lies in the mountains on the far eastern edge of the country.
Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter the country instituted secular laws to replace traditional religious fiats. In 1945 Turkey joined the UN, and in 1952 it became a member of NATO.

Holidays

The savvy traveler should remember that when traveling into, in or around Turkey there are several holidays to keep in mind as they can cause delays in travel, traffic congestion, booked up accommodations and crowded venues. Banks, offices and businesses are closed during official holidays and traffic intensifies during all of the following holidays so do your research before you visit. Do not be put off by these holidays, it is not that difficult and often quite interesting to travel during Turkish holidays, simply plan ahead as much as possible.

Official holidays

  • Jan 1: New Year's Day (Yılbaşı)
  • Apr 23: National Soveirignity and Children's Day (Ulusal Egemenlik ve Çocuk Bayramı)— anniversary of the establishment of the Turkish Grand National Assembly
  • May 1: Labour and Solidarity Day (Emek ve Dayanışma Günü, also unofficially known as İşçi Bayramı, i.e. Worker's Day) was long banned as a holiday for almost 40 years and only restarted as a national holiday in 2009 because in years past it usually degenerated into violence. The wary traveler would be advised to not get caught in the middle of a May Day parade or gathering.
  • May 19: Atatürk Commemoration and Youth & Sports Holiday (Atatürk'ü Anma Gençlik ve Spor Bayramı)— the arrival of Atatürk in Samsun, and the beginning of the War of Independence
  • Aug 30: Victory Day (Zafer Bayramı)— Celebration of the end of the war for Turkish Independence over invasion forces. A big Armed Forces day and display of military might by huge military parades.
  • Oct 29: Republic Day (Cumhuriyet Bayramı or Ekim Yirmidokuz) is anniversary of the declaration of Turkish Republic. If it falls on a Thursday for example, Friday and the weekend should be considered in your travel plans. October 29 is the official end of the tourist season in many resorts in Mediterranean Turkey and usually there is a huge celebration at the town squares.
  • Nov 10, 9:05 AM— Traffic usually stops and sirens blare for two minutes starting at 9:05 AM, the time when Atatürk, founder of the Turkish Republic, died in Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul in 1938. That moment in time is officially observed throughout the country but businesses and official places are not closed for the day. However, do not be surprised if you are on the street, you hear a loud boom and all of a sudden people and traffic stop on the sidewalks and streets for a moment of silence in observance of this event.

Religious holidays

Ramadan dates
  • 2010 (1431): Aug 11 - Sep 9
  • 2011 (1432): Aug 1 - Aug 29
  • 2012 (1433): Jul 20 - Aug 18
The festival of Eid ul-Fitr is held after the end of Ramadan and may last several days. Exact dates depend on astronomical observations and may vary from country to country.
Ramadan (Ramazan in Turkish) is a month long time of fasting, prayer and celebration during which pious Muslims neither drink nor eat anything, even water, from sun up to sun down. Businesses, banks and official places are not closed during this time. In some parts of Turkey, such as most of inland and eastern locations as locals are more conservative than people in the rest of the country, it is considered to be bad taste to eat snacks or drink sodas in front of locals in public places or transport—to be completely on the safe side, watch how localfolk act—but restaurants are usually open and it is no problem to eat in them as usual, though some restaurant owners use it as an opportunity for a much-needed vacation (or renovation) and shut their business completely for 30 days. However, you will unlikely see any closed establishment in big cities, central parts of the cities, and touristy towns of western and southern Turkey. At sunset, call for prayer and a cannon boom, fasting observers immediately sit down for iftar, their first meal of the day. Banks, businesses and official places are NOT closed during this time.
During Ramadan, many city councils set up tent-like structures in the major squares of the cities to serve passers-by (or those in poverty) warm meals during the sunset (iftar), free of charge (much like soup kitchens, instead serving full meals). Travellers can easily join in the queue, no matter how 'foreign' they look (In fact, no one looks foreign in Turkey where you can see locals who have blond hair with blue eyes to those with curly black hair and dark complexion).
Immediately following Ramazan is the Eid-ul Fitr, or the three-day national holiday of Ramazan Bayrami, also called Şeker Bayrami (i.e. "Sugar" or more precisely "Candy Festival") during which banks, offices and businesses are closed and travel will be heavy. However, many restaurants, cafes and bars will be open.
Kurban Bayrami (pronounced koor-BAHN bahy-rah-muh) in Turkish, (Eid el-Adha in Arabic) or sacrifice holiday is the most important Islamic religious festival of the year. It lasts for several days and is a public holiday in Turkey. Almost everything will be closed during that time (many restaurants, cafes, bars and some small shops will be open however). Kurban Bayrami is also the time of the annual pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca, so both domestic and international travel is intense in Turkey at this time. If you are in smaller towns or villages you may even observe an animal, usually a goat but sometimes a cow, being slaughtered in a public place. In recent years the Turkish government has cracked down on these unofficial slaughterings so it is not as common as it once was.
The dates of these religious festivals change according to the Muslim lunar calendar and thus occur 10-11 days (the exact difference between Gregorian and Lunar calendars is 10 days and 21 hrs) earlier each year. According to this,
  • Şeker Bayramı falls Half-day on Thursday, September 9th, full-days on September 10th, 11th & 12th (Friday-Saturday-Sunday) in 2010; half-day on Tuesday, August 30th, full-days on August 31st, September 1st & 2nd (Wednesday-Thursday-Friday) in 2011; and half-day on Saturday, August 18th, full-days on August 19th, 20th & 21st (Sunday-Monday-Tuesday) in 2012.
  • Kurban Bayramı falls on November 16th , (Tuesday), and continues for four days until the evening of November 20th (Saturday) (but be aware that people will be traveling through Sunday, November 21st) in 2010; November 6th, (Sunday), and continues for four days until the evening of November 10th (Thursday) (but most Turkish people will still be on holiday or traveling on Friday, November 4th, through Sunday, November 13th) in 2011; and October 25th (Thursday), and continues for four days until the evening of October 29th (Monday, Turkey's Republic Day, a major patriotic holiday), with travel effects through October 30th (Tuesday) in 2012.
During both religious holidays, many cities (but not all) provide public transport for free (but note that these do not include privately owned minibuses, dolmuşes, taxis, or inter-city buses). This depends on the place and time. For example, Istanbul's public transport authority provided free transport in Eid-ul Fitr 2008, but not in Eid-ul Adha 2008 when it passengers have to pay a discounted rate. For some years, it was all free in both holidays, while in some others there was no discount at all. To be sure, check whether other pessengers use a ticket/token or not.

Climate

The climate in Turkey has a vast diversity depending on the diverse topography and latitude.
Aegean and Mediterranean coastal areas enjoy the typical Mediterranean climate. There is hardly a drop of rain during the sunny and hot summer (May to October). Winters are mild and rainy in these regions, and it very rarely snows at coastal areas, with the exception of mountainous areas higher than 2000 metres of these regions, which are very snowy and are frequently not passable. The water temperature in the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas is warm during the long summer season (May to October) which constitutes the swimming season and fluctuates between 23° and 28°C from north to south.
The region around the Sea of Marmara, including Istanbul, has a transitional climate between an oceanic climate and a semi-Mediterranean climate, but it does rain, albeit not a lot, during the very warm summer (as showers which tend to last for 15-30 minutes). Its winters are colder than those of the western and southern coasts. Snow is common at coastal areas, although it doesn’t stay on the ground for long and is limited to only a few days every winter. The water temperature in the Sea of Marmara is also colder than the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, with the water temperature reaching only between 20° and 24°C during the summer (June, July and August) and the swimming season is restricted to those summer months.
The Black Sea region has an oceanic climate (thanks to the protective shield effect of Caucasus mountains) with the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages 2,500 millimeters annually which is the highest precipitation in the country. Summers are warm and humid while the winters are cool and damp. Snow is common at coastal areas, although it doesn’t stay on the ground for long and is limited to only a few days every winter, though mountains are very snowy as it is expected to be and are frequently not passable, there are glaciers around the year in the highest zones. The water temperature in the whole Turkish Black Sea coast is always cool and fluctuates between 10° and 20°C throughout the year, and is even less suitable for swimming during the summer than in the Sea of Marmara.
Most of the coastal areas have a high level of relative humidity during most of the year which makes hot weather feel hotter and cold weather feel colder than it actually is.
Interior areas like Ankara, generally have hot summers (though the nights are cool enough to make someone who is wearing only a thin t-shirt uncomfortable outdoors) and cold and snowy winters. The more easterly the location is, the colder the winters are and the heavier the snow is. The northeastern part (around Erzurum and Kars) is the only inland area which has cool and rainy summers.
The southeastern region near the Syrian border has a desert-like climate, temperature is frequently above 40°C during summers with no rain. Snowfall is occasional in winter.
Aegean Turkey
Greek and Roman ruins between azure sea on one side and silvery olive grooves on the other
Black Sea Turkey
Heavily forested mountains offering great outdoor sports such as trekking and rafting
Central Anatolia
Tree-poor central steppes with the national capital, Hittite and Phrygian ruins, and moon-like Cappadocia
Eastern Anatolia
High and mountainous eastern part with harsh winters
Marmara Region
The most urbanized region with Byzantine and Ottoman monuments in some of the country's greatest cities
Mediterranean Turkey
Mountains clad with pine woods ascending right from the heavily-indented coastline of the crystal clear sea
Southeastern Anatolia
Semi-desert Middle-Easternmost part of the country
  • Ankara - the capital of Turkey and its second largest city.
  • Antalya - the fastest growing city, hub to an array of beach resorts.
  • Bursa - the first capital of the Ottoman Empire on the foothills of Mt. Uludag, a national park and a winter sports resort.
  • Edirne - the second capital of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Istanbul - Turkey's largest city, the former capital of both the Ottoman and Byzantine Empires, and the only city in the world to straddle two continents.
  • Izmir - Turkey's third largest city.
  • Konya- a Central Anatolian city, former home to Rumi, and the site of his tomb.
  • Sinop - an ancient fortress and port city on the northernmost tip of Anatolia.
  • Trabzon - the wonderful Sumela Monastery is just outside the city and it is a great gateway to exploring the Turkish Northeast.
  • Bergama - located near the ruins of the ancient city of Pergamon.
  • Bozcaada - a small and attractive island just opposite ancient Troy.
  • Bodrum - nice and trendy Aegean resort in Muğla.
  • Cappadocia is an area in Central Anatolia in Turkey best known for its unique moon-like landscape (the "fairy chimneys"), underground cities, cave churches and houses carved in the rocks.
  • Datça - unspoilt local resort at the tip of the Datça peninsula, Knidos nearby forms the boundary between Mediterranean and Aegean.
  • Gallipoli - site of 1915 Anzac landing and many WWI memorials, with the Monument of Martyrs erected in the honor of the Turkish martyrs who died in the Battle of Gallipoli being a great source of pride for the nation, as well as being a symbol of Turkish courage and love of country. Don't be afraid to visit memorials of the Anzac soldiers though, people here are used to it and actually are more friendlier towards you than other foreigners.
  • Hasankeyf - old town near Şanlıurfa.
  • Marmaris - a little touristy, but nice resort in Muğla.
  • Olympos - tourist attraction for young people, full of wooden tree-houses and rich night life.
  • Safranbolu - old town with Ottoman architecture.
  • Selcuk - tourist town near the ancient city of Ephesus.

Get in

Citizens of the following countries can get a sticker-type entry visa at the point of entry into Turkey for a fee:
Valıd for nine months:
  • The Netherlands (cost: €15)
Valid for three months:
  • UK (cost: US$20 / €15 / £10)
  • US (cost: US$20 /€15)
  • Canada (cost: €45)
  • Australia (cost: $20 / €15)
  • Ireland (cost: €10)
  • Italy (cost: €10)
  • Portugal (cost: €10)
Valid for two months:
  • Ukraine (cost: US$20)
Valid for one month:
  • Slovakia (cost: €10 or US$15)
  • Azerbaijan, Moldova, Russia (cost: €10 or US$20)
  • Serbia (cost: €10)
  • Norway (cost: €20)
.The citizens of the countries/territories listed below can enter Turkey visa-free for 90 days unless otherwise stated: Andorra, Argentina, Bahrain, Bolivia, Bosnia-Herzegovina (60 days), Brazil (30 days), Bulgaria, Chile, Costa Rica (30 days), Croatia, Czech Republic, Northern Cyprus (Turkish republic of), Denmark, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Iceland, Hong Kong, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan (30 days), Kyrgyzstan (30 days), Korea (South), Latvia (30 days), Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macau (30 days), Macedonia (60 days), Malaysia, Moldova (30 days), Monaco, Mongolia (30 days), Montenegro (60 days), Morocco (90 days), New Zealand, Nicaragua, Paraguay, San Marino, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan (30 days), Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan (30 days), UAE, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vatican City and Venezuela.^ SAN SALVADOR - EL SALVADOR .
  • Quick Search of Ocean Schedules for Container Shipping and Ocean Freight 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.jocsailings.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SAN JOSE - COSTA RICA .
  • Quick Search of Ocean Schedules for Container Shipping and Ocean Freight 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.jocsailings.com [Source type: Original source]

German citizens don't need a visa for stays up to 90 days and can even enter with their national ID card (Personalausweis) or an expired passport/ID unless arriving at the non-Council of Europe land border crossings (i.e. from Iran, Iraq and Syria). 1 [2]
More information can be found at the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs website [3].

By plane

Turkey's primary international gateway by air is Istanbul's Ataturk International Airport [4]. Ankara's Esenboğa Airport handles a comparatively limited selection of international flights, and there are also direct charters to Mediterranean resort hot spots like Antalya in the peak summer and winter seasons. In 2005 customs at Istanbul international airport was rearranged to the effect that one is now required to go through customs and "enter the country" there, rather than first travel to a regional destination and pass customs there. Luggage will generally travel to the final destination without further ado, but on occasion you may have to point it out to be sure it will be transported on. The information given by flight attendants in the incoming flight may not be adequate so until the procedure is changed (it is supposed to be only temporary) it is wise to inquire on Istanbul airport. Since one must pass security again for any inland flight, it is advisable to hurry and not spend too much time in transit. There are also some other regional airports which receive a limited number of flights from abroad, especially from Europe and especially during the high season (Jun-Sep).

Sabiha Gökçen Airport (SAW [5])

Of special interest to those traveling on low-cost carriers, this airport is situated some 50km east of Istanbul's Taksim Square on the Asian side of Istanbul. Airlines servicing this airport include EasyJet [6], Germanwings [7], Condor [8], THY (Turkish Airlines) [9] and many more. It is interesting to point out that there is the possibility of catching a plane from Emirates' budget carrier Air Arabia [10] to Sharjah (United Arab Emirates) and from there to India for a very competitive price. All those low-cost options though, entail departure and arrival times in the middle of the night.

