Tutsi: Wikis

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Tutsi
Total population
2.5 million (Rwanda and Burundi)
Regions with significant populations
Rwanda, Burundi, Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
Languages

Kirundi, Kinyarwanda, French, English

Religion

Predominantly Roman Catholicism
Minority Islam

Related ethnic groups

Hutu, Twa

Tutsi (pronounced /ˈtuːtsi/; Tutsi pronunciation: [tūtsī]) are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu.

Contents

Origins

The ideas surrounding real and supposed ethnic groups in Rwanda have a very long and complicated history. The definitions of "Hutu" and "Tutsi" may have changed through time and location. Social structures were not identical throughout Rwanda. There was clearly a Tutsi aristocracy that was distinguished from Tutsi commoners, and wealthy Hutu were often indistinguishable from upper class Tutsi. When the Belgian colonists conducted their censuses, they desired to classify the people throughout Rwanda-Burundi with a single classification scheme. They merely defined "Tutsi" as anyone with more than ten cows or a long nose. The "Caucasian-like" noses of some Rwandans invoked historical and racial, theories to explain how some Africans acquired such noses. According to these early twentieth-century Europeans, the straight noses possessed by some of the Tutsi people could only be explained by the presence of racial Caucasian ancestry, believed to be transmitted by way of Ethiopia. Hence, the Tutsi were assumed to be a racially superior people of a primarily Horn African and/or North African ancestry, with even a Middle Eastern heritage, at times, suggested. The Hutu, on the other hand, thought of as merely a Bantu people of ultimate Central African origins.

Also, Beginning about 1880, Catholic missionaries arrived in the African Great Lakes region. Later, when German forces occupied the area, the conflict and efforts for catholic conversion became more pronounce. The Tutsi resisted conversion, and the missionaries found success only among the Hutu. In an effort to reward conversion to the catholic Faith, traditionally Tutsi land was confiscated and given to Hutu Tribes, beginning a conflict that has lasted into the 21st century. [1]

Tutsi Genetics

Modern day genetic studies on the y-chromosome show the Tutsi to be of pure or near-pure East African heritage. (80% E1b1a, 15% B, 4% E3, 1% E1b1b) Signs of strong genetic influences from other regions of Africa, like the Horn of Africa, are questionable. The Tutsi, in general, demonstrate a close ethnic kinship to surrounding ethnic groups, including the neighboring Hutu ethnic group.[2] In fact, current genetic tests show that the Tutsis are closer to the Hutu than has been previously assumed.

Culture

In Rwanda, a centralized system of monarchy based on the Tutsi monarch, the Mwami, existed. In the northwestern part of the country (a predominantly Hutu-inhabited area), the society more resembled that of Bugandan society, with large regional landholders instead of a central monarch.

Today, there is little difference between the cultures of the Tutsi and Hutu; both groups speak the same Bantu language. The rate of intermarriage between the two groups has traditionally been very high, and relations between the two were considered, most of time, normal up until the 20th century. Hutu men often took Tutsi wives, though Tutsi men rarely married Hutu women. The ethnicity of the father determined the ethnicity of the children,in time, partially contributing to the continued larger proportion of Hutu in the region. Many, though, have concluded that Tutsi was and is mainly an expression of class or caste, rather than ethnicity. Though, even today, experts dispute whether similarities between Hutus and Tutsis are from common ancestry, frequent intermarriage, or both.

One difference noted by school principals during the 1980s was that although secondary school intakes were governed by quotas mandated by the Habyarimana government (in line with the proportions of the tribes within the country), and by competition within tribes, the students of Tutsi origin (14% of intake) on average were almost 50% of graduands. This tended to result in accusations of tribal favoritism.

The Tutsi were ruled by a king (the mwami) from the 15th century until 1961. The monarchy was abolished by the Belgians, in response to the desires of Hutu, following a national referendum leading up to independence.Hutus are a central african ethnic living mainly living in rwanda and burundi

Colonial influences

Both Germany (before World War I) and Belgium ruled the area in a colonial capacity. The Germans, like the Belgians before them, theorized that the Tutsi were originally not from sub-Saharan Africa at all. They thought that they had migrated from somewhere else[citation needed]. The German colonial government gave special status to the Tutsi, in part because they believed them to possess racial superiority.[citation needed]. The Germans considered the Tutsi more 'presentable' compared to the Hutu, whom they viewed as short and homely. As a result, it became colonial policy that only Tutsis could be educated, and only Tutsis could participate in the colonial government. Since the Hutus were in the majority such policies engendered some intense hostility between the groups, who had been peaceful enough with each other before colonization[citation needed]. The situation was exacerbated when the Belgians assumed control following World War I. Recognizing their ignorance of this part of Africa, they sought advice from the Germans, who told them to continue promoting the Tutsis, which they did[citation needed].

