The Full Wiki

Turtle: Wikis

  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Turtles
Fossil range: 215–0 Ma
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
N
Triassic to Recent
Florida Box Turtle Terrapene carolina
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines
Suborders
Diversity
14 extant families with ca. 300 species
blue: sea turtles, black: land turtles
.Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (the crown group of the superorder Chelonia), characterised by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs that acts as a shield.^ Turtles adapted to life in the sea by developing a shell and paddled-shaped forelimbs that enabled them to swim through the water with the motion of a bird.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ORDER - Testudines Order Testudines includes all turtles and tortoises.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Turtle" may either refer to the Testudines as a whole, or to particular Testudines which make up a form taxon that is not monophyletic—see also sea turtle, terrapin, tortoise, and the discussion below.^ Where to catch Sea Turtle (also see box below) .
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

^ Distribution and Habitat Sea turtles, obviously, make their homes in the world oceans.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since adult sea turtles do not nurture their hatchlings, the female never sees the nest site again.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The order Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species.^ Pleurodira includes side-necked turtles, Cryptodira includes all other living species of turtles and tortoises, and Amphichelydia includes all extinct species.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ORDER - Testudines Order Testudines includes all turtles and tortoises.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earliest known turtles date from 215 million years ago,[1] making turtles one of the oldest reptile groups and a more ancient group than lizards and snakes.^ Sea turtles have existed for more than 175 million years.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earliest known marine turtle fossils are about 150 million years old.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The young students fight Donald Pierce for the one billionth time, as their predecessors did 25 years ago.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

About 300 species are alive today, and some are highly endangered.[2]
.Like other reptiles, turtles are ectotherms—varying their internal temperature according to the ambient environment, commonly called cold-blooded.^ Reptiles are cold-blooded vertebrates, usually laying white, "leathery" eggs.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like all reptiles, sea turtles lack external ears and the eardrum is covered with skin.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reports the agentset of all turtles found at the other end of undirected links connected to the calling turtle.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, leatherback sea turtle have noticeably higher body temperature than surrounding water because of their high metabolic rate.^ Open water Sea Turtle catches...
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

^ The leatherback is the champion of sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leatherback is the only sea turtle that lacks a hard shell.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like other amniotes (reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals), they breathe air and do not lay eggs underwater, although many species live in or around water.^ Most reptiles lay eggs.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reptiles are cold-blooded vertebrates, usually laying white, "leathery" eggs.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people believe that while laying her eggs a sea turtles goes into a trance from which she can not be disturbed.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The largest turtles are aquatic.

Contents

Anatomy and morphology

Chelonia mydas in Kona, Hawaii
.The largest chelonian is the great leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), which reaches a shell length of 200 centimetres (6.6 ft) and can reach a weight of over 900 kilograms (2,000 lb).^ The leatherback is the only sea turtle that lacks a hard shell.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leatherback Turtle The endangered leatherback turtle is the largest and most active of the sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leatherback is the champion of sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Freshwater turtles are generally smaller, but with the largest species, the Asian softshell turtle Pelochelys cantorii, a few individuals have been reported up to 200 centimetres (6.6 ft).^ The interval between successive nests and the number of nests made during a season varies with the individual turtle, population and species.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This dwarfs even the better-known Alligator Snapping Turtle, the largest chelonian in North America, which attains a shell length of up to 80 centimetres (2.6 ft) and a weight of about 60 kilograms (130 lb).^ Sea turtles belong to a group of animals known as Reptilia, which includes snakes, lizards, crocodiles and alligators, even dinosaurs.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SUBORDER - Cryptodira Suborder Cryptodira includes freshwater turtles, snapping turtles, tortoises, soft-shelled turtles, and sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up to eight feet in length, these huge turtles have a rubbery dark shell marked by seven narrow ridges that extend the length of the back.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Giant tortoises of the genera Geochelone, Meiolania, and others were relatively widely distributed around the world into prehistoric times, and are known to have existed in North and South America, Australia, and Africa.^ It's not known how Wolverine exists here and on the real earth at the same time.
  • Wolverine (comic book character) - comicvine.com 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.comicvine.com [Source type: General]

^ Nesting seasons occur at different times around the world.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They became extinct at the same time as the appearance of man, and it is assumed that humans hunted them for food.^ The bruteness of that man was so manly and at the same time so tender.
  • Topless Robot - Fan Fiction Friday: Wolverine, Cyclops and Jean Grey in "Day of reckoning" 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.toplessrobot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The whereabouts of sea turtles between the time they enter the sea as hatchlings and their appearance as juveniles or subadults in coastal and inshore feeding grounds has long been a mystery.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beach Selection Most females return faithfully to the same beach each time they are ready to nest.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only surviving giant tortoises are on the Seychelles and Galápagos Islands and can grow to over 130 centimetres (51 in) in length, and weigh about 300 kilograms (660 lb).^ Mature leatherbacks typically reach about 4 to 8 feet in length and weigh from 650 to 1,300 pounds.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The obstacles are so numerous for baby turtles that only about one in 1,000 survives to adulthood.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.The largest ever chelonian was Archelon ischyros, a Late Cretaceous sea turtle known to have been up to 4.6 metres (15 ft) long.^ Even with these limitations, sea turtles regularly navigate long distances to find the same tiny stretch of nesting beach.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification Sea turtles belong to a group of animals known as Reptilia, which includes snakes, lizards, crocodiles and alligators, even dinosaurs.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ R Sea Turtles and Humans Sea turtles have long fascinated people and have figured prominently in the mythology and folklore of many cultures.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
The smallest turtle is the Speckled Padloper Tortoise of South Africa. .It measures no more than 8 centimetres (3.1 in) in length and weighs about 140 grams (4.9 oz).^ On some South Carolina beaches, more than 95% of the loggerhead nests were destroyed by raccoons until protective measures were taken.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mature leatherbacks typically reach about 4 to 8 feet in length and weigh from 650 to 1,300 pounds.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On some South Carolina beaches, raccoons were destroying more than 95 percent of the loggerhead nests until protective measures were taken.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two other species of small turtles are the American mud turtles and musk turtles that live in an area that ranges from Canada to South America.^ GENUS and SPECIES Most scientists currently recognize seven living species of sea turtles grouped into six genera.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pleurodira includes side-necked turtles, Cryptodira includes all other living species of turtles and tortoises, and Amphichelydia includes all extinct species.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists recognize seven living species of sea turtles, which are grouped into six genera.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The shell length of many species in this group is less than 13 centimetres (5.1 in) in length.^ Today's sea turtles are less specialized and diverse than earlier forms.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Loggerheads are thought to be mature when the carapace length is greater than 30 inches, which may be 13 to 15 years of age.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A turtle with eyes closer to the end of the head. Keeping only the nostrils and the eyes above the water surface.
Turtle at a zoo in the Czech republic