Airport Transportation

From Istanbul International airport, you can catch the light rail, which will take you directly to the Otogar (bus station) or to numerous stops within Istanbul (Aksaray is the last stop, near Sultanahmet where most of the famous tourist sites are). It is possible to be at the Otogar within less than one hour after landing. Another way of getting to downtown Istanbul is by bus, either on Havaş coaches (special airport shuttle leaving every 30min; first bus 4am, last bus midnight) to Taksim, Etiler, Kozyatağı (Asian side) or on public buses (Line 96T) to Taksim. Public bus and the light rail costs 1.30 TL, Havaş to/from Taksim is 10 TL (2010). Taxi is about 30-35 TL to Taksim (2010) and 25-30 TL to Sultanahmet (2010). Travel times depend a lot on traffic, and Istanbul is heavily congested!
From SAW, Havaş coaches depart regularly to Kozyatağı, and Taksim for 10-13 TL respectively (2010). If you arrive in the middle of the night, you can move to the departure hall after passing customs and rest on very comfortable seats — you will even find coin-operated Japanese massage chairs. Then, at about 4AM (but better ask to be sure) the first Havaş bus will take you to town. .The Havaş bus schedule is sometimes linked to the arrival/departure times of planes.^ Results can be sorted in ascending or descending order by the arrow next to the departure date, arrival date, transit time, carrier, vessel or voyage number > > Quick Schedule Search .
  • Quick Search of Ocean Schedules for Container Shipping and Ocean Freight 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.jocsailings.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Select a departure port or inland point Select an arrival port or inland point Select any carrier or a single ocean cargo carrier Use the sliding scale for the date range of the schedules Departure Point Departure Port or Inland Point .
  • Quick Search of Ocean Schedules for Container Shipping and Ocean Freight 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.jocsailings.com [Source type: Original source]

Check the company website. [11] There is also a public bus (line E-10) which operates 24 hours a day (once every hour between midnight and 6AM, more frequent in the rest of the day) between Sabiha Gökçen Airport and Kadıköy, the main centre of the city in Asian side. It costs about 3.00 TL.

By train

You can still travel from Europe to Turkey by train, although these days this is more of historical or perhaps even romantic interest than fast or practical. The famed Orient Express from London now travels no further than Vienna, but you can take the daily TransBalkan from Budapest (Hungary) via Bucharest (Romania), a two-night journey with a scheduled 3-hour stop in Bucharest. 1st/2nd class sleepers and couchettes are available, but the train lacks a restaurant car so stock up on supplies. From/to Greek stations there are two daily services, from Istanbul to Pythion every morning and from Istanbul to Thessaloniki every night. There are also daily trains to Istanbul from Sofia (Bulgaria).
There are also once-weekly services from Istanbul to Aleppo and Damascus in Syria, Tabriz and Tehran in Iran.
A cheap way of traveling to or from Turkey might be the Balkan Flexipass.

By car

From Central Europe, getting to Turkey is not too difficult. In any case you'll need your International Insurance Card (Green Card). Pay attention to "TR" not being canceled and be sure your insurance is valid for the Asian part of Turkey, too. Otherwise you will have to buy Turkish car insurance separately.
A carnet de passage is not necessary unless you intend to move on to Middle Eastern countries of Syria and Iran, both of which require you to have a carnet de passage.
National driving licences from some of the European countries are accepted. If you are not sure about your situation, obtain an international driving licence beforehand.
Major roads from Europe are:
E80 enters Turkey at Kapıkule border gate (NW of Edirne, SE of Svilengrad) from Bulgaria
E87 enters Turkey at Dereköy border gate (north of Kırklareli, south of Tirnovo) from Bulgaria
E90 enters Turkey at İpsala border gate (west of Keşan, east of Alexandroupolis) from Greece
Major roads from Middle East enter Turkey at numerous border gates around Antakya (Antioch), from Syrian cities such as Aleppo and Latakia, Habur border gate (south of Silopi, north of Zakho) from Iraq, and Dogubeyazit border gate (near Ararat) from Iran.
Major roads from Caucasia enter Turkey at Sarp/Sarpi border gate from Georgia (south of Batumi) and Türkgözü border gate south of Akhaltsikhe (this is the nearest border gate from Tbilisi). The border with Armenia is currently closed, thus impassable by car.
There are also other border gates (unlisted here), from all the countries Turkey has a common land border with (except Armenia), leading to secondary roads passable with a car.

By bus

Europe

From Bucharest there is a daily bus to Istanbul at 4PM for 125 Lei. There are also several daily buses from Constanta, Romania and from Sofia, Bulgaria and from there you can get connections to the major cities of Europe. Another possibility is the bus from Athens in Greece via Thessaloniki. You may also find smaller bus companies offering connections to other countries in the Balkans.

Iran

There is a direct bus to Istanbul from Teheran in Iran which takes approx 48hrs and costs US$ 35.00 for a one-way ticket between Istanbul or Ankara and Tehran.
  • Dogubeyazit/Bazerghan This Turkey/Iran border crossing is easyly (and fast) done by puplic transport. Take a bus to Bazerghan and a shared taxi to the border (ca. 2-3$). Cross the border stretch per pedes and catch a a frequent minibus (ca. 5 TL, 15 minutes) to Dogubeyazit. Check the security situation in the region, due to the unsolved PKK conflict.
Make sure you get a clear idea about exchange rates if you want to change TL or Rial as the official bank at the border does not exchange these currencies and you have to deal with the plentyful black market.

Syria

From Aleppo in Syria a 3hr bus to Antakya costs S£250 departing at 5AM. There is also a minibus service at 3PM for S£350. From Antakya you can get connecting buses to almost anywhere in Turkey, however initial prices may be overinflated and often inconvenient times. If travelling through to Istanbul, there are bus services from Damascus with bus changes along the way at Antakya. Purchasing a bus ticket in Damascus will be significantly cheaper than in Aleppo or Antakya. If traveling from Syria it is worthwhile to purchase additional supplies of snacks and drinks before leaving the country - these are significantly more expensive at bus stations in Turkey.

By boat

Many people arrive in Bodrum on one of the hydro-foils or ferries that run from most of the close Greek islands into the port. A fairly pretty way to arrive. While many of the lines that originate and terminate in Istanbul have recently been discontinued (due to bankruptcy), there are still summer departures direct to Eastern Italy.
Other main towns on the Aegean coast have ferry connections with the nearest Greek islands as well. Trabzon, a major city on the eastern Black Sea coast has a regular line from/to Sochi on the Russian Black Sea coast. Mersin, Taşucu, Anamur and Alanya on the Mediterranean coast has ferry links with either Famagusta (with Mersin) or Kyrenia (with others) in Northern Cyprus.

Get around

By plane

Major cities are served by airlines as well, with reasonable prices, beating the bus travel experience especially over longer distances. Tickets can be conveniently bought at the Istanbul domestic terminal and local ticket offices of Turkish Airlines [12] , Onur Air [13] , Fly Air [14] , Pegasus Airlines [15] and Atlasjet [16] among others . Many of the large cities have daily connections to the traffic hubs Ankara and Istanbul, others will have flights on specific days only. Upon arrival at regional airports there will often be a connecting Havas bus, which is much, much cheaper than taking a taxi. They may wait for half an hour, but will be available after the arrival of major flights. In some spots a whole fleet of minibusses will be waiting for an important flight, and then they will head out for cities in the region. For instance, flying to Agri in the East a connecting minibus will head for Dogubeyazit within twenty,thirty minutes or so, so you don't have to travel into Agri first, then wait for a Dogybeyazit bus. Do ask for such easy connections upon arrival!

By bus

Turkey has a good long-distance bus network with air-conditioned buses, reserved seats and generally good-quality service, at least with the major operators. There are now a few firms providing luxury buses with 1st class seats and service. Standard buses, however, have seats narrower than those of economy class on airplanes. Buses are often crowded, and smoking is strictly prohibited. Cellphone use is also restricted on many buses.
Bus travel is convenient in Turkey. Go to the Otogar (bus station) in any of the major cities and you can find a bus to almost any destination within half an hour, or a couple of hours at the most. Buses are staffed by drivers and a number of assistants. During the ride you will be offered free drinks, a bite or two, and stops will be made every two hours and a half or so at well-stocked road restaurants. The further east you travel, the less frequent buses will be, but even places as far as Dogubeyazit or Van will have regular services to many places hundreds of kilometers away. Only the smallest towns do not have a bus straight to Istanbul or Izmir at least once every two days.
Finding the right bus quickly does require some help and thus some trust, but be careful. Scammers will be waiting for you, and some may assist you in buying a ticket to a bus that won't depart in the next two hours. Sometimes there simply is no other bus, but on other occasions you will be sitting there while other buses with the same destination start well ahead. If you have some time to spare: check the departure (and arrival) times of other companies, that may save you time overall. Still, if you indicate you really want to leave NOW (use phrases like "hemen" or "shimdy", or "adjelem var" - I am in a hurry ), people will realize you are in hurry, and off you go on the next bus departing for your destination.
If you have several operators to choose from, ask for the number of seats in the buses you compare. Roughly, a larger capacity implies a greater comfort (all bus-seats have approximately the same leg-room, but larger 48-seat buses are certainly more comfortable than a 15-seat Dolmus, which may be considered a 'bus' by the company selling the seat). Also, the bus company with the largest sign is usually the one with the most buses and routes. If possible, ask other travellers you meet about their experiences with different operators: even big operators have different standards of service, and even with the same operator the standards may vary from region to region.
Don't be surprised if halfway down to some strange and far-off destination you are put out of the bus (your luggage will often be already standing next to it) and transferred to another. The other bus will "buy" you, and will bring you to the destination. This may even happen for 'direct' or 'non-stop' tickets.
Sometimes long-haul bus lines will leave you stranded on some ring-road around a city, rather than bringing you to the centre. That can be annoying. Inquire ahead (and hope they don't lie). On the other hand, many companies will have "servis aracı" or service vehicles to the centre, when the Otogar is on the periphery of a city, as they nowadays often are. In some cities these service vehicles are used by many companies combined, and a fleet of them, to different parts of the metropolis, will be waiting. The company may also choose to combine the passengers of multiple buses; meaning that you may have to wait until another bus or two arrives before departing. Keep your ticket ready as proof you were on a bus (though most of these services are run on good faith). In some cities (including Ankara, discluding Istanbul), the municipality have prohibited the use of service buses due to their effect on traffic. In that case, you might have to take a public bus or metro to get to your destination. One should probably avoid using taxis (at least departing from the Otogar) since they usually tend to abuse their monopolic position by refusing to go to closer destinations, behaving rudely towards the passenger, charging on the night tariff, etc. If you have to take a taxi, it is usually suggested that you do it from outside the bus terminal.
Seating within buses is partly directed by the "koltuk numarası" or seat number on your ticket, partly by the ritualistic seating of women next to women, couples together and so forth. So don't be too annoyed if you are required to give up your seat. In general, as a foreigner, you will have the better seat much of the time.
One hint: it often is easiest to take a seat in the back, whatever the number of your koltuk, and not be bothered for much of the ride. This is particularly true if you travel alone, and want to keep it that way, even though the last row may be reserved for the driver-off-duty, who wants to sleep. And remember: many buses pick up short-track fare along the ride, and park them in the last two or three rows. Also keep in mind that the back of the bus may be more noisy compared to the front, since that is where the engine is located.
If you have a bicycle it will be transported free of extra charge. In most buses it fits in the luggage area of the bus- Make sure you have the tools to fold your bike as small as possible (height matters most)
Another alternative to local bus travel in Turkey is the 'Fez Bus'. A Hop on hop off travel network that links Istanbul to all the best places to see in western Turkey, and a few that are a bit off the tourist trail. The bus runs hostel to hostel and they have an english speaking tour leader on board that lets you know about everything there is to do. The pass can last a few days or all summer and there are departures every other day. It may be a just little more expensive than the local bus, but really flexible and a lot less hassle. The main office in Istanbul is in Sultanahmet next to the Orient Youth Hostel on Yeni Akbiyik Cd.

By train

Offering considerably cheap, but slower travel compared with the bus, TCDD (Turkish Republic State Railways) operate passenger trains all over the country. However, as Turkey has fewer than 11,000 km of rail network in the total, many cities and tourist spots are out of rail coverage.
Istanbul-Ankara and Istanbul-Edirne lines are the only lines that are electrified, so the rest of the lines are serviced by diesel trains. The services from Istanbul to the East change their locomotives at Ankara station, and services to the South change their locomotives at Enveriye station, the remote one of two stations in Eskişehir (located about two-thirds distance to Ankara from Istanbul). No steam locomotives run on Turkish railways regularly, except occasional ceremonies.
Istanbul-Ankara rail line is the busiest and the most ridden one. There are several daily trains on this line, and a ride takes between 6.5 to more than 10 hours, depending on the train one takes and the delays, which are quite frequent. From Istanbul’s Haydarpasa station on the Asiatic side, one can find a direct train to almost all cities and towns in Asian Turkey served by a rail line, exceptions being Izmir, Balıkesir, Manisa, Zonguldak, and Samsun.
TCDD also offers two “train+bus” lines in summer months. One of these is Istanbul-Antalya, and the other is Ankara-Akçay (on the northern Aegean shore). In this kind of travel, for example one buys a ticket for Antalya at Haydarpasa station, rides the train until the transfer station (Dinar in this case), and takes the bus awaiting there for passengers to Antalya. Bus fee is included in the train ticket price, no additional payment is made in the bus. Train+bus travel takes a little more time than completely bus travel but it is almost half in expense.
Other major cities or tourist spots that can be reached by rail from Istanbul directly are Edirne (from Sirkeci station on the European side, not Haydarpasa), Eskişehir, Denizli (near Pamukkale), Konya, Adana, Kayseri (where Cappadocia is a few hours bus ride away), Gaziantep, Diyarbakır, Erzurum (a few minutes away from Palandöken ski centre), Kars, and Tatvan on the shore of Lake Van.
If you have determined to reach to Izmir from Istanbul only on rail, you should first catch a train to Ankara (or to further east), then transfer in Eskişehir station to one of the trains operating between Ankara and Izmir (you will need another ticket unless you have a pass like Interrail ticket). You can also buy a combined ticket, catch the fast ferry from Istanbul to Bandirma (on the southern coast of Marmara) and take the train heading for Izmir there with the same ticket. From there on, you can catch the regional train to Selçuk, where Roman city of Ephesos and Virgin Mary's House, which is a declared pilgrimage destination for Catholics, are a few kilometers away. So is Şirince, a cute village famous for the wines it produce. Also, Kuşadası is only half an hour bus ride away from Selçuk.
1st and 2nd class tickets are available, while some trains are consisted of only 1st class cars. 1st class usually means a pullman car (which has large leg-rooms between the seats, and most of which has air-conditioners nowadays), and 2nd class usually means compartment having 6 or far worse 8 seats. 8-seated compartments are not widespread, still ask before in order to avoid having a ticket for one. Also, 2nd class tickets do not have seat numbers written on them, so you should rush into the train to find a suitable empty seat.
Many trains have couchettes and sleeping cars, however even some of the night trains lack one, so ask before choosing your departure.
Although none of the regional trains –which operate between nearby cities- have a dining car, most long-distance trains have one. However, dining cars of the trains heading for eastern Turkey may have a limited menu and beverage list or there might be no dining car at all due to the low interest of the passengers of these lines. Have some supplies, especially if you are going to take one of the services to the East, but don’t worry if you don’t have any time to get anything. In the stations where the train stops for 15 minutes or more, you will find a kiosk or a buffet to buy some snacks and drinks. You can also buy some snacks –or even fresh fruits during spring and summertime- from vendors “jumping” into the cars in smaller stations as well. Dining cars are closed between 12:30AM and 6:30AM in all trains except Fatih Express, the daily night train between Istanbul and Ankara, the dining car of which is open until 1:30AM-2AM.
All cars have lavatories, although they may not be always so clean or have toilet paper.
Smoking is generally allowed on the first cars, so avoid buying a ticket for this car if you are not a smoker or buy one for this car if you would like to smoke during your journey. You may be asked “smoking or non-smoking” in the ticket window, if there are still empty seats at the both parts, but probably only in Turkish. (Sigara içilmeyen=non-smoking, write this on a paper and show it to the official in doubt)
Inter Rail and Balkan flexipass tickets are valid in all trains in Turkey (except international trains operating between Turkish and Iranian/Syrian stations), but holders of these tickets may have to get a seat number before ride, free of charge, especially in the trains that are consisted of only 1st class cars. TCDD also offers Tren Tur pass cards which lets its holder a month of free rail travel on any Turkish train (Again, Tren Tur is not accepted in international trains operating between Turkish and Iranian/Syrian stations and the international train operating between Istanbul and Thessaloniki) . Tren Tur card is considerably cheaper than one-zone Interrail tickets, but be sure to get a seat number in the stations before you get into a train that is consisted of only 1st class cars.
TCDD offers 20% discounted tickets for students. On board the trains, discounted ticket holders are usually asked for a valid student ID card during the ticket check. If the holder of a discounted ticket fails to show a student ID card, then he/she is punished with a penalty to pay the full price+20% more for his/her journey.
Train tickets can be bought online, at the station of departure (however, you can also buy your ticket for an Anatolian destination at the Sirkeci station, the main station of Istanbul on the European side), some of the central postoffices, authorized tourism agencies or from the automatic ticket machines which are rarely located at the main stations of the big cities. Credit cards are accepted only in major stations, be sure to have enough cash if you’ll buy a ticket in a small town station a few minutes before the train departs.. If you are buying your ticket from a station, remember that only booths of a limited number of very central stations accept foreign currency alongside Turkish lira, you can pay only in Turkish lira in the rest. Getting on a train without a valid ticket could land you with a fine, but purchasing a ticket on the train is often possible at a higher price.
A reservation is recommended during summer, on Fridays and Sundays, and before domestic religious feasts, when a one-week break is common and trains get really crowded.
For reservation and timetables, see [17]
Bosphorus Bridge, a part of Turkish highway system, connecting Europe and Asia
Bosphorus Bridge, a part of Turkish highway system, connecting Europe and Asia
Like all of its neighbours (except Cyprus off the southern coast of Turkey), driving is on the right side of the road in Turkey. Though it is legal to drive a vehicle with driver positioned on the right (which were designed for countries driving on the left) it is not very comfortable and is risky indeed (the driver cannot see the coming traffic and so on…).
It is illegal to use a mobile phone while driving. Maximum permitted amount of alcohol in blood for drivers is 0.05 grams per litre (g/1000 ml), that is roughly equal to two cups (a cup=500 ml) of beer or two glasses (a wine glass=330 ml) of wine. The use of seat belts both at the front and back line is obligatory.
Turkish signboards are almost identical to the ones used in Europe, and differences are often insignificant. The place names written on green background lead to motorways (which you should pay a toll, unless it is a ring road around or within a city); on blue background means other highways; on white background means rural roads (or a road inside a city under the responsibility of city councils); and on brown background indicates the road leads to a historical place, an antique city, a place of tourist interest or a city out of Turkey (these signboards used to be on yellow background till a few years ago, so still there is a chance of unreplaced yellow signboards existing here and there). Also keep in mind that these signboards are not always standardized; for instance, some of the blue ones may be leading into the rural roads.
As Turkey uses the metric system, all distances on the signboards are in kilometers, unless otherwise stated (such as meters, but never in miles).

