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Tuscany
Toscana
—  Region of Italy  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Country Italy
Capital Florence
Government
 - President Claudio Martini (Democratic Party (Italy))
Area
 - Total 22,990 km2 (8,876.5 sq mi)
Population (2008-09-30)
 - Total 3,701,243
 Density 161/km2 (417/sq mi)
 - Demonym Tuscan
Citizenship [1]
 - Italian 93%
 - Albanian 2%
 - Romanian 1%
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
GDP/ Nominal € 99.1 billion (2006)
NUTS Region ITC
Website www.regione.toscana.it
.Tuscany (Italian: Toscana, pronounced [tosˈka(ː)na]) is a region in Central Italy.^ Read: 1229 times Last updated: 1/14/09 Rated: 4 out of 4 helpful Tags: italian , italians , italy , rome , sicily , tuscany .
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^ There are numerous independent villas in Tuscany that find place on our list, spread all across this beautiful region of Italy.
  • Tuscany Villas, Villa Rentals in Tuscany, Italy 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.yourwaytotuscany.com [Source type: General]

^ Property for sale in Tuscany Italy buy cheap Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has an area of 22,990 square kilometres (8,880 sq mi) and a population of about 3.6 million inhabitants.^ Stunning and tastefully restored farmhouse of approx 360 sq with renovated barn of about 140 sq and 3000 sq land, set in the compitese area.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The regional capital is Florence.
Tuscany is known for its beautiful landscapes, its rich artistic legacy and vast influence on high culture. Tuscany is widely regarded as the true birthplace of the Italian Renaissance, and has been home to some of the most influential people in history, such as Petrarch, Dante, Botticelli, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo Galilei, Amerigo Vespucci and Puccini. Due to this, the region has several museums, most of which (such as the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace) are found in Florence, but others in towns and smaller villages. .Tuscany has a unique culinary tradition, and is famous for its wines (most famous of which are Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino).^ Great Brunello selection, very good Chianti Classico and Morellino di Scansano selection.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

^ We drank 1997 Avvotore from Moris Farms, one of the 2-3 most famous wines from Morellino di Scansano.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

^ Umberto, came over and treated us warmly after we picked out the local Nobile Di Montepulciano to drink (Innocenti Riserva 1995).
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

Six Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the historical center of Florence (1982), the historical center of Siena (1995), the square of the Cathedral of Pisa (1987), the historical center of San Gimignano (1990), the historical center of Pienza (1996) and the Val d'Orcia (2004). Furthermore, Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves. .This makes Tuscany and its capital city Florence very popular tourist destinations, attracting millions of tourists every year.^ Villa Monticini Tuscany; 7 miles to Florence/ 1 mile to village Very nice 11 bedroom/ 6-1/2 bath villa with pool, private chapel and panoramic views .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

^ Villa Berrena Tuscany- Lucca region, Lucca city 15kms Very nice 7 bedroom/ 7 bath villa with pool .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

^ Casa Ponnecchia Tuscany; near Vinci; 27 miles West of Florence Very nice 7 bedroom/ 4 bath farmhouse with pool .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

Florence itself receives an average of 10 million tourists a year by placing the city as one of the most visited in the world (in 2007, the city became the world's 46th most visited city, with over 1.715 million arrivals).[2]

Contents

Geography

Hilly landscape in Val d'Orcia.
Roughly triangular in shape and situated between the northern part of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the central Apennines, Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometers (8,877.6 sq mi). .Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few (but very fertile) plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country.^ Large, single house with two rural outbuildings located on a private hillside area with panoramic views toward the surrounding mountains and the plains of Lucca.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whereas mountains cover 25% of the total area — 5,770 square kilometers (2,227.8 sq mi), and plains a mere 8.4% of the total area, almost all coinciding with the valley of the Arno River, summing for 1,930 square kilometers (745.2 sq mi), — overall hills make up two-thirds (66.5%) of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometers (5,904.3 sq mi).^ Set in the hills of the Pescaglia valley, these two rustic cottages with swimming pool make a perfect holiday retreat to enjoy the peaceful and authentic Tuscan lifestyle.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large, single house with two rural outbuildings located on a private hillside area with panoramic views toward the surrounding mountains and the plains of Lucca.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The climate, which is fairly mild in the coastal areas, is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer[3] giving the region a soil building active freeze-thaw cycle in part accounting for the region once having served as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome[4]

History

Appennini and Villanovan cultures.

The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks.[5] The Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture in the late second millennium BC (roughly 1350–1150 BC) who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilisations in the Aegean Sea.[5] Following this, the Villanovan culture (1100–700 BC) saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms.[5] City-states developed in the late Villanovan (paralleling Greece and the Aegean) before "Orientalization" occurred and the Etruscan civilisation rose.[5]

Etruscans

The Chimera of Arezzo, Etruscan bronze, 400 BC.
The Etruscans were the first major civilization in this region; large enough to lay down a transport infrastructure, implement agriculture and mining, and produced vibrant art.[6] The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory.[5] The civilisation grew to fill the area between the Arno River and Tiber River from the eighth century, reaching their peak during the seventh century BC and sixth century BC, finally succumbing to the Romans by the first century.[7] Throughout their existence, they lost territory (in Campania) to Magna Graecia, Carthage and Celts.[6] Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks,[8] the cultures of Greece, and later Rome, influenced the civilisation to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise[7] was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans.[6]

Romans

.Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa, Siena, and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace.^ Currently unavailable Where to Wear Italy 2006: Shopping Guide (Where to Wear: Italy, Rome, Florence & Milan) by Anges Crawford ( 2 ) 19 used & new from $0.01 .
  • Lists & Guides tagged with tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[6] These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, and the construction of many buildings, both public and private.[6] The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the fifth century and the region was left to the Goths, and others. In the sixth century, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia.[6]

The medieval period

Palazzo Vecchio in Florence.
Pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena between Rome and France brought wealth and development during the medieval period.[6] The food and shelter required by these travellers fuelled the growth of communities around churches and taverns.[6] The conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, factions supporting the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries, split the Tuscan people.[6] .These two factors gave rise to several powerful and rich medieval communes in Tuscany: Arezzo, Florence, Lucca, Pisa, and Siena.^ Villa Alexia Tuscany- Arezzo- walk into town (1/2 mile); 38 miles to Florence/ 30 miles to Siena Very nice 9 bedroom/ 7 bath villa with pool .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

^ Savor Italian country life in our classic villas and country apartments, available throughout Tuscany; close to Florence or Siena , near the coast or inland.
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

[6] Balance between these communes were ensured by the assets they held; Pisa, a port; Siena, banking; and Lucca, banking and silk.[9] By the renaissance, however, Florence had become the cultural capital of Tuscany.[9] Another family that befitted from Florence's growing wealth and power were the ruling Medici Family. .Lorenzo de' Medici was one of the most famous and the benefits of his time are still being observed today in the fantastic art and architecture in Florence today.^ We drank 1997 Avvotore from Moris Farms, one of the 2-3 most famous wines from Morellino di Scansano.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

One of his of famous descendants Caterina (Catharine) de Medici married Prince Henry of France.
The Black Death epidemic hit Tuscany; starting in 1348, it eventually killed 60 to 80% of Tuscans.[10] Florence lost a third of its population in the first six months, and from 45% to 75% of its population in the first year.[11] In 1630 Florence and Tuscany were once again ravaged by the plague.[12]

The Renaissance

Tuscany, especially Florence, is regarded as the birthplace of the Renaissance. Though "Tuscany" remained a linguistic, cultural and geographic conception, rather than a political reality, in the 15th century, Florence extended dominion in Tuscany through the annexion of Arezzo in 1384, the purchase of Pisa in 1405 and the suppression of a local resistance there (1406). Livorno was bought in as well (1421).
In the leading city of Florence, the republic was from 1434 onward dominated by the increasingly monarchical Medici family. Initially, under Cosimo, Piero the Gouty, Lorenzo and Piero the Unfortunate, the forms of the republic were retained and the Medici ruled without a title, usually without even a formal office. These rulers presided over the Florentine Renaissance. There was a return to the republic from 1494 to 1512, when first Girolamo Savonarola then Piero Soderini oversaw the state. Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici retook the city with Spanish forces in 1512, before going to Rome to become Pope Leo X. Florence was dominated by a series of papal proxies until 1527 when the citizens declared the republic again, only to have it taken from them again in 1530 after a siege by an Imperial and Spanish army. At this point Pope Clement VII and Charles V appointed Alessandro de' Medici as the first formally hereditary ruler.
.The Sienese commune was not incorporated into Tuscany until 1555, and during the 15th century Siena enjoyed a cultural 'Sienese Renaissance' with its own more conservative character.^ Villa Alexia Tuscany- Arezzo- walk into town (1/2 mile); 38 miles to Florence/ 30 miles to Siena Very nice 9 bedroom/ 7 bath villa with pool .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

^ Castello Torrigi Tuscany; Near Siena [7 miles]; walk into village Very nice 6 bedroom/ 4 bath main villa with guest apartment; plus 2 x 2-3 bedroom farmhouses on the estate More Information .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

Lucca remained an independent Republic until 1847 when it became part of Grand Duchy of Tuscany by the will of its people. Piombino was another minor independent state, under both Spanish and Tuscan influence.

Modern Era

In the 1400s, the Medicis, who ruled Florence, annexed surrounding land to create modern Tuscany. The War of Polish Succession in the 1730s meant the transfer of Tuscany from the Medicis to Francis, Duke of Lorraine and Holy Roman Emperor. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire by Napoleon, Tuscany was inherited by the Austrian Empire as successor to the Holy Roman Empire. In the Italian Wars of Independence in the 1850s, Tuscany was transferred from Austria to the newly unified nation of Italy.
Under Benito Mussolini the area came under the dominance of local National Fascist Party leader Dino Perrone Compagni. .Following the fall of Mussolini and the re-establishment of the Kingdom of Italy, the Italian Social Republic was established in the northern regions of Italy, with its de facto border at the Gothic Line, a defensive position just north of Florence.^ Out of Print--Limited Availability Regional Foods of Northern Italy: Recipes and Remembrances by Marlena De Blasi ( 3 ) 7 used & new from $53.47 .
  • Lists & Guides tagged with tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Following the end of the Social Republic, and the transition from a Kingdom to the modern Italian Republic, Tuscany once more flourished as a cultural center of Italy.^ Read: 1229 times Last updated: 1/14/09 Rated: 4 out of 4 helpful Tags: italian , italians , italy , rome , sicily , tuscany .
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^ Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Property for sale in Tuscany Italy buy cheap Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Culture

Tuscany has an immense cultural and artistic heritage, expressed in the region's numerous churches, palaces, art galleries, museums, villages and piazzas. .Much of these artifacts are found in the main cities, such as Florence and Siena, but also in smaller villages scattered around the region, such as San Gimignano.^ Villa Rapolana Siena Region: near Monte San Savino- 2 miles to village.
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

^ Villa Carmellina Tuscany; Siena region; Colle Val D'Elsa [7 miles]; 12 miles north of Siena; near San Gimignano [15 miles] Very nice 13 bedroom/ 12 bath villa with pool .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

^ Villa Bucinello Chianti region: Between Siena/ Florence; 1 mile to village Very nice 8 bedroom/7-8 bath villa + tower with pool, air conditioning .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

Art

.Tuscany has a unique artistic legacy, and Florence is one of the world's most important artistic centres, even so that it is often nicknamed the "art capital of Italy" (the city is also believed to have the largest concentration of Renaissance art and architecture in the world)[13].^ In Stock The Most Beautiful House in the World by Witold Rybczynski ( 13 ) List Price: $15.00 .
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.Painters such as Cimabue and Giotto, the fathers of Italian painting, lived in Florence and Tuscany as well as Arnolfo and Andrea Pisano, renewers of architecture and sculpture; Brunelleschi, Donatello and Masaccio, forefathers of the Renaissance, Ghiberti and the Della Robbias, Filippo Lippi and Angelico; Botticelli, Paolo Uccello and the universal genius of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.^ Casa Ponnecchia Tuscany; near Vinci; 27 miles West of Florence Very nice 7 bedroom/ 4 bath farmhouse with pool .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

^ Savor Italian country life in our classic villas and country apartments, available throughout Tuscany; close to Florence or Siena , near the coast or inland.
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

[14][15]
The region contains numerous museums and art galleries, most of which store some of the world's most precious and valuable works of art. Such museums include the Uffizi, which keeps Botticelli's Birth of Venus, the Pitti Palace, and the Bargello, to name but a few. But most of the frescos, sculptures and paintings in Tuscany are also held in the region's abundant churches and cathedrals, such as Florence Cathedral, Siena Cathedral, Pisa Cathedral and the Collegiata di San Gimignano.