Neck folding

.Turtles are broken down into two groups, according to how they evolved a solution to the problem of withdrawing their neck into their shell (something the ancestral Proganochelys could not do): the Cryptodira, which can draw their neck in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their neck to the side.^ GENUS and SPECIES Most scientists currently recognize seven living species of sea turtles grouped into six genera.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One promising new theory on how sea turtles navigate suggests that they can detect both the angle and intensity of the earth's magnetic field.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pleurodira includes side-necked turtles, Cryptodira includes all other living species of turtles and tortoises, and Amphichelydia includes all extinct species.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Head

.Most turtles that spend most of their life on land have their eyes looking down at objects in front of them.^ Logan could only look with tears in his eyes as his love was being bruttaly shattered in front of his own eyes.
  • Topless Robot - Fan Fiction Friday: Wolverine, Cyclops and Jean Grey in "Day of reckoning" 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.toplessrobot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sea turtles spend most of their day feeding or sleeping under reef ledges or in the open ocean.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Riding a chopper, he then went down in a forest and looked for the most credible clues.
  • Wolverine (comic book character) - comicvine.com 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.comicvine.com [Source type: General]

.Some aquatic turtles, such as snapping turtles and soft-shelled turtles, have eyes closer to the top of the head.^ SUBORDER - Cryptodira Suborder Cryptodira includes freshwater turtles, snapping turtles, tortoises, soft-shelled turtles, and sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a special value which some primitives such as turtle, one-of, max-one-of, etc.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most sea turtles the top shell, or carapace, is composed of many bones and covered with horny scales or scutes.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These species of turtles can hide from predators in shallow water where they lie entirely submerged except for their eyes and nostrils.^ Preparing to Nest As they leave the water and proceed up the beach, many turtles will stop several times to dig their snouts into the sand.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sea turtles appear to lead rather solitary lives at sea, except when they congregate off nesting beaches, where they mate in the near shore waters.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turtles can rest or sleep underwater for several hours at a time but submergence time is much shorter while diving for food or to escape predators.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sea turtles possess glands near their eyes that produce salty tears that rid their body of excess salt taken in from the water they drink.^ Open water Sea Turtle catches...
  • Catching the Sea Turtle Mount - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

^ Among sea turtles found in United States waters, the Family Cheloniidae (hard-shell turtles) includes the green, hawksbill, loggerhead and ridley turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bays, estuaries and nearshore coastal waters of the U.S. east coast and Gulf of Mexico provide important developmental habitat for juvenile and subadult sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Turtles are thought to have exceptional night vision due to the unusually large number of rod cells in their retinas.^ Sea turtles usually nest at night but there are notable exceptions.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But even when large numbers of turtles gather on feeding grounds or during migration, there is little behavioral exchange among individuals.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There has been some genuine confusion on this topic, largely due to reports of players receiving the Turtle Mount from something other than a pool.
  • Catching the Sea Turtle Mount - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: Original source]

.Turtles have color vision with a wealth of cone subtypes with sensitivities ranging from the near Ultraviolet (UV A) to Red.^ (This is the same wrapping that is done automatically if you assign an out-of-range number to the color turtle variable or pcolor patch variable.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This reporter lets you give a turtle a "cone of vision" in front of itself.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Example: ask turtles [ set label-color red ] ;; all the turtles now have red labels last .
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some land turtles have very poor pursuit movement abilities, which are normally reserved for predators that hunt quick moving prey, but carnivorous turtles are able to move their heads quickly to snap.^ The movement of the root turtle affects the location and heading of the leaf turtle .
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Movement or change in heading of either turtle affects the location and heading of the other turtle.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The activity of one turtle triggers the movement of others so that with sporadic outbursts the hatchlings move as a group towards the surface.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Turtles have a rigid beak. .Turtles use their jaws to cut and chew food.^ They have no teeth but use their jaws to crush and tear food.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead of teeth, the upper and lower jaws of the turtle are covered by horny ridges.^ Sea turtles do not have teeth, but their jaws have modified "beaks" suited to their particular diet.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glossary carapace: the upper shell covering a turtle.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family Cheloniidae includes sea turtles which have shells covered with scutes (horny plates).
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Carnivorous turtles usually have knife-sharp ridges for slicing through their prey.^ The bone claws are sharp and dense enough to slice through substances as durable as most metals, wood, and some varieties of stone..
  • DYNAMIC FORCES®-Marvel, DC, Signed Comics, CGC Graded, Variants, Graphic Novels, Statues, Toys, Collectibles and more! 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.dynamicforces.com [Source type: General]

Herbivorous turtles have serrated-edged ridges that help them cut through tough plants. .Turtles use their tongues to swallow food, but they cannot, unlike most reptiles, stick out their tongues to catch food.^ Description Sea turtles resemble land turtles in form, but their limbs are swimming paddles rather than walking legs and they cannot withdraw into their shells.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are the most common nesting turtle in the U.S.; the U.S. nesting population is the second largest in the world.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any turtle of the given breed: is part of the agentset named by the breed name has its breed built-in variable set to that agentset Most often, the agentset is used in conjunction with ask to give commands to only the turtles of a particular breed.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shell

.The upper shell of the turtle is called the carapace.^ Glossary carapace: the upper shell covering a turtle.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their shells consist of an upper part (carapace) and a lower section (plastron).
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most sea turtles the top shell, or carapace, is composed of many bones and covered with horny scales or scutes.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lower shell that encases the belly is called the plastron.^ Their shells consist of an upper part (carapace) and a lower section (plastron).
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The carapace and plastron are joined together on the turtle's sides by bony structures called bridges.^ The shell, which consists of an upper and lower part joined on both sides by a bridge of cartilage, encloses and protects the internal organs.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The inner layer of a turtle's shell is made up of about 60 bones that includes portions of the backbone and the ribs, meaning the turtle cannot crawl out of its shell.^ Among sea turtles found in United States waters, the Family Cheloniidae (hard-shell turtles) includes the green, hawksbill, loggerhead and ridley turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SUBORDER - Cryptodira Suborder Cryptodira includes freshwater turtles, snapping turtles, tortoises, soft-shelled turtles, and sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Description Sea turtles resemble land turtles in form, but their limbs are swimming paddles rather than walking legs and they cannot withdraw into their shells.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In most turtles, the outer layer of the shell is covered by horny scales called scutes that are part of its outer skin, or epidermis.^ Rather than a shell covered with scutes, leatherbacks have leathery skin.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family Cheloniidae includes sea turtles which have shells covered with scutes (horny plates).
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most sea turtles the top shell, or carapace, is composed of many bones and covered with horny scales or scutes.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scutes are made up of a fibrous protein called keratin that also makes up the scales of other reptiles.^ Most graphic novel publishers also release their titles through other channels, which make up a majority of graphic novel sales over-all.
  • ICv2 - Top 300 Graphic Novels Actual--November 2009 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.icv2.com [Source type: General]