Fuel

Despite bordering countries which have the richest oil resources, fuel in Turkey is ridiculously expensive, in fact one of the most expensive in the world because of the very heavy taxes. For example, a litre of unleaded gasoline costs more than 2.90 TL (~€ 1.50/~US$ 1.90, that makes ~US$ 10.40 per gallon!). Diesel and LPG is less damaging to your wallet (and to the environment in case of LPG), but not that drastically.
Petrol stations (benzin istasyonu) are frequently lined along the highways, most (if not all) serving round the clock and accepting credit cards (you have to get out of the car and enter the station building to enter your PIN code if you are using credit card). In all of them you can find unleaded gasoline (kurşunsuz), diesel (dizel or motorin), and LPG (liquid petroleum gas, LPG). In many (if not most) of them you can also find CNG (compressed natural gas, CNG). Though, petrol stations in the villages off the beaten track are exception, all they offer is often limited to only diesel, which is used for running the agricultural machinery. It is advised to keep the gas tank full if you are going to stray away from main roads. Also petrol stations along the motorways (toll-ways) are rarer than other highways, usually once every 40-50 kms. Make sure to fill your tank in the first station you’ll pass by (there are signs indicating you are soon going to pass by one) if your “tank is getting empty” alert signal is on.
Biofuels are not common. What most resembles a biofuel available to a casual driver is sold in some of the stations affiliated with national chain Petrol Ofisi under the name biyobenzin. But still it is not mostly biofuel at all – it consists of a little bioethanol (2% of the total volume) stirred into pure gasoline which makes up the rest (98%). Biodiesel is in an experimental stage yet, not available in the market.

Repair shops

In all cities and towns, there are repair shops, usually located together in complexes devoted to auto-repairing (usually rather incorrectly called sanayi sitesi or oto sanayi sitesi in Turkish, which means “industrial estate” and “auto-industrial estate” respectively), which are situated in the outskirts of the cities. And all cities and towns,there are big 3 s plants.(sales,service,spare parts).these are more corporate than sanayi sitesi these called oto plaza..

Renting a car

You may rent a car to get around Turkey from an international or local car rental agent. If you are traveling by plane you may find car rental desks in arrival terminals of all airports such as IST Ataturk Airport, Istanbul.

By dolmuş

The minibus (or Minibüs as called in Istanbul) is a small bus (sometimes car) that will ride near-fixed routes. The ride may be from the periphery of a major city to the centre or within a city, but may also take three to four hours from one city to the next, when the route is not commercial for large busses. They sometimes make a detour to bring some old folks home or collect some extra heavy luggage. You will find them in cities as well as in inter-city traffic. All during their journey people will get in and out (shout “Inecek var” – “someone to get off” – to have it stop if you’re in). The driver tends to be named “kaptan” (captain), and some behave accordingly. The fare is collected all through the ride. In some by a specially appointed passenger who will get a reduction, in others by a steward, who may get off halfway down the journey, to pick up a dolmuş of the same company heading back, and mostly by the driver himself. If the driver collects himself, people hand money on from the back rows to the front, getting change back by the same route. On some stretches tickets are sold in advance, and things can get complicated if some of the passengers bought a ticket and others just sat inside waiting – for maybe half an hour - but without a ticket.
The concept of dolmuş in Istanbul is somehow different than the rest of Turkey. The vehicles are different, they take max. 7 sitting passengersand non standing. they do not tend to take passengers along the way, they depart immediately when they are full, and many of them operate 24 hours a day. The name derives from “dolmak”, the verb for “to fill”, as they used not to start the journey without a decent number of passengers. They usually leave when they are full, but sometimes start at fixed hours, whatever the number.

By boat

Fast ferries (hızlı feribot) are fast (50-60km/hour) catamaran-type ferryboats that connect for instance Istanbul to the other side of the Marmara Sea. They can cut travel time dramatically. Again for instance leaving from the Yeni Kapi jetty in Istanbul (just a bit South-West of the Blue Mosque) you can be at the Bursa Otogar in two hours, with less than an hour for the actual boat ride to Yalova. Similar services are operated to connect several parts of Istanbul with the Asian side, or places farther up the Bosporus. And this type of fast ferry is increasingly seen all over the country wherever there is enough water.
There are also ferry connections between Istanbul and Izmir and between Istanbul and Trabzon in the eastern Black Sea region, ships operating on the latter line also stop at all of the significant cities along the Turkish Black Sea coast. However both of these lines are unfortunately operating only in summer months.
All inhabited Turkish islands have at least one daily cruise to the nearest mainland city or town during summer. But as winter conditions at the seas can go harsh, the frequency of voyages drop significantly due to the bad weather.
Perhaps one of the best cruising grounds in the world, Turkey offers thousands of years of history, culture and civilization set against a stunning mountainous backdrop. The coastline is a mixture of wide gulfs, peaceful coves, shady beaches, uninhabited islands, small villages and bustling towns. Many of these locations are still only accessible by boat. Rare in the Mediterranean, one can still find some seclusion on a private charter in Turkey. In fact, Turkey offers more coastline than any other Mediterranean country. The best way to see Turkey is from your own private yacht on your own schedule. Turkey offers some of the most exquisite yachts in the world known as gulets.

By bicycle

Special lanes devoted to bicycles are virtually non-existent, except a few quite short routes –which are built mainly for sport, not transportation- along coastal avenues or parks in the big cities like Istanbul or Izmir. Terrain of the country is mostly hilly, another factor which makes long-distance cycling in Turkey more difficult. If it is the case that you have already made up your mind and give cycling a try in your Turkey trip, always stay as much on the right side of the roads as possible; avoid riding a bicycle out of cities or lightened roads at night, do not be surprised by the drivers horning at you, and do not enter the motorways, it is forbidden. You could better prefer rural roads with much less traffic density, but then there is the problem of freely roaming sheepdogs, which can sometimes be quite dangerous. Rural roads also have much much less signboards than the highways, which turns them into a labyrinth, in which it is easy to get lost even for non-local Turkish people, without a detailed map.
  • Great Explorations [18]offers a 10 day/ 9 night cycling tour along the coast, beginning in Bodrum and finishing in Antalya staying in 3&4-star hotels. By incorporating a 'blue-cruise' between Gocek and Olympos, the busier and hilliest sections are avoided and you get to enjoy a few days exploring the Aegean Sea by yacht.
Air can be pumped into tyres at any petrol station without a charge. Bicycle repair-shops are rare in cities and cannot be easily found, motorcycle repair shops can be tried alternatively (however, they are very reluctant to repair a bicycle if they are busy with their customers who have motorcycles).
In Istanbul’s Princess’ Islands, renting a bike is an amusing, cheaper, and obviously more animal-friendly alternative to hiring a horse-drawn carriage. On these islands well-paved roads are shared only by horse-drawn carriages, bicycles and public service vehicles (like ambulances, police vans, school buses, garbage trucks etc).

By thumb

Almost every driver has an idea about what universal hitchhiking sign (“thumb”) means. Don’t use any other sign which may be equivalent of a signal meaning a danger. In addition to the thumb, having a signboard with the destination name certainly helps. Waiting for someone to take you generally doesn't exceed half an hour, though this dramatically varies depending on the density of traffic (as is elsewhere) and the region, for example, it usually takes much longer to attract a ride in Mediterranean Turkey than in Marmara Region. Best hitchhiking spots are the crossroads with traffic lights, where ring-roads around a city and the road coming from the city center intersect. Don’t be so away from the traffic lights so drivers would be slow enough to see you and stop to take you; but be away enough from the traffic lights for a safe standing beside the road. Don’t try to hitchhike on motorways, no one will be slow enough to stop, it is also illegal to enter the motorways as a pedestrian. Don’t start to hitchhike until you are out of a city as cars may head for different parts of the city, not your destination, and if not in hurry, try to avoid hitchhiking after night falls, especially if you are a lone female traveller.
Although the drivers are taking you just to have a word or two during their long, alone journey, always watch out and avoid sleeping.
On some occasions, you may not be able to find someone going directly to where your destination is, so don’t refuse anyone stopped to take you –refusing someone stopped to take you is impolite-, unless he/she is going to a few kilometres away, and if he/she would go to a road that doesn’t arrive at your destination in a coming fork. You may have to change several cars even on a 100-km course, changing in each town after town. However, because of the enormous numbers of trucks carrying goods for foreign markets, you can find unexpectedly long-haul trips from, say a town in western Turkey to as far as, for instance, Ukraine or southern Germany.
Not many, but some drivers –especially van drivers- may ask for money (“fee”) from you, refuse and tell them that if you would have money to waste, then you would be on a bus, not standing beside a road.
Drivers staying in the area may point downwards (to the road surface) or towards the direction they’re driving or flash their headlights while passing, indicating that they wouldn't make a good long-haul ride. Smile and/or wave your hand to show courtesy.

On foot

Turkey has two long-distance waymarked hiking trails, one of them is the famous Lycian Way, between Fethiye and Antalya, the other one is the Saint Paul Trail, between Antalya and Yalvaç up to the north, in the Turkish Lakes District. Both are about 500 km, and signed with painted stones and signboards. Since Lycian Way is much older, it has more facilities for shopping and accommodation in the villages situated along or near its route.
Eastern Black Sea region covers very beautiful quite long trekking routes between the greenest of green plateaus well above the clouds as well, and some tourism agencies in the main cities of Turkey are offering guided trekking tours –including the transportation- in this region.
Inside the cities, there are white-, or rarely yellow-painted pedestrian crossings (zebra crossing) on the main streets and avenues, which are normally pedestrian-priority spots. However, for many drivers, they are nothing more than ornamental drawings on the road pavements, so it is better to cross the streets at where traffic lights are. Still, be sure all the cars stopped, because it is not unusual to see the drivers still not stopping in the first few seconds after the light turns to red for vehicles. As a better option, on wide streets, there are also pedestrian overpasses and underground pedestrian passages available. In narrow main streets during rush hour, you can cross the street anywhere and anytime, since cars will be in a stop-go-stop-go manner because of heavy traffic. Also in narrow streets inside the residential hoods, you need not to worry about keeping on the sidewalk, you can walk well in the middle of the road, only to step aside when a car is coming.

Talk

The sole official language of Turkey is Turkish. Turkish is an Altaic language and its closest living relatives are other Turkic languages, which are spoken in southwestern, central and northern Asia; and to a lesser degree by significant communites in the Balkans. Because Turkish is an agglutinative language, native speakers of Indo-European languages generally find it difficult to learn. Since 1928, Turkish is written in a variant of the Latin alphabet (after so many centuries of using the Arabic one, evident in many historical texts and documents) with the additions of ç/Ç, ğ/Ğ, ı/I, i/İ, ö/Ö, ş/Ş and ü/Ü, and with the exclusions of Q, W and X.
Kurdish is also spoken by an estimated 7-10% of the population. Several other languages exist, like Laz in the North-East (also spoken in adjacent Georgia), and in general people living near borders will often be speaking the language at the other side too, like Arabic in the South-East.
Thanks to migration, even in rural areas most villages will have at least somebody who has worked in Germany and can thus speak German. The same goes for other West-European languages like Dutch (often mistakenly called "Flemish" there) or French. Recent immigration from Balkans means there is also a possibility to come across native Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian, and Albanian speakers mainly in big cities of western Turkey, but don't count on this. English is also increasingly popular among the younger generation. The "Universities" that train pupils for a job in tourism pour out thousands of youngsters who want to practice their knowledge on the tourist, with varying degrees of fluency. Language universities produce students that nowadays are pretty good at their chosen language.