Art Schools

A painting from the Sienese school.
In medieval period and in the Renaissance, there were four main Tuscan art schools which competed against each other: the Florentine School, the Sienese School, the Pisan School and the Lucchese School.
  • The Sienese School of painting flourished in Siena between the 13th and 15th centuries and for a time rivaled Florence, though it was more conservative, being inclined towards the decorative beauty and elegant grace of late Gothic art.^ Villa Bucinello Chianti region: Between Siena/ Florence; 1 mile to village Very nice 8 bedroom/7-8 bath villa + tower with pool, air conditioning .
    • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Read: 146 times Last updated: 7/10/09 Rated: Not rated yet Tags: beautiful , decoration , french style , interior design , interior french , italy .
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    ^ In the front bar, while being overlooked by hundreds of various images of the Bear (Orso) you can get excellent paste (pastries) and some of the best caffe you will ever have.
    • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

    Its most important representatives include Duccio, whose work shows Byzantine influence; his pupil Simone Martini; Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti; Domenico and Taddeo di Bartolo; Sassetta and Matteo di Giovanni. Unlike the naturalistic Florentine art, there is a mystical streak in Sienese art, characterized by a common focus on miraculous events, with less attention to proportions, distortions of time and place, and often dreamlike coloration. In the 16th century the Mannerists Beccafumi and Il Sodoma worked there. While Baldassare Peruzzi was born and trained in Siena, his major works and style reflect his long career in Rome. .The economic and political decline of Siena by the 1500s, and its eventual subjugation by Florence, largely checked the development of Sienese painting, although it also meant that a good proportion of Sienese works in churches and public buildings were not discarded or destroyed by new paintings or rebuilding.^ It is a collection of the hotel, a few houses and a large new building project of either apartments or condominiums surrounded by a few businesses.
    • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

    .Siena remains a remarkably well-preserved Italian late-Medieval town.
  • The Lucchese School, also known as the School of Lucca and as the Pisan-Lucchese School, was a school of painting and sculpture that flourished in the 11th and 12th centuries in western and southern part of the region, with an important center in Volterra.^ This is a marvellously well-preserved 16th century structure that looks out towards the towers and churches that pierce the Cortona skyline.

    The art is mostly anonymous. Although not as elegant or delicate as the Florentine School, Lucchese works are remarkable for their monumentality.

Main artistic centres

Language

Apart from standard Italian, the most spoken language in Tuscany is the 'Tuscan dialect' (lingua toscana), or the Tuscan dialect (dialetto toscano). In many respects it wandered less than other Romance dialects from the Latin language and evolved linearly and homogeneously, without major influences from other foreign languages.Template:According to who? Citation needed There are currently 3.5 million speakers of the language.
Italian is in practice a "literary version" of Tuscan. It became the language of culture for all the people of Italy,[16] thanks to the prestige of the masterpieces of Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. It would later become the official language of all the Italian states and of the Kingdom of Italy, when it was formed.[17]

Music

Tuscany has a rich ancient and modern musical tradition, and has boasted numerous composers and musicians, such as Giacomo Puccini, and Pietro Mascagni. Beyond Florence, the other nine other provinces in the region of Tuscany, named for the largest city in, and capital of, the respective province. .Taken together, they offer an intense musical life.^ They offer several "tasting" menus but beware, these are just full sized portions strung together until you are bursting.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

Florence is the main musical centre of Tuscany. The city was at the heart of much of our entire Western musical tradition. .It was there that the Florentine Camerata convened in the mid-1500s and experimented with setting tales of Greek mythology to music and staging the result—in other words, the first operas, setting the wheels in motion not just for the further development of the operatic form, but for later developments of separate "classical" forms such as the symphony.^ There is no way you could just stumble on it as panic would have set in well before you arrived if you were this lost!
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

There are numerous musical centres in Tuscany. .Arezzo is indelibly connected with the name of Guido d'Arezzo, the 11th-century monk who invented modern musical notation and the do-re-mi system of naming notes of the scale; Lucca hosted possibly the greatest Italian composer of Romanticism, Giacomo Puccinim and Siena is well-known for the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, an organization that currently sponsors major musical activities such as the Siena Music Week and the Alfredo Casella International Composition Competition.^ The restaurant is named after a legend of the monks who dreamed of building the Abbey and finally succeeded.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

Other important musical centres in Tuscany include Lucca, Pisa and Grosseto.

Literature

Tuscan poet and literary figure Petrarch.
Tuscany has a renowned literature, and has boasted several famous writers and poets, most notably Florentine author Dante. Tuscany's literary scene particularly thrived in the 13th century and the Renaissance.
In Tuscany, especially in the Middle Ages, popular love poetry existed. A school of imitators of the Sicilians was led by Dante da Majano, but its literary originality took another line — that of humorous and satirical poetry. The entirely democratic form of government created a style of poetry which stood strongly against the medieval mystic and chivalrous style. Devout invocation of God or of a lady came from the cloister and the castle; in the streets of the cities everything that had gone before was treated with ridicule or biting sarcasm. Folgore da San Gimignano laughs when in his sonnets he tells a party of Sienese youths the occupations of every month in the year, or when he teaches a party of Florentine lads the pleasures of every day in the week. Cenne della Chitarra laughs when he parodies Folgore's sonnets. The sonnets of Rustico di Filippo are half-fun and half-satire, as is the work of Cecco Angiolieri of Siena, the oldest humorist we know, a far-off precursor of Rabelais and Montaigne.
Another kind of poetry also began in Tuscany. Guittone d'Arezzo made art quit chivalry and Provençal forms for national motives and Latin forms. He attempted political poetry, and, although his work is often obscure, he prepared the way for the Bolognese school. Bologna was the city of science, and philosophical poetry appeared there. Guido Guinizelli was the poet after the new fashion of the art. In his work the ideas of chivalry are changed and enlarged. Only those whose heart is pure can be blessed with true love, regardless of class. He refuted the traditional credo of courtly love, for which love is a subtle philosophy only a few chosen knights and princesses could grasp. Love is blind to blasons but not to a good heart when it finds one: when it succeeds it is the result of the spiritual, not physical affinity between teo souls. Guinizzelli's democratic view can be better understood in the light of the greater equality and freedom enjoyed by the city-states of the center-north and the rise of a middle class eager to legitimise itself in the eyes of the old nobility, still regarded with respect and admiration but in fact dispossessed of its political power. Guinizelli's Canzoni make up the bible of Dolce Stil Novo, and one in particular, "Al cor gentil" ("To a Kind Heart") is considered the manifesto of the new movement which will bloom in Florence under Cavalcanti, Dante and their followers. His poetry has some of the faults of the school of d'Arezzo. Nevertheless, he marks a great development in the history of Italian art, especially because of his close connection with Dante's lyric poetry.
In the 13th century, there were several major allegorical poems. One of these is by Brunetto Latini, who was a close friend of Dante. His Tesoretto is a short poem, in seven-syllable verses, rhyming in couplets, in which the author professes to be lost in a wilderness and to meet with a lady, who represents Nature, from whom he receives much instruction. We see here the vision, the allegory, the instruction with a moral object, three elements which we shall find again in the Divine Comedy. Francesco da Barberino, a learned lawyer who was secretary to bishops, a judge, and a notary, wrote two little allegorical poems, the Documenti d'amore and Del reggimento e dei costumi delle donne. The poems today are generally studied not as literature, but for historical context. A fourth allegorical work was the Intelligenza, which is sometimes attributed to Compagni, but is probably only a translation of French poems.
In the 15th century, humanist and publisher Aldus Manutius published Tuscan poets Petrarch and Dante Alighieri (The Divine Comedy), creating the model for what became a standard for modern Italian.

Cuisine

A different assortion of Tuscan foods (from Lucca): wine, cold meats and different sorts of salamis and hams.
Simplicity is central to the Tuscan cuisine. Legumes, bread, cheese, vegetables, mushrooms and fresh fruit are used. .Olive oil is made from Moraiolo, Leccino, and Frantoiano olives.^ Kay had bruschetta dripping with house made olive oil, gnudi di ricotta (ravioli without the noodle) and fagioli.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

White truffles from San Miniato appear in October and November. Beef of the highest quality comes from the Chiana Valley, specifically a breed known as Chianina used for Florentine steak. Pork is also produced.[18] Here is a list of Tuscan dishes:
  • Acqua Cotta
  • Anatra all'arancia
  • Baccalà went livornese
  • Berlingozzo
  • Biroldo
  • Biscotti di Prato or Cantuccini or Biscotti di Prato
  • Bistecca alla fiorentina
  • Bottarga or Muggine Bottarga di di Orbetello
  • Brigidini
  • Brutti ma buoni
  • Buglione
  • Cacciucco
  • Farinata this or di Cecina
  • Cialde di Montecatini
  • Ciambellino
  • Cibreo
"Bistecca alla Fiorentina", or Florentine-style steak.
  • Cioncia
  • Confetti di Pistoia
  • Fagioli all'Uccelletto
  • Fettunta
  • Finocchiona or Sbriciolona
  • Frittelle di S. Giuseppe
  • Lampredotto
  • Lardo di Colonnata
  • Mallegato
  • Del M. Amiata Marroni
  • Migliacci
  • Mortadella di Prato
  • Pandiramerino
  • Panforte
  • Pan pepato
  • Panzanella or Panmolle
  • Pappa al pomodoro or Pancotto
  • Pappa maritata
  • Pappardelle al cinghiale
  • Pasimata
  • Porchetta
  • Prosciutto di Cinta Senese
  • Ribollita
  • Ricciarelli
  • Roventino
  • Schiacciata alla fiorentina
  • Schiacciata con l'uva
  • Testaroli
A bottle of Tignanello, a Tuscan wine.
  • Tordelli alla lucchese
  • Tordelli went Versiliese
  • Torta co 'becchi
  • Torta of herb
  • Torta co 'bischeri
  • Tortelli maremmani
  • Trippa alla fiorentina
  • Zuccotto
  • Zuppa arcidossina
.Wine is also a famous and very common produce of Tuscany.^ When I asked the waiter what to drink, his answer is that you expect Safreddi to be good (this is Le Pupiles very famous "super Tuscan" Morellino) but for a wine for 35.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

^ They have very good aged pecorino made by Barbi (a famous Brunello producer as well).
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

Chianti is arguably the most well-known internationally. .As a matter of fact, due to several British tourists coming to the area where Chianti wine is produced, this specific area has been nicknamed "Chiantishire".^ Excellent wine list including San Polo in Rosso, a wonderful but hard to find Chianti producer.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Postage stamps

4 crazie stamp from 1851
Between 1851 and 1860, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, an independent Italian state until 1859 when it joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, produced two postage stamp issues which are among the most prized classic stamp issues of the world, and include the most valuable Italian stamp. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was an independent Italian state from 1569 to 1859, but was occupied by France from 1808 to 1814. The Duchy comprised most of the present area of Tuscany, and its capital was Florence. In December 1859, the Grand Duchy officially ceased to exist, being joined to the Duchies of Modena and Parma to form the United Provinces of Central Italy, which was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia a few months later in March 1860. In 1862 it became part of Italy, and joined the Italian postal system.

Economy

Vineyards in the Chianti region.

Agriculture

The subsoil in Tuscany is relatively rich in mineral resources, with iron ore, copper, mercury and lignite mines, the famous soffioni (fumarole) at Larderello and the vast marble mines in Versilia. Although its share is falling all the time, agriculture still contributes to the region's economy. In the region's inland areas cereals, potatoes, olives and grapes (for the world-famous Chianti wines) are grown. The swamplands, which used to be marshy, now produce vegetables, rice, tobacco, beets and sunflowers.[3]

Industry

The industrial sector is dominated by mining, given the abundance of underground resources. Also of some note are the textiles, chemicals/pharmaceuticals, metalworking and steel, glass and ceramics, clothing and printing/publishing sectors. .Smaller areas specialising in manufacturing and craft industries are found in the hinterland: the leather and footwear area in the south-west part of the province of Florence, the hot-house plant area in Pistoia, the ceramics and textile industries in the Prato area, scooters and motorcycles in Pontedera, and the processing of timber for the manufacture of wooden furniture in the Cascina area.^ The restaurants are roughly grouped by area in Tuscany from south then going north to Florence (Firenze).
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

The heavy industries (mining, steel and mechanical engineering) are concentrated along the coastal strip (Livorno and Pisa areas), where there are also important chemical industries. Also of note are the marble (Carrara area) and paper industries (Lucca area).[3]

Tourism

Almost without exception, every town and city in Tuscany has considerable natural and architectural beauty. There is a continuous stream of visitors throughout the year. As a result, the services and distributive activities, that are so important to the region's economy, are particularly wide-ranging and highly organised.[3]

Fashion

Fashion is one of the pillars of the Florentine economy.
The fashion and textile industry are the pillars of the Florentine economy. In 15th century, the Florentines were already working the luxury textiles such as wool or silk noble. Today the greatest designers in Europe are using the textile industry in Tuscany and especially Florence.
Italy is the only European country to have a textile industry as strong, accounting for approximately one quarter of European production. Its turnover is over 25 billion euros. It is 3 (e)) (global supplier of clothing after China and Japan. 7% of world exports of clothing from there and only 4% of world exports fashion items. The Italian fashion generates 60% of its turnover abroad.[19]

Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1861 1,920,000
1871 2,124,000 10.6%
1881 2,187,000 3.0%
1901 2,503,000 14.4%
1911 2,670,000 6.7%
1921 2,810,000 5.2%
1931 2,914,000 3.7%
1936 2,978,000 2.2%
1951 3,159,000 6.1%
1961 3,286,000 4.0%
1971 3,473,000 5.7%
1981 3,581,000 3.1%
1991 3,530,000 −1.4%
2001 3,498,000 −0.9%
2008 (Est.) 3,701,000 5.8%
Source: ISTAT 2001
The population density of Tuscany, with 161 inhabitants per km² in 2008, is below the national average (198.8 inhabitants per km²). This is due mainly to the low population density of the provinces of Arezzo, Siena and, above all, Grosseto (50 inhabitants per km²). The highest density is found in the province of Prato (675 inhabitants per km²) followed by the provinces of Pistoia, Livorno, Florence and Lucca, peaking in the cities of Florence (more than 3,500 per km²), Livorno, Prato, Viareggio, Forte dei Marmi and Montecatini Terme (all with a population density of more than 1,000 inhabitants per km²). The territorial distribution of the population is closely linked to the socio-cultural and, more recently, economic and industrial development of Tuscany[3].
Accordingly, the least densely populated areas are those where the main activity is agriculture, unlike the others where, despite the presence of a number of large industrial complexes, the main activities are connected with tourism and associated services, alongside a plethora of small firms in the leather, glass, paper and clothing sectors[3].
Starting from the 1980s, the region attracted an intense flux of immigrants, in particular from China. There is also a significant community of British and American residents. As of 2008, the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 275,149 foreign-born immigrants live in Tuscany, equal to 7.4% of the total regional population.

