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CAS number 8006-64-2 Yes check.svgY
Molecular formula C10H16 (approximate)
Molar mass 136 g/mol (approximate)
Density 0.85–0.87 g/cm3 (approximate)
Melting point

< −50 °C (approximate)

Boiling point

150–170 °C (approximate

Main hazards Flammable
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
Flash point 35 °C
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, and wood turpentine) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from trees, mainly pine trees. It is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. It is sometimes known colloquially as turps, but this more often refers to turpentine substitute (or mineral turpentine).

The word turpentine derives (via French and Latin) from the Greek word terebinthine, the name of a species of tree, the terebinth tree, from whose sap the spirit was originally distilled.[1]



One of the earliest sources was the terebinth or turpentine tree (Pistacia terebinthus), a Mediterranean tree related to the pistachio.

Important pines for turpentine production include: Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster), Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis), Masson's Pine (Pinus massoniana), Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii), Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris), Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) and Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa).

Turpentine distilled from the California pines such as Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Gray Pine (Pinus sabiniana) yield a form of turpentine that is almost pure Heptane.[2]

When producing chemical wood pulp from pines or other coniferous trees with the Kraft process, turpentine is collected as a byproduct. Often it is burned at the mill for energy production. The average yield of crude turpentine is 5 - 10 kg / ton pulp.[3]

Industrial and other end uses

1912 postcard depicting harvesting pine resin for the turpentine industry

The two primary uses of turpentine in industry are as a solvent and as a source of materials for organic synthesis.

As a solvent, turpentine is used for thinning oil-based paints, for producing varnishes, and as a raw material for the chemical industry. Its industrial use as a solvent in industrialized nations has largely been replaced by the much cheaper turpentine substitutes distilled from crude oil.

Canada balsam, also called Canada turpentine or balsam of fir, is a turpentine which is made from the resin of the balsam fir.

Venice turpentine is produced from the Western Larch Larix occidentalis.

Turpentine is also used as a source of raw materials in the synthesis of fragrant chemical compounds. Commercially used camphor, linalool, alpha-terpineol, and geraniol are all usually produced from alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, which are two of the chief chemical components of turpentine. These pinenes are separated and purified by distillation. The mixture of diterpenes and triterpenes that is left as residue after turpentine distillation is sold as rosin.

Turpentine is also added to many cleaning and sanitary products due to its antiseptic properties and its "clean scent".

In early 19th-century America, turpentine was sometimes burned in lamps as a cheap alternative to whale oil. It was most commonly used for outdoor lighting, due to its strong odor.[4]

Turpentine has long been used as a solvent, mixed with beeswax or with carnauba wax, to make fine furniture wax for use as a protective coating over oiled wood finishes (e.g., lemon oil).

In 1946, Soichiro Honda used turpentine as a fuel for the first Honda motorcycles as gasoline was almost totally unavailable following World War II.[5]


Turpentine is an organic solvent. Its vapor can irritate the skin and eyes, damage the lungs and respiratory system, as well as the central nervous system when inhaled, and cause renal failure when ingested, among other things. It also poses a fire hazard since it is flammable.

Medicinal elixir

Turpentine and petroleum distillates such as coal oil and kerosene have been used medicinally since ancient times, as topical and sometimes internal home remedies. Topically it has been used for abrasions and wounds, as a treatment for lice, and when mixed with animal fat it has been used as a chest rub, or inhaler for nasal and throat ailments. Many modern chest rubs, such as the Vicks variety, still contain turpentine in their formulations.

Taken internally it was used as treatment for intestinal parasites because of its alleged antiseptic and diuretic properties, and a general cure-all[6][7] as in Hamlin's Wizard Oil. Sugar, molasses or honey were sometimes used to mask the taste. Internal administration of these toxic products is no longer common today.

Turpentine was a common medicine among seamen during the Age of Discovery, and one of several products carried aboard Ferdinand Magellan's fleet in his first circumnavigation of the globe.[8]

See also


  1. ^ Barnhart, R.K. (1995). The Barnhart Consise Dictionary of Etymology. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0062700847. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ Stenius, Per, ed. (2000) "2" Forest Products Chemistry Papermaing Science and Technology 3 Finland pp. 73 - 76 ISBN 952-5216-03-9 
  4. ^ Charles H. Haswell. "Reminiscences of New York By an Octogenarian (1816 - 1860)". 
  5. ^ "Honda History". 
  6. ^ "Rural Life in the United States: Home Remedies". American Memory Timeline. The Library of Congress. 2002. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  7. ^ Delbert Trew (15 June2007). "Coal Oil was Useful All-Purpose Home Remedy". Texas Escapes. Blueprints For Travel, LLC.. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  8. ^ Laurence Bergreen (2003). "Over the edge of the world : Magellan's terrifying circumnavigation of the globe". Retrieved 2009-09-14. 