Buy

In 2005, Turkey dropped six zeroes from its currency, thus making each post-2005 lira worth 1,000,000 pre-2005 lira (or so called "old lira"). During the transition period between 2005 and 2009, the currency was briefly called new lira (yeni lira) officially. Since Jan 1, 2009, a new series of banknotes and coins have been introduced and the currency is again simply called lira (officially Turkish Lira, Türk Lirası, locally abbreviated TL, ISO 4217 code: TRY), which is divided into 100 kuruş (abbreviated kr). Since Jan 1, 2010, neither pre-2005 nor pre-2009 banknotes and coins (those bearing yeni lira and yeni kuruş) are not legal tender, but can be exchanged at certain banks till Dec 31, 2010 (for coins) and Dec 31, 2019 (for banknotes).
Banknote nominations are in 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 lira, whereas coin nominations are in 1 (very rare in circulation), 5, 10, 25, 50 kuruşes and 1 lira.
Money exchange – There are legal exchange offices in all cities and almost any town. Banks also exchange money, but they are not worth the hassle as they are usually crowded and do not give better rates than exchange offices. You can see the rates office offers on the (usually electronic) boards located somewhere near its gate. Euro and American Dollars are the most useful currencies, but Pound Sterling (Bank of England notes only, not Scottish or Northern Irish notes), Swiss Francs, Japanese Yen, Saudi Riyals, and a number of other currencies are also not very hard to exchange. It is important to remember that most exchangers accept only banknotes, it can be very hard to exchange foreign coins. In some places, where there is a meaningful explanation for it, more uncommon currencies can also be exchanged, too, for example Australian Dollars may be exchanged in Canakkale where grandchildren of Anzacs gather to commemorate their grandfathers every year, or in Kaş, which is located just across the Greek island of Kastelorizo, which in turn has a large diaspora in Australia. As a general rule, if a place attracts many visitors from a country, then it is usually possible to exchange that country’s currency there.
Tourism-oriented industries in tourism-oriented towns, as well as shops where big amounts of money change hands, like supermarkets, in most parts of the country, generally accept foreign currency (usually limited to Euro and American Dollars only), but the rates they accept the currency are usually a little lower than those of exchange offices. Ask first if they accept foreign currency.
€ 1 = 2.17 TL
US$ 1 = 1.51 TL
GB£ 1 = 2.41 TL
(all as of Dec 25, 2009)
Credit cards and ATMs - Visa and Mastercard are widely accepted, American Express much less so. Starting from June 1, 2007 all credit card users (of those with a chip on them) have to enter their PIN codes when using the credit card. Older, magnetic card holders are exception to this, but remember that unlike some other places in Europe, salesclerk has the legal right to ask you a valid ID with a photo on to recognize that you are the owner of the card. ATMs are scattered throughout the cities, concentrated in central parts. It is possible to draw Turkish Lira (and rarely foreign currency) from these ATMs with your foreign card. Any major town has at least one ATM.
ATMs ask whether to provide instructions in English or in Turkish (and sometimes some other languages, too) as soon as you insert a foreign card (or a Turkish card which is not the operating bank’s own). When withdrawing money from ATMs, if the ATM in question does not belong to the bank that you already have an account in, they charge some percentage (generally 1%-one per cent) of what you withdraw from your account each time. This percentage is higher for advance withdrawing with your credit card.
No establishments require a commission surcharge when using a credit card.
Tipping - A 10% of the total bill or simply rounding up to the next lira for smaller purchases is welcome, though this is not a custom to be strictly followed. Tipping ceremony is performed like this, especially in the restaurants and cafes: first you ask for the bill, the waiter/ress brings the bill inside a folder, and puts it on the table and goes away. You put the money into the folder (with the bill), and after a few minutes later waiter comes back to collect the folder. A few minutes more later, waiter comes again with the same folder in his/her hands and leaves it once more on the table. This time there is change in it. You leave the amount of change you think waiter deserves and close the folder. The waiter comes again last time a few minutes later to take it. If you think they don’t deserve any tip, walking out into the street without leaving anything is totally okay, and there is no need to feel ashamed. Some establishments charge an additional 10% on your bill that you have to pay, that is the “service charge”, and sometimes it is not declared to the customer until the bill shows up. There is obviously not a reason to leave any more tip in that kind of places. It’s also a bit odd to tip in self-service restaurants and cheap&dirty bars.
Taxi drivers usually tend to round up what the meter says to the next lira and give your change accordingly. So tipping is not necessary. If you insist on taking your exact change back, ask for para üstü? (pronounced something like “pah-rah oos-too”, which means “change”). Driver will be reluctant to give it at first, but you will succeed eventually.
Supermarket cashiers usually round up the total sum to the next 5 kuruş if you pay in cash (the exact sum is extracted when paid by a credit card though). This is not a kind of involuntary tip, as the 2-3-4 kuruşes don’t go into their pockets. It is simply because they are not adequately supplied with enough 1 kuruş coins as it is very rare in circulation. So don’t be surprised if the change given to you is short of a few kuruşes from what should be given to you according to what the electronic board of the till says. It is totally okay to pay the exact sum if you have enough number of 1 kuruş coins.
Bargaining – In Turkey, bargaining is a must. One can bargain everywhere that doesn’t look too luxurious: shops, hotels, bus company offices, and so on. During your bargaining, don’t look so impressed and interested, and be patient. Since foreigners (especially Western people) aren’t expected to be good at bargaining, sellers are quick to reject any bargaining attempt (or are at least quick to look like so), but be patient and wait, the price will fall! (Don’t forget, even if you are successful at your bargaining attempt, when you get your credit card out of your wallet, rather than cash, the agreed price may rise again, though probably to a lower level than the original one)
VAT refund - You can get a VAT refund (currently 18% or 23% on most items) if you are not a citizen or permanent resident of Turkey. Look for the blue “Tax-Free” sticker on the windowpane or entrance of the shops, these kind of shops are the only places you can get a VAT refund. Don’t forget to take the necessary papers from the shop that will enable you for a VAT reclaim when leaving Turkey.
Although Turkey is in a customs union with the European Union for some goods, unlike the situation in the EU, there is currently not an initiative to abolish duty-free shops in the airports.

What to buy?

Apart from classical tourist souvenirs like postcards and trinkets, here are a few of what you can bring back home from Turkey.
  • Leather clothing – Turkey is the biggest leather producer in the world, so the leather clothing is cheaper than elsewhere. Many shops in Laleli, Beyazıt, Mahmutpaşa districts of Istanbul (all around the tram line which goes through Sultanahmet Square) are specialized on leather.
  • Carpets and kilims – Many regions in Turkey produce handmade kilims and carpets. Though the symbols and figures differentiate depending on the region in which the carpet is produced, they are generally symbollic expressions based on ancient Anatolian religions and/or nomadic Turkic life which takes shape around shamanic beliefs more than 1000 years ago. You can find shops specialized on handmade carpets and kilims in any major city, tourist spot and Sultanahmet Area.
You seriously cannot go anywhere in Turkey without someone trying to sell you a carpet. People will approach you on the street, engage in a little friendly conversation about where you're from, how do you like Turkey, and "would you like to come with me to my uncle's shop? It's just around the corner, and has the best authentic kilims." It can be irritating if you let it get to you, but remember that a large part of these people's economy comes from tourist's wallets so you can't blame them for trying.
  • Silk - Dresses and scarves. Although can be found in many parts of the country, silk fans should head for Bursa and before that, pick up basics of bargaining.
  • Earthenware - Handmade Cappadocian pottery (amphoras, old-style plates, flowerpots etc) are made of local salty clay. Salt content of clay, thanks to salt spray produced by the Salt Lake –which is the second largest lake in Turkey- in the heartland of Central Anatolia, is what makes local earthenware top quality. In some Cappadocian towns, it is possible to see how these artifacts are produced, or even to experience producing one, at the dedicated workshops. Tiles with classical Ottoman motives that are produced in Kütahya are also famous.
  • Turkish delight and Turkish coffee – If you like these during your Turkey trip, don’t forget to take a few packages back home. Available everywhere.
  • Honey – The pine honey (çam balı) of Marmaris is famous and has a much stronger taste and consistency than regular flower honeys. Although not easily attained, if you can find, don’t miss the honey of Macahel valley, made out of flowers of a temperate semi-rainforest, which is almost completely out of human impact, in the far northeastern Black Sea Region.
  • Chestnut dessert – Made out of syrup and chestnuts grown on the foothills of Mt. Uludağ, chestnut dessert (kestane şekeri) is a famous and tasty product of Bursa. There are many variations, such as chocolate coated ones. Chestnut dessert can be found in elsewhere, too, but relatively more expensive and in smaller packages.
  • Meerschaum souvenirs – Despite its name meaning “sea foam” which it resembles, meerschaum (lületaşı) is extracted only in one place in the world: landlocked Eskişehir province in the extreme northwest part of Central Anatolia Region. This mineral, similar to gypsum at sight, is chipped into smoking pipes and cigarette holders. It has a soft and creamy texture and makes for a great decorative item. Available at some shops in Eskişehir.
  • Castile (olive oil) soap – Natural, a silky touch on your skin, and a warm Mediterranean atmosphere in your bathroom. Absolutely cheaper than those to be found in Northern and Western Europe. Street markets in the Aegean Region and southern Marmara Region is full of olive oil soap, almost all of which are handmade. Even some old folk in the Aegean Region is producing their castile soaps in the traditional way: during or just after the olive harvest, neighbours gather in yards around large boilers heated by wood fire, then lye derived from the wood ash is added to hot water and olive oil mix. Remember – supermarkets out of the Aegean Region are generally offering no more than industrial tallow based soaps full of chemicals. In cities out of the Aegean Region, natural olive oil soap can be found in shops specialized in olive and olive oil. Some of these shops are even offering ecological soaps: made of organic olive oil and sometimes with additions of organic essential oils.
  • Other soaps unique to Turkey are: laurel soaps (defne sabunu) which is produced mainly in Antioch, soaps of Isparta enriched with rose oil which is produced abundantly in the area around Isparta, and bıttım sabunu, a soap made out of the oil of seeds of a local variety of pistachio tree native to the mountains of Southeastern Region. In Edirne, soaps shaped as various fruits are produced. Not used for their lather, rather they make a good assortment when different “fruits” are placed in a basket on a table, they fill the air with their sweet scent as well.
  • Olive-based products apart from soap - Other olive-based products to give a try are olive oil shampoos, olive oil based eau de colognes and zeyşe, abbreviation from the first syllables of zeytin şekeri, a dessert similar to chestnut desserts, but made from olives.
WARNING! To export or to take out the antiques which are more than 100 years old from Turkey is subject to heavy restrictions or in many cases outright forbidden. If it is the case that someone offers you to sell antiques, either he/she is a liar, just trying to sell cheap imitations or he/she is committing a crime, which you are about to be a part of, if you accept to be the purchaser.
Adana kebap, a skewer of minced meat spiced with chili and topped with pide bread, a speciality of Adana
Adana kebap, a skewer of minced meat spiced with chili and topped with pide bread, a speciality of Adana
Turkish cuisine combines Mediterranean, Central Asian, Caucasian, and Arabic influences, and is extremely rich. Beef is the most important meat (lamb is also common but pork is very hard to find although not illegal), and eggplant (aubergine), onion, lentil, bean, tomato, garlic, and cucumber are the primary vegetables. An abundance of spices is also used. The main staples are rice (pilav), bulgur wheat and bread, and dishes are typically cooked in vegetable oil or sometimes butter.
There are many kinds of specialized restaurants to choose from, since most do not prepare or serve other kinds of food. Traditional Turkish restaurants serve meals daily prepared and stored in benmarry. The meals are at the entrance so you can easily see and choose. Kebapçis are restaurants specialized in many kinds of kebap. Some Kebab restaurants serve alcohol while others don't. There are subtypes like ciğerci, Adana kebapçısı or İskender kebapçısı. Fish restaurants typically serve meze (cold olive oil dishes) and Rakı or wine. Dönerci's are prevalent through country and serve döner kebap as a fast food. Köfeci's are restaurants with meatballs (Köfte) served as main dish. Kokoreçci, midyeci, tantunici, mantıcı, gözlemeci, lahmacuncu, pideci, çiğ köfteci, etsiz çiğ köfteci are other kinds of local restaurants found in Turkey which specialization in one food.
A full Turkish meal at Kebab restaurant starts with a soup, often lentil soup (mercimek çorbasi), and a set of meze appetizers featuring olives, cheese, pickles and a wide variety of small dishes. Meze can easily be made into a full meal, especially if they are consumed along with rakı. The main course is usually meat: a common dish type and Turkey's best known culinary export is kebab (kebap), grilled meat in various forms including the famous döner kebap (thin slices of meat shaved from a giant rotating spit) and şişkebab (skewered meat), and a lot more others. Köfte (meatball) is a variation of the kebab. There are hundreds of kinds of köfte throughout Anatolia, but only about 10 to 12 of them are known to the residents of the larger cities, kike İnegöl köfte, Dalyan köfte, sulu köfte etc.
Eating on the cheap is mostly done at Kebab stands, which can be found everywhere in Istanbul and other major cities. For the equivalent of a couple dollars, you get a full loaf of bread sliced down the middle, filled with broiled meat, lettuce, onions, and tomatoes. For North Americans familiar with donairs wrapped in pita bread, don't try to make the comparison. Pitas and wraps are almost unseen in Turkey, they like their bread thick and crusty.

Vegetarians

Vegetarian restaurants are not common, and can be found only in very central parts of big cities and some of the tourist spots. However, every good restaurant offers vegetable dishes, and some of the restaurants offering traditional “ev yemeği” (“home food”) have olive-oil specialities which are vegetarian in content. A vegetarian would be very happy in the Aegean region, where all kinds of wild herbs are eaten as main meals, either cooked or raw, dressed with olive oil. But a vegetarian would have real difficulty in searching for food especially in Southeastern region, where a dish without meat is not considered a dish. At such a place, supermarkets may help with their shelves full of canned vegetables, or even canned cooked olive-oil courses and fresh fruits. If you are a vegetarian and going to visit rural areas of Southeastern region, better take your canned food with you, as there will be no supermarkets to rescue you.
Turkish delight
Turkish delight
Some Turkish desserts are modeled on the sweet and nutty Arabic kind: famous dishes include baklava, a layered pastry of finely ground nuts and phyllo dough soaked in honey and spices, and Turkish Delight (lokum), a gummy confection of rosewater and sugar. There are also many more kinds of desserts prepared using milk predominantly, such as kazandibi, keşkül, muhallebi, sütlaç, tavuk göğsü, güllaç etc.

Breakfast

Turkish Breakfast, tend to comprise of çay (tea), bread, olives, feta cheese, tomato, cucumber and occasionally spreads such as honey and jam. This can become very monotonous after a while. A nice alternative to try (should you have the option) is Menemen a Turkish variation on scrambled eggs/omelet. Capsicum (Red Bell Pepper), onion, garlic and tomato are all combined with eggs. The meal is traditional cooked (and served) in a clay bowl. Try adding a little chili to spice it up and make sure to use lots of bread as well for a filling hot breakfast. Bread is omnipresent in Turkey, at any given meal you'll be presented with a large basket of crusty bread.

Drink

Ayran is a popular drink of water and yoghurt not unlike the Finnish/Russian buttermilk or Indian lassi, but always served without sugar (and, in fact, typically with a little salt added). A version loved by the locals köpüklü ayran is a delicacy if you're travelling by bus over the Toros (Taurus) Mountains. Ask for yayık ayranı or köpüklü ayran.
Turkish coffee (kahve), served in tiny cups, is strong and tasty, just be careful not to drink the slugdy grounds at the bottom of the cup. It is much different than the so called Turkish coffees sold abroad. Sade kahve is served black, while as şekerli, orta şekerli and çok şekerli will get you a little, some or a lot of sugar in your cup.
Instant coffees, cappuccinos and espressos are gaining more popularity day by day, and can be found with many different flavours.
Tea (çay) is also very popular in the country. Be careful, if your tea is prepared by locals, it can be much stronger than you're used to. Although it is not native-typical and a rather touristic feature, you have to taste the special apple tea (elma çayı) or island tea (adaçayı) ( sage )of Turkey!
Boza is a traditional cold, thick drink that originates from Central Asia. It is fermented bulgur with sugar and water additions. Vefa Bozacisi [19] is the most known and traditional producer of boza in Istanbul. In Ankara, you get excellent Boza from Akman Boza Salonu in the old city in Ulus. Boza can also be found on the shelves of many supermarkets, especially in winter, packaged in 1-litre PET bottles. However these bottled bozas lack the sourness and consistency of traditional boza, they are sweeter and less dense.
Sahlep is another traditional hot drink, made from milk, orchid root and sugar, typically decorated with cinnamon. It is mostly preferred in winter and can be found in cafes and patisseries (pastane). You can also find instant sahlep in many supermarkets sold with the name Hazır Sahlep.
Red Poppy Syrup is one of the traditional turkish drinks made of red poppy petals, water and sugar by natural ways. Bozcaada is famous with red poppy syrup.[20]
International brands of colas, sodas and fruit-flavoured sodas are readily available and much consumed alongside some local brands. Please note, in Turkish, soda means mineral water, whereas what is called as soda in English is gazoz or sade gazoz in Turkish.
While a significant proportion of the Turks are devout Muslims, alcoholic beverages are legal, widely available, and thoroughly enjoyed by the locals. The local firewater of choice is rakı, an anise-flavoured liquor double distilled from fermented grape skin. It is usually mixed with water and drunk with another glass of iced water to accompany it. You may order 'tek' (single) or 'duble' (double) to indicate the amount of rakı in your glass. Rakı is a national drink of Turkey. Make sure to try it but don't overindulge as it is very potent! Remember not to mix it with anything else. There is a wide selection of different types in supermarkets. Mey [21], and Efe Rakı [22] are two of the biggest producers. Only the connaisseurs know which type is the best. Yeni Rakı which is a decent variety has the wıdest distribution and consumption.
As for Turkish wine, the wines are as good as the local grape varieties. Kalecik Karası from Ankara, Karasakız from Bozcaada, Öküzgözü from Elmalı, Boğazkere from Diyarbakır are some of the most well-known varieties. The biggest winemakers are Kavaklıdere [23], Doluca [24], Sevilen [25], and Kayra [26] with many good local vineyards especially in the Western part of the country. In addition liquory fruit wines of Şirince in İzmir are well worth tasting. One specific sweet red wine to try while you're there is Talay Kuntra [27].
There are two major Turkish breweries. Efes [28] and Tekel Birası [29] are two widely known lagers. In addition, you can find locally brewed Tuborg, Miller, Heineken and Carlsberg too.

