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Theatrical poster
Directed by Jan de Bont
Produced by Ian Bryce
Michael Crichton
Kathleen Kennedy
Written by Michael Crichton
Anne-Marie Martin
Starring Helen Hunt
Bill Paxton
Jami Gertz
Cary Elwes
Philip Seymour Hoffman
Alan Ruck
Zach Grenier
Music by Mark Mancina
Cinematography Jack N. Green
Editing by Michael Kahn
Studio Amblin Entertainment
Distributed by USA/Canada
Warner Bros.
Universal Studios
Release date(s) May 10, 1996 (1996-05-10)
Running time 113 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $92 million
Gross revenue $494,471,524
Preceded by Twister 2

Twister is a 1996 American disaster film starring Helen Hunt and Bill Paxton as "storm chasers" researching tornadoes. It was directed by Jan de Bont. The film was based upon a script by Michael Crichton and Anne-Marie Martin. The film's executive producers were Steven Spielberg, Walter Parkes, Laurie MacDonald and Gerald R. Molen. Twister was the second-highest grossing film of 1996, with an estimated 55 million tickets sold.

In the movie, a team of storm chasers try to perfect a data-gathering instrument, designed to be released into the funnel of a tornado, while competing with another better-funded team with a similar device during a tornado outbreak across Oklahoma. The plot is a dramatized view of research projects like VORTEX of the NOAA and the device, called Dorothy, is copied from TOTO used in the 1980's by NSSL.

Twister is notable for being both the first Hollywood feature film to be released on the DVD format[1] and the last to be released on HD DVD.[2] Twister has since been released in high definition on Blu-ray disc. It was nominated for two Academy Awards for Best Visual Effects and Best Sound in 1997.



The film opens in June 1969. Jo’s father is watching the weather forecast on TV during a night storm. They report a tornado and his wife grabs Jo and they all head to the storm shelter with their dog. As they lie inside, the tornado comes over the shelter and Jo’s father tries to hold the door. The tornado rips it off and pulls him into the tornado, killing him.

Nearly 30 years later, meteorologists at the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) are discussing a building storm system over Oklahoma which could produce a record outbreak of tornadoes. Meanwhile, retired storm chaser Bill Harding (Bill Paxton), who is becoming a weatherman, and his fiancée Dr. Melissa Reeves (Jami Gertz) are heading out to meet Bill’s former storm-chasing team to get the final divorce papers from Bill’s ex-wife, Dr. Jo Harding (Helen Hunt), who, since the day her father died, has sworn to hunt down as many tornadoes as possible, not wanting the same fate to happen to someone else. They arrive to find the team analyzing a storm. Besides Jo, the team consists of the eccentric Dusty Davis (Philip Seymour Hoffman), Robert “Rabbit” Nurick (Alan Ruck), the team’s navigator, Laurence (Jeremy Davies), the photographer, Joey (Joey Slotnick), who takes wind measurements and care of the doppler radar, Alan Sanders (Sean Whalen), Rabbit’s driver, Tim "Beltzer" Lewis (Todd Field), Haynes (Wendle Jospeher), who rides with Beltzer, and Jason "Preacher" Rowe (Scott Thomson).