.These scutes overlap the seams between the shell bones and add strength to the shell.^ In most sea turtles the top shell, or carapace, is composed of many bones and covered with horny scales or scutes.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some turtles do not have horny scutes.^ Family Cheloniidae includes sea turtles which have shells covered with scutes (horny plates).
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most sea turtles the top shell, or carapace, is composed of many bones and covered with horny scales or scutes.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the leatherback sea turtle and the soft-shelled turtles have shells covered with leathery skin instead.^ Rather than a shell covered with scutes, leatherbacks have leathery skin.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leatherback is the only sea turtle that lacks a hard shell.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leatherback is the champion of sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rigid shell means that turtles cannot breathe as other reptiles do, by changing the volume of their chest cavity via expansion and contraction of the ribs.^ As air-breathing reptiles with lungs, sea turtles must surface periodically.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Description Sea turtles resemble land turtles in form, but their limbs are swimming paddles rather than walking legs and they cannot withdraw into their shells.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You cannot set this variable; a turtle's who number never changes.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, turtles breathe in two ways.^ The hatchlings do not instinctively dig upward but instead respond to the movement of nestmates in such a way that the turtles are brought to the surface.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First, they employ buccal pumping, pulling air into their mouth then pushing it into the lungs via oscillations of the floor of the throat.^ Get ready for a promotional push from 20th Century Fox as they ramp up for the newest X-Men flick, which will be slashing its way into theaters at the end of April.

Secondly, by contracting the abdominal muscles that cover the posterior opening of the shell, the internal volume of the shell increases, drawing air into the lungs, allowing these muscles to function in much the same way as the mammalian diaphragm.
.The shape of the shell gives helpful clues to how the turtle lives.^ Turtles adapted to life in the sea by developing a shell and paddled-shaped forelimbs that enabled them to swim through the water with the motion of a bird.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most tortoises have a large dome-shaped shell that makes it difficult for predators to crush the shell between their jaws.^ Mortality Factors The large size of adult sea turtles discourages most natural predators, but hatchlings and young turtles are subject to heavy predation.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turtles do not have teeth, but the jaws are shaped to provide crushing, biting or tearing surfaces appropriate for their diet.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One of the few exceptions is the African pancake tortoise which has a flat, flexible shell that allows it to hide in rock crevices. .Most aquatic turtles have flat, streamlined shells which aid in swimming and diving.^ As the turtle touches water the crawling motion is replaced by a swimming stroke and the turtle dives to the bottom and aides the undertow.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Description Sea turtles resemble land turtles in form, but their limbs are swimming paddles rather than walking legs and they cannot withdraw into their shells.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turtles adapted to life in the sea by developing a shell and paddled-shaped forelimbs that enabled them to swim through the water with the motion of a bird.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.American snapping turtles and musk turtles have small, cross-shaped plastrons that give them more efficient leg movement for walking along the bottom of ponds and streams.^ Description Sea turtles resemble land turtles in form, but their limbs are swimming paddles rather than walking legs and they cannot withdraw into their shells.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The color of a turtle's shell may vary.^ You can set this variable to change the color of a turtle or link's label.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can set this variable to make the turtle or link change color.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (This is the same wrapping that is done automatically if you assign an out-of-range number to the color turtle variable or pcolor patch variable.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shells are commonly colored brown, black, or olive green. .In some species, shells may have red, orange, yellow, or grey markings and these markings are often spots, lines, or irregular blotches.^ Some of these populations may eventually be designated as separate species.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up to eight feet in length, these huge turtles have a rubbery dark shell marked by seven narrow ridges that extend the length of the back.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Females observed on the nesting beach after recently mating often have scratched shells and may be bleeding from where the males' were hooked to their shells.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the most colorful turtles is the eastern Painted Turtle which includes a yellow plastron and a black or olive shell with red markings around the rim.^ Among sea turtles found in United States waters, the Family Cheloniidae (hard-shell turtles) includes the green, hawksbill, loggerhead and ridley turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migration The ability of a sea turtle to migrate hundreds (and occasionally thousands) of miles from its feeding ground to its nesting beach is one of the most remarkable acts in the animal kingdom.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SUBORDER - Cryptodira Suborder Cryptodira includes freshwater turtles, snapping turtles, tortoises, soft-shelled turtles, and sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tortoises, being land-based, have rather heavy shells.^ Description Sea turtles resemble land turtles in form, but their limbs are swimming paddles rather than walking legs and they cannot withdraw into their shells.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast, aquatic and soft-shelled turtles have lighter shells that help them avoid sinking in water and swim faster with more agility.^ Turtles adapted to life in the sea by developing a shell and paddled-shaped forelimbs that enabled them to swim through the water with the motion of a bird.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SUBORDER - Cryptodira Suborder Cryptodira includes freshwater turtles, snapping turtles, tortoises, soft-shelled turtles, and sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the turtle touches water the crawling motion is replaced by a swimming stroke and the turtle dives to the bottom and aides the undertow.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These lighter shells have large spaces called fontanelles between the shell bones.^ It is named for its large, elongate shell which is composed of a layer of thin, tough, rubbery skin, strengthened by thousands of tiny bone plates.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The shell of a leatherback turtle is extremely light because they lack scutes and contain many fontanelles.^ They are vulnerable because of their light armor.
  • BSanc - Ballerium Game Units and Weapons 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC balleriumsanctuary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leatherback is the only sea turtle that lacks a hard shell.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the turtle cannot move forward number steps because it is not permitted by the current topology the turtle will complete as many steps of 1 as it can, then stop.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Skin and molting