Sleep

Accommodation in Turkey varies from 5-star hotels to a simple tent pitched in a vast plateau. So the prices hugely vary as well.
All major cities and tourist spots have 5-star hotels, many of them are owned by international hotel chains like Hilton, Sheraton, Ritz-Carlton, Conrad to name a few. Many of them are concrete blocks, however some, especially the ones out of cities, are bungalows with private gardens and private swimming pools.
If you are into holiday package kind of thing in a Mediterranean resort, you’d for sure have better rates when booking back at home rather than in Turkey itself. Difference is considerable, compared with what you’d pay when booking at home, you may end up paying twice as much if you simply walk in the resort.
It is possible to rent a whole house with two rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom, and necessary furnitures such as beds, chairs, a table, a cooker, pots, pans, usually a refrigerator and sometimes even a TV. Four or more people can easily fit in these houses which are called apart hotels and can be found mainly in coastal towns of Marmara and Northern Aegean regions, which are more frequented by Turkish families rather than foreigners. They are generally flats in a low-story apartment building. They can be rented for as cheap as 25 YTL daily (not per person, this is the daily price for the whole house!), depending on location, season and the duration of your stay (the longer you stay, the cheaper you pay daily).
Youth hostels are not widespread, there are a few in Istanbul, mainly around Sultanahmet Square where Hagia Sophia and Blue Mosque are, and still fewer are recognized by Hostelling International (HI, former International Youth Hostel Federation, IYHF). However, pensions (pansiyon) provide cheaper accommodation than hotels, replacing the need for hostels for low-cost accommodation, regardless of their visitors’ age. Please note, pansiyon is the word in Turkish which is also used for small hotels with no star rankings, so somewhere with this name does not automatically mean it must be very cheap (expect up to 50 YTL daily per each person). B&Bs are also generally covered by the word pansiyon, as most of them present breakfast (not always included in the fee, so ask before deciding whether or not to stay there).
Olympos to the southwest of Antalya is known for its pensions welcoming visitors in the wooden tree-houses or in wooden communal sleeping halls.
Recently, Bugday Association has launched a project named TaTuTa (acronym from the first syllables of Tarım-Turizm-Takas: Agriculture-Tourism-Barter [of knowledge]), a kind of WWOOF-ing, which connects farmers practicing organic/ecological agriculture and individuals having an interest at organic agriculture. The farmers participating in TaTuTa share a room of their houses (or a building in the farm) with the visitors without charge, and the visitors help them in their garden work in return. For more about TaTuTa, see [30]
There are many private estates dotting the whole coastline of Turkey, which the owner rents its property for campers. These campsites, which are called kamping in Turkish, have basic facilities such as tap water, toilets, tree shade (this is especially important in dry and hot summers of the western and southern coasts) and some provide electricity to every tent via individual wires. Pitching a tent inside the cities and towns apart from campsites is not always approved, so you should always ask the local administrator (village chief muhtar and/or gendarme jandarma in villages, municipalities belediye and/or the local police polis in towns) if there is a suitable place near the location for you to pitch your tent. Pitching a tent in the forest without permission is OK, unless the area is under protection as a national park, a bioreserve, a wildlife refuge, a natural heritage or because of some other environmental concern. Whether it is an area under protection or not, setting fire in forests apart from the designated fireplaces in recreational (read “picnic”) areas is forbidden anyway.
Caravan/trailer parks cannot be found as much as they used to be; only a few remain from the 70s. The most known one is the one in Ataköy, near the Atatürk International Airport in Istanbul. However, caravan riders can stay overnight in numerous resting areas along the highways and motorways, or virtually in any place which seems to be suitable. Filling the water tanks and discharging wastewater effluent seems to matter most.
  • Naile's Art Home [31] is a marbling paper (Ebru) gallery and workshop located in Cappadocia.
  • Kayaköy Art School [32], located in Kayaköy, a ghost town near Fethiye is offering art classes in summer, specializing on photography, painting, and sculpture.
  • You can take the Ottoman Turkish classes in Adatepe, a village frequented by intellectuals near Küçükkuyu/Altınoluk in the northern Aegean Region. You can also participate in philosophy classes [33] taking place every summer in nearby Assos, organized as a continuation of the ancient “agora”/”forum” tradition of Mediterranean cities.
  • Glass workshops located around Beykoz on the northern Asian banks of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, are offering one-day classes that you can learn making (recycled) glass and ornaments made of glass.
  • There are many language schools where you can study Turkish in most of the big cities. Ankara University affiliated Tömer [34] is one of the most popular language schools in Turkey and has branches in many big cities, including Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir among others.
  • Many Turkish universities (both public and private) are participating in pan-European student exchange programs (Socrates, Erasmus, and the like). Some also have agreements with non-European universities, too. Check with your own university and the one that you intend to study in Turkey.

Work

Work as an English teacher is reasonably easy to stumble upon.
Being that import-export is huge in Turkey, there are also many opportunities outside of teaching, though these are often much more difficult to find and require some legalwork.
You need to have a work permit to work in Turkey. The control over illegal workers have grown stricter in the past five years with the consequence of deportation, so take the work permit issue seriously.
However, if you own your own company in Turkey you are allowed to "manage" it without having a work permit. Setting up what is known as an FDI (foreign direct investment) company is relatively straightforward, takes a few days and costs around 2300 ytl (April 07). You don't need a Turkish partner, the company can be 100% foreign owned and required a minimum of two people as share holders. Running costs for a company average about 2500 ytl per year for a small to medium enterprise, less for an inactive company.
Owning a company allows you to be treated as Turkish in respect of purchasing real estate and bypasses the need for military permission and allows you to complete a sale in one day if required.

Stay safe

Dial 155 for police, from any telephone without charge. However, in rural areas there is no police coverage, so dial 156 in such a place for jandarma (Military Polices) , a military unit for rural security.
Big cities in Turkey, especially Istanbul, are not immune to petty crime. Although petty crime is not especially directed towards tourists, by no means are they exceptions. Snatching, pickpocketing, and mugging are the most common kinds of petty crime. However, recently with the developing of a camera network which watches streets and squares –especially the central and crowded ones- 24-hour a day in Istanbul, the number of snatching and mugging incidents declined. Just like anywhere else, following common sense is recommended. (Please note that the following recommendations are for the big cities, and most small-to-mid size cities usually have no petty crime problems at all) Have your wallet and money in your front pockets instead of back pockets, backpack or shoulder bag.
Don’t exhibit your camera or cellphone for too long if it is a new and/or expensive model (they know what to take away, no one will bother to steal a ten-year-old cell phone as it would pay very little). The same goes for your wallet if it’s overflowing with money. Have a wide space off and quickly move away when you see two persons nearby suddenly bursts into a quarrel, they may be acting to fight to have your attention while a third person is peeling you off from your valuables (or simply one of the two fighting, who acts like falling over you after a hard fist, does this “duty”). Be on alert, everything just happens so quickly. Watch your belongings in crowded public transport, especially in trams and urban buses.
Avoid dark and desolate alleys at night. If you know you have to pass such a place at night, don’t take excessive cash with you, instead deposit your cash into the safe-box at your hotel. Stay away from demonstrating crowds if the demonstration seems to be turning into an unpeaceful one. Also in resort towns, when going to beach, don’t take your camera or cell phone with you if there will be no one to take care of them while you are swimming. And lastly, when you realize your wallet is taken away, before going to a police station to file a report, look into the trash cans near where you think it was stolen, as tossing the wallet into the nearest garbage can is what most thieves do in Turkey, for not getting busted in possession of the wallet which proves he/she is the thief. Your money will probably be not in it, but there is a chance that your credit cards and papers are still there.
See also scams section of Istanbul article to have an idea about what kinds of scams you may come across with in other parts of the country too, especially the touristy ones, not just Istanbul.
Though slightly off-topic be advised to carry passport or other means of identification at all times. One may not be requested to show them for a long period, then all of a sudden a minibus is checked by the traffic police (or the military, particularly in Eastern Turkey), or one runs into an officer of the law with time on his hand, and one must show papers. Hotels may request you to hand your passport in until you paid the bill, which puts you into an awkward situation. Referring to the police always made them hand the passport back, once the registration procedure was finalized. Showing a personal visiting card, one or two credit cards or knowing the address of a respectable hotel may solve the no-papers situation, but any self-respecting officer will tell you that you are in the wrong, and will be sorry next time. If treated politely however police and military can be quite friendly and even offer rides to the next city (no joke intended).
If you intend to travel to Eastern or Southeastern Anatolia, stay ahead of the news. Although it offers many beautiful sights such as the ruins of Antioch, the situation is far from secure due to ethnic strife and protests, sometimes resulting in violence. The region is far from a war zone, but take precaution when visiting this volatile place. The real risk of threat is not very big though, if you stick on major routes and follow common sense rules (such as avoiding demonstrations).
  • Animals – Turkish wilderness is home to both poisonous and non-poisonous snake (yılan) species. In fact, humid forests of northeastern Black Sea region is habitat of a small-sized but one of the most poisonous snakes in the world. Southern and especially southeastern parts (even cities!) of the country has large numbers of scorpions (akrep), so exercise caution if/when you are sleeping on open rooftops, which is common in southeastern region in summer. If you are bitten by one, seek urgent medical aid.
As for wild mammals, presumably the most dangerous ones are wolves, bears and wild boars. All of these animals live only in mountainous areas (of almost all regions) and your chance of sighting one is very low (except boars which are not so rare). Wolves and bears do not attack if you don’t follow or disturb them (or, particularly, their youngs) aggressively, however boars are known to attack even with the slightest provocation.
The biggest animal threat comes from stray dogs (or sheepdogs in rural areas). Don’t assume you will come across gangs of aggressive stray dogs next to the gate of Hagia Sophia, or the beach club however. They are mostly found in rural areas and non-central parts of the cities. They are usually discreet and are usually afraid more of you than you are afraid of them. Rabies (kuduz) is endemic in Turkey (and most of the world) [35], so anyone bitten by a dog or other carnivore should seek urgent treatment, despite what you may be told by your hotel or other well meaning strangers.
Many stray dogs you’ll see in the cities bear plastic “ear rings”. Those ear tags mean the dog is cleaned up, vaccinated (against rabies and a number of other diseases), sterilized, and then returned back to the streets as this is the most humane treatment (compare with keeping them in a cage or a cage-like environment or putting them to sleep). The process is going on, so we can assume stray dog problem in Turkey will disappear in natural ways sometime in future.