Government and politics

Tuscany is a stronghold of the center-left Democratic Party, forming with Emilia-Romagna, Umbria and Marche the famous Italian political "Red Quadrilateral". At the April 2008 elections, Tuscany gave more than 50% of its votes to Walter Veltroni, and only 33.6% to Silvio Berlusconi.[20] [21]

Administrative divisions

Tuscany is divided into ten provinces:
Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)
Province of Arezzo 3,232 345,547 106.9
Province of Florence 3,514 983,073 279.8
Province of Grosseto 4,504 225,142 50.0
Province of Livorno 1,218 340.387 279.5
Province of Lucca 1,773 389,495 219.7
Province of Massa-Carrara 1,157 203.449 175.8
Province of Pisa 2,448 409,251 167.2
Province of Pistoia 965 289,886 300.4
Province of Prato 365 246,307 674.8
Province of Siena 3,281 268,706 81.9

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". http://demo.istat.it/str2007/query.php?lingua=ita&Rip=S3&Reg=R09&Pro=P000&Com=&paese=A9999&submit=Tavola. Retrieved 10 March 2010. 
  2. ^ Caroline Bremner (11 Oct 2007). "Top 150 City Destinations: London Leads the Way". Euromonitor International. http://www.euromonitor.com/Top_150_City_Destinations_London_Leads_the_Way. Retrieved 10 March 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f [http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/regportraits/info/data/en/ite1_geo.htm TOSCANA - Geography and history] Text finalised in March 2004 - Eurostat
  4. ^ Military (Discovery network) Channel documentary series: "Rome: Power and Glory", episode title: "The Grasp of an Empire", copyright unknown, rebroadcast 11-12:00 hrs EDST, 2009-06-29.
  5. ^ a b c d e Barker 2000, p. 5
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jones 2005, p. 2
  7. ^ a b Barker 2000, p. 1
  8. ^ Barker 2000, p. 4
  9. ^ a b Jones 2005, p. 3
  10. ^ "The Economic Impact of the Black Death". EH.Net.
  11. ^ Snell, Melissa (2006), The Great Mortality, Historymedren.about.com, http://historymedren.about.com/od/theblackdeath/a/greatmortality_2.htm, retrieved 2009-04-19 
  12. ^ Cipolla, Carlo M. Fighting the Plague in Seventeenth Century Italy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981.
  13. ^ http://travelguide.affordabletours.com/search/Article/guide/19/
  14. ^ Art in Florence http://www.learner.org/interactives/renaissance/florence_sub2.html
  15. ^ Renaissance Artists http://library.thinkquest.org/2838/artgal.htm
  16. ^ http://www.lifeinitaly.com/italian/language-history.asp
  17. ^ http://www.babylon.com/definition/Tuscan_dialect/English
  18. ^ Piras, 221-239.
  19. ^ Site sur la mode
  20. ^ (Italian)La Repubblica, speciale elezioni 2008
  21. ^ (Italian) La Repubblica, speciale elezioni 2008

References

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Italy : Central Italy : Tuscany
Tuscany in Italy.
Tuscany in Italy.
.Tuscany (Italian: Toscana) [1] is a region on Italy's west coast, on the Tyrrhenian sea.^ Read: 1229 times Last updated: 1/14/09 Rated: 4 out of 4 helpful Tags: italian , italians , italy , rome , sicily , tuscany .
  • Lists & Guides tagged with tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Home > West Side > Italian > Tuscany .
  • Tuscany - Chicago Restaurant - MenuPages Italian Restaurant Search 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC chicago.menupages.com [Source type: General]

.It is one of the most popular places to visit in a country that is itself one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world.^ Your reward is to get the combination of two of Italy's most popular honeymoon destinations, without needing to stay in Rome, in the middle.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ Saturnia is one of the most popular spa retreats in Europe, but it wasn't always that way.
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

^ Biking is one of our passions, so it is no accident that we are located in some of the best biking country in the world.
  • Tuscany Bike Classic - All Tours - Biking 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.customwalks.com [Source type: General]

.There are several reasons to visit Tuscany: some of the most important ones are seeing Renaissance art in Florence, eating Tuscan food and tasting the excellent local wines, and after all this enjoying a day at the beach in Viareggio.^ Here are some of our favorite places to eat in Florence and Tuscany .
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

^ The writer clearly spent some quality time there and his wife contributed the most excellent photos.

^ The scenes that we saw while driving around Tuscany were some of the highlights of our trip (besides the wine!!
  • Tuscany Transportation - Tuscany Car, Train, Bus and Taxi Advice - VirtualTourist.com 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

The 10 provinces of Tuscany.
The 10 provinces of Tuscany.

Other destinations

Understand

.Tuscany has two very diverse faces - the art cities such as Florence, Siena, Lucca and Pisa on one hand, and the countryside on the other.^ Not only a landscape, Tuscany raised the cities of Pisa, Siena, and Florence.

^ Vacation rentals in Florence, Siena, Lucca, Pisa.
  • Tuscany villa rental:tuscany accommodation in apartments,farmhouses,farm holidays,tuscany vacation rental 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.agriturismo.net [Source type: General]

^ Woolen textiles, the growth of banking, fine printing, tooled leather, necessary and luxury foodstuffs; these fueled the economies of Siena, Pisa, Florence and Lucca, but emergent capitalism is the least of what we remember.

.The small towns, villages, castles, villas and vineyards of Tuscany make a welcome change from the traffic and noise of some of the larger Tuscan cities.^ This will be a in a small town or village, for a contrasting experience to the city of Siena.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ Villa Monticini Tuscany; 7 miles to Florence/ 1 mile to village Very nice 11 bedroom/ 6-1/2 bath villa with pool, private chapel and panoramic views .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

^ Villa Petrina Tuscany region- 10 km from Lucca, 3kms to Shops Nice 9 bedroom/ 6 bath villa with pool and some air conditioning .
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

Get in

By air

.International flights commonly come in to Milan or Rome, where one can rent a car and do the three-hour drive to Tuscany.^ To this Rome-grown girl, "Tuscany" was one of many Italian exports, each one unequal, or incomparable, to the other.

.Florence and Pisa have important airports.^ Florence Airport Pisa Airport Railways Florence buses Other line buses Taxi Rent-a-car Highway maps .
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

^ Pisa is sometimes referred to as “Florence airport”, although in fact Florence has its own international airport.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

^ Italian airline Meridiana fly into Florence City airport from Gatwick, UK. British Airways has regular flights to Pisa Airport from London Gatwick.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

Every major city has a railway station.
  • Pisa International Airport Galileo Galilei [2], located 1.5km (1 mile) north of Pisa city centre.
  • Florence Airport Amerigo Vespucci [3], Located four kilometers from the center of Florence.
.Do note that Delta Airlines (US Carrier) now has a direct flight from New-York JFK to Pisa, offering a cheaper, alternative to flying into Florence.^ You can fly into Pisa (PSA) or Florence (FLR).
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ You start by flying into the airport at Florence, where you pick up your vehicle.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ Italian airline Meridiana fly into Florence City airport from Gatwick, UK. British Airways has regular flights to Pisa Airport from London Gatwick.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

By train

.Florence, Pisa and Grosseto are important rail destinations.^ Main menu Search by Town Zoom in: Florence Pisa Siena Arezzo Lucca Prato Pistoia Massa - Carrara Livorno Grosseto Islands .
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

.Florence has two major rail stations, Santa Maria Novella (SMN) in the city center and Campo di Marte (CdM) a bit further away.^ Places of Interest Florence Florence – Firenze in Italian - is the capital of Tuscany, and a good reference point for navigating your way around the city is its central train station, Santa Maria Novella ('Firenze SMN').
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

^ When you arrive at the Florence airport, your private transfer driver will be waiting to take you to the Medieval city of Siena, in the heart of Tuscany, for a 3-night stay in the center of the city.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ Then your transfer driver will pick you up for the drive into Florence, where you will spend your final two nights in Tuscany at a 5-star hotel in the very center of the city, convenient to the best shopping and museums Florence has to offer.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

.Connections from Florence to the rest of Italy by train are generally fast and frequent and EuroStar Italia services are available.^ The national train system, Trenitalia ( www.trenitalia.it ) services Tuscan towns like Florence , Siena , Arezzo and Pisa .

^ Shops & Services Florence has Italy's most comprehensive shopping.
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

Easy connections can be found to:
Night train services are available from Florence to:
and others.

Get around

By train

From the central station of Florence you can easily reach most places in Tuscany, including:
.
  • Siena (1.5 to 2 hours)
  • Pisa (1 to 1.5 hours)
  • San Gimignano (by train to Poggibonsi, 1 hour ride, and then a bus that runs every 30-40 minutes, 25 minute ride)
  • Volterra (also reachable by bus from Poggibonsi)
  • Lucca
  • Arezzo
  • Cathedrals.^ Lucca, San Gimignano, and Viareggio are also hers.

    ^ Most travelers spend their Tuscan vacations in Florence, Siena or Pisa, but there are countless historical jewels in southern Tuscany too, including Pienza, Montepulciano and Arezzo.
    • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Farmhouse Quadrifoglio is located on the heart of Tuscany near the Medieval city of San Gimignano and Volterra.
    • Tuscany Farmhouses:Agriturismo Toscana,Farm Holidays in Tuscany - Tuscany Accommodation.com 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.tuscanyaccommodation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Every Tuscan city has a cathedral (duomo), each one prettier than the other.  edit
  • David, [4].^ You can walk from one end of the city centre to the other in about half an hour.
    • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the 12th century many Tuscan cities were free ‘comuni’ and were constantly fighting each other.
    • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

    Michelangelo's masterpiece is in the Galleria dell'Accademia in Florence. .Copies in the same city on Piazza della Signoria and Piazzale Michelangelo.  edit
  • Leaning tower.^ We wandered around the Piazza del Duomo, Piazza Della Signoria, window-shopped on the Ponte Vecchio eyeballing all the jewelry shops.

    ^ In Stock The Diary of Melanie Martin: or How I Survived Matt the Brat, Michelangelo, and the Leaning Tower of Pizza (Melanie Martin Novels) by Carol Weston ( 19 ) Price: $5.50 .
    • Lists & Guides tagged with tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    .The instantly recognizable landmark is in Pisa on the square of miracles, Piazza dei miracoli.  edit
  • Uffizi Gallery, [5].^ Pisa in Virtual Reality From ComPart, excellent 360-degree views from Piazza dei Miracoli, with an aerial map for perspective.
    • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

    The best collection of Renaissance art in the world is in Florence.  edit

Do

.Besides wandering in beautiful cities and looking at Renaissance art, there are many other things you can do in Tuscany.^ You can stay in the city itself or in a villa or farmhouse in the beautiful surrounding Lucca countryside.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

^ When you arrive at the Florence airport, your private transfer driver will be waiting to take you to the Medieval city of Siena, in the heart of Tuscany, for a 3-night stay in the center of the city.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ To finish your week in Tuscany, you will have a final private transfer to the city of Florence where you're close to the airport.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

.For example, you can learn to cook or just taste Tuscan food, do trekking, golf or go to a health spa.^ There will be 3 days of cooking classes, held each day from mid-morning until early afternoon, during which time you will learn to prepare complete meals and then have lunch, with wine, on the foods you have prepared.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ They offer several "tasting" menus but beware, these are just full sized portions strung together until you are bursting.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

^ You go through a cafeteria line to choose your food and, if you order a panini, you get a ticket for that.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

.Most of the important traditional wine producers are located along the axis formed by Florence and Siena.^ It was only with the domination of Florence under the Medici that the region united and became one of the most important cultural centres in Europe.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

^ Near the Residence are the Costa Degli Etruschi, Elba Isle, and within easy reach lie important cities like Pisa, Siena and Florence.