When the Belgians took over the colony in 1916, they felt that the colony would be better governed if they continued to classify the different races in a hierarchical form. Belgian colonists viewed Africans in general as children who needed to be guided, but noted the Tutsi to be the ruling culture in Rwanda-Burundi. In 1959 Belgium reversed its stance and allowed the majority Hutu to assume control of the government through universal elections. '

Post-colonial history of Tutsi - Hutu conflict

In Rwanda, a backlash of oppression against the Tutsi by the Hutu led to many cultural conflicts, including the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, in which Hutus killed an estimated 500,000 - 1,000,000 people, mostly of Tutsi origin.

In Burundi, a campaign of genocide was conducted against Hutu population in 1972,[3][4][5][6][7] and up to 200,000 Hutus died.[8] In 1993, Burundi's first democratically elected president and also a Hutu, Melchior Ndadaye, was assassinated by Tutsi officers, as was the person constitutionally entitled to succeed him.[9] This sparked a period of civil strife between Hutu political structures and the Tutsi military, in which an estimated 800,000 Burundians died.[citation needed] There were indiscriminate mass killings first of Tutsis, then of Hutus; of these, the former have been described as genocide by the United Nations International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi.[10]

Congolese Tutsi

Ethnic Tutsi Rwandans (Banyarwanda) concentrated on the Itombwe Plateau of South Kivu, in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), close to the Burundi-Congo-Rwanda border are called "Banyamulenge". The term "Banyamulenge" has been the focus of much controversy and was increasingly used from the late 1990s onward to refer to all ethnic Tutsis living in North and South Kivu.

The first arrival of Banyarwanda from Rwanda may have occurred in the seventeenth century. However, the first significant recorded influx of Banyarwanda into South Kivu is dated to the 1880s. Banyarwanda migrants continued to arrive, particularly as labor migrants during the colonial period. The name "Banyamulenge" was chosen in the early 1970s to avoid being called "Banyarwanda" and seen as foreigners.

The ambiguous political and social position of the Banyamulenge has been a point of contention, leading to the Banyamulenge playing a key role in the run-up to the First Congo War in 1996-7 and Second Congo War of 1998-2003.

See also

References

  1. ^ Berg, Irwin M.. "Jews in Central Africa". Kulanu Highlights. http://www.kulanu.org/tutsi/jews-africa.php. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  2. ^ Luis, J; Rowold, D; Regueiro, M; Caeiro, B; Cinnioglu, C; Roseman, C; Underhill, P; Cavallisforza, L et al. (2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations". The American Journal of Human Genetics 74: 532. doi:10.1086/382286. 
  3. ^ Michael Bowen, Passing by;: The United States and genocide in Burundi, 1972, (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1973), 49 pp
  4. ^ René Lemarchand, Selective genocide in Burundi (Report - Minority Rights Group; no. 20, 1974), 36 pp.
  5. ^ Rene Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide (New York: Woodrow Wilson Center and Cambridge University Press, 1996), 232 pp.
    • Edward L. Nyankanzi, Genocide: Rwanda and Burundi (Schenkman Books, 1998), 198 pp.
  6. ^ Christian P. Scherrer, Genocide and crisis in Central Africa: conflict roots, mass violence, and regional war; foreword by Robert Melson. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002.
  7. ^ Weissman, Stephen R. "Preventing Genocide in Burundi Lessons from International Diplomacy", United States Institute of Peace
  8. ^ Rwanda 1994: Genocide + Politicide, Christian Davenport and Allan Stam
  9. ^ International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi: Final Report. Part III: Investigation of the Assassination. Conclusions [1]
  10. ^ International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi (2002)

External links

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also tutsi

English

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Proper noun

Singular
Tutsi

Plural
-

Tutsi

  1. An ethnic group in Rwanda and Burundi.
  2. A member of the group.

Anagrams


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