Stay healthy

Dial 112 from any telephone, anywhere, free of charge for an ambulance.
Food safety - Food is generally free of parasitical or bacterial contamination, but be prudent anyway. Look at where local people are prefering to eat. Do not eat stuff that is sold outdoors, at least in summer and at least which local folk don’t eat. They can spoil fairly quickly without needed refrigation. Wash throughly and/or peel fresh fruits and vegetables. They may be free of biological contaminants but their skin is probably heavily loaded with pesticides (unless you see the not-very-common certified organic produce marker on, of course). Food in western regions of the country is OK for (western) travellers for the most part, but the more east, south, and northeast you go, the more unaccustomed contents in the food you’ll come across, like goat or goose meat or hot/heavy spices. These contents may or may not cause diarrhea, but it is wise to have at least some anti-diarrhea medicine nearby, especially if you are going to travel to places a bit off-beaten-track.
Water safety - However tempting it may be on a hot day, try to avoid water from public water tanks and fountains (şadırvan), frequently found in the vicinity of mosques. Also, though tap water is always chlorinated, it is better to drink only bottled water. Bottled water is readily available everywhere except the most remote, uninhabited spots.
The most common volumes for bottled water are 0.5 litre and 1.5 litre. 5 lt, 8 lt, 10 lt, and gigantic 19 lt bottles (known as office jar in the West, this is the most common variety used in households, delivered to houses by the employees of specialized water selling shops, because it is far too heavy to carry) can also be found with varying degrees of possibility. General price for half-a-litre and one-and-a-half-litre bottled water is YTL 0.50 and YTL 1.25 repectively in kiosks/stalls in the central parts of the cities and towns (can be much higher in a touristy or monopolistic place such as beach, airport, café of a much-visited museum, kiosk of a roadside recreation facility), while it can be as cheap as YTL 0.15 and YTL 0.35 respectively in supermarkets during winter (when the number of bottled water sales drop) and a little higher in summer (still cheaper than kiosks, though). Water is served free of charge in intercity buses, packaged in 0.25 lt plastic cups, whenever you request from the steward. In kiosks, water is sold chilled universally, sometimes so cold that you have to wait the ice to thaw to be able to drink it. Supermarkets provide it both reasonably chilled and also at room temperature.
If you have no chance of finding bottled water –for example, in wilderness, up in the eastern highlands- always boil your water; if you have no chance of boiling the water, use chlorine tablets –which can be provided from pharmacies in big cities-, or devices like LifeStraw. Also avoid swimming in fresh water, which you are not sure about its purity, and at seawater in or near the big cities –unless a beach which is declared safe to swim exists. And lastly, afterall, be cautious about water, not paranoid.
Hospitals – In Turkey, there are two kinds of hospitals (hastane)-private and public. Private hospitals are run by associations, private parties, and private universities. Public hospitals are run by the Ministry of Health, public universities, and state-run social security institutions. Private hospitals provide health care in standards equal to Western Europe, though standards of public hospitals are inferior compared with the Western Europe. All mid-to-big size cities, as well as major resort towns, have private hospitals, more than one in many cities, but in a small town all you can find will probably be a public hospital. Avoid public hospitals as much as possible, as they are generally really crowded. Although this is not legal, you may also be denied entry to the public hospitals for expensive operations if you don’t have a state-run national (Turkish) insurance or a necessary amount of cash for prepayment which replaces it, though showing a respected credit card may solve this problem. A travel health insurance is highly recommended because the better private hospitals operate with the “user-pays” principle and their rates are much inflated compared with the public hospitals. Also make sure your insurance includes air transport (like a helicopter) if you are going to visit rural/wilderness areas of Black Sea or Eastern regions, so you can be dispatched to a city with high-standard hospitals on time. In the outlying hoods of cities, there are usually also policlinics which can treat simpler illnesses or injuries. In the villages all you can find are little clinics (sağlık ocağı, literally “health-house”) which have a very limited supply and staff, though they can effectively treat simple illnesses or provide antibody against, for example, snake bite. On road signage, hospitals (and roads leading to hospitals) are shown with an “H” (over the dark blue background), whereas village clinics are shown with a red crescent sign, Turkish equivalent of red cross.
There is an emergency ward (acil servis) open 24 hours a day in every hospital. Suburban policlinics don’t have to provide one, but some of them are open 24-hr anyway. Village clinics do certainly have a much limited opening hours (generally 8 am to sunset).
Dentists – There are lots of private dentist offices in the cities, especially along the main streets. Look for the diş hekimi signs around, it won’t take long before you see one. Most dentists work on an appointment, although they may check or start the treatment on your turning up without an appointment if their schedule is okay. A simple treatment for a tooth decay costs about 40 YTL on the average.
Ordinary toothbrushes and pastes (both local and international brands) can be obtained from supermarkets. If you want something special, you may check out pharmacies. It is okay to brush teeth with tap water.
Pharmacies - There are pharmacies (eczane in Turkish) in all cities and many towns. Pharmacies are open from 8:30AM until 7PM, however every town has at least one drugstore on duty overnight (nöbetçi eczane), all other pharmacies in the town usually display its name, address and telephone numbers on their windows. Most basic drugs, including painkillers such as Aspirin, are sold over the counter, although only in pharmacies.
Mosquitoes - Keeping a mosquito repellent handy is a good idea. Although the risk of malaria anywhere in the country is long gone (except the southernmost areas near the Syrian border which used to have a very low level of risk until up to 1980s), mosquitoes can be annoying especially in coastal areas out of cities, including vacation towns at nights between June and September. In some towns, especially the ones near the deltas, mosquito population is so large that people desert the streets during the “mosquito raid” which occurs between the sunset and one hour after that. DEET-containing aerosol repellents (some are suitable to apply to the skin while others, the ones that are in tall tin cans are for making a room mosquito-free before going to bed, not to be applied onto skin, so choose what you buy wisely) can be obtained from supermarkets and pharmacies. There are also solid repellents coming in a tablet form which are used with their special devices indoors having an electricity socket. They release scentless chemicals into the air of the room which disturb the senses of mosquitoes and make them unable to “find” you. The tablets, together with their devices, can also be obtained from supermarkets and pharmacies. Beware! You shouldn’t touch those tablets with bare hands.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (Kırım-Kongo kanamalı ateşi in Turkish, shortly KKKA) is a serious viral disease and transmitted by a tick (kene) species. It can kill the infected person in a very short time, usually within three or four days. This disease has claimed more than 20 lives in Turkey within the past two years. The biggest risk is in the rural parts (not urban centres) of Tokat, Corum, Yozgat, Amasya, and Sivas provinces, all situated in an area where disease-carrying tick thrives because of the area’s location between the humid climate of maritime Black Sea Region and arid climate of Central Anatolia. Authorities recommend to wear light coloured clothing which makes distinguishing a tick clinged to your body easier. It’s also recommended to wear long trousers rather than shorts if you plan to walk through dense and/or tall grass areas (the usual habitat for ticks). If you see a tick on your body or clothing, in no means try to pull it out since this may cause the tick’s head (and its mouth where it carries the virus) sticking inside your skin. Instead, go to the nearest hospital immediately to seek urgent expert aid. Being late to show up in hospital (and to diagnose) is number one killer in this disease. Symptoms are quite like that of flu and a number of other illnesses, so doctor should be informed about the possibility of Crim.-Cong. hemorr. fever and be shown the tick if possible.
Coastal Black Sea Region, Marmara Region, Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, and East Anatolia are generally deemed free of this disease (and also free of the disease-carrying species of tick) with no casualties. But in the name of being cautious, you should head for the nearest hospital anyway if you are bitten by (most likely an innocent) tick. Also remember that if you should head for the danger zone described above, ticks are not active in winter. Their active period is April to October, so is the danger period.
Public restrooms - Though many main squares and streets in the cities have a public restroom, if you cannot manage to find one, look for the nearest mosque, where you will see a public restroom in a corner of, or below its courtyard. Despite the fact that there is no shortage of cheap toilet papers anywhere in the country, however, you are unlikely to find toilet paper in almost any of the public restrooms (except lavatories of restaurants –including the road restaurants, hotels and most of the cafés and bars, of course). Instead, you are likely to find a bidét or a tap. So it is a good idea to have a roll of toilet paper in your backpack during your walkings for sightseeing. It is best to take your single roll of toilet paper from home or bathroom of the hotel you’re staying at, because the smallest size available in Turkey market is 4-rolls per package (8-rolls per package being the commonest) which would last very long (actually longer than your trip, unless you will do all the road down to India overland). It isn’t expensive but it takes unnecessary backpack space, or unnecessary landfill space if you won’t use it liberally and won’t take the unused rolls back to home as an unusual souvenir from Turkey. In the better places on the road in the country there are rest rooms that are maintained and an attendent ready to collect YTL.50 to YTL 1. from the tourist for the privilege of using one. Restroom is tuvalet in colloquial Turkish, though you’ll more likely to see WC signs, complete with diagrams and doors signed Bay or Bayan (with their rather crude translations: ‘Men’, ‘Women’).
Menstrual products – Different types and designs of disposable pads are widely available. Look around in the supermarkets. However, Turkish women prefer tampons much less than European women do, so they are rarer. They are available only in some of the pharmacies.
Hamam - If you haven't been to one, you've missed one of life's great experiences and never been clean. You can catch your inner peace with history and water in a bath (hamam). See hamams in Istanbul.

Respect

Things to do:

Turks are a very friendly, polite and hospitable people, sometimes even to a fault.
  • When you are invited into a Turkish home, make sure to bring them a gift. Anything is fine from flowers to chocolate and indeed something representative from your country (but not wine and other alcoholic beverages if you are about to meet the host or if you do not know them well enough, as many Turks, for religious reasons or not, do not drink alcoholic beverages, and that is why it would be considered inappropriate as a gift). When you arrive at the house take off your shoes just outside or immediately inside the door, unless the owner explicitly allows you to keep them on. Even then, it might be more polite to remove your shoes. And if you really want their respect, thank your host for the invitation and compliment them. When inside the house, don't ask for anything for they will surely offer it. The host will make sure to make you feel at home, so don't take advantage of their kindness.
  • People in Turkey respect elderly people, so in a bus, tram, subway and in other forms public transportation, young(er) people will always offer you a place to sit if you are an old(er) person as well as a handicapped or a pregnant person or have children with you.
  • It is respectful to bend slightly (not a complete bow) when greeting someone older or in a position of authority.
  • Try to use some Turkish phrases. They will be complimentary if you try, and there is no reason to be embarrassed. They realize that Turkish is very difficult for foreigners and won't scoff at all at your mistakes; on the contrary, they will be delighted for trying it, even if they may not always be able to understand your pronunciation!

Things to avoid:

Turkish people understand that visitors are usually not aware with Turkish culture and customs and tend to be tolerant of blunders in this regard by foreigners. There are however, which will meet with universal disapproval, and these should be avoided at all costs:
Politics:
  • Turks in general have very strong nationalistic views, and would view any criticisms of their country and expressions and attitudes insulting the Turkish flag, the republic and Atatürk - the founding father of the republic as very offensive and with varying degrees of hostility. To avoid getting into the bad raps of your hosts, it is advisable to only praise the country and avoid bringing up anything negative about it.
  • Don't mention the Armenian Genocide, Kurdish separatism and the Cyprus problem. These are extremely sensitive topics and are definately to be avoided. Turkish society has a highly emotional approach to these issues.
Religion:
  • Turkey is a predominantly Muslim country, though secular, and although you will see varying degrees of Islamic practice in Turkey, with most Turks subscribing to a liberal form of Islam, it is extremely rude to insult or mock some of its traditions, and ensure that you do not speak badly of the Islamic religion. In regard to the Call to Prayer, which is read 5 times a day from the speakers of the numerous mosques throughout Turkey. Do not mock or mimick the recordings, as Turks are extremely proud and sensitive of their heritage and culture, and will be very offended.
Social custom and ettiquette breaches:
  • Don't try to shake hands with a devout Muslim (that is veiled) woman unless she offers her hand first, and with a devout Muslim (often recognizable with a cap and beard) man unless he offers his hand first.
  • Don't blow your nose during meals, even discreetly. This is considered extremely rude.
  • Don't pick your teeth during meals, even discreetly. This is considered extremely rude.
  • Do not put your feet up while sitting and try not to show the bottom of your feet to someone. This is considered rude.
  • Don't point with your finger at someone, even discreetly. This is considered rude.
  • Don't chew gum while having a conversation and during public occasions. This is considered extremely rude.
  • Don't touch someone without permission. This is considered extremely rude.
  • Don't bear hug or back slap someone, especially in formal situations and occasions and with someone you just met and/or you do not know well enough. This is considered very rude.
Certain gestures, common in the western world, are considered rude expressions in this culture. People tend to be tolerant if they can see you are a foreigner. They know you are probably doing it subconsciously, but if you take the time to keep these in mind, you won’t have any misunderstandings. Making an ‘O’ with your thumb and forefinger (as if to say “OK!”) is rude because you are making the gesture for a hole - which has connotations refering to homosexuality in the Turkish psyche. Avoid clicking your tongue. Some people do this subconsciously at the beginning of a sentence. It is a gesture of dismissal.

Other things to watch for:

  • Public displays of affection in larger cities and tourist resorts is tolerated but might invite unnecessary stares from the public. In more rural areas it is frowned upon and is to be avoided. Gay and lesbian travellers should avoid any outward signs of affection, as this will definately invite unnecessary stares from the public. However overt displays of affection regardless of sexual orientation is regarded as inappropriate.
  • Avoid shouting or talking loudly in public and especially on public transportation (Talking on a mobile phone on public transportation is not considered rude, unless the conversation is too "private").

Mosques

Because of religious traditions, all women are required to wear head scarves and not to wear miniskirts or shorts upon entering a mosque as well as as churches and synagogues. The same goes for the tombs of Islamic saints, too, if the tomb is not named “museum” officially. If you don’t have a shawl or a scarve to put on your head, you can borrow one at the entrance. However wearing-a-scarve rule is somewhat relaxed recently, especially in big mosques of Istanbul in which seeing a tourist is not a rarity. On such mosques, no one is warned about their clothes, or because of their lack of head scarves. Even if you’d have to wear a head scarve, no need to worry about how head scarves can be worn properly, just put it onto the crown of your head (you may wrap it under your chin or behind your neck, lest it slip), that will be excessively adequate.
Also, men are required to wear trousers, not shorts, upon entering a mosque, however nowadays no one is warned about their clothes (at least in big cities). You may find when entering a mosque in more rural areas you will be expected to follow all traditional procedures.
During the prayer time, worshippers choose to line in the front rows of the mosques, at such a time stay behind and try not to be noisy. During the Friday noon prayer, which is the most attended, you might be asked to leave the mosque, don’t take it personally, it is because the mosque will be very crowded, there just won’t be enough room for both the worshippers and the sightseers. You will be able to enter back as soon as worshippers are out of the gate.
Unfortunately for rock bottom budget travellers, mosques are not good examples of Turkish hospitality. Unlike some other Middle Eastern cultures, eating, drinking, smoking (which is strictly banned), talking or laughing loudly, sleeping or just lying, even sitting on the ground inside the mosques is frowned upon in Turkish culture. Public displays of affection is definately taboo.
All shoes should be removed before entering any mosque. There are shoes desks inside the mosques, though you can choose to hold them in your hand (a plastic bag which would be used only for this purpose would help) during your visit. Some mosques have safeboxes with a lock instead of shoe desks.
Although there are “official” opening hours, which are typically shorter than what the mosque is actually open, at the entrances of the most sightseen mosques, they don’t really mean anything. You can visit a mosque as long as its gates are open.
Despite the odd tourists who do not conform to the dress code, it is best to dress conservatively and to follow all traditional procedures, when entering mosques, tombs and other places of worship; not only because it is required but also a sign of respect.

Gay and lesbian travelers

Turkey is considered to be quite safe for gay and lesbian travelers, and violence against homosexuals is quite rare. There are no laws against homosexuality in Turkey, but same-sex relationships are not recognized by the government and flaunting your orientation openly is very likely to draw stares and whispers.

Contact

Dial 112 for an ambulance in anywhere, from any telephone, without a charge. In case of a fire, dial 110; for police, call 155. However, in rural areas there is not a police coverage, so dial 156 for gendarme, a military unit for rural security. All these numbers are free of charge and can be called from a telephone booth without inserting a calling card, or any phone including cell phones.

Telephone

You can find telephone booths on streets, post-offices and almost any public building. Phone cards are available in two types: Magnetic cards (which are becoming obsolete) and newer cards with a chip on them. You can also use your credit card on the phones operating with chipped-cards, although it may not always work. Cards are available in 30, 60 or 120 units and can be obtained at post offices, newspaper and tobacco kiosks. All phones in the booths have Turkish and English instructions and menus, many also have German and French in addition. There are also telephones available in private kiosks where you pay cash after your call. These telephones are more expensive than the ones at the booths.
It is estimated that approximately 96% of the population of Turkey lives within the coverage areas of Turkey’s three cell phone line providers. Line providers from most countries have roaming agreements with one or more of these companies.
Telephone area codes for some cities and their towns are: 212-Istanbul European side; 216-Istanbul Asian side, and the Princess’ Islands; 232-Izmir, Çeşme, Foça; 256-Aydin, Kuşadası; 252-Mugla, Bodrum, Marmaris, Fethiye; 242-Antalya, Kaş, Kemer, Alanya; 312-Ankara; 384-Nevsehir, Most of Cappadocia (though a few well-known Cappadocian towns which are parts of the province of Aksaray have 382 as their area code); 286-Çanakkale, Gallipoli; 224-Bursa, Uludag; 258-Denizli, Pamukkale; 332-Konya; 352-Kayseri. Dial 0 prior to telephone code for intercity calls.
Numbers starting with 0800 are pay-free, whereas the ones starting with 0900 are high-fee services. 7-digit numbers starting with 444 (mainly used by companies) are charged as local calls wherever they are dialed in Turkey.
Dial 00 prior to country code for international calls. International country code of Turkey is 90.

Post

Post offices are recognizable by their yellow-black “PTT” signs. Letters and cards should be taken to a post office since the postboxes on the streets are rare. Nevertheless, Turkish Post (PTT) prints some beautiful stamps. Sending international letters to most countries now cost only 0.80 TL (about €0.40). Please check the PTT Webpage for the most current rates [36] Main post offices in cities are open between 8:30AM and 8:30PM, whereas post offices in towns and smaller post offices in cities are usually open between 8:30AM and 5:30PM.
Poste restante letters should be sent to an address in the format of: official full name of the addressee (because the receiver will be asked for an ID card, passport or anything that can proof he/she is the receiver)+POSTRESTANT+name of the quarter/hood/district if in a city where there are more than one post office or name of the town where the post office is+postal code (if known, not obligatory)+the name of the province which the quarter/town of the post office is within. The receiver should pay 0.60 TL (fee of a domestic letter) to take his/her letter.