^ Most travelers spend their Tuscan vacations in Florence, Siena or Pisa, but there are countless historical jewels in southern Tuscany too, including Pienza, Montepulciano and Arezzo.
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

.The most famous region is Chianti along with neighboring Montalcino and Montepulciano.^ Chianti No guide to Tuscany, however brief, would be complete without mentioning perhaps the most famous landscape in the world.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course, Tuscany is home to many world renowned and beautiful cities, the most famous being the art city of Florence, which is the regional capital and home to some of the most stunning art treasures in the world.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

^ As Italy’s most famous region it covers the largest area in central Italy.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

.The white wines are less famous than the reds, but as an exception the Vernaccia of San Gimignano is recognized as a DOCG wine.^ In the province of Siena (also famous for its great wines, such as Chianti and Brunello) Montepulciano and Pienza stand out, extraordinary gems of renaissance art, and San Gimignano, with its famous towers and turreted houses.
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

^ The fact that the area is home to a number of notable red wines, including the famous Chianti makes it even more special.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

.The Tuscan wine industry has evolved a lot during the last 30-40 years, and the result is what is called Super Tuscan wine, famously produced in Bolgheri but also in Maremma and many other parts of Tuscany.^ The flattest part of Tuscany is along the coast of Versilia in the north and the Maremma in the south.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

^ You'll tour south from Siena into the Val d'Orcia, what we call the calendar country of Tuscany, because you see so many pictures from that area on calendars and in picture books.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ Da Duccio is a medium sized restaurant with lots of wood and lots of artifacts of the wine industry on the walls (old bills of sale from Biondi Santi Brunello etc).
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

  • [6]. .The impressive Abbey of San Galgano and its best sight: the sword in the stone
  • Organic Tuscany Cooking Classes (Italian Cooking School), Loc.^ Chianti Cooking Week ~ 6 nights Hotels + rental car + 3 cooking classes + private Tuscany tour .
    • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

    Pino, Certaldo 50052
    , + 1 347 417 5907, [7]. .Organic Tuscany offers week-long cooking classes in the Tuscan countryside with accommodation in a magnificent 19th century villa.^ Tuscany.Net Castles & Villas This lovely and thorough site from a company based in Florence, Italy, offers a selection of castles, villas and farmhouses (and apartments therein) in the Tuscany countryside, with online booking.
    • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Chianti Cooking Week ~ 6 nights Hotels + rental car + 3 cooking classes + private Tuscany tour .
    • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you choose a rural Tuscany location, you can walk in the countryside, or sit by a pool looking over a memorable Tuscan view.
    • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

    The program includes visits to local organic farms where the fresh, local food they use is grown, hands-on cooking lessons with traditional Tuscan and Italian recipes, wine and oil tastings and tours of Florence and Siena.
     edit
DOC, DOCG, IGT?
Tuscany boasts over 30 wines with a Denominazione di origine controllata certificate, some of which have also obtained the Denominazione di origine controllata e garantita certificate. .The denominations witness to the strong dedication of the people of this land to vine-growing, and their deep knowledge of wine-making techniques.^ Tuscany every day offer the beauty, knowledge, and fascination of the ingenuity of men that have created beautiful masterpieces to make of Tuscany the land it is today.

.But some of the best Tuscan wines are labeled with the less strict Indicazione geografica tipica designation, often a sign of a more modern, "international" wine.^ In Italy reader John Yacovelle has some great suggestions for how to have the very best time on your Tuscan vacation .
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

^ More Information Tuscan Wine Tour .

.The question about what to drink in Tuscany is easy to answer.^ Browse through our Tuscany rentals and reserve a villa online, or call one of our vacation specialists and they will be happy to answer any questions you have about your Italy villa vacation holiday planning.
  • Tuscany Villa Rentals| Tuscany holidays| Tuscany Villas for Rent| Villas in Tuscany| Vacation in Tuscany| Luxury Tuscan Farmhouses| Wimco.com 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.wimco.com [Source type: News]
  • Tuscany Villa Rentals| Tuscany holidays| Tuscany Villas for Rent| Villas in Tuscany| Vacation in Tuscany| Luxury Tuscan Farmhouses| Wimco.com 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.wimco.com [Source type: News]

.The region is famed for its wines, most notably the sangiovese reds Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and the white Vernaccia di San Gimignano.^ There are two Tuscan red wines you can sample this day, the Vino Nobile of Montepulciano and the impressive Brunello of Montalcino.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ Known throughout the world for its wine and its countryside of unequalled beauty, the Chianti region is dotted with woods, vineyards, and groves of olive trees.

^ Then enjoy the peaceful atmosphere of San Gimignano, famous for its numerous towers, frescoes, and Vernaccia white wine.

.Of these, Chianti can be anything from inexpensive, drinkable plonk to, when it comes to the best examples of Chianti Classico, a world class wine.^ Known throughout the world for its wine and its countryside of unequalled beauty, the Chianti region is dotted with woods, vineyards, and groves of olive trees.

^ The best is toast, liver pâté and Vin Santo, the local dessert wine, which comes in a pot with a paint brush.
  • Tuscany on two wheels | Travel | The Observer 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The following day, you get another private tour, this time focusing on Chianti Classico wines.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

.The wines of Montalcino and Montepulciano are generally of a high standard, and in particular Brunello regularly receives lots of awards (something reflected on the price as well).^ Da Duccio is a medium sized restaurant with lots of wood and lots of artifacts of the wine industry on the walls (old bills of sale from Biondi Santi Brunello etc).
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two Tuscan red wines you can sample this day, the Vino Nobile of Montepulciano and the impressive Brunello of Montalcino.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ If you wish to spend your entire day around Montalcino and its Brunello wines, it's your call.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

.If you are not prepared to pay a fortune for your wine but would still like something a bit nicer, both Montalcino and Montepulciano have the common man's version of their wines, Rosso di Montalcino and Rosso di Montepulciano.^ We will then be able to determine the availability of the property you would like to reserve.
  • Tuscany Inland Vacation Rentals from Tuscany Rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyrentals.net [Source type: General]

^ For the finish of your Italy honeymoon, you will be transferred to Florence, so that you can be prepared to fly out of that city.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two Tuscan red wines you can sample this day, the Vino Nobile of Montepulciano and the impressive Brunello of Montalcino.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

Of these traditional wines perhaps only Brunello has the power to accompany a big Florentine steak, bistecca alla fiorentina. .For something fleshier, you have to turn to the Super Tuscan wines.^ When I asked the waiter what to drink, his answer is that you expect Safreddi to be good (this is Le Pupiles very famous "super Tuscan" Morellino) but for a wine for 35.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two Tuscan red wines you can sample this day, the Vino Nobile of Montepulciano and the impressive Brunello of Montalcino.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

These commonly use cabernet sauvignon to complement or to completely replace the traditional grapes. Famous examples are Sassicaia and Tignanello.

Sleep

Renting

.Renting in Tuscany is a very popular way of staying in the beautiful Tuscan countryside.^ If you choose a rural Tuscany location, you can walk in the countryside, or sit by a pool looking over a memorable Tuscan view.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ T uscany C astle S tay with R ome, F lorence, & V enice ~ Here's how to get a great countryside Tuscany experience without renting a car.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ Here's Tuscany the easy way -- with support and a plan, not as a do-it-yourself villa stay.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

.Many Italian owners have renovated palazzos, castles, farmhouses, villas and barns that are dotted around the beautiful rolling countryside.^ Known throughout the world for its wine and its countryside of unequalled beauty, the Chianti region is dotted with woods, vineyards, and groves of olive trees.

^ You can stay in the city itself or in a villa or farmhouse in the beautiful surrounding Lucca countryside.
  • Tuscany - a Brief Guide to the Region and the Cities of Florence, Siena, Pisa and Arezzo 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.landscapeproperties.com [Source type: General]

^ Tuscany.Net Castles & Villas This lovely and thorough site from a company based in Florence, Italy, offers a selection of castles, villas and farmhouses (and apartments therein) in the Tuscany countryside, with online booking.
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

.Years ago, many of the rental properties were of questionable quality—some were dark, kitchens were old fashioned, bathrooms often had a shower nozzle on the wall, the drain in the floor, no curtain and the toilet right alongside.^ Situated within a short stroll of a medieval walled town with cafe and restaurants and which hosts many events throughout the year.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (It is possible to buy more land).It consist of entrance, livingroom with fireplace, kitchen/dining room, double bedroom on the ground floor; 2 bedrooms and bathroom on the first floor.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The house is layed out on two floors with an entrance, large living/dining room, kitchen corner, sitting room, and bathroom.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Now the standard of renovation is quite high. A property, if fully renovated, will usually have newly tiled kitchens, bathrooms with shower stall, and brand-new appliances. Simple renovations will often have large rooms with little furniture in them. .There will be one main room with a dining table alongside an open kitchen and one sofa (even if the house sleeps 6!).^ There were exactly 4 of us in the dining room.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

^ In the hills to south, small barn, to be totally restored and converted into civil house, but with approved project and urbanization tax payed .The project consist in: living-room open-space with kitchen, bathroom on the ground floor; one bedroom in the first floor; typical basement recreation room.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think you have to be one of his drinking buddies to dine down there.
  • Slow Travel Italy - Dean's Tuscany Restaurant List, recommendations 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.slowtrav.com [Source type: General]

The kitchen will have a stove top and no oven, and no TV or telephone. More elegant properties will have sponge-painted walls, artwork, and beds with high-quality linens. Bathrooms can have ornate fixtures.
.Italian owners are learning they can go online and promote their own property.^ Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finding a property that is located in the situation you want and that offers all the amenities you desire depends on how detailed and open each owner is.^ The museums where you will find the special stands are a total of ten, each located in one of the ten provinces of Tuscany.

^ Come along, and find out how to make panzanella while you're at it.
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

^ For the cities, you'll get hotels we've carefully chosen for their locations and reliability, plus our tips for what to see and how to organize your time.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

Clearly each traveler needs to evaluate her own willingness to risk dealing with an unknown owner. .In addition to working with an individual Italian owner through her own website, there are many agencies that represent Italian owners and have offer a selection to clients.^ Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com.
  • Tuscany Italy Property for sale, buy Italian properties, Tuscany Italy real estate sales, cheap bank owned investment properties, for sale by owner, agent MLS listings - holprop.com. 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.holprop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.TUSCANY (Toscana), a territorial division of Italy, consisting of the western part of the centre of the peninsula, bounded N.W. by Liguria and Emilia, E. by the Marches and Umbria, S.E. by the province of Rome and W. by the Mediterranean.^ In 1860 Tuscany became part of Italy.

^ The triangular shaped region is bordered by Liguria, Emilia-Romagna, Marches, Umbria, and Latium.

^ Villa holidays and villas with pools to rent with Traditional Tuscany Holidays www.traditionaltuscany.co.uk Specialising in villa holidays, villas with private pools & villa resorts across popular holiday destinations in Italy including Tuscany, Umbria, Le Marche and Lazio.
  • Traditional Tuscany | Facebook 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]

.It consists of eight provinces, Arezzo, Firenze (Florence), Grosseto, Livorno (Leghorn), Lucca, Massa-Carrara, Pisa and Siena, and has an area of 9304 sq.^ Tuscany has an area of 9304 sq.

^ Its main cities include Florence, Pisa, Siena, Lucca, Arezzo and Livorno.
  • Tuscany Vacations, Tourism and Tuscany, Italy Travel Reviews - TripAdvisor 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tuscany is one of the regions (administratively "Regione") of central Italy and includes the provinces of Arezzo , Florence , Grosseto , Livorno , Massa , Carrara , Pisa and Sienna .

m. Pop. .(1901), 2,566,741. The chief railway centre is Florence, whence radiate lines to Bologna (for Milan and the north), Faenza, Lucca, Pisa and Leghorn, and Arezzo for Rome.^ The chief railway centre is Florence , whence radiate lines to Bologna (for Milan and the north), Faenza , Lucca, Pisa and Leghorn , and Arezzo for Rome.

^ A regular bus service links Cortona to the rail station on a mainline to Florence , Rome as well as Perugia , Arezzo , Assisi , and Orvieto .
  • Gorgacce Rentals: Tuscany Villas & Apartments > Cortona & Spello Apartments > Cortona, Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.tuscanyumbria.com [Source type: General]

^ The main art centres of Tuscany are Florence, Pisa and Siena, the headquarters of the chief schools of painting and sculpture from the r3th century onwards.