Melissa goes to talk with Dusty while Bill gets the divorce papers from Jo. However, Jo, who is still in love with Bill, tries to stall because she does not want the marriage to end. She has not signed all the papers and goes to meet Melissa. Jo then tells Bill she wanted him out on the field because his idea of a tornado-analyzing device has been built. Called Dorothy, they will put it in the path of a tornado to measure it from inside, so they can create a better advance-warning system. Four of the so-called "Dorothy" weather machines have been built. Just then, Haynes tells them of storm activity with the dry line, and the team heads out. Melissa asks Bill if Jo signed the divorce papers, which she hadn’t. Melissa and Bill follow Jo’s team. Bill’s rival team shows up, led by Dr. Jonas Miller (Cary Elwes) with his assistant Eddie (Zach Grenier). According to Bill, Jonas is in the storm-chasing business "for the money, not the science." While Jonas's team is passing Bill's team on the road, one of Jonas’s team members runs Bill off the road. They head to a tire shop to get Bill’s flat tire fixed, and Bill sees Jonas giving an interview with a hand full of local reporters. Bill finds out that Jonas has stolen his idea for the Dorothy weather machine. Jonas calls it "DOT-3." Bill then goes after Jonas and grabs him, yelling at him and accusing him of stealing his idea. Bill’s team pulls him off ("He's a corporate-kiss-ass, man!), and Jonas says it was Bill’s "unrealized idea." Bill and Jonas are in competition to reach the same goal for different reasons, and Bill tells Jo she has one day to make it fly before he leaves. Everyone goes to get drinks at a local diner next door to the garage while Bill stays outside. Inside the diner, Melissa confronts Jo about her trying to keep together her failed marriage to Bill. Outside, Bill notices the sky is turning green, the sign of an approaching violent storm.

Bill's team heads out, playing all their favourite music in each car, as Bill and Jo talk in Jo's truck (Melissa is riding alone in Bill's Dodge Ram 2500). Bill and Jo have a frank discussion of their marriage and wrap it up. As they do so, Beltzer notices a small tornado touching down in a nearby field and alerts the team, who then speed up to catch it. The team falls back as Jo and Bill go ahead to watch it. They drive into a ditch to get in front of it, but they can’t get out of the ditch as the tornado closes in, destroying a farm. They crash into a small wooden bridge with a tractor on it, and take cover under the bridge (Note: this is actually the worst possible idea, due to the fact that the bridge acts like a wind tunnel). Jo wants to see the tornado up close, but Bill stops her just as the tornado lifts Jo's truck and the tractor off the ground. Jo's truck falls in front of Melissa in Bill's truck. She drives around it, narrowly missing a collision. Bill comforts her as Jo inspects the damage and takes some of the sensors from the destroyed Dorothy 1 machine and gathers her things from inside the truck. Jonas’s team shows up, but they are too late to see the storm, and they keep driving.

Bill's team heads out again as Bill, Jo, and Melissa ride in Bill’s truck. Another tornado has touched down, and both Bill's team and Jonas's team are heading to intercept it. Bill goes ahead, but he believes the tornado will shift its track, and his team heads off on a back road. Both teams keep radioing back information to the NSSL as Jo notices horizontal rain. Again, the rest of the team falls back as Jo, Bill, and Melissa head out onto a small two-lane bridge over a lake with three waterspouts coming at them from two directions. Realizing that the waterspouts are moving erratically, Bill tries to drive ahead of the core, but his truck is caught in the waterspouts. They twist the car around but dissipate up into the clouds as the rest of the team drives up. Bill comforts Melissa as the rest of the team convinces Jo against her wishes to visit her aunt, Meg Greene (Lois Smith), in the nearby town of Wakita, Oklahoma. They head there to eat. They watch TV and make fun of Jonas in a TV interview, as Jo heads upstairs to take a shower after Bill has finished his. The team talks of Bill and call him "The Extreme," due to his history of extreme behavior. Melissa asks for an explanation of the Fujita Scale, as the latest tornado was an F2, and the one they first encountered was a solid F1. Melissa asks if there is an F5, at which point the whole team becomes silent. Only Jo has ever seen an F5, and it was the one that took her father. Meg then tells Jo in private that it was not her fault that the marriage failed but Bill’s.

As the team is watching TV, it mentions an F3 tornado is active, and the team heads out. Bill and Jo drive together in Bill’s truck, and Melissa rides with Dusty in his. They head out, cutting through woods and fields to almost crash into Jonas’s team as they are trying to beat them. Bill’s team then heads up a side road, while Jonas’s team continues without turning. Bill's team attempts to figure out where the tornado is, because according to their computers, it is heading towards them on the road they’re traveling. Bill and Jo realize it is over a hill, and they go through a hailstorm to find it. Bill's team falls back as Bill and Jo go ahead to set up Dorothy 2. As they do so, they run out of time, and a power pole falls on the truck, ruining Dorothy 2 and tearing off the rear tailgate of the truck. All of a sudden, Bill's team can’t track the tornado because "the cone is silent," and they warn Bill and Jo to get out of there. Jo attempts to gather the scattered sensors, but Bill pulls her into the truck as the tornado drops once more. They drive to a safe distance, where Jo jumps out of the truck and again attempts to gather the scattered sensors. Bill confronts her about her father’s death, and tells Jo she is obsessed to succeed with Dorothy to prevent what happened to her family from happening again. He tells Jo that she has to move forward from the past and realize what she has in the present: Bill. Melissa and Bill's whole team hear Bill and Jo's conversation over the CB radio, they all feel emotional about Jo's pain, and they leave as the sun sets.

Bill's team heads to a drive-in theater where “The Shining” is playing. Jo finishes signing the divorce papers, while Melissa is in a motel room across the road watching the weatherman on TV and fingering her engagement ring. Dusty is watching the radar. Both Melissa's TV and the TV at the concession stand lose their reception as Dusty warns Bill that a tornado is heading right for them. Everyone runs to take shelter in the pit of a car mechanic's garage while Jo watches it approach, spellbound. Bill yells to get Jo's attention, and then Jo warns the employees in the concession stand to "get underground." As the huge tornado arrives, they all cover their heads as the tornado obliterates the theater, and destroys Rabbit's truck and Preacher's station wagon. Preacher is hurt when he is hit in the head by a flying hubcap while trying to grab a loose hose that is flying around in the wind. The tornado passes, and the team emerges to inspect the damage. Dusty looks at the radar to find that the same tornado is now heading directly for Wakita. Bill tells Melissa they are leaving to check on Aunt Meg, and Melissa breaks up with Bill, thus securing Bill and Jo’s marriage.

At Wakita, they find the whole town is badly destroyed because they had no warning. Bill drives through the town and Jo notices a family that resembles her own childhood family. They come to Meg’s home to find it badly damaged and on the verge of collapse. Bill and Jo climb inside to find Meg pinned down, badly hurt, and a bit delirious, as she says she is "perfectly fine." Meg is taken to the hospital in an ambulance while Bill rescues her dog and the house collapses. Dusty listens to the radio, which says it was an F4 that destroyed the drive-in and Wakita, and has since dissipated. The current reports mention that there are now two supercells about to merge, and authorities are predicting rare F5 tornadoes, a first in the last 30 years. Jo talks to Meg, who says there was no warning. Meg tells Jo she has to make the warning system better. Dusty tells them of the weather report, and Meg encourages Jo to go do her job. After the ambulance drives off, Bill finds Jo staring at the moving wind chimes at Meg’s house. Jo says she has figured out how to make Dorothy fly. She runs over to the team yelling that she needs "every aluminum can you can find," "cutters," and "duct tape." Bill's team heads out the next morning, cutting up the aluminum cans into the shape of miniature pinwheels that they attach to the sensors with screws to make them fly. They load modified sensors into the last two Dorothys, now in the back of Bill's truck, and head out.

Bill and Jo come alongside a huge, mile-wide F5 tornado in the countryside. They decide to put Dorothy 3 on the road in front of the tornado and then back up to record it on video, but the tornado's winds push Dorothy around on the road, and then a tree thrown by the tornado knocks Dorothy 3 over, scattering the sensors again. The storm turns to approach Bill and Jo, and they attempt to retreat by driving away. They become stuck when another tree thrown by the tornado wedges underneath the back end of their truck. They look up to see a tanker fuel truck being thrown around and then pushed along the road toward their truck by the tornado. The tanker knocks them loose from the wedged tree before being picked up again and then tossed on the road in front of them. It explodes in a huge fireball and Bill drives around the wreckage through the fireball, narrowly avoiding catastrophe. Bill drives ahead of the tornado as it then drops vehicles from a farm on the road in front of him. The debris drops all around Jo and Bill, and they end up driving through a small house that is rolled by the tornado onto the road.

As Bill and Jo drive away, Jonas and Eddie are riding parallel with the tornado to place their DOT-3 pack and intercept the tornado. Jo radios Jonas to tell him that he must "anchor the pack" because it is too light and the tornado will dump it before it can do its job. Bill suddenly has a bad feeling that the tornado is about to shift direction, and it will overtake Jonas and Eddie. Eddie wants to change direction like Bill says, but Jonas ignores Bill's warnings as the tornado shifts. Eddie is impaled by a section of radio tower thrown by the tornado, and Jonas's truck is picked up by the tornado. Jonas's team watches in horror as his truck falls to the ground and explodes killing both Jonas and Eddie.

Bill and Jo, who saw their rival die in his attempt, decide they now know what they must do. They drive toward a new intercept point, turn on Dorothy 4 without releasing it from its moorings on the truckbed, and then drive the truck through a cornfield straight at the tornado. They put the truck on cruise control and jump out, letting it drive into the center of the tornado where it successfully deploys Dorothy 4. Bill's team celebrates this success as Jo and Bill watch from on foot.

As Bill's team celebrates, unaware that Bill and Jo have left the truck and their radios, Haynes receives readings that the tornado will shift its track again. Because they lost communication, Bill and Jo are at first unaware, and they start running towards a nearby farm as the F5 heads right at them. They first take cover in a barn, but it is filled with a lot of sharp metal tools. They run out the other side to find the tornado bearing down. It destroys the barn, and they dodge debris as they run to take cover in a small outbuilding. They find metal pipes inside this shelter, and the tie themselves to the pipes with leather belts as the tornado moves to overtake them. Tied to the pipes, they are blown off their feet, and from upside down, they see the inside of the F5 tornado as it passes right over them. It is filled with lighting and a smaller tornado in the core (the same as a desciption of the core on an F5, explained by a farmer caught in the center of one). Seconds later, the entire storm dissipates, and the family from the farm comes out of their underground storm shelter. Bill and Jo debate who will run the lab and who will analyze the new data while the rest of the team arrives. Dusty tells Bill to look at the clear sky, and Jo says "I think we've seen enough," and then she kisses Bill. Bill and Jo kiss while the camera pans back to show an aerial view of the damage around the farm. The closing credits roll while a montage of the Oklahoma landscape and weather clouds are shown.

Main characters

  • Dr. Jo Harding (Helen Hunt): The leader of her storm-chasing research team.
  • Bill Harding (Bill Paxton): Jo's estranged husband and former fellow storm-chaser.
  • Dustin 'Dusty' Davis (Philip Seymour Hoffman): A wise-cracking member of Jo's chase team.
  • Robert 'Rabbit' Nurick (Alan Ruck): The navigator for Jo's chase team.
  • Laurence: (Jeremy Davies): A quiet member of the team, in charge of photographing tornadoes on film.
  • Joey: (Joey Slotnick): In charge of taking measurements of wind and taking care of their Doppler radar.
  • Alan Sanders (Sean Whalen): Rabbit's driver, usually chastised by Rabbit for folding instead of rolling the maps.
  • Tim 'Beltzer' Lewis (Todd Field): Driver of the van that holds the Doppler and one of the more wild, and dedicated, members of the team.
  • Haynes (Wendle Josepher): The youngest member (and only other female) of the team, rides with Beltzer.
  • Jason 'Preacher' Rowe: (Scott Thomson): Member of Jo's team, called Preacher because of the numerous religious references he gives.
  • Dr. Melissa Reeves (Jami Gertz): Bill's new fiancée; her love for Bill is strained after she too takes part in storm-chasing