Snapping Turtle Tail. Blue Hills Reservation, Massachusetts
.As mentioned above, the outer layer of the shell is part of the skin, each scute (or plate) on the shell corresponding to a single modified scale.^ Rather than a shell covered with scutes, leatherbacks have leathery skin.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family Cheloniidae includes sea turtles which have shells covered with scutes (horny plates).
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is named for its large, elongate shell which is composed of a layer of thin, tough, rubbery skin, strengthened by thousands of tiny bone plates.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The remainder of the skin is composed of skin with much smaller scales, similar to the skin of other reptiles. .Turtles and terrapins do not molt their skins all in one go, as snakes do, but continuously, in small pieces.^ Like all reptiles, sea turtles lack external ears and the eardrum is covered with skin.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small Dolom All Avatars begin their experience in Ballerium with one small Dolom.
  • BSanc - Ballerium Game Units and Weapons 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC balleriumsanctuary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The purpose of the circle of "anchor agents" is to prevent all the turtles from collapsing down to one point.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When kept in aquaria, small sheets of dead skin can be seen in the water (often appearing to be a thin piece of plastic) having been sloughed off when the animal deliberately rubs itself against a piece of wood or stone.^ Sea turtles appear to lead rather solitary lives at sea, except when they congregate off nesting beaches, where they mate in the near shore waters.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is remarkable that this large, active animal can survive on a diet of jellyfish, which are composed mostly of water and appear to be a poor source of nutrients.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tortoises also shed skin, but a lot of dead skin is allowed to accumulate into thick knobs and plates that provide protection to parts of the body outside the shell.^ These changes meant that the head could no longer be pulled into the shell for protection but a completely roofed-over skull and large body size compensated for this loss.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shell, which consists of an upper and lower part joined on both sides by a bridge of cartilage, encloses and protects the internal organs.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is named for its large, elongate shell which is composed of a layer of thin, tough, rubbery skin, strengthened by thousands of tiny bone plates.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By counting the rings formed by the stack of smaller, older scutes on top of the larger, newer ones, it is possible to estimate the age of a turtle, if you know how many scutes are produced in a year.^ No one knows how many Canadians served the South.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Make how many turtles?"
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One promising new theory on how sea turtles navigate suggests that they can detect both the angle and intensity of the earth's magnetic field.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] This method is not very accurate, partly because growth rate is not constant, but also because some of the scutes eventually fall away from the shell.

Limbs

Terrestrial tortoises have short, sturdy feet. Tortoises are famous for moving slowly, in part because of their heavy, cumbersome shell, which restricts stride length.
.The amphibious turtles normally have limbs similar to those of tortoises except that the feet are webbed and often have long claws.^ Sea turtles are often killed when they become entrapped in shrimp nets or similar fishing gear.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is all that remains of the turtle's long night work at the to track is the nest that can be as deep as 2 feet.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These turtles swim using all four feet in a way similar to the dog paddle, with the feet on the left and right side of the body alternately providing thrust.^ (In contrast to patch-left-and-ahead and patch-right-and-ahead, the calling turtle's current heading is not taken into account.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pleurodira includes side-necked turtles, Cryptodira includes all other living species of turtles and tortoises, and Amphichelydia includes all extinct species.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Description Sea turtles resemble land turtles in form, but their limbs are swimming paddles rather than walking legs and they cannot withdraw into their shells.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Large turtles tend to swim less than smaller ones, and the very big species, such as alligator snapping turtles, hardly swim at all, preferring to simply walk along the bottom of the river or lake.^ As the turtle touches water the crawling motion is replaced by a swimming stroke and the turtle dives to the bottom and aides the undertow.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hatchlings, however, must work together to escape from the nest and cross the beach and turtles of all species may be found in large groups of their own kind feeding or traveling.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pleurodira includes side-necked turtles, Cryptodira includes all other living species of turtles and tortoises, and Amphichelydia includes all extinct species.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As well as webbed feet, turtles also have very long claws, used to help them clamber onto riverbanks and floating logs, upon which they like to bask.^ As they are on the run, Logan reveals why he no longer uses his claws in battle.
  • Wolverine (comic book character) - comicvine.com 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.comicvine.com [Source type: General]

^ They are able to stay in the fight for a very long time if supported by healers.
  • BSanc - Ballerium Game Units and Weapons 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC balleriumsanctuary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A sea turtle is least likely to abandon nesting when she is laying her eggs, but some turtles will abort the process if they are harassed or feel they are in danger.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Male turtles tend to have particularly long claws, and these appear to be used to stimulate the female while mating.^ Observers of sea turtle mating have reported very aggressive behavior by both the males and females.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eating turtle flesh was thought to restore a male's "youthful vigor and guarantee a long life."
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even with these limitations, sea turtles regularly navigate long distances to find the same tiny stretch of nesting beach.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While most turtles have webbed feet, some, such as the Pig-nosed Turtle, have true flippers, with the digits being fused into paddles and the claws being relatively small.^ GENUS and SPECIES Most scientists currently recognize seven living species of sea turtles grouped into six genera.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Description Sea turtles resemble land turtles in form, but their limbs are swimming paddles rather than walking legs and they cannot withdraw into their shells.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think there was talk of Marvel developing into Studio or some such thing.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These species swim in the same way as sea turtles (see below).^ GENUS and SPECIES Most scientists currently recognize seven living species of sea turtles grouped into six genera.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since adult sea turtles do not nurture their hatchlings, the female never sees the nest site again.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of those species that nest on Broward's beaches, green and leatherback sea turtles are listed officially as endangered and the Florida population of loggerhead sea turtles are considered threatened.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sea turtles are almost entirely aquatic and have flippers instead of feet.^ Life History Sea turtles nest on beaches, depositing eggs in a pit dug with the hind flippers.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Sea Turtles have front and rear pairs of paddle-like flippers .
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the eggs are deposited, the rear flippers fill and cover the nest with sand and the turtle returns to the sea.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sea turtles fly through the water, using the up-and-down motion of the front flippers to generate thrust; the back feet are not used for propulsion but may be used as rudders for steering.^ (Sea Turtles have front and rear pairs of paddle-like flippers .
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life History Sea turtles nest on beaches, depositing eggs in a pit dug with the hind flippers.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among sea turtles found in United States waters, the Family Cheloniidae (hard-shell turtles) includes the green, hawksbill, loggerhead and ridley turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Compared with freshwater turtles, sea turtles have very limited mobility on land, and apart from the dash from the nest to the sea as hatchlings, male sea turtles normally never leave the sea.^ Male sea turtles never leave the ocean.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For this reason, it is important that sea turtles are never disturbed during nesting.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Never stop a turtle coming from or returning to the water, or interfere with hatchlings headed for the water.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Females must come back onto land to lay eggs.^ Female sea turtles must leave the safety of the sea to lay their eggs on land.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ridleys can delay nesting to synchronize egg laying with other females.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Females must come ashore to lay their eggs in the sand ; therefore, all sea turtles begin their lives as tiny hatchlings on land.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They move very slowly and laboriously, dragging themselves forwards with their flippers.^ Lastly, the body pit is filled, the nesting site concealed with swipes of the front flippers, and the turtle moves slowly back down the beach and into the surf.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leatherback and green turtle, however, haul themselves forward by moving the opposite limbs together.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ecology and life history