.Siena stands on a branch leaving the Florence-Pisa line at Empoli and running through the centre of Tuscany to Chiusi, where it joins the Florence-Rome railway.^ Not only a landscape, Tuscany raised the cities of Pisa, Siena, and Florence.

^ Siena stands on a branch leaving the Florence-Pisa line at Empoli and running through the centre of Tuscany to Chiusi , where it joins the Florence-Rome railway.

^ A short trip by train provides access to the beauty of Florence, Rome, Perugia and Siena, a unique experience with exposure to great works of art, particularly The Renaissance.
  • Painting Tuscany Official Website 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.artuscany.net [Source type: General]

.The line from Rome to Genoa runs along the coast throughout the entire length of Tuscany, and at Montepescali throws off a branch joining the Empoli-Chiusi line at Asciano, and at Follonica another to Massa Marittima.^ The line from Rome to Genoa runs along the coast throughout the entire length of Tuscany, and at Montepescali throws off a branch joining the Empoli-Chiusi line at Asciano , and at Follonica another to Massa Marittima .

^ Siena stands on a branch leaving the Florence-Pisa line at Empoli and running through the centre of Tuscany to Chiusi , where it joins the Florence-Rome railway.

^ Culture The best-known attractions of Tuscany are probably Florence, Pisa, Lucca and Siena, but also Massa Marittima, Bolgheri, Livorno, Chiusi, Arezzo, Pitigliano, San Gimignano, and many more are necessarily worth a visit.
  • Accommodations for your holiday vacations in tuscany offered by Tuscany Holiday Houses 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.tuscany-holiday-houses.com [Source type: General]

.Except towards the coast and around Lucca, Florence and Arezzo, where the beds of prehistoric lakes form plains, the country is hilly, being intersected with sub-Apennine spurs.^ Except towards the coast and around Lucca, Florence and Arezzo, where the beds of prehistoric lakes form plains, the country is hilly, being intersected with sub-Apennine spurs.

^ Travelers to Tuscany will not want to miss seeing the jewels of Florence and Siena, Lucca , Pisa, Arezzo, San Gimignano, Montepulciano, Pienza and many others.
  • Tuscany Villa Rental - Chianti and Siena villas 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.villasitalia.com [Source type: General]

^ Ecclesiastically it is divided into the provinces of Florence, with 6 suffragan dioceses ; Pisa , with 4 suffragans; Siena , with 5 suffragans, the Archdiocese of Lucca ; and the immediate Dioceses of Arezzo , Cortona , Montalcino , Montepulciano , and Pienza.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most fertile country in Tuscany is in the valley of the Arno, where the plains and slopes of the hills are highly cultivated.^ The most fertile country in Tuscany is in the valley of the Arno , where the plains and slopes of the hills are highly cultivated.

^ Tuscany has long been cultivated for both food and beauty and its natural elements, combined with the grooming of its artistically-inclined residents, have created one of the most beautiful spots in the world.
  • Travel Tuscany Guide - fitforeurope.com 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.fitforeurope.com [Source type: General]

^ With the best of Mediterranean weather year-round, fertile hills, fresh food and friendly faces Tuscany is a sort of European dream-land.
  • Travel Tuscany Guide - fitforeurope.com 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.fitforeurope.com [Source type: General]

.In strong contrast with this is the coast plain known as the Maremma, 850 sq.^ In strong contrast with this is the coast plain known as the Maremma , 850 sq.

m. in extent, where malaria has been prevalent since the depopulation of the country in the middle ages. .Here in the first half of the 19th century the grand duke Leopold II. of Tuscany began an elaborate system of drainage, which was gradually extended until it covered nearly the whole of the district.^ Here in the first half of the 19th century the grand duke Leopold II. of Tuscany began an elaborate system of drainage, which was gradually extended until it covered nearly the whole of the district.

^ In the first half of the 14th century, it was under various Signorie and in 1369 it became a Republic remaining independent, except during the Guinigi Signorie (1400-1430) and the Napoleonic period, until 1847 when it was included in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, from then on sharing its fortunes.
  • Lucca tuscany Italy walled town tuscan rampart medieval Renaissance architecture tuscany tourist sight seeing 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.welcometuscany.it [Source type: General]

^ Tuscany has a population of nearly 3.5 million and covers an area of about 23 km, making it the fifth largest region in the nation.

.The greater part of the Maremma now affords pasture to large herds of horses and half-wild cattle, but on the drier parts corn is grown, the people coming down from the hills to sow and to reap.^ The greater part of the Maremma now affords pasture to large herds of horses and half-wild cattle , but on the drier parts corn is grown, the people coming down from the hills to sow and to reap.

^ The southern Tuscan coast becomes the Maremma, once a malaria-ridden backwater but now home to the famed Maremma cattle and the 'butteri', cowboys who tend them.
  • About Tuscany - tourist information, useful tips and sightseeing guide 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.knowital.com [Source type: General]

^ People coming to Tuscany for business, coming to Tuscany for tourism, coming to Tuscany for inspiration, coming to Tuscany for Love or, better yet, coming to Tuscany to buy a villa or hill-top farmhouse.
  • Tuscany Tours - Tuscan Cooking and Wine Tours in Tuscany, Italy 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.tuscanway.com [Source type: General]

.The hill country just inland, especially near Volterra, has poor soil, largely clayey, and subject to landslips, but is rich in minerals.^ The hill country just inland, especially near Volterra , has poor soil, largely clayey, and subject to landslips, but is rich in minerals.

^ The Maremma is a large and diverse area of southwestern Tuscany and northernmost Latium, encompassing the Tyrrhenian seashore, coastal plains and inland hill towns.

^ Journeying west, close to the coastline, the unmistakable fiery red Colline metallifere (metal-bearing hills) rich in ores and minerals, roll down to the sea.
  • Map of Tuscany Italy - ItalyGuides.it 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italyguides.it [Source type: General]

.But for the Maremma, Tuscany is one of the most favoured regions of Italy.^ But for the Maremma, Tuscany is one of the most favoured regions of Italy.

^ One of the most popular regions in Italy, Tuscany stretches from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Apennines.
  • Tuscany Vacations, Tourism and Tuscany, Italy Travel Reviews - TripAdvisor 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tuscany is one of the most extended and beautiful regions of Italy and its formed as a big triangle.

.The climate is temperate, and the rainfall not excessive.^ The climate is temperate, and the rainfall not excessive.

.The Apennines shelter it from the cold north winds, and the prevailing winds in the west, blowing in from the Tyrrhenian Sea, are warm and humid, though Florence is colder and more windy than Rome in the winter and hotter in summer, owing to its being shut in among the mountains.^ But there is more to Tuscany than Florence.
  • Tuscany - Italy - Luxury Travel Destination 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC simonandbaker.com [Source type: General]

^ It is bordered by the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west and is crossed by the Apennine Mountains.

^ The Apennines shelter it from the cold north winds, and the prevailing winds in the west, blowing in from the Tyrrhenian Sea, are warm and humid, though Florence is colder and more windy than Rome in the winter and hotter in summer, owing to its being shut in among the mountains.

.Wheat, maize, wine (especially the red wine which takes the name of Chianti from the district S.S.W. of Florence), olive oil, tobacco, chestnuts and flowers are the chief products of Tuscany.^ Typical products of Tuscany, wine, food.
  • Tuscany .Fun, travel guide to Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.tuscanyfun.com [Source type: News]

^ The Chianti area of Tuscany has been a hotspot for wine production for hundreds of years.

^ Wheat , maize , wine (especially the red wine which takes the name of Chianti from the district S.S.W. of Florence), olive oil, tobacco , chestnuts and flowers are the chief products of Tuscany.

.Mules, sheep and cattle' are bred, and beeswax is produced in large quantities.^ Mules, sheep and cattle' are bred, and beeswax is produced in large quantities.

But the real wealth of Tuscany lies in its minerals. .Iron, mercury, boracic acid, copper, salt, lignite, statuary marble, alabaster and Sienese earth are all found in considerable quantities, while mineral and hot springs abound, some of which (e.g.^ From the subsoil are hoisted lignite, marble, pyrites, alabaster, rock-salt and iron.

^ Iron , mercury , boracic acid , copper , salt , lignite , statuary marble , alabaster and Sienese earth are all found in considerable quantities, while mineral and hot springs abound, some of which (e.g.

^ It was founded in 1854 after some workmen excavating in a nearby lime quarry discovered the cave and under water thermal spring.

.Montecatini and Bagni di Lucca) are well known as health resorts.^ Montecatini and Bagni di Lucca) are well known as health resorts.

^ Mura di Sopra Restored 15th century farmhouse near Bagni di Lucca.
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

^ The Garfagnana Barga Bagni di Lucca Borgo a Mozzano Castelnuovo Castiglione garfagnana Camporgiano Cave of the wind Fosciandora Minucciano Orrido di botri .
  • Lucca tuscany Italy walled town tuscan rampart medieval Renaissance architecture tuscany tourist sight seeing 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.welcometuscany.it [Source type: General]

.The industries of Tuscany are exceedingly varied and carried on with great activity.^ The industries of Tuscany are exceedingly varied and carried on with great activity.

.There are universities at Pisa and Siena.^ There are beautiful cities famous for their culture and art to visit including Florence, Siena, Pisa and Lucca and festivals and galleries galore.
  • Tuscany, family friendly, family friendly accommodation, see and do with the family holidaykids, family holiday, sticky fingers travel 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.stickyfingerstravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Most travelers spend their Tuscan vacations in Florence, Siena or Pisa, but there are countless historical jewels in southern Tuscany too, including Pienza, Montepulciano and Arezzo.
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

.Viareggio and Leghorn are much frequented for sea-bathing, while the latter is a prosperous port.^ Viareggio and Leghorn are much frequented for sea-bathing, while the latter is a prosperous port.

.The main art centres of Tuscany are Florence, Pisa and Siena, the headquarters of the chief schools of painting and sculpture from the r3th century onwards.^ The main art centres of Tuscany are Florence, Pisa and Siena, the headquarters of the chief schools of painting and sculpture from the r3th century onwards.

^ Not only a landscape, Tuscany raised the cities of Pisa, Siena, and Florence.

^ A short trip by train provides access to the beauty of Florence, Rome, Perugia and Siena, a unique experience with exposure to great works of art, particularly The Renaissance.
  • Painting Tuscany Official Website 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.artuscany.net [Source type: General]

.While the former city, however, bore as prominent a part as any in Italy in the Renaissance, the art of Pisa ceased, owing to the political decline of the city, to make any advance at a comparatively early period, its importance being in ecclesiastical architecture in the 12th, and in sculpture in the 13th century.^ While the former city, however, bore as prominent a part as any in Italy in the Renaissance , the art of Pisa ceased, owing to the political decline of the city, to make any advance at a comparatively early period , its importance being in ecclesiastical architecture in the 12th, and in sculpture in the 13th century.

^ However, today Florence is most widely recognized as the symbol of Tuscany’s Renaissance, due in great part to the dominant ruling family of the period, the Medici.
  • Tuscany - Italy - Luxury Travel Destination 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC simonandbaker.com [Source type: General]

^ Holiday with peace in a strategic point, where you can make cultural visits in the most famous art cities, Florence, Arezzo, Cortona, Siena, San Gimignano ...
  • Tuscany Elite Accommodations - Tuscany accommodations vacation rentals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC tuscanyeliteaccommodation.com [Source type: General]

.Siena, too, never accepted the Renaissance to the full, and its art retained an individual character without making much progress.^ Siena, too, never accepted the Renaissance to the full, and its art retained an individual character without making much progress.

^ A short trip by train provides access to the beauty of Florence, Rome, Perugia and Siena, a unique experience with exposure to great works of art, particularly The Renaissance.
  • Painting Tuscany Official Website 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.artuscany.net [Source type: General]

^ Siena Whilst the Florentines were "improving" their city during the renaissance the Senese were minding their own business and as a result much of the city's architecture remains as it was in the middle ages.
  • Tuscany Farmhouses for Rent, Villas, apartments - Accommodation in Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.tuscanyfarmhouses.org [Source type: General]

.The language of Tuscany is remarkable for its purity of idiom, and its adoption by Dante and Petrarch probably led to its becoming the literary language of Italy.^ Tuscany has become synonymous with Italy.
  • Italy: Tuscany -- Karen Brown�s Tuscany Hotels - Top Inns, Bed and Breakfasts and Agriturismo Lodging to travel by in Italy 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.karenbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ The language of Tuscany is remarkable for its purity of idiom , and its adoption by Dante and Petrarch probably led to its becoming the literary language of Italy.

^ Tuscana Modern Italian was born in Tuscany, from the great literature of Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio.
  • Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.galeit.com [Source type: General]

.(See Italian Language, VOl.^ (See Italian Language , VOl.

xiv. p. .895.) See E. Repetti, Dizionario geografico fisico storico della Toscana (6 vols., Florence, 1834-1846).^ See E. Repetti, Dizionario geografico fisico storico della Toscana (6 vols., Florence, 1834-1846).