Internet

“Internet-cafés” or “net-cafés” are available even in small towns. All of them have good DSL connections, and price for connection is about more or less 1 TL/hour . Most, if not all, of these internet-cafés also have cd-writers which are available for anyone who makes an additional payment. Free wireless connections are available at some airports, hotels and restaurants/cafés (especially in big cities). Please see the Turkish Telecom web page for information on Telecommunication services [37] .
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also turkey

Contents

English

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Etymology

From French Turquie, Mediaeval Latin Turquia, from Turcus (Turk), from Byzantine Ancient Greek Τοῦρκος, from Persian and Arabic ترك, a national name of uncertain origin.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Turkey
Plural
-
Turkey
  1. Country at the intersection of Europe and Asia on the Mediterranean. Official name: Republic of Turkey.

Translations

See also


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Diplomacy/Turkey article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Contents

Turkey/Ottoman Empire/دولتِ عَليه عُثمانيه (Ottoman Turkish)

Leader at 1901: Sultan Mehmed V
Color: Yellow
Neighbors: Russia, Austria, and Italy
Home supply centers: Constantinople, Ankara, Smyrna
Turkey has obvious natural strength--any beginner will be able to point out Turkey's strong defensive position, both from land and sea. Turkey has the greatest staying power of any on the board. Turkey can stalemate her enemies with six well-placed fleets and armies. Turkey's natural defensive strength, however, is the cause of its offensive weakness. And Turkey's defensive position is not as powerful as it initially appears. Russia has a fighting chance to wrest BLA from Turkey in the early years, and an alliance between Italy and Austria can land an Italian Army in SMY by Autumn 1902. Either of these cases mean curtains for Turkey. Because of its defensive position, Turkey is nicknamed "The Sick Man of Europe" for many. However, using this "weakness", and given some good fighting, Turkey can be the best man in Europe.

18 Center Goal

3 home supply centers, The Balkans (4), Austria (3), Russia except St. Petersburg (3), Italy (3), and Tunis makes 17. If Turkey has built many fleets, usually as part of an alliance with Russia, the 18th center can come from the Western half of the Mediterranean--MAR and SPA are tough, but possible. Otherwise, Turkey must mass armies and cross the stalemate line to capture MUN. BER and STP are too easily held from the north to be included, though if even a single Turkish army breaks into Scandinavia, victory can almost be guaranteed.

Opening Strategy

Turkey has by far the smallest opening book out of any Great Power. The army in CON always goes to Turkey's one natural SC, and the fleet in ANK almost always heads to BLA, whether Russia has agreed upon a bounce or not. Turkey fundamentally has two choices: attack Russia immediately with A SMY - ARM, or attempt to gain two builds with A SMY - CON.

A SMY - ARM: The Russian Attack

Perhaps Turkey's best shot at winning, this opening aims at Turkey's most dangerous enemy--Russia. Unfortunately, Russia is Turkey's only possibility for a long-term ally, so the attack on Russia can leave Turkey friendless and surrounded in the East. The opening is quite deadly when Turkey takes the Black Sea, as an opportunistic Austria may be willing to offer Turkey assistance for a share of the Russian spoils. Without a fleet in BLA, the opening loses a good portion of its teeth, as gaining SEV is going to be impossible.

A SMY - CON: The Bulgarian Push

Turkey's best shot at two builds in 1901 is a push through BUL, followed by either a move to GRE or SER, or RUM with Austrian support. Although Turkey rarely gets two builds--most Austrias move to ALB and SER in S 1901, and thus can pick up both SCs, and are wary of giving support to Turkey, Austria's natural enemy, the opening is safe and allows Turkey to work with or against any of his neighbors.

Unorthodox Openings

Several unusual openings have also sprung up. These are not as forceful as the main lines, and therefore require more diplomacy, more trust, better intelligence gathering, and stronger tactical skill.

A SMY H with A SMY - SYR: The Syrian Sidestep

Spring 1901: A SMY H, A CON - BUL, F ANK - BLA. Fall 1901: A SMY - SYR, F ANK - CON, A BUL H (or other). Very rarely played, this opening has decent surprise value (first played in game 1977KJ, first discussed in Diplomacy World #47). Turkey delays choosing Austria or Russia as his ally and leaves both coasts open for a build. Convincing Russia to stay out of BLA in Fall 1901 by suggesting or demanding F SEV - RUM or F SEV S A UKR - RUM is a major diplomatic victory. If instead F SEV - BLA, a Russian unit (new or existing) in SEV virtually guarantees war and requires Turkey to build F ANK.
A SYR can be useful in several ways:
1. Moving to ARM against Russia.
2. Convoying to GRE against Austria.
3. Discouraging Italy from playing a Lepanto.
This opening fails in the face of a determined Austro-Russian alliance, and should not be used if this alliance is expected. The Bulgarian Push offers a safer and more direct counter.

F ANK - ARM, A SMY - CON: Ship of the Desert

Invented and first discussed by Richard Sharp, this opening can be played as an attack on Russia, or to disguise a Turk-Russian alliance. These approaches require essentially the same diplomacy:
1. Come to an arrangement with Russia over BLA. Tell Russia that you want to bounce in BLA if you plan to attack him. If Russia anticipates a bounce, he will be much less likely to play A MOS - SEV, which would spell curtains for you as A MOS - SEV is often part of an Austro-Russian anti-Turk alliance. If you are working with Russia, tell him you want to shepherd his fleet through CON and into the Med (ordering it as you tell him, in return for doing the same for him with your A BUL). You will temporarily trade CON for SEV, simulating a Turk-Russian war and taking everyone by surprise in 1902.
2. Tell Austria you want to partner with him against Russia. Let him suggest who gets what Balkan territories, but demand GRE and justify yourself by saying you will need GRE as a springboard to force Italy out of ION once Russia is gone. If he refuses, then demand he support you into RUM in F1901. The idea is to get Austria firmly on your side if you plan to attack Russia, and to lull him into a false sense of security if you are working with Russia.
3. Tell Russia, Austria, and Italy (contact them all separately) that it will take them a long time to eliminate you if they are planning to attack, and that in the meantime they'll be open to a stab by anyone else.
You want the following in the first couple of years:
Anti-Russian
S1901
Turkey: F ANK - ARM, A CON - BUL, A SMY - CON
Russia: F SEV - BLA, A MOS - UKR, A WAR - GAL
Austria: A VIE - GAL, A BUD - SER, F TRI H or F TRI - VEN (but expect F TRI - ALB)
Italy: anything but a Lepanto.
England, France, and Germany: infighting, but preferably EG vs. F
F1901
Turkey: F ARM - ANK, A CON - ANK, A BUL - RUM
Russia: F BLA - RUM, A UKR - SEV, A WAR - GAL (altough A WAR - UKR is more likely)
Austria (assuming F TRI - ALB in S1901): A SER S A BUL - RUM, F TRI - GRE, A VIE - GAL (although - BUD or - TRI is also likely)
Italy, England, France, and Germany: same as before
W1901: Hope like mad Russia didn't play F BLA S F ARM - ANK. Build F ANK (or F CON if he played F BLA S A CON - ANK).
Russian Partnership
S1901 - Same moves as Anti-Russian.
F1901
Turkey: F ARM - SEV, A BUL - GRE, A CON - ANK
Russia: F BLA - CON, A UKR - RUM, A WAR - GAL
Austria: A VIE - GAL, A SER S F ALB - GRE, F ALB - GRE
Italy, England, France, and Germany: same as before.
W1901: Build F SMY, and sail into the Med. with Russia.
This opening has the advantage of allowing Turkey to justify keeping a fleet in BLA for at least a few turns. When SEV and CON are swapped back (presumably in F1902), Turkey can argue that moving to BLA is the fastest way to get to the Med., and the best way to protect both BUL and RUM. This allows Turkey a fair amount of protection against a delayed Russian stab. Also, if you can lobby hard enough, Turkey would ideally like to see:
F1901
Turkey: F ARM - SEV, A BUL - RUM, A CON - BUL
Russia: A WAR - GAL, A UKR S A WAR - GAL, F BLA - CON
This can be justified by claiming Turkey needs to build an additional unit in ANK in W1901 to quickly secure ION. Russia can always capture RUM in 1902 or 1903, by which time Turkey should have captured GRE, and probably SER too. Meanwhile, securing GAL is a strong medium-term strategic blow to Austria, who soon be surrounded by units in GAL, RUM, BUL, and GRE. GAL is then a stepping-off point for Russia's attack on Austria. A direct Turk will tell Russia he knows Russia often gets the upper hand in a RT, and that Turkey needs to expand as quickly as possible (i.e., as fast or a little faster than Russia) in the beginning to compensate for the difficulty he will have in capturing additional centers later.

Black Sea Strategy

The Black Sea is an important sea space for Turkey--a Turkey that loses the Black Sea is usually gone within a year or two. However, many Russias (both friendly and enemy) will demand that Turkey not enter BLA in S1901 as part of an alliance. It is much safer for Turkey to arrange a bounce, but most Russias consider it advantageous to grab RUM as quickly and as surely as possible, which is facilitated by the lack of a Turkish fleet in BLA.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Flag of Turkey Coat of Arms of Turkey
(Flag) (Coat of Arms)
Motto: Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh
Peace at Home, Peace in the World
Anthem: İstiklâl Marşı
The Anthem of Independence
Location of Turkey
Capital Ankara
39°55'48.00′ N 32°50′ E
Largest city Istanbul
Official languages Turkish
Government
{{{leader_titles}}}
Parliamentary republic
{{{leader_names}}}
Succession
{{{established_events}}}
{{{established_dates}}}
Area
 • Total
 • Water (%)
 
[[{{{area_magnitude}}} m²|{{{area}}} km²]] ({{{area_rank}}})
{{{percent_water}}}
Population
 • 2007 est.
 • 2000 census
 • Density
 
{{{population_estimate}}} (17th³)
67,803,927
{{{population_density}}}/km² ({{{population_density_rank}}})
GDP (PPP)
 • Total
 • Per capita
[[As of {{{GDP_PPP_year}}}|{{{GDP_PPP_year}}}]] estimate
{{{GDP_PPP}}} (16th)
$9,628 (69th)
Currency New Turkish Lira5 (TRY)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
EET (UTC+2)
EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .tr
Calling code +90
{{{footnotes}}}
.Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti file— play in browser), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in western Asia and Trakya (Rumelia) in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.^ Turkey - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (help · info)), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in ...
  • Turkey - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other countries in the Balkan region: Bulgaria .
  • Turkey - Republic of Turkey - Türkiye 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

^ Turkey, or Republic of Turkey, a country of western Asia and southeastern Europe.
  • HowStuffWorks "Maps of Turkey" 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC maps.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Turkey borders eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west, Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhichevan), and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast.^ Related and neighboring countries: Asia Armenia Azerbaijan Bulgaria Georgia Greece Iran Iraq Syria .
  • Turkey Public Holidays 2010 (Middle East) 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.qppstudio.net [Source type: News]

^ Turkey borders the Aegean Sea and Greece on the west; Bulgaria on the northwest; the Black Sea on the north; Georgia , Armenia , and the autonomous Azerbaijani republic of Naxçivan on the northeast; Iran on the east; and Iraq , Syria , and the Mediterranean Sea on the south.
  • Turkey - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria 240 km; Greece 206 km; Syria 822 km; Iraq 352 km; Iran 499 km; Azerbaijan 9 km; Armenia 268 km; Georgia 252 km.
  • Turkey - LookLex Encyclopaedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Turkey - LookLex Encyclopaedia 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Mediterranean Sea, as is Cyprus, is to the south; the Aegean Sea and Archipelago are to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north.^ To the west lies the Aegean Sea.
  • Turkey Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, it borders the Black Sea to the north; Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea to the west and Mediterranean Sea to the south.
  • Info About Turkey - Information About Turkey - Turkey Info - Turkey. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC hotels.ellada.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west.
  • Anatolia (historical region, Asia) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Separating Anatolia and Trakya are the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus, which are commonly reckoned to delineate the border between Asia and Europe, thereby making Turkey transcontinental.^ Turkey straddles Europe and Asia.
  • Turkey (Republic) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Turkey (Republic) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara that is used by geographers to mark the border between Europe and Asia, thus making the country transcontinental.
  • Atlas of Turkey - Wikimedia Commons 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, Turkey is a country which connects Asia and Europe.
  • Turkey - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Because of its strategic location astride two continents, Turkey's culture has a unique blend of Eastern and Western tradition.^ Turkey's strategic location between two continents has also contributed to its unique cultural blend.
  • Turkey Hotel and Travel Directory - Book Accommodation and Tours in Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.tourism-in-turkey.com [Source type: General]
  • Turkey Hotel and Travel Directory - Book Accommodation and Tours in Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.tourism-in-turkey.com [Source type: General]

^ A wonderful intermingling of both Western and Eastern culture is seen in Turkey.
  • Turkey Hotel and Travel Directory - Book Accommodation and Tours in Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.tourism-in-turkey.com [Source type: General]
  • Turkey Hotel and Travel Directory - Book Accommodation and Tours in Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.tourism-in-turkey.com [Source type: General]

^ Turkey is a unique country spanning both the continents of Europe and Asia and Istanbul is often considered a bridge between continents and cultures.
  • Turkey Volunteer- Volunteer in Turkey with United Planet 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.unitedplanet.org [Source type: General]

.A powerful regional presence in the Eurasian landmass with strong cultural and economic influence in the area between the European Union in the west and Central Asia in the east, Russia in the north and the Middle East in the south, Turkey has come to acquire increasing strategic significance.^ Middle East regional page Links to Turkey .
  • Turkey - Country Information Paper - NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.mfat.govt.nz [Source type: News]

^ Turkey has always been a cultural and economic crossroads.

^ Turkey and the European Union: don't despair .
  • Turkey and the European Union: don't despair | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

[2][3]
.Turkey, a developed country, is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic whose political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I.^ Constitution Republic of Turkey, available at .

^ Turkey is a secular state following the path envisaged by the first President, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
  • Turkey - Country Information Paper - NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.mfat.govt.nz [Source type: News]

^ Turkey out of the Second World War.
  • Adventure Tours Travel Agency in Turkey - Tour operator offers cultural, budget, religious, blue voyages and city tours within Turkey 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkeycountry.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.enjoyturkey.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since then, Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West while continuing to foster relations with the Eastern world.^ Turkey maintained good relations with the Allied Forces during World War II, while its officially neutral status allowed it to escape the destruction of battle.
  • Turkiye Is Bankasi A.S. - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Turkiye Is Bankasi A.S. 16 October 2009 11:18 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ (C) 2010 Ataturk.com Ataturk.com is a non-profit organization, whose primary goals are, to educate the world about Ataturk, Turkish culture and heritage, and to bring together the people of Turkish heritage and friends of Turkey for continuing education about Turkish history, culture, and related issues.
  • Ataturk.com - Home 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.ataturk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkey has always been the meeting point for European and Middle Eastern neighbors and travelers; thereby, becoming an important bridge between East and West In recent years Turkey has become a major tourist destination too.
  • Hello TURKEY... Visit Istanbul, Ephesus, Cappadocia, Antalya, Bodrum, Marmaris 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.helloturkey.net [Source type: General]

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Name of Turkey
.The name for Turkey in the Turkish language, Türkiye, can be divided into two words: Türk, which means "strong" in Old Turkic and usually signifying the inhabitants of Turkey or a member of the Turkish or Turkic peoples,[4] a later form of "tu-kin", name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia as early as 177 BCE;[5] and the abstract suffix -iye (derived from Arabic), which means "owner" or "related to". The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Göktürks (Sky Turks) of Central Asia (c.^ It lives in rainforests of Central and South America.