.Although many turtles spend large amounts of their lives underwater, all turtles and tortoises breathe air, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs.^ As air-breathing reptiles with lungs, sea turtles must surface periodically.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As air-breathing reptiles with lungs, sea turtles must surface to breathe.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hatchlings, however, must work together to escape from the nest and cross the beach and turtles of all species may be found in large groups of their own kind feeding or traveling.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They can also spend much of their lives on dry land. Aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities that are lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called papillae, have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. .The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water using these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills to respire.^ The code must be compiled first which takes time, however, compiled bits of code are cached by NetLogo and thus using run on the same string over and over is much faster than running on different bits of code.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these operators take two inputs, and all act as "infix operators" (going between the two inputs, as in standard mathematical use).
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The code must be compiled first which takes time, however, compiled bits of code are cached by NetLogo and thus using runresult on the same string over and over is much faster than running on different bits of code.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Turtles lay eggs, like other reptiles, which are slightly soft and leathery.^ Most reptiles lay eggs.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reptiles are cold-blooded vertebrates, usually laying white, "leathery" eggs.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a turtle ascends the beach but fails to nest and returns to the sea without laying her eggs, it is referred to as a "false crawl."
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and contains a different protein than bird eggs, such that it will not coagulate when cooked. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. Large numbers of eggs are deposited in holes dug into mud or sand. They are then covered and left to incubate by themselves. .When the turtles hatch, they squirm their way to the surface and head toward the water.^ Reports the heading from the turtle or patch towards the point ( x , y ).
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are no known species in which the mother cares for the young.
.Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry, sandy beaches.^ Sea Turtles on the Beach Socks Part #: TWS6364 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

^ Sea Turtle Beach Towel Part #: TSL5878 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

.Immature sea turtles are not cared for by the adults.^ Green Sea Turtle Swimming with Babies T-Shirts (Adult) Part #: TWT6540-S .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

^ Loggerhead Sea Turtles T-Shirt (Adult) Part #: TWT6501-S .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

.Turtles can take many years to reach breeding age, and in many cases breed every few years rather than annually.^ The turtle moves forward by number units all at once (rather than one step at a time as with the forward command).
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, this year's choice for the host of the 81st annual ceremony is none other than...

^ (If you want to find a patch in a given absolute heading, rather than one relative to the current turtle's heading, use patch-at-heading-and-distance instead.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Researchers have recently discovered a turtle’s organs do not gradually break down or become less efficient over time, unlike most other animals. It was found that the liver, lungs, and kidneys of a centenarian turtle are virtually indistinguishable from those of its immature counterpart. This has inspired genetic researchers to begin examining the turtle genome for longevity genes.[6]

Systematics and evolution

.The first proto-turtles are believed to have existed in the early Triassic Period of the Mesozoic era, about 220 million years ago, and their shell, which has remained a remarkably stable body plan, is thought to have evolved from bony extensions of their backbones and broad ribs that expanded and grew together to form a complete shell that offered protection at every stage of its evolution, even when the bony component of the shell was not complete.^ Because, you know, it wasn't like she was a virgin the first time he had sex with her over 2 years ago.
  • Topless Robot - Fan Fiction Friday: Wolverine, Cyclops and Jean Grey in "Day of reckoning" 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.toplessrobot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is supported by fossils of the freshwater Odontochelys semitestacea, the "half-shelled turtle with teeth", have been found near Guangling in south-west China, which displays a complete bony plastron and an incomplete carapace, similar to an early stage of turtle embryonic development.[7] Prior to this discovery, the earliest fossil turtles were terrestrial and had a complete shell, offering no clue to the evolution of this remarkable anatomical feature. By the late Jurassic, turtles had radiated widely, and their fossil history becomes easier to read.
Their exact ancestry is disputed. .It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonids, millerettids, protorothyrids, and pareiasaurs.^ Victor stops him since he believes he is the only one worthy of killing Logan together they defeat Wilson, and Logan decapitates him.
  • Wolverine (comic book character) - comicvine.com 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.comicvine.com [Source type: General]

All anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygomatic arch). The millerettids, protorothyrids, and pareiasaurs became extinct in the late Permian period, and the procolophonoids during the Triassic.[8]
.However, it was recently suggested that the anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to reversion rather than to anapsid descent.^ (Exceptions: each new turtle will have a new who number, and it may be of a different breed than its parent if the hatch- form is used.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The turtle moves forward by number units all at once (rather than one step at a time as with the forward command).
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (If you want to find a patch in a given absolute heading, rather than one relative to the current turtle's heading, use patch-at-heading-and-distance instead.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More recent morphological phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria.^ Note that you can't expect complete precision; the agent will never wait less than the given amount, but might wait slightly more.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .All molecular studies have strongly upheld the placement of turtles within diapsids, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria than Squamata.^ The turtle moves forward by number units all at once (rather than one step at a time as with the forward command).
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .Reanalysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa broadly enough for constructing the cladogram.^ Sort of, because they never stated before that, that there were bone underneath the claws.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As of 2003, the consensus is that Testudines diverged from other diapsids between 200 and 279 million years ago.
.The earliest known fully-shelled turtle is the late-Triassic Proganochelys, though this species already had many advanced turtle traits, and thus probably had many millions of years of preceding turtle evolution and species in its ancestry.^ Logan is sent to the Romanov family in Russia where he learns espionage and befriends the young Natalia Romanova , who many years later will be known as the Black Widow.
  • Wolverine (comic book character) - comicvine.com 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.comicvine.com [Source type: General]

It did lack the ability to pull its head into its shell (and it had a long neck), and had a long, spiked tail ending in a club, implying an ancestry occupying a similar niche to the ankylosaurs (though only through parallel evolution).
Turtles are divided into three suborders, one of which, the Paracryptodira, is extinct. The two extant suborders are the Cryptodira and the Pleurodira. The Cryptodira is the larger of the two groups and includes all the marine turtles, the terrestrial tortoises, and many of the freshwater turtles. .The Pleurodira are sometimes known as the side-necked turtles, a reference to the way they withdraw their heads into their shells.^ (In contrast to patch-left-and-ahead and patch-right-and-ahead, the calling turtle's current heading is not taken into account.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This smaller group consists primarily of various freshwater turtles.
A chart of the two extant Testudine suborders. Extinct groups that existed within these two suborders are shown as well.

Basal and incertae sedis chelonians

  • Genus †Australochelys (Chelonia incertae sedis)
  • Genus †Murrhardtia (Chelonia incertae sedis)
  • Genus †Palaeochersis (Chelonia incertae sedis)
  • Genus †Chinlechelys (Proganochelydia or basal Testudines)
  • Genus †Chelycarapookus (Testudines incertae sedis)
  • Genus †Chitracephalus (Testudines incertae sedis)
  • Genus †Neusticemys (Testudines incertae sedis)
  • Genus †Scutemys (Testudines incertae sedis)

Suborder †Proganochelydia

Fossil of Proganochelys quenstedti, one of the oldest true turtles presently known.
Unlike modern Testudines, Proganochelys was not able to hide its head under the shell.

Suborder Cryptodira

Basal genera
  • Genus †Kayentachelys
  • Genus †Indochelys
Infraorder †Paracryptodira
  • Basal and incertae sedis
    • Family †Kallokibotiidae
    • Family †Mongolochelyidae
    • Family †Pleurosternidae
    • Family †Solemydidae
  • Superfamily †Baenoidea
    • Family †Baenidae
    • Family †Macrobaenidae
    • Family †Neurankylidae
Infraorder Eucryptodira
The African Helmeted Turtle (Pelomedusa subrufa) is a pleurodire.
Pleurodires hide their head sideways.

Suborder Pleurodira

Turtle, tortoise, or terrapin?

Different animals are called turtles, tortoises, or terrapins in different varieties of English
.Although the word turtle is widely used to describe all members of the order Testudines, it is also common to see certain members described as terrapins, tortoises or sea turtles as well.^ (The new turtles are created all at once then run one at a time, in random order.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dead turtle's number will not be reassigned to a new turtle until you use the clear-turtles or clear-all commands, at which time who numbering starts over again at 0.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the sprout- form is used, the new turtles are created as members of the given breed.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Precisely how these alternative names are used, if at all, depends on the type of English being used.^ All of these operators take two inputs, and all act as "infix operators" (going between the two inputs, as in standard mathematical use).
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has exceptional hand-to-hand fighting skills, as well as being adept at using many different types of weapons.
  • Wolverine (comic book character) - comicvine.com 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.comicvine.com [Source type: General]

^ When the plural form of the breed name is used, an agentset is expected instead of an agent and links are created between the caller and all agents in the agentset.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • British English normally describes these reptiles as turtles if they live in the sea; terrapins if they live in fresh or brackish water; or tortoises if they live on land.^ These units are handy if you are in need of a quick mine far away from your normal base of operations, considering they are sold at every city.
    • BSanc - Ballerium Game Units and Weapons 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC balleriumsanctuary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles We love turtles, and you'll find really fun gifts, toys, jewelry, and clothing featuring land and sea turtles.
    • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Fresh Water Turtles Blank Card Part #: TPG6269 .
    • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

    .However, there are exceptions to this where American or Australian common names are in wide use, as with the Fly River turtle.
  • American English tends to use the word turtle for all freshwater species, as well as for certain land-dwelling species (e.g.^ (Exceptions: each new turtle will have a new who number, and it may be of a different breed than its parent if the hatch- form is used.
    • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A dead turtle's number will not be reassigned to a new turtle until you use the clear-turtles or clear-all commands, at which time who numbering starts over again at 0.
    • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Any turtle of the given breed: is part of the agentset named by the breed name has its breed built-in variable set to that agentset Most often, the agentset is used in conjunction with ask to give commands to only the turtles of a particular breed.
    • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    box turtles). Oceanic species are usually referred to as sea turtles, and tortoise is restricted to members of the true tortoise family, Testudinidae. .The name terrapin is typically reserved only for the brackish water diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin; the word terrapin being derived from the Algonquian word for this animal.^ It is so named because of the word "adamant", meaning unbreakable), which results in his bones being unbreakable.
    • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [11]
  • Australian English uses turtle for both the marine and freshwater species but tortoise for the terrestrial species.
.To avoid confusion, the word chelonian is popular among veterinarians, scientists, and conservationists working with these animals as a catch-all name for any member of the superorder Chelonia which includes all turtles, tortoises and terrapins living and extinct, as well as their immediate ancestors.^ It worked pretty well if I remember when DT was the one catching the screens .
  • Washington Redskins @ San Diego Chargers GameThread, Jan 3, 2010 4:15 PM EST - Hogs Haven 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.hogshaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They believe that all races should live in harmony with the nature around them, and that plant and animal life should be respected, sometimes even worshipped.
  • BSanc - Ballerium Game Units and Weapons 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC balleriumsanctuary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fountasia Turtle: Tully Tortoise "Live, Love, Laugh" Part #: TFS7078 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

It is based on the Ancient Greek word χελώνη, chelōnē; Modern Greek χελώνα, chelōna; meaning turtle/tortoise.

Distriution

Seven species of marine turtles are found worldwide. Of these five have been recorded in Europe.[12]

As pets

Turtles, particularly small terrestrial and freshwater turtles, are commonly kept as pets. Among the most popular are Russian Tortoises, Spur-thighed Tortoises, and Red-eared sliders (or Red-eared terrapin).[13]
In the United States, due to the ease of contracting salmonella through casual contact with turtles, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established a regulation in 1975 to discontinue the sale of turtles under 4 inches. It is illegal in every state in the U.S. for anyone to sell any turtles under 4 inches long. Many stores and flea markets still sell small turtles due to a loophole in the FDA regulation which allows turtles under 4 inches to be sold for educational purposes.[14][15]
.Some states have other laws and regulations regarding possession of Red-eared Sliders (abbreviated as RES) as pets because they are looked upon as invasive species or pests where they are not native but have been introduced through the pet trade.^ Some of it looks cheesy, while other parts, especially a few of the slo-mo action clips, look interesting and unusual.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Bill mentioned, I have a problem everytime I see some using the ol' they-must-be-heat-rays-'cause-they're-red.
  • Topless Robot - Fan Fiction Friday: Wolverine, Cyclops and Jean Grey in "Day of reckoning" 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.toplessrobot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sort of, because they never stated before that, that there were bone underneath the claws.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As of July 1, 2007 it is illegal in Florida to sell any wild type RES. Unusual color varieties such as albino and pastel RES, which are derived from captive breeding, are still allowed for sale.[16]

As food, traditional medicine, and cosmetics

The window of a restaurant serving guilinggao, decorated with a ('turtle') character
.The flesh of turtles was, and still is, considered a delicacy in a number of cultures.^ For example, if a turtle's xcor is -4.5, then it is on the boundary between a patch whose pxcor is -4 and a patch whose pxcor is -5, but the turtle must be considered to be in one patch or the other, so the turtle is considered to be in the patch whose pxcor is -4, because we round towards the positive numbers.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Turtle soup has been a prized dish in Anglo-American cuisine,[17] and still remains so in some parts of the Far East.^ Sea Turtle Soap Dish Part #: TSB5761 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

Gopher tortoise stew was popular with some groups in Florida.[18]
.Turtles remain a part of the traditional diet on the island of Grand Cayman, so much so that when wild stocks became depleted, a turtle farm was established specifically to raise sea turtles for their meat.^ Love & Joy Sea Turtle Christmas Cards, box/16 Part #: TPH6340 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

^ Sea Turtle Bookends, set/2 Part #: TUS5249 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

^ Swimming Sea Turtles Christmas Cards (box of 10) Part #: TPH6875 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

The farm also releases specimens to the wild as part of an effort to repopulate the Carribbean Sea.[19]
.Fat from turtles is also used in the Caribbean and in Mexico as a main ingredient in cosmetics, marketed under its Spanish name Crema de Tortuga.^ Any turtle of the given breed: is part of the agentset named by the breed name has its breed built-in variable set to that agentset Most often, the agentset is used in conjunction with ask to give commands to only the turtles of a particular breed.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.
Turtle plastrons among other plants and animals parts are used in traditional Chinese medicines.
^ Any turtle of the given breed: is part of the agentset named by the breed name has its breed built-in variable set to that agentset Most often, the agentset is used in conjunction with ask to give commands to only the turtles of a particular breed.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small Chinese Red Lacquer Turtle Part #: TDR6438 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

^ Chinese Turtle Dragon Part #: TDR6437 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

(Other items in the image are dried Lingzhi, snake, Luo Han Guo, and ginseng)
.Turtle plastrons (the part of the shell that covers a tortoise from the bottom) are widely used in Traditional Chinese medicine; according to statistics, just Taiwan has imports plastrons by hundreds of tons every year.^ Any turtle of the given breed: is part of the agentset named by the breed name has its breed built-in variable set to that agentset Most often, the agentset is used in conjunction with ask to give commands to only the turtles of a particular breed.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medium Chinese Red Lacquer Tortoise Part #: TDR6434 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

^ Fountasia Turtle: Toby Tortoise "Home Sweet Home" Part #: TFS7077 .
  • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

[21] A popular medicinal preparation based on powdered turtle plastron (and a variety of herbs) is the Guilinggao jelly;[22][23] these days, though, it is typically made with only herbal ingredients.

Conservation status

.Efforts have been made by Chinese entrepreneurs to satisfy Increasing demand for turtle meat as gourmet food and traditional medicine with farmed turtles, instead of wild-caught ones; according to a study published in 2007, over a thousand turtle farms operated in China.^ IIRC according to one of the Wolverine one-shots he can die of adamantium poisoning (I think it´s called "Wolverine - Killing Made Simple") without his regeneration, but I`m not certain about it .
  • Topless Robot - Fan Fiction Friday: Wolverine, Cyclops and Jean Grey in "Day of reckoning" 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.toplessrobot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24][25] Turtle farms in Oklahoma and Louisiana raise turtles for export to China as well.[25]
.Nonetheless, wild turtles continue to be caught and sent to market in large number (as well as to turtle farms, to be used as breeding stock[24]), resulting in a situation described by conservationists as "the Asian turtle crisis".[26] In the words of the biologist George Amato, "the amount and the volume of captured turtles...^ If number is zero, the result is always 0 as well.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used for creating breeded and unbreeded links between turtles.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For breeded turtles you may also use the single breed form to refer to them.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

vacuumed up entire species from areas in .Southeast Asia", even as biologists still didn't know how many distinct turtle species live in the region.^ "Make how many turtles?"
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one knows how many Canadians served the South.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] It has been estimated that about 75% of Asia's 90 tortoise and freshwater turtle species have become threatened.[25]
.Harvesting wild turtles is legal in a number of states in the USA.[25] In one of these states, Florida, just a single seafood company in Fort Lauderdale was reported (2008) as buying about 5,000 pounds of softshell turtles a week.^ The turtle moves forward by number steps, one step at a time.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Really sucks, he’s one of the few guys I’ve been excited about these last few weeks.
  • Washington Redskins @ San Diego Chargers GameThread, Jan 3, 2010 4:15 PM EST - Hogs Haven 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.hogshaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reports a random floating point number from the allowable range of turtle coordinates along the given axis, x or y.
  • NetLogo 4.1 User Manual: NetLogo Dictionary 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC ccl.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The harvesters (hunters) are paid about $2 a pound; some manage to catch as many as 30-40 turtles (500 pounds) on a good day. Some of the catch gets to the local restaurants, while most of it is exported to the Far East; Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission estimated in 2008 that around 3,000 pounds of softshell turtles were exported each week via Tampa International Airport.[28]
Nonetheless, the great majority of turtles exported from the USA are farm-raised. According to one estimate by the World Chelonian Trust, 97% out of 31.8 million animals that were exported out of the U.S. over a three-year period (November 04, 2002 - November 26, 2005).[29][25] It has been estimated (presumably, over the same 2002-2005 period) that about 47% of the US turtle exports go to People's Republic of China (predominantly to Hong Kong), another 20% to Taiwan, and 11% to Mexico. [30] [31]

Gallery

In culture

See also

Further reading

  • Iskandar, DT (2000). Turtles and Crocodiles of Insular Southeast Asia and New Guinea. Bandung: Palmedia – ITB.  
  • Pritchard, Peter Charles Howard (1979). Encyclopedia of turtles. Neptune, NJ: T.F.H. Publications. ISBN 0-87666-918-6.  

References

  1. ^ "Archelon-Enchanted Learning Software". Enchantedlearning.com. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinos/Archelon.shtml. Retrieved 2009-03-14.  
  2. ^ a b James E. Barzyk Turtles in Crisis: The Asian Food Markets. The article itself is not dated, but mostly refers to data in the range 1995-2000.
  3. ^ Michael J. Connor. "CTTC's Turtle Trivia". Tortoise.org. http://www.tortoise.org/general/wildfaqs.html#largest. Retrieved 2009-03-14.  
  4. ^ "Marine Turtles". Oceansofkansas.com. http://www.oceansofkansas.com/Turtles.html. Retrieved 2009-03-14.  
  5. ^ "Anatomy and Diseases of the Shells of Turtles and Tortoises". Peteducation.com. http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?articleid=2700. Retrieved 2009-03-14.  
  6. ^ All but Ageless, Turtles Face Their Biggest Threat: Humans
  7. ^ Li C, Wu XC, Rieppel O, Wang LT, Zhao LJ (November 2008). "An ancestral turtle from the Late Triassic of southwestern China". Nature 456 (7221): 497–501. doi:10.1038/nature07533. PMID 19037315.  
  8. ^ "Introduction to Procolophonoidea". Ucmp.berkeley.edu. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/anapsids/procolophonoidea.html. Retrieved 2009-03-14.  
  9. ^ Rieppel O, DeBraga M (1996). "Turtles as diapsid reptiles". Nature 384: 453–5. doi:10.1038/384453a0.  
  10. ^ Zardoya R, Meyer A (November 1998). "Complete mitochondrial genome suggests diapsid affinities of turtles". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (24): 14226–31. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.24.14226. PMID 9826682. PMC 24355. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9826682.  
  11. ^ http://www.bartleby.com/61/1/T0120100.html
  12. ^ King, .L. and Berrow, S,D. 2009. Marine turtles in Irish waters. Ir. Nat. J. Special Supplement 2009
  13. ^ David Alderton (1986). An Interpret Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians, Salamander Books Ltd., London & New York.
  14. ^ GCTTS FAQ: "4 Inch Law", actually an FDA regulation
  15. ^ Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements; FDA Regulation, Sec. 1240.62, page 678 part d1.
  16. ^ Turtle ban begins today; New state law, newszap.com, 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2007-07-06.
  17. ^ Turtle soup recipe in The Household Cyclopedia of General Information (1881)
  18. ^ "Gopher Tortoise Stew", in: Recipes from Another Time: Savor the flavor of old St. Augustine and try a couple of these original recipes. Smithsonian magazine, October 2001
  19. ^ "Cayman Islands Turtle Farm". http://turtle.ky/history.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-28.  
  20. ^ NOAA Marine Forensics Branch
  21. ^ Chen1, Tien-Hsi; Chang2, Hsien-Cheh; Lue, Kuang-Yang (2009), "Unregulated Trade in Turtle Shells for Chinese Traditional Medicine in East and Southeast Asia: The Case of Taiwan", Chelonian Conservation and Biology 8 (1): 11-18, doi:10.2744/CCB-0747.1, http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.2744/CCB-0747.1  
  22. ^ Dharamanda, APPENDIX 1: "Golden Coin Turtle" (A report dated April 27, 2002 by ECES News (Earth Crash Earth Spirit)). Quote: "The popularity of turtle jelly can be seen in the success of Ng Yiu-ming. His chain of specialty stores has grown from one shop in 1991 to 68 today, in Hong Kong, Macau, and mainland China. Ng also packs turtle jelly into portable containers sold at convenience stores. He insists no golden coin turtles are used. 'They're too expensive' he said. '... [I]f you know how to choose the herbal ingredients, jelly made from other kinds of turtles will be just as good.'"
  23. ^ Dharamanda, APPENDIX 3: "Tortoise Jelly (Turtle Jelly)"
  24. ^ a b "Turtle farms threaten rare species, experts say". Fish Farmer, 30 March, 2007. Their source is an article by James Parham, Shi Haitao, and two other authors, published in Feb 2007 in the journal Conservation Biology
  25. ^ a b c d e Hilary Hylton, "Keeping U.S. Turtles Out of China", Time Magazine, 2007-05-08. There is also a copy of the article at the TSA site. Articles by Peter Paul van Dijk are mentioned as the main source.
  26. ^ Sze Man Cheung, David Dudgeon, "Quantifying the Asian turtle crisis: market surveys in southern China, 2000-2003". Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, Volume 16 Issue 7, Pages 751-770. Published Online: 25 Oct 2006
  27. ^ A Conversation at the Museum of Natural History: filmmaker Eric Daniel Metzgar, the creator of the film The Chances of the World Changing, talks to George Amato, the director of conservation genetics at the American Museum of Natural History about turtle conservation and the relationship between evolution and extinction
  28. ^ "China Gobbling Up Florida Turtles", By Craig Pittman, St. Petersburg Times. Published: Thursday, October 9, 2008
  29. ^ Declared Turtle Trade From the United States - Totals
  30. ^ Declared Turtle Trade From the United States - Destinations (Major destinations: 13,625,673 animals to Hong Kong, 1,365,687 to the rest of the PRC, 6,238,300 to Taiwan, 3,478,257 to Mexico, and 1,527,771 to Japan, 945,257 to Singapore, and 596,965 to Spain.
  31. ^ Declared Turtle Trade From the United States - Observations

External links


Simple English

Turtles
Fossil range: Triassic - Recent
File:Haeckel
"Chelonia" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Order: Testudines
Linnaeus, 1758
Diversity
ca. 300 species in 14 extant families.
File:World.distribution.testudines.
blue: sea turtles, black: land turtles
Suborders

Cryptodira
Pleurodira
See text for families.

A turtle is a type of reptile that may live on sand or in the water.

Turtles have shells and are the slowest moving reptiles. Most turtles that live in the water have webbed[1] feet like a duck. Tortoises have thick legs like elephants and sea turtles have flippers.

Turtles can see things that are close very well. They cannot see far-away things well.

All turtles need to breathe air. When a turtle breathes, special muscles push the air in and out of the lungs. Turtles are ectothermic. This means that their temperature goes up and down with the temperature of the water and air around them. Some turtles can live for up to a year without eating. Turtles drink water often.

All turtles can live for a long time without food. Tortoises eat plants, fruits and flowers. Some turtles eat fish, tadpoles, snails and insects.

Turtles evolved from reptiles with ribs.[needs proof]

Anatomy and morphology

The largest chelonian is a marine turtle, the great leatherback sea turtle, which reaches a shell length of 200 cm (80 inches) and can reach a weight of over 900 kg (2,000 lb, or 1 short ton). Freshwater turtles are generally smaller, but with the largest species, the Asian softshell turtle Pelochelys cantorii, a few individuals have been reported to measure up to 200 cm or 80 in (Das, 1991). This dwarfs even the better-known alligator snapping turtle, the largest chelonian in North America, which attains a shell length of up to 80 cm (31½ in) and a weight of about 60 kg (170 lb).

They are an endangered species because people make money by selling the eggs they have laid, but on some beaches this is not legal.

Shells

The color of a turtle's shell may vary. Shells are commonly colored brown, black, or olive green. In some species, shells may have red, orange, yellow, or grey markings and these markings are often spots, lines, or irregular blotches. One of the most colorful turtles is the eastern painted turtle. It has a yellow plastron and a black or olive shell with red markings around the rim.

References

  1. that means that there is skin between the digits of the feet
Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:
Look up Turtle in Wikispecies, a directory of species


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 23, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Turtle, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message