^ In Arezzo, about 50 miles southeast of Florence, see the famous frescoes of Piero della Francesca at the Church of San Francesco .

^ GALLUZZI, Storia del granducato di Toscana sotto il governo della casa Medici (5th ed., 18 vols., Florence, 1830); NAPIER, Florentine History (6 vols.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tuscany 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.See also G. Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (2 vols., London, 1883).^ See also G. Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (2 vols., London , 1883).

.On medieval and Renaissance architecture and art there are innumerable works.^ On medieval and Renaissance architecture and art there are innumerable works.

^ A short trip by train provides access to the beauty of Florence, Rome, Perugia and Siena, a unique experience with exposure to great works of art, particularly The Renaissance.
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^ Among those on architecture may be mentioned the great work of H. von Geymtiller and A. Widmann, Die Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana.

.Among those on architecture may be mentioned the great work of H. von Geymtiller and A. Widmann, Die Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana. (T. As.^ Among those on architecture may be mentioned the great work of H. von Geymtiller and A. Widmann, Die Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana.

^ The Palazzo Pubblico is a great work of architecture.
  • Italy Tours - Private Guided - Tuscany tour with your private driver guide 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.alcitalytours.com [Source type: General]

^ A short trip by train provides access to the beauty of Florence, Rome, Perugia and Siena, a unique experience with exposure to great works of art, particularly The Renaissance.
  • Painting Tuscany Official Website 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.artuscany.net [Source type: General]

) History. - Etruria (q.v.) was finally annexed to .Rome in 351 B.C., and constituted the seventh of the eleven regions into which Italy was, for administrative purposes, divided by Augustus.^ Rome in 351 B.C., and constituted the seventh of the eleven regions into which Italy was, for administrative purposes, divided by Augustus.

^ Tuscany is one of the regions (administratively "Regione") of central Italy and includes the provinces of Arezzo , Florence , Grosseto , Livorno , Massa , Carrara , Pisa and Sienna .

^ Since the union with Italy, Tuscany has ceased to constitute a separate political entity, although the people still preserve definite regional characteristics.

Under Constantine it was united into one province with Umbria, an arrangement which subsisted until at least 400, as the Notitia speaks of a "consularis Tusciae et Umbriae." In Ammianus Marcellinus there is implied a distinction between "Tuscia suburbicaria" and "Tuscia annonaria," the latter being that portion which lies to the north of the Arno. .After the fall of the Western empire Tuscia, with other provinces of Italy, came successively under the sway of Herulians, Ostrogoths, and Greek and Lombard dukes.^ Fiesole Fiesole is a famous village in Italy and it falls under the province of Florence.
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^ After the fall of the Western Empire, Tuscany was ruled successively by the Germans under Odoacer, by the Ostrogoths , by the Eastern Empire through Narses, and by the Lombards.
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^ After the fall of the Western empire Tuscia, with other provinces of Italy, came successively under the sway of Herulians, Ostrogoths , and Greek and Lombard dukes.

.Under the last-named, "Tuscia Langobardorum," comprising the districts of Viterbo, Corneto and Bolsena, was distinguished from "Tuscia Regni," which lay more to the north.^ Under the last-named, "Tuscia Langobardorum," comprising the districts of Viterbo , Corneto and Bolsena , was distinguished from "Tuscia Regni," which lay more to the north.

^ Under Charlemagne the name of Tuscia or Toscana became restricted to the latter only.

.Under Charlemagne the name of Tuscia or Toscana became restricted to the latter only.^ Under Charlemagne the name of Tuscia or Toscana became restricted to the latter only.

^ Under the last-named, "Tuscia Langobardorum," comprising the districts of Viterbo , Corneto and Bolsena , was distinguished from "Tuscia Regni," which lay more to the north.

.One of the earliest of the Frankish marquises was Boniface, either first or second of that name, who about 828 fought with success against the Saracens in Africa.^ One of the earliest of the Frankish marquises was Boniface , either first or second of that name, who about 828 fought with success against the Saracens in Africa .

^ Residents keep an internal recommendation list for who to call and who not to call for just about anything you need (roofers, painters, contractors, you name it).
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.Adalbert I., who succeeded him, in 878 espoused the cause of Carloman as against his brother Louis III.^ Adalbert I., who succeeded him, in 878 espoused the cause of Carloman as against his brother Louis III .

^ In 1557 Philip II, who required Cosimo's aid against the pope, granted him Siena which in 1555 had surrendered to the emperor.
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^ During the years 1139-45, Tuscany was ruled by Margrave Hulderich, who was appointed by the Emperor Conrad III. Hulderich was followed by Guelf, brother of Henry the Lion.

of .France, and suffered excommunication and imprisonment in consequence.^ France , and suffered excommunication and imprisonment in consequence.

.Adalbert II. (the Rich), who married the ambitious Bertha, daughter of Lothair, king of Lorraine, took a prominent part in the politics of his day.^ Adalbert II. (the Rich), who married the ambitious Bertha, daughter of Lothair , king of Lorraine , took a prominent part in the politics of his day.

.A subsequent marquis, Hugo (the Great), became also duke of Spoleto in 989. The male line of marquises ended with Boniface II.^ A subsequent marquis, Hugo (the Great), became also duke of Spoleto in 989.

^ The male line of marquises ended with Boniface II .

^ Boniface was also Duke of Spoleto, Count of Modena, Mantua, and Ferrara, and was the most powerful prince of the empire in Italy.
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.(or III.), who was murdered in 1052. His widow, Beatrice, in 1055 married Godfrey, duke of Lorraine, and governed the country till her death in 1076, when she was succeeded by Matilda (q.v.^ His widow, Beatrice , in 1055 married Godfrey, duke of Lorraine, and governed the country till her death in 1076, when she was succeeded by Matilda (q.v.

^ Adalbert II. (the Rich), who married the ambitious Bertha, daughter of Lothair , king of Lorraine , took a prominent part in the politics of his day.

^ Cosimo III was followed by his second son Giovan Gastone (1723-37), who permitted the country to be governed by his unscrupulous chamberlain, Giuliano Dami.
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), her only child by her first husband. .Matilda died in 1114 without issue, bequeathing all her extensive possessions to the Church.^ Matilda died in 1114 without issue, bequeathing all her extensive possessions to the Church.

.The consequent struggle between the popes, who claimed the inheritance, and the emperors, who maintained that the countess had no right to dispose of imperial fiefs, enabled the principal cities of Tuscany gradually to assert their independence.^ The consequent struggle between the popes, who claimed the inheritance , and the emperors, who maintained that the countess had no right to dispose of imperial fiefs, enabled the principal cities of Tuscany gradually to assert their independence.

^ During the struggle between the popes and the emperors' and in the period following the fall of the Hohenstaufens when the throne was vacant, Florence , Siena , Pisa , Lucca , Arezzo , and other Tuscan cities attained constantly increasing independence and autonomy.
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^ During the struggle between the popes and the emperors and in the period following the fall of the Hohenstaufens when the throne was vacant, Florence , Sienna , Pisa , Lucca , Arezzo , and other Tuscan cities attained constantly increasing independence and autonomy.

.The most important of these Tuscan republics were Florence, Pisa, Siena, Arezzo, Pistoia and Lucca.^ Its main cities include Florence, Pisa, Siena, Lucca, Arezzo and Livorno.
  • Tuscany Vacations, Tourism and Tuscany, Italy Travel Reviews - TripAdvisor 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most important of these Tuscan republics were Florence, Pisa, Siena, Arezzo, Pistoia and Lucca.

^ Other important cities are Siena, Pisa, Arezzo, Pistoia, Lucca, Livorno, Grosseto, Massa Carrara.
  • Tuscany Vacations, Tuscany Tour Vacations, Tuscany Vacation Package Deals 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.travelwizard.com [Source type: News]

The Return of the Medici

.After the surrender of Florence to the Imperialists in August 1530 the Medici power was reestablished by the emperor Charles V.^ After the surrender of Florence to the Imperialists in August 1530 the Medici power was reestablished by the emperor Charles V .

^ In 1523 the Emperor Charles V made Alessandro Medici hereditary Duke of Florence.
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^ In 1523, the Emperor Charles V made Alessandro Medici hereditary Duke of Florence.

and .Pope Clement VII., although certain outward forms of republicanism were preserved, and Alessandro de' Medici was made duke of Florence, the dignity to be hereditary in the family.^ Pope Clement VII ., although certain outward forms of republicanism were preserved, and Alessandro de' Medici was made duke of Florence, the dignity to be hereditary in the family.

^ However, today Florence is most widely recognized as the symbol of Tuscany’s Renaissance, due in great part to the dominant ruling family of the period, the Medici.
  • Tuscany - Italy - Luxury Travel Destination 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC simonandbaker.com [Source type: General]

^ With Cosimo the Old started in Florence the Lordship of the Medici family, which gradually extended as far as all the tuscan land, creating the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

.In the reign of Cosimo III. Siena was annexed (1559); the title of grand duke of Tuscany was conferred on that ruler in 1 567 by Pope Pius V. and recognized in the person of Francis I.^ In the reign of Cosimo III. Siena was annexed (1559); the title of grand duke of Tuscany was conferred on that ruler in 1 567 by Pope Pius V. and recognized in the person of Francis I .

^ Giovan Gastone was the last Medicean grand duke; being childless, it was agreed by the treaty of Vienna that at his death Tuscany should be given to Francis , duke of Lorraine, husband of the archduchess Maria Theresa , afterwards empress.

^ Although at the beginning of Cosimo's reign there were several conspiracies, especially by the exiled families , the Fuorisciti, the Florentines gradually became accustomed to the absolute government of the ruler.
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by the emperor Maximilian II. in .1576. Under a series of degenerate Medici the history of Tuscany is certainly not a splendid record, and few events of importance occurred save court scandals.^ Under a series of degenerate Medici the history of Tuscany is certainly not a splendid record, and few events of importance occurred save court scandals.

^ This really is the challenge for Tuscany; persuading a mature public that the golf product is now a good and serious partner to a holiday scene as known and cultivated as any in history.
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^ Wines of Tuscany About olives and olive oil Know your pasta Events in Tuscany Weather in Tuscany History of Tuscany About Tuscany villas .
  • About Tuscany - tourist information, useful tips and sightseeing guide 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.knowital.com [Source type: General]

.The people became more and more impoverished and degraded, a new and shoddy nobility was created and granted wide privileges, and art and letters declined.^ The people became more and more impoverished and degraded, a new and shoddy nobility was created and granted wide privileges, and art and letters declined.

.Giovan Gastone was the last Medicean grand duke; being childless, it was agreed by the treaty of Vienna that at his death Tuscany should be given to Francis, duke of Lorraine, husband of the archduchess Maria Theresa, afterwards empress.^ In 1737, on the death of the last Medici grand duke, Gian Gastone , Tuscany was assigned to Francis of Lorraine , future husband of the Habsburg heiress Maria Theresa , beginning the rule of the Habsburg-Lorraine family.
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^ Giovan Gastone was the last Medicean grand duke; being childless, it was agreed by the treaty of Vienna that at his death Tuscany should be given to Francis , duke of Lorraine, husband of the archduchess Maria Theresa , afterwards empress.

^ His widow, Beatrice , in 1055 married Godfrey, duke of Lorraine, and governed the country till her death in 1076, when she was succeeded by Matilda (q.v.

.In 1737 Giovan Gastone died,' and Francis II., after taking possession of the grand duchy, appointed a regency under the prince of Craon and departed for Austria never to return.^ In 1737 Giovan Gastone died,' and Francis II ., after taking possession of the grand duchy , appointed a regency under the prince of Craon and departed for Austria never to return.

^ Francis, who had been elected emperor in 1745, died in 1765, and was succeeded on the throne of the grand duchy by his younger son, Leopold I .

^ At different times, the Abbey found itself under the protection of Orvieto , the Republic of Siena and the Grand duchy of Florence .

.Tuscany was governed by a series of foreign regents and was a prey to adventurers from Lorraine and elsewhere; although the administration was not wholly inefficient and introduced some useful reforms, the people were ground by taxes to pay for the apanage of Francis in Vienna and for Austrian wars, and reduced to a state of great poverty.^ Tuscany was governed by a series of foreign regents and was a prey to adventurers from Lorraine and elsewhere; although the administration was not wholly inefficient and introduced some useful reforms, the people were ground by taxes to pay for the apanage of Francis in Vienna and for Austrian wars, and reduced to a state of great poverty.

^ When the efforts of the Italian secret societies for the formation of a united national state spread to Tuscany, Ferdinand formed a closer union with Austria and the Tuscan troops were placed under Austrian officers in preparation for the outbreak of war.

^ His reforms in church matters made a great stir at the time, for he curbed the power of the clergy, suppressed some religious houses, reduced the mortmain and rejected papal interference.