External links

  •, IPCS INCHEM Turpentine classification, hazard, and property table.
  •, Gum naval stores: Turpentine and rosin from pine resin
  •, Florida State Archive photographs of turpentine camps and laborers
  •, Timber and Turpentine Industries

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

TURPENTINE (in M. Eng. turbentine, adapted through the O. Fr. turbentine or terebentine from Lat. terebinthina, sc. resina, resin of the terebinth, Gr. 7-epE31,vOos or -rEpµcvOos), the oleo-resins which exude from certain trees, especially from some conifers such as Pinus sylvestris - and from the terebinth tree, Pistacia terebinthus, It was to the product of the latter, now known as Chian turpentine, that the term was first applied. The terebinth tree and its resin were well known and highly prized from the earliest times. The tree is a native of the islands and shores of the Mediterranean, passing eastward into Central Asia; but the resinous exudation found in commerce is collected in the island of Chios. Chian turpentine is a tenacious semi-fluid transparent body, yellow to dull brown in colour, with an agreeable resinous odour and little taste. On exposure to the air it becomes dry, hard and brittle. In their natural characters, turpentines are soft solids or semi-fluid bodies, consisting of resins dissolved in turpentine oil, the chief constituent of which is pinene. They are largely used in the arts, being separated by distillation into rosin or colophony (see RosiN), and oil or spirit of turpentine.

Crude or common turpentine is the commercial name which embraces the oleo-resin yielded by several coniferous trees, both European and American. The principal European product, sometimes distinguished as Bordeaux turpentine, is obtained from the cluster pine, Pinus Pinaster, in the Landes department of France. Crude turpentine is further yielded by the Scotch fir, P. sylvestris, throughout northern Europe, and by the Corsican pine, P. Laricio, in Austria and Corsica. In the United States the turpentineyielding pines are the swamp pine, P. australis, and the loblolly, P. Taeda, both inhabiting North and South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama. Venice turpentine is yielded by the larch tree, Larix europaea, from which it is collected principally in Tirol. Strassburg turpentine is obtained from the bark of the silver fir; but it is collected only in small quantities. Less known turpentines are obtained from the mountain pine, P. Pumilio, the stone pine, P. Cembra, the Aleppo pine, P. halepensis, &c. The so-called Canada balsam, from Abies balsamea, is also a true turpentine.

Oil of Turpentine, or Turps, as a commercial product is obtained from all or any of these oleo-resins, but on a large scale only from crude or common turpentine. The essential oil is rectified by redistillation with water and alkaline carbonates, and the water which the oil carries over with it is removed by a further distillation over calcium chloride. Oil of turpentine is a colourless liquid of oily consistence, with a strong characteristic odour and a hot disagreeable taste. It begins to boil at about 155° C., and its specific gravity is between o 860 and o. 880. It rotates the plane of polarized light both to right and left in varying degrees according to its sources, the American product being dextrorotatory and the French laevorotatory. It is almost insoluble in water, is miscible with absolute alcohol and ether, and dissolves sulphur, phosphorus, resins and caoutchouc. On exposure to the air it dries to a solid resin, and absorbing oxygen gives off ozone - a reaction utilized in the disinfectant called "Sanitas." Agitated with successive quantities of sulphuric acid and distilled in a current of steam, it yields terebene, a mixture of dipentene and terpinene mainly, which is used in medicine. Chemically, oil of turpentine is a more or less complex mixture of hydrocarbons generically named terpenes. Oil of turpentine is largely used in the preparation of varnishes and as a medium by painters in their "flat" colours.

Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Oil of turpentine (Oleum terebinthinae) is administered internally as an anthelmintic to kill tapeworm. Applied externally it possesses, in higher degree than any of its fellows, the properties of the volatile oils. It acts as a rubefacient, an irritant and a counter-irritant. It is also an antiseptic and, in small quantities, a feeble anaesthetic. It is absorbed by the unbroken skin. The drug is largely employed as a counterirritant, the pharmacopoeial liniments being very useful applications. Such conditions as myalgia, bronchitis, "chronic rheumatism" and pleurisy are often relieved by its use. It may also be employed as a parasiticide in ringworm and similar conditions.

In large doses oil of turpentine causes purging and may induce much haemorrhage from the bowel; it should be combined with some trustworthy aperient, such as castor oil, when given as an anthelmintic. It is readily absorbed unchanged and has a marked contractile action upon the blood vessels. This gives it the rare and valuable property of a remote haemostatic, erroneously supposed to be possessed by so many useless drugs. It must not be used to check haemorrhage from the kidneys (haematuria) owing to its irritant action on those organs, but in haemoptysis (haemorrhage from the lungs) it is often an invaluable remedy. In large doses it has a depressant action on the nervous system, leading even to coma and total abolition of reflex action. The drug is excreted partly by the bronchi - which it tends to disinfect - and partly in the urine, which it causes to smell of violets. Glycuronic acid also appears in the urine. A small portion of the drug is removed by the skin, in which it may give rise to an erythematous rash. It must not be given to the subjects of Bright's disease.

Perhaps the most valuable of all the medicinal applications of turpentine, and one which is rarely, if ever, mentioned in therapeutic textbooks - owing to the fact that gynaecology has been so extremely specialized - is in inoperable cancer of the uterus. Quite 90% of these cases are seen too late for operation, and nearly all recur after operation. The exhausting pain, the serious haemorrhages, and the abdominal septicity associated with a repulsive odour and the absorption of toxic products, which are the chief and ultimately fatal symptoms of that disease, are all directly combated by the administration of oil of turpentine. So beneficial is the action that for years there prevailed the unfortunately erroneous belief that Chian turpentine is actually curative in this condition. But it undoubtedly prolongs life, lessens suffering, and by checking the growth of bacteria upon the cancer reduces the fetid odour and the symptoms of septic intoxication.

Old turpentine and French oil of turpentine are antidotes to phosphorus, forming turpentine-phosphoric acid, which is inert.

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