^ This site is indispensable for people studying the Turks, Caucasus, or central Asia.
  • MERIA RESEARCH GUIDE 20 September 2009 1:27 UTC www.biu.ac.il [Source type: Academic]

^ The word "ecumenical" was first used here.
  • �I WRAPPED MYSELF WITH SOIL AND WATER; AND PRESENTED MYSELF AS THE ANATOLIA� / Diplomatic Observer 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.diplomaticobserver.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

8th century CE). .The English word "Turkey" is derived from the Medieval Latin "Turchia" (c.^ The word crusade, which is derived from the Latin crux "cross", is a reference to the biblical injunction that Christians carry their crosses.
  • Turkey and Anatolia History - Part 3 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.senkrontours.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He noted that the verb to eat is similar to Hittite ezza- not only in English, but also in Greek (edein), Latin (edere) and German (essen), and especially in medieval German (ezzan).
  • Saudi Aramco World : In Search of the Past: The Hittites of Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DUTCH The Dutch word for turkey is "kalkoen", deriving from the town "Calicut" (now Kozhikode) on the coast of India.
  • LINGUIST List 7.174: Turkey 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC linguistlist.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LINGUIST List 7.174: Turkey 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.linguistlist.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1369).[5]

History

Pre-Turkic History of Anatolia

Main article: History of Anatolia
.
Portion of the legendary walls of Troy (VII), identified as the site of the Trojan War (ca.
^ The Trojan war and the fall of Troy .
  • Chronology of Turkey: Timeline of Anatolia, Turkey, T�rkiye 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.transanatolie.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This morning, marvel at the classical city of Troy as you tour this 4000-year-old city and legendary center of the Trojan War, made immortal by Homer's epic poem the Iliad .
  • Treasures of Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.smartours.com [Source type: General]

^ There, a thirty-meter-high mound called Hisarlik was identified as the site of ancient Troy in diggings begun by German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann in the 1870s.
  • Chronology of Turkey: Timeline of Anatolia, Turkey, T�rkiye 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.transanatolie.com [Source type: Original source]

1200 BCE)
.The Anatolian peninsula (also called Asia Minor), comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest continually inhabited regions in the world due to its location at the intersection of Asia and Europe.^ Turkey is a transcontinental country located in both Europe and Asia.
  • Turkey Products, Manufacturers, Importers and Suppliers 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ The plant is one of the best and biggest in the world with the most modern technology.
  • Embassy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.nigeriaembassyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, Turkey is a country which connects Asia and Europe.
  • Turkey - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earliest Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük (Pottery Neolithic), Çayönü (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to Pottery Neolithic), Nevali Cori (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B), Hacilar (Pottery Neolithic), Göbekli Tepe (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and Mersin are considered to be among the earliest human settlements in the world.^ Because of its strategic location at the intersection of Asia and Europe, Anatolia has been a cradle for several civilizations since prehistoric ages, with Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük (Pottery Neolithic), Çayönü (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to pottery Neolithic), Nevali Cori (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B), Hacilar (Pottery Neolithic), Göbekli Tepe (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and Mersin.
  • Info About Turkey - Information About Turkey - Turkey Info - Turkey. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC hotels.ellada.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
The Celsus Library in Ephesus, dating from 135 CE
.The first major empire in the area was that of the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BCE. Subsequently, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BCE.[7] The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia.^ Later, Indo-European peoples, possibly Thracian, established the Phrygian kingdom.
  • Anatolia (historical region, Asia) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ BCE Phrygia destroyed by the Cimmerians c.
  • Anatolia: Shaw's Outline of Ancient History 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.juyayay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hittite was an Indo-European language!
  • Saudi Aramco World : In Search of the Past: The Hittites of Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Lydians and Lycians spoke languages that were fundamentally Indo-European, but both languages had acquired non-Indo-European elements prior to the Hittite and Hellenic periods.^ The populations was Luwian, and spoke an Indo-European language related to Hittite.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hittite was an Indo-European language!
  • Saudi Aramco World : In Search of the Past: The Hittites of Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.saudiaramcoworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three Intriguing Anatolian Peoples: Lydia, Caria and Lycia The Lydians and Lycians spoke languages that were fundamentally Indo-European, but both languages had acquired non-Indo-European elements prior to the Hittite and Hellenic periods.
  • Adventure Tours Travel Agency in Turkey - Tour operator offers cultural, budget, religious, blue voyages and city tours within Turkey 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkeycountry.com [Source type: Original source]

.The west coast of Anatolia was meanwhile settled by the Ionians, one of the ancient Greek peoples.^ Iron Age and peoples that have settled in or conquered Anatolia include the Phrygians, Hittites, Lydians, Lycians, Mushki, Kurds, Cimmerians, Armenians, Persians, Tabals, Greeks.
  • Info About Turkey - Information About Turkey - Turkey Info - Turkey. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC hotels.ellada.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No habitation levels or sites in Anatolia have been assigned to Cimmerian occupation; according to the Greek historian Herodotus , they settled in the area of Sinop on the Black Sea.
  • Anatolia (historical region, Asia) :: The Cimmerians, Lydia, and Cilicia, c. 700-547 bc -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the fall of the Trojans on its Mediterranean coast, the Hittites, Persians, Ionians, Lydians, Greeks, and Romans (among others) inhabited or conquered this region.
  • Democracy Web | Majority Rule, Minority Rights: Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC democracyweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.The entire area was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th and 5th centuries and later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BCE.[8] Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms (including Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pergamum, and Pontus), all of which had succumbed to Rome by the mid-1st century BCE.[9] In 324 CE, the Roman emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome (later Constantinople and Istanbul).^ Cyrus the Great leads the Persians into Anatolia .
  • Chronology of Turkey: Timeline of Anatolia, Turkey, T�rkiye 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.transanatolie.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cappadocia avoided submitting to Alexander the Great.
  • Turkish Odyssey/Central Anatolia/Cappadocia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkishodyssey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander the Great 334-323 Diadochoi 323-c.
  • Anatolia: Shaw's Outline of Ancient History 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.juyayay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire).^ Side became the capital of Pamphylia during the Byzantine Empire period.
  • Anatolia Historical Sites 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.kusadasi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Constantinople was the name of the modern-day city of Istanbul, Turkey, over the centuries that it served as the second capital of the unified Roman Empire" (www.en.wikipedia.org).

^ He actually volunteered for duty at what once was a historic center of the Roman and Byzantine empires of eastern Anatolia.
  • Main Page: The American Military in Turkey at MerhabaTurkey.com                             28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.merhabaturkey.com [Source type: General]

[10]

Turks and the Ottoman Empire

Main articles: Turkic migration, History of the Turkish people, Seljuk Empire, and Ottoman Empire
Selimiye Mosque, built in 1575 in Edirne, is the masterpiece of the greatest Ottoman architect Sinan and one of the most beautiful examples of Turkish architecture.
.The House of Seljuk was a branch of the Kinik Oğuz Turks who in the 9th century resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral Seas in the Yabghu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy.^ But to anyone who notices these types of actions are taking place throughout the Muslim world.
  • 120 al-Qaeda Suspects Detained In Turkey 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the homes and villages left behind by the rousted Armenians were quickly occupied by Muslim Turks who assumed instant ownership of everything.
  • The History Place - Genocide in the 20th Century 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among those who migrated were the Oguz Turks, who had embraced Islam in the tenth century.
  • Chronology of Turkey: Timeline of Anatolia, Turkey, T�rkiye 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.transanatolie.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] .In the 10th century, the Seljuks migrated from their ancestral homelands into the eastern Anatolian regions that had been an area of settlement for Oğuz Turkic tribes since the end of the first millennium.^ Today the inhabitants of Anatolia are mostly native speakers of the Turkish language , which was introduced with the conquest of Anatolia by Turkic peoples and the rise of the Seljuk Empire in the 11th century .
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ionian Greeks colonized Ephesus in the 10th century B.C., although the original settlement was east of the current excavation.
  • Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC clinton4.nara.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the3rd century BCE, the region was devastated by the migrational assault of three associated Celtic tribes (Tolistoboges, Tectosages and Trocmes), who moved in from central Europe via the Balkans.
  • Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque) is one of the most famous architectural legacies of the Ottoman Empire.
.Following their victory over the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Turks began to abandon their nomadic roots in favour of a permanent role in Anatolia, bringing rise to the Seljuk Empire.^ Their defeat of the Byzantines at the Battle of MANZIKERT (1071) opened the way for the Turkish occupation of Anatolia.
  • History of Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkishnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He actually volunteered for duty at what once was a historic center of the Roman and Byzantine empires of eastern Anatolia.
  • Main Page: The American Military in Turkey at MerhabaTurkey.com                             28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.merhabaturkey.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1071, the Byzantine Emperor Romain Diogenes decided to reconquer Armenia, but was soundly defeated by Alp Arslan at the battle of MANZIKERT, a strategic fortress about 25 miles north of Lake Van.
  • History of the Seljuks of Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkishhan.org [Source type: Original source]

[12] .In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols and the power of the empire slowly disintegrated.^ The area endured invasions by Arabs, Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, and the Turkic army of Timur before the Ottoman Empire established full control in the 15th century.
  • Anatolia (historical region, Asia) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A branch of the Seljuks established their own state in Anatolia (the sultanate of Konya or Rum, survived until it was conquered by the Mongols in 1243.
  • History of Anatolia 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkishnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the Ottoman Empire was considered to be defeated following the First World War, he was appointed Commander of the Lightning Armies.
  • Adventure Tours Travel Agency in Turkey - Tour operator offers cultural, budget, religious, blue voyages and city tours within Turkey 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkeycountry.com [Source type: Original source]

.In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I was to evolve into the Ottoman Empire, thus filling the void left by the collapsed Seljuks and Byzantines.^ The Nasturis were part of a community that fought against the Ottoman Empire in World War I. During the insurgency, British warplanes aided the rebels by bombing the Turkish front.
  • Turkey starts to question early period of republic 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.sundayszaman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HISTORY The legendary Mustafa Kemal, a Turkish World War I hero later known as "Ataturk" or "father of the Turks," founded the Republic of Turkey in 1923 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman Empire.
  • President's Trip to Europe: Background Information: Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC clinton3.nara.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because Asia Minor had been home to Lydians, Hittites, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, and Ottomans over the centuries, it is dotted with historic monuments.
  • Culture of Turkey - History and ethnic relations, Food and economy, Social stratification, Political life 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.The Ottoman Empire interacted with both Eastern and Western cultures throughout its 623-year history.^ HISTORY The legendary Mustafa Kemal, a Turkish World War I hero later known as "Ataturk" or "father of the Turks," founded the Republic of Turkey in 1923 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman Empire.
  • President's Trip to Europe: Background Information: Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC clinton3.nara.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I moved from Houston about a year ago, which had a thriving Middle Eastern/Mediterranean/Turkish culture, and I adored the restaurants.
  • Anatolia Turkish Restaurant User Reviews - Nashville, TN 37205 - Citysearch 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC nashville.citysearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Experienced diving centres in the region arrange daily and nightly diving tours throughout the year, both for beginners and skilled divers, as well as extensive courses .
  • Turkey Holidays - Cheap Holidays to Turkey at Olympic Holidays 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.olympicholidays.com [Source type: General]

.In the 16th and 17th centuries, it was among the world's most powerful political entities, often locking horns with the powers of eastern Europe in its steady advance through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.^ Turkey remained neutral throughout most of World War II (1939–45), siding with the Allied powers in 1945.
  • Turkey -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 16th century, at the height of its power, the Ottoman Empire grew to cover Anatolia, North Africa, the Middle East, Southeastern and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus.
  • Info About Turkey - Information About Turkey - Turkey Info - Turkey. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC hotels.ellada.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English colonists then introduced European-bred strains of the turkey to eastern North America in the 17th century.
  • turkey (bird) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Following years of decline, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I through the Ottoman-German Alliance in 1914, and was ultimately defeated.^ When the Ottoman Empire was considered to be defeated following the First World War, he was appointed Commander of the Lightning Armies.
  • Adventure Tours Travel Agency in Turkey - Tour operator offers cultural, budget, religious, blue voyages and city tours within Turkey 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkeycountry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following years of decline, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I in an alliance with Germany in 1914 where it was ulitmately defeated and occupied.
  • Info About Turkey - Information About Turkey - Turkey Info - Turkey. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC hotels.ellada.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The empire finally collapsed after World War I (1914-1918).
  • Turkey - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 1:22 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the war, the victorious Allied Powers sought the dismemberment of the Ottoman state through the Treaty of Sèvres.^ Turkey remained neutral throughout most of World War II (1939–45), siding with the Allied powers in 1945.
  • Turkey -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kurdish people, numbering some 20 million, were left off the map when the victorious allies carved new states out of the ruins of the Turkish Ottoman Empire after World War I. They are now divided mostly between Iraq and Turkey, with smaller populations in Iran and Syria.
  • EASTERN ANATOLIA: IRAQ'S NEXT DOMINO | World War 4 Report 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.ww4report.com [Source type: News]

^ The Establishment of Modern Turkey The Ottoman Empire, which had been tottering since the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji in 1774, was dealt its death blow in World War I. By the Treaty of Sèvres (1920; see Sèvres, Treaty of ) the victorious Allies reduced the once mighty empire to a small state comprising the northern half of the Anatolian peninsula and the narrow neutralized and Allied-occupied Zone of the Straits.
  • Turkey (Republic) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Turkey (Republic) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Republican era

Main articles: History of the Republic of Turkey and Atatürk's reforms
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey
.The occupation of İstanbul and İzmir by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement.^ Since the fall of the empire in World War I (1914–1918) and the establishment of the Turkish Republic, foreign dishes such as French hollandaise sauce and Western fast food chains have made their way into the modern Turkish diet.

^ Turkey remained neutral throughout most of World War II (1939–45), siding with the Allied powers in 1945.
  • Turkey -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Second World War seriously effected the self-sufficient Turkey, but thanks to the intelligent attitudes of the Turkish administration, the country and the nation were saved from the great danger of war.

[3] .Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres.^ Turkey under Mustafa Kemal - - Government .
  • Turkey -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk , a republic was proclaimed in 1923.
  • Turkey -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mustafa Kemal and the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–23 - - The Fundamental Law and abolition o...
  • Turkey -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .By September 18 1922, the occupying armies were repelled and the country saw the birth of the new Turkish state.^ By 18 September 1922 the occupying armies were repelled and the country was liberated.
  • Info About Turkey - Information About Turkey - Turkey Info - Turkey. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC hotels.ellada.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taking a step back in the development of events, the Greek army was defeated in Anatolia and was pushed from Asia Minor in September, 1922.

^ On September 9th, 1922 Turkish National forces entered Smyrni (today, Izmir in Turkish), occupying it, and after burning down the Armenian and Greek quarters, got rid of the remaining Orthodox Christian people by actually forcing them into the sea.
  • turkish diary 16 October 2009 11:18 UTC www.turkiye.org [Source type: Original source]

.On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule.^ On 1 November 1922 the Turkish Grand National Assembly formally abolished the office of the Sultan, thus ending 631 years of Ottoman rule.
  • Info About Turkey - Information About Turkey - Turkey Info - Turkey. 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC hotels.ellada.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The caliphate was abolished in 1924, and in the same year a constitution was promulgated that provided for a parliament elected by universal manhood suffrage (extended to women in 1934), and for a cabinet responsible to parliament.
  • Turkey News - Breaking World Turkey News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Turkey (Republic) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Turkey (Republic) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The discussions flared up on such issues as what would happen now that the sultanate was abolished and how the parliament would now act, with which authorities and on whose behalf.
  • Adventure Tours Travel Agency in Turkey - Tour operator offers cultural, budget, religious, blue voyages and city tours within Turkey 10 February 2010 11:18 UTC www.turkeycountry.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Turkey 2 February 2010 16:58 UTC www.enjoyturkey.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Treaty of Lausanne of 1923 led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29 1923, in the new capital of Ankara.^ Independence Day, 29 October (1923) .
  • Turkey - General Information 28