.Francis, who had been elected emperor in 1745, died in 1765, and was succeeded on the throne of the grand duchy by his younger son, Leopold I.^ Francis, who had been elected emperor in 1745, died in 1765, and was succeeded on the throne of the grand duchy by his younger son, Leopold I .

^ Ferdinand was succeeded by his son, Leopold II ., who continued his father's policy R of benevolent but somewhat enervating despotism, which produced marked effects on the Tuscan character.

^ After long negotiations, in 1576 his son Francesco I (1574-87) received from the Emperor Maximilian the confirmation of the grand ducal title which had been refused to his father.

.Leopold resided in Tuscany and proved one of the most capable and remarkable of the reforming princes of the 18th century.^ Leopold resided in Tuscany and proved one of the most capable and remarkable of the reforming princes of the 18th century.

^ Leopold having rejected these demands, the Florentines rose as one man and obliged him to quit Tuscany (April 27, 1859).

^ When the political excitement consequent on the election of Pius IX. spread to Tuscany, Leopold made one concession after another, and in February 1848 granted the constitution.

.He substituted Tuscans for foreigners in government The offices, introduced a system of free trade in foodstuffs (at the suggestion of the Sienese Sallustio II. Bandini), promoted agriculture, and reclaimed wide areas of marshland to intensive cultivation.^ He substituted Tuscans for foreigners in government The offices, introduced a system of free trade in foodstuffs (at the suggestion of the Sienese Sallustio II. Bandini), promoted agriculture , and reclaimed wide areas of marshland to intensive cultivation.

.He reorganized taxation on a basis of equality for all citizens, thereby abolishing one of the most vexatious privileges of the nobility, reformed the administration of justice and local government, suppressed torture and capital punishment, and substituted a citizen militia for the standing army.^ He reorganized taxation on a basis of equality for all citizens, thereby abolishing one of the most vexatious privileges of the nobility, reformed the administration of justice and local government , suppressed torture and capital punishment , and substituted a citizen militia for the standing army.

^ Cosimo had created a well-ordered state out of the chaos existing previously, and had established this state on the foundation of justice, equality of all citizens, good financial administration and sufficient military strength.

^ Leopold resided in Tuscany and proved one of the most capable and remarkable of the reforming princes of the 18th century.

.His reforms in church matters made a great stir at the time, for he curbed the power of the clergy, suppressed some religious houses, reduced the mortmain and rejected papal interference.^ His reforms in church matters made a great stir at the time, for he curbed the power of the clergy, suppressed some religious houses, reduced the mortmain and rejected papal interference.

^ In 1782 Leopold suppressed the Inquisition, reduced the possessions of the Church, suppressed numerous monasteries, and interfered in purely internal ecclesiastical matters for the benefit of the Jansenists.

^ In Italy reader John Yacovelle has some great suggestions for how to have the very best time on your Tuscan vacation .
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.With the aid of Scipione de' Ricci, bishop of Pistoia, he even attempted to remove abuses, reform church discipline and purify religious worship; but Ricci's action was condemned by Rome.^ With the aid of Scipione de' Ricci, bishop of Pistoia, he even attempted to remove abuses, reform church discipline and purify religious worship; but Ricci's action was condemned by Rome.

.Ricci was forced to resign, and the whole movement came to nothing.^ Ricci was forced to resign, and the whole movement came to nothing.

.(See Pistoia, Synod Of.^ (See Pistoia, Synod Of .

) .The grand duke also contemplated granting a form of constitution, but his Teutonic rigidity was not popular and many of his reforms were ahead of the times and not appreciated by the people.^ The grand duke also contemplated granting a form of constitution, but his Teutonic rigidity was not popular and many of his reforms were ahead of the times and not appreciated by the people.

^ A malfi C oast & T uscany H oneymoon ~ This is one of those "popular demand" packages that so many people ask for.
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^ At last a compromise was arrived at and the grand duke was requested to abdicate in favour of his son, grant a constitution, and take part in the war against Austria.

.At the death of his brother, Joseph II., in 1790, Leopold became emperor, and repaired to Vienna.^ At the death of his brother, Joseph II ., in 1790, Leopold became emperor, and repaired to Vienna.

.After a brief regency he appointed his second son, Ferdinand III., who had been born and brought up in Tuscany, grand duke.^ After a brief regency he appointed his second son, Ferdinand III ., who had been born and brought up in Tuscany, grand duke.

^ Francis, who had been elected emperor in 1745, died in 1765, and was succeeded on the throne of the grand duchy by his younger son, Leopold I .

^ Readers who enjoyed Too Much Tuscan Sun will welcome this second book, which includes even more episodes from the author’s life growing up as a Chiantigiano.

.During the French revolutionary wars Ferdinand tried to maintain neutrality so as to avoid foreign invasions, but in 1 799 a French force entered Florence and was welcomed by a small number of republicans.^ During the French revolutionary wars Ferdinand tried to maintain neutrality so as to avoid foreign invasions, but in 1 799 a French force entered Florence and was welcomed by a small number of republicans.

^ But after Napoleon Bonaparte's victory at Marengo the French returned in great force, dispersed the bands, and re-entered Florence (October r800).

^ During the French Revolution, Ferdinand lost his duchy in 1789 and 1800.

.The grand duke was forced to fly, the "tree of liberty" was set up, and a provisional government on French lines established.^ The grand duke was forced to fly, the " tree of liberty" was set up, and a provisional government on French lines established.

^ Joachim Murat (afterwards king of Naples) set up a provisional government, and by the peace of Luneville Tuscany was made a part of the Spanish dominions and erected into the kingdom of Etruria under Louis, duke of Parma (1801).

^ A provisional government, led by Ubaldino Beruzzi and afterwards by Bettino Ricasoli , was established.

.But the great mass of the people were horrified at the irreligious character of the new regime, and a counterrevolution, fomented by Pope Pius VII., the grand ducalists and the clergy, broke out at Arezzo.^ But the great mass of the people were horrified at the irreligious character of the new regime, and a counterrevolution, fomented by Pope Pius VII., the grand ducalists and the clergy, broke out at Arezzo.

^ In the reign of Cosimo III. Siena was annexed (1559); the title of grand duke of Tuscany was conferred on that ruler in 1 567 by Pope Pius V. and recognized in the person of Francis I .

.Bands of armed peasants marched through the country to the cry of "Viva Maria!"^ Bands of armed peasants marched through the country to the cry of "Viva Maria!"

and expelled the .French, not without committing many atrocities.^ French, not without committing many atrocities.

.With the assistance of the Austrians, who put an end to disorder, Florence was occupied and the grand ducalists established a government in the name of Ferdinand.^ With the assistance of the Austrians, who put an end to disorder, Florence was occupied and the grand ducalists established a government in the name of Ferdinand.

^ A provisional republican government was established at Florence ; this before long was forced to give way to an opposing movement of moderated Liberalism .
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^ A provisional republican government was established in Florence, but before long this was forced to give way to an opposing movement of moderate Liberalism.

.But after Napoleon Bonaparte's victory at Marengo the French returned in great force, dispersed the bands, and re-entered Florence (October r800).^ But after Napoleon Bonaparte's victory at Marengo the French returned in great force, dispersed the bands, and re-entered Florence (October r800).

^ During the French revolutionary wars Ferdinand tried to maintain neutrality so as to avoid foreign invasions, but in 1 799 a French force entered Florence and was welcomed by a small number of republicans.

.They too committed atrocities and sacked the churches, but they were more warmly welcomed than before by the people, who had experienced Austro-Aretine rule.^ They too committed atrocities and sacked the churches, but they were more warmly welcomed than before by the people, who had experienced Austro-Aretine rule.

^ Readers who enjoyed Too Much Tuscan Sun will welcome this second book, which includes even more episodes from the author’s life growing up as a Chiantigiano.

^ AllAntico Forno We dined there with Bill and Patty Sutherland who are friends with the owner and we were warmly welcomed.
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.Joachim Murat (afterwards king of Naples) set up a provisional government, and by the peace of Luneville Tuscany was made a part of the Spanish dominions and erected into the kingdom of Etruria under Louis, duke of Parma (1801).^ Joachim Murat (afterwards king of Naples) set up a provisional government, and by the peace of Luneville Tuscany was made a part of the Spanish dominions and erected into the kingdom of Etruria under Louis, duke of Parma (1801).

^ During the French Revolution Ferdinand lost his duchy in 1789 and 1800; it was given to Duke Louis of Parma on 1 October, under the name of the Kingdom of Etruria.
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^ Since then Tuscany has been a part of the Kingdom of Italy, whose capital was Florence from 1865 to 1871.
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.The new king died in 1803, leaving an infant son, Charles Louis, under the regency of his widow, Marie Louise of Spain.^ The new king died in 1803, leaving an infant son, Charles Louis , under the regency of his widow, Marie Louise of Spain .

^ Marie Louise ruled with ' The history of Tuscany from 1530 to 1737 is given in greater detail under Medici .

^ Spain to cede Tuscany to him, compensating Charles Louis in Portugal .

.Marie Louise ruled with ' The history of Tuscany from 1530 to 1737 is given in greater detail under Medici.^ Marie Louise ruled with ' The history of Tuscany from 1530 to 1737 is given in greater detail under Medici .

^ After the fall of the Western Empire, Tuscany was ruled successively by the Germans under Odoacer, by the Ostrogoths , by the Eastern Empire through Narses, and by the Lombards.
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^ During all its history, the Tuscany has given political refuge to conquerors, writers and politicians, especially during the Napoleonic period and during the Risorgimento.

reactionary and clerical tendencies until .1807, when the emperor Napoleon obliged Charles IV.^ Napoleon obliged Charles IV .

of Spain to cede Tuscany to him, compensating Charles Louis in Portugal.
.From 1807 to 1809, when Napoleon's sister, Elisa Baciocchi, was made grand duchess, Tuscany was ruled by a French administrator-general; the French codes were introduced, and Tuscany became a French department.^ In 1807 Tuscany was united directly with the French Empire, and Napoleon made his sister Eliza Bacciocchi its administrator with the title of grand duchess.
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^ Thus the Medici acquired the whole of Tuscany, and in 1569 the pope made Cosimo Grand Duke of Tuscany.
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.French ideas had gained some adherents among the Tuscans, but to the majority the new institutions, although they produced much progress, were distasteful as subversive of cherished traditions.^ French ideas had gained some adherents among the Tuscans, but to the majority the new institutions, although they produced much progress, were distasteful as subversive of cherished traditions.

^ In Stock Too Much Tuscan Wine by DARIO CASTAGNO ( 31 ) 5 used & new from $24.01 .
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^ Rob had received some pictures of their new house emailed to them so they were busy at another Internet terminal.

.After Napoleon's defeats in 1814 Murat seceded from the emperor and occupied Tuscany, which he afterwards handed over to Austria, and in September Ferdinand III. returned, warmly welcomed by nearly everybody, for French rule had proved oppressive, especially on account of the heavy taxes and the drain of conscription.^ With the defeats of Napoleon in 1814, Ferdinand III was restored to Tuscany, but many of the reforms introduced by the French were retained.
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^ In foreign policy Ferdinand made himself independent of the emperor and Spain and as an opponent of the preponderance of the Habsburgs supported the French King Henry IV. Henry's return to the Catholic Church was largely due to Ferdinand's influence.
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^ During his weak reign the power was in the hands of women and favourites, and the corruption of the nobility and officials gained ground again, while the discontent of the common people was increased by heavy taxes.
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At the Congress of Vienna he was formally reinstated with certain additions of territory and the reversion of Lucca. On Napoleon's escape from Elba Murat turned against the Austrians, and Ferdinand had again to leave Florence temporarily; but he returned after Waterloo, and reigned until his death in 1824.
.The restoration in Tuscany was unaccompanied by the excesses which characterized it elsewhere, and much of the French legisla tion was retained.^ The restoration in Tuscany was unaccompanied by the excesses which characterized it elsewhere, and much of the French legisla tion was retained.

.Ferdinand was succeeded by his son, Leopold II., who continued his father's policy R of benevolent but somewhat enervating despotism, which produced marked effects on the Tuscan character.^ Ferdinand was succeeded by his son, Leopold II ., who continued his father's policy R of benevolent but somewhat enervating despotism, which produced marked effects on the Tuscan character.

^ Francis, who had been elected emperor in 1745, died in 1765, and was succeeded on the throne of the grand duchy by his younger son, Leopold I .

^ He was succeeded by a minor son of eleven years, Ferdinand II (1621-70), the regent being the boy's mother.
  • Tuscany - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1847 Lucca was incorporated in the grand duchy.^ In 1847 Lucca was incorporated in the grand duchy.

.When the political excitement consequent on the election of Pius IX. spread to Tuscany, Leopold made one concession after another, and in February 1848 granted the constitution.^ When the political excitement consequent on the election of Pius IX. spread to Tuscany, Leopold made one concession after another, and in February 1848 granted the constitution.

^ Leopold having rejected these demands, the Florentines rose as one man and obliged him to quit Tuscany (April 27, 1859).

