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Tuscania
—  Comune  —
Comune di Tuscania

Coat of arms
Tuscania is located in Italy
Tuscania
Location of Tuscania in Italy
Coordinates: 42°25′N 11°52′E / 42.417°N 11.867°E / 42.417; 11.867Coordinates: 42°25′N 11°52′E / 42.417°N 11.867°E / 42.417; 11.867
Country Italy
Region Lazio
Province Viterbo (VT)
Government
 - Mayor Alessandro Cappelli (since May 2006)
Area
 - Total 208.03 km2 (80.3 sq mi)
Elevation 165 m (541 ft)
Population (2008)
 - Total 8,158
 - Density 39.2/km2 (101.6/sq mi)
 - Demonym Tuscaniesi, Tuscanesi or Toscanellesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 01017
Dialing code 0761
Patron saint Sts. Secondianus, Verianus and Marcellianus Martyrs
Saint day August 8
Website Official website

Tuscania is a town and comune in the province of Viterbo, Latium Region, Italy. Until the late 19th century the town was known as Toscanella.[1]

Contents

History

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Ancient times

According to the legend, Tuscania was founded by Aeneas' son, Ascanius, where he had found twelve dog pups (whence the Etruscan name Tus-Cana, cana begin similar to Latin canis for "dog"). Another legend attributes the foundation to one Tusco, son of Hercules and Araxes.

Evidence of human presence in the area dates from the Neolithic age, but probably the city proper was built around the 7th century BCE when the acropolis on St. Peter Hill was surrounded by a line of walls. Villages existed in the neighbourhood. In the following years the strategical position granted Tuscania a leader role in the Etruscan world. After the defeat of the coastal cities by the Greeks (4th century BCE), Tuscania became also a maritime trade center through the port of Regas (next today's Montalto di Castro). There are no record of Tuscania being involved in the battles that led to the Roman conquest of the Etruscan northern Lazio (280 BCE), as the city probably entered into the Roman orbit in a Pacific way. The agricultural development and construction of the Via Clodia, further boosted the economic situation of the city. It became a municipium in 88 BCE.

The rose window and the loggetta of the church of St. Peter in Tuscania.

Middle Ages

In the 5th century CE Tuscania became one of the first bishopric seat in Italy, maintaining it until 1653.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it fell to the Lombards in 569 or 574. In 781 it became part of the Papal States. In 967-1066 it was a fief of the Anguillara family and then of the marquises of Tuscany. In 1081 it was besieged by Emperor Henry IV.

In the following century it became a free commune with authority over a wide territory including numerous castles. The inner struggles within Tuscania led to a loss of prestige, in favour of the nearby Viterbo, which was elevated as diocese in 1192. In 1222 St. Francis of Assisi soujourned to the city. During the struggle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, it was captured by Frederick II of Hohenstaufen on March 2, 1240, and provided with a line of walls.

A failed military expedition against Pope Boniface VIII (early 14th century), led to the submission to Rome, with the pejorative name of Tuscanella. In 1348-49 a bubonic plague struck Tuscania very hard. Shortly thereafter, in 1354, Cardinal Gil Alvarez De Albornoz definitively returned the town to the Papal States. In 1421 it became a county under the condottiero Angelo Broglio da Lavello.

In 1495 it was ravaged by the French troops of King Charles VIII during his march towards the Kingdom of Naples, much thanks to the destruction of the walls ordered by Cardinal Giovanni Vitelleschi in reply to the continue inner struggles and riots of the citizens. The city lived thenceforth a long decline which lasted until the annexion to the new unified Kingdom of Italy in 1870.

In the 19th century the local Campanari family spearheaded the exploration of Etruscan tombs. They organized the first Etruscan exhibition in London.[2] Many of the valuable discoveries ended up in various European museums, as well as Tuscania's own Archeological Museum.

On February 6, 1971 an earthquake caused 31 deaths. The town has been meticulously restored since, and the historic quarter is substantial, completely surrounded by the medieval city walls that offer excellent views over the surrounding countryside and the church of St Peter.

Interior of the church of Saint Peter.

Main sights

The main monument of the city is the church of Saint Peter (San Pietro in Italian), in Lombard-Romanesque style, begun in the 8th century and renovated in the 11th-12th centuries. The interior has a nave and two aisles divided by low columns and pilasters incorporating half-columns, with antique and mediaeval capitals.

Other sights include:

  • The Etruscan Museum, with sarcophagi from nearby tombs, as well as other objects from the tombs.
  • The Romanesque Church of Santa Maria Maggiore. It has a façade with three finely decorated portals. The interior is on a nave and two aisles, divided by columns with sculpted capitals. The recessed entrance is flanked by a pair of free standing columns intended to evoke the Boaz and Jachin of the Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem.[3]
  • The Tower of Lavello
  • Fontana delle Sette Cannelle a Roman fountain
  • Etruscan necropolises, including the Tomb of the Queen and Pian di Mola.

References

  1. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15487a.htm
  2. ^ G Dennis- Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/_Periods/Roman/Archaic/Etruscan/_Texts/DENETR*/23.html
  3. ^ Hamblin, William J. and Seeely, David Rolph, Solomon's Temple; Myth and History, Thames and Hudson, 2007, p. 109

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Italy : Central Italy : Lazio : Tuscania
Contents

Tuscania is a city in northern Lazio in Italy. Not to be confused with Tuscany, which in Italian is Toscana.

Get in

Coming from the north (e.g. Florence) on the A1 Autostrada, exit at Orvieto, follow the directions for Montefiascone, then Marta and Tuscania. From Rome or Fiumicino Airport, take the A12 that joins into the Via Aurelia. Leave this road at Montalto di Castro, follow directions to Tuscania.

Facade of San Pietro, Tuscania
Facade of San Pietro, Tuscania
  • San Pietro. One of the most fascinating churches in Lazio, this basilica was begun in the 8th century and renovated in the 11th-12th centuries. It is mainly interesting for its façade, which includes a superb rose window as well as some most un-Christian-like decorations, including three-headed carvings, know as trifrons. There are also representations of the Church and of Evil.
  • Santa Maria Maggiore. This Romanesque Church also has some fanciful images on the façade.
  • Walls. The city retains most of its medieval walls and some towers that protected the palaces of the important families.
  • The Etruscan Museum. Contains sarcophagi and other objects from nearby tombs.
  • Hotel Tuscania Panoramico, Via dell'olivo, [1]. From Euros 33pp per night, sharing..  edit
  • Bed and Breakfast and Agriturismo. The Commune of Tuscania lists a large number of these at its web site. [ [2]]
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