^ With the spread of liberal revolutions through Italy in 1848, Leopold granted a constitution, but increasing revolutionary agitation culminated in the proclamation of a republic (Feb.
  • Tuscany (region, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A Tuscan contingent took part in the Piedmontese campaign against Austria, but the increase of revolutionary agitation in Tuscany, culminating in the proclamation of the republic (Feb.^ A Tuscan contingent took part in the Piedmontese campaign against Austria, but the increase of revolutionary agitation in Tuscany, culminating in the proclamation of the republic (Feb.

^ With the spread of liberal revolutions through Italy in 1848, Leopold granted a constitution, but increasing revolutionary agitation culminated in the proclamation of a republic (Feb.
  • Tuscany (region, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When in 1859 a second war between Piedmont and Austria became imminent, the revolutionary agitation, never completely quelled, broke out once more.

9, 184 9), led to Leopold's departure for Gaeta to confer with the pope and the king of Naples. .Disorder continuing and a large part of the population being still loyal to him, he was invited to return, and he did so, but accepted the protection of an Austrian army, by which act he forfeited his popularity (July 1849).^ However, the suppression of the constitution and the fact that up to 1855 an Austrian army of occupation remained in the country made him greatly disliked.
  • Tuscany - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After this by the aid of Austria Leopold was able in July, 1849, to return.
  • Tuscany - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leopold’s return under the protection of the Austrians cost him the support of many Tuscans.
  • Tuscany (region, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1852 he formally abrogated the constitution, and three years later the Austrians departed. .When in 1859 a second war between Piedmont and Austria became imminent, the revolutionary agitation, never completely quelled, broke out once more.^ When in 1859 war was begun between Sardinia-Piedmont and Austria, and Leopold became the confederate of Austria, a fresh revolution broke out which forced him to leave.
  • Tuscany - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When war between Piedmont and Austria (the Second War of Italian Independence) broke out in 1859, Leopold, after refusing both to grant a constitution and to join Piedmont in the fight, was expelled by the Florentines.
  • Tuscany (region, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There was a division of opinion between the moderates, who favoured a constitutional Tuscany under Leopold, but forming part of an Italian federation, and the popular party, who aimed at the expulsion of the house of Lorraine and the unity of Italy under Victor Emmanuel.^ With the spread of liberal revolutions through Italy in 1848, Leopold granted a constitution, but increasing revolutionary agitation culminated in the proclamation of a republic (Feb.
  • Tuscany (region, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under Ferdinand and his son Leopold II, during the first half of the 19th century, Tuscany was noted among Italian states for its tolerance toward liberals and its progressive government.
  • Tuscany (region, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When war between Piedmont and Austria (the Second War of Italian Independence) broke out in 1859, Leopold, after refusing both to grant a constitution and to join Piedmont in the fight, was expelled by the Florentines.
  • Tuscany (region, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At last a compromise was arrived at and the grand duke was requested to abdicate in favour of his son, grant a constitution, and take part in the war against Austria.^ When war between Piedmont and Austria (the Second War of Italian Independence) broke out in 1859, Leopold, after refusing both to grant a constitution and to join Piedmont in the fight, was expelled by the Florentines.
  • Tuscany (region, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under Francis and his son the grand duke Leopold I (later the Holy Roman emperor Leopold II), the great period of Tuscan reform took place.
  • Tuscany (region, Italy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Leopold having rejected these demands, the Florentines rose as one man and obliged him to quit Tuscany (April 27, 1859). A provisional government, led by Ubaldino Beruzzi and afterwards by Bettino Ricasoli, was established. It declared war against Austria and then handed over its authority to Boncompagni, the Sardinian royal commissioner (May 9). .A few weeks later a French force under Prince Napoleon landed in Tuscany to threaten Austria's flank, but in the meanwhile the emperor Napoleon made peace with Austria and agreed to the restoration of Leopold and other Italian princes.^ When Tuscany is not the landscape of man-made bloodshed, it is sometimes the land ravaged by floods.

^ The island was under various ownerships over the centuries: Ligures, Romans, Pisans, the Visconti family, or the French ( Napoleon was exiled there).
  • Italy Tours - Private Guided - Tuscany tour with your private driver guide 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.alcitalytours.com [Source type: General]

^ It would be a pity to miss out on them if you are planning to be in Tuscany during the next week or two, or already are in this wonderful land.

Victor Emmanuel was obliged to recall the royal commissioners, but together with Cavour he secretly encouraged the provisional governments to resist the return of the despots, and the constituent assemblies of Tuscany, Romagna and the duchies voted for annexation to Sardinia. .A Central Italian military league and a customs union were formed, and Cavour having overcome Napoleon's opposition by ceding Nice and Savoy, the king accepted the annexations and appointed his kinsman, Prince Carignano, viceroy of Central Italy with Ricasoli as governor-general (March 22, 1860).^ Map of Italy by sim1 Tuscany, or in Italian Toscana, is a region in central Italy.
  • Tuscany Transportation - Tuscany Car, Train, Bus and Taxi Advice - VirtualTourist.com 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

.The Sardinian parliament which met in April con- the Italian tained deputies from Central Italy, and after the occupation of the Neapolitan provinces and Sicily the kingdom of Italy was proclaimed (Feb.^ The town of San Gimignano falls in the province of Siena, which is in North-Central Italy.
  • Italy Tours - Private Guided - Tuscany tour with your private driver guide 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.alcitalytours.com [Source type: General]

^ Map of Italy by sim1 Tuscany, or in Italian Toscana, is a region in central Italy.
  • Tuscany Transportation - Tuscany Car, Train, Bus and Taxi Advice - VirtualTourist.com 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Pisa Pisa is an important city in central Italy and the capital of the Province of Pisa.
  • Italy Tours - Private Guided - Tuscany tour with your private driver guide 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.alcitalytours.com [Source type: General]

18, 1861). In 1865, in consequence of the Franco-Italian convention. of September 1864, the capital was transferred from Turin to Florence, where it remained until it was removed to Rome in 1871.
.Since the union with Italy, Tuscany has ceased to constitute a separate political entity, although the people still preserve definite regional characteristics.^ So what is this region—of the heart, in the heart of Italy—of Tuscany?

^ Elba Island Elba Island is located in the region of Tuscany in Italy.
  • Italy Tours - Private Guided - Tuscany tour with your private driver guide 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.alcitalytours.com [Source type: General]

^ This particular plan is designed for people who wish to manage their own sightseeing in the cities in Italy but who want plenty of private service for the Tuscany segment.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

.It has increased in wealth and education, and owing to a good system of land tenure the peasantry are among the most prosperous in Italy.^ Within three hours of landing in Italy, you can be sitting at a cafe in Siena's Campo, one of Italy's most beautiful public spaces.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

^ Within three hours of landing in Italy, you can be sitting at a cafe and sipping an espresso in Siena's Campo, one of Italy's most beautiful public spaces.
  • Tuscany Vacation Packages - Private Tours with Driver Guides 17 January 2010 7:07 UTC www.italysource.com [Source type: General]

BIBLIOGRAPHY. - A. von Reumont, Geschichte Toscanas (2 vols., Gotha, 1876-1877); Zobi, Storia civile della Toscana (Florence, 1850); E. Robiony, Gli ultimi dei Medici (Florence, 1905); C. Tivaroni, Storia critica del risorgimento italiano (9 vols., Turin, 1888, &c.); M. Bartolommei-Gioli, Il Rivolgimento toscano e l'azione popolare (Florence, 1905). See also under FLORENCE; MEDICI; FERDINAND III.; LEOPOLD II.; BARTOLOMMEI; RICASOLI, &C. (L. V.*)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Pronunciation

  • enPR: tŭsʹkənē, IPA: /ˈtʌskəni/, SAMPA: /"tVsk@ni/

Proper noun

Singular
Tuscany
Plural
-
Tuscany
  1. A region in Italy located north of Latium, and south of Emilia-Romagna.

Translations

Related terms


Simple English

Toscana
Tuscany
Flag Coat of arms
File:Flag of File:Coat of arms of
Location
File:Italy Regions Tuscany
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Administration
Country Italy
NUTS Region ITC
Capital Florence
President Claudio Martini (Democratic Party)
Basic statistics
Area  22,990 km² (8,876 sq mi)
(Ranked 5th, 7.6 %)
Population 3,677,048 (12/2007)
(Ranked 9th, 6.2 %)
 - Density 160 /km² (414 /sq mi)
Other information
GDP/ Nominal € 99.1 billion (2006)
Website www.regione.toscana.it


Tuscany (in Italian Toscana ) is a region in the center of Italy. It has an area of 22,990 km² and a population of about 3.6 million people (in 2004). The capital is Florence. Tuscany is known for its landscapes and its artistic legacy. Six Tuscan localities have been made UNESCO protected sites: the historical center of Florence (1982), the historical center of Siena (1995), the square of the Cathedral of Pisa (1987), the historical center of San Gimignano (1990), the historical center of Pienza (1996) and the Val d'Orcia (2004).

Contents

Geography

Tuscany, bordering Emilia-Romagna to the north, Liguria to the north-west, Tyrrhenian Sea to the west, Umbria and Marche to the east, Lazio to the south-east. The territory is two thirds hilly and one fourth mountainous. The remainder is constituted of the plains that form the valley of the Arno River.

Economy

Tuscany is known for its wines (most famous of which are Chianti, Morellino di Scansano, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, and Brunello di Montalcino) and has 120 protected regions (nature reserves). Other agricultural products include Chianina cattle (particularly the famous "Fiorentina" steak) and the production of olive oil, principally in Lucca.

Tourism is the economic principally of the called "Cities of Art" (Florence, Lucca, Pisa, Siena, San Gimignano), as well as on the coast and in the isles (Elba).

Demographics

In the '80s and '90s the region attracted an intense influx of immigrants, in particular from China and Northern Africa. There is also a significant community of British and Americans. As of 2006, the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 215,490 foreign-born immigrants live in Tuscany, about 5.9% of the people in Tuscany.

Towns of Tuscany with a population of 50,000 or more:

Comune Population (2006 est.)
Florence 366,901
Prato 183,823
Livorno 160,534
Arezzo 95,229
Pisa 87,737
Pistoia 85,947
Lucca 84,422
Grosseto 76,330
Massa 69,399
Carrara 65,125
Viareggio 63,389
Siena 54,147

Provinces

Important points for industry in Tuscany

Famous people born in Tuscany

  • Agnolo Gaddi
  • Aldo Palazzeschi
  • Aldo Montano
  • Alessandro Benvenuti
  • Ambrogio Lorenzetti
  • Amedeo Modigliani
  • Amerigo Vespucci
  • Andrea Bocelli
  • Andrea del Verrocchio
  • Andrea della Robbia
  • Andrea Pisano
  • Angelo Poliziano
  • Angiolo Nardi Dei
  • Antonio da Filicaja
  • Antonio Meucci
  • Arnolfo di Cambio
  • Baccio da Filicaja
  • Baccio D'Agnolo
  • Bartolommeo Scala
  • Beato Angelico
  • Benvenuto Cellini
  • Bernardino da Siena
  • Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
  • Carlo Cassola
  • Carlo Collodi
  • Carlo Conti
  • Castruccio Castracani
  • Caterina de' Medici
  • Cecco Angiolieri
  • Cennino Cennini
  • Cinzia TH Torrini
  • Cimabue
  • Claudio Martini
  • Curzio Malaparte
  • Daniele Caluri
  • Dante Alighieri
  • David Lazzaretti
  • David Riondino
  • Dino Campana
  • Don Lorenzo Milani
  • Donatello
  • Duccio di Buoninsegna
  • Elio Toaff
  • Ferdinando Morozzi
  • Filippo Brunelleschi
  • Francesco Campana
  • Mario Cipollini
  • Mario Luzi
  • Mario Monicelli
  • Marsilio Ficino
  • Masaccio
  • Massimo Bulleri
  • Michelangelo
  • Mino Maccari
  • Niccolò Machiavelli
  • Nicola Pisano
  • Oriana Fallaci
  • Paolo Bettini
  • Paolo Hendel
  • Paolo Lorenzini
  • Paolo Rossi
  • Paolo Vallesi
  • Paolo Virzì
  • pope Gregorio VII
  • pope Leone X
  • pope Pio II
  • Pier Soderini
  • Piero della Francesca
  • Piero Umiliani
  • Pietro Mascagni
  • Pontormo
  • Pupo
  • Renato Fucini
  • Riccardo Fogli
  • Roberto Benigni
  • Roberto Madrigali
  • Romano Bilenchi
  • Rosso Fiorentino
  • Salvatore Sanzo
  • Sandro Botticelli
  • Santa Caterina da Siena
  • Simone Martini
  • Stefania Sandrelli
  • Telemaco Signorini
  • Tiziano Terzani
  • Ulisse Dini
  • Vasco Pratolini
  • Vincenzo da Filicaja
  • Vittoria Puccini
  • Vittorio Matteucci

Other pages

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Tuscany, which are similar to those in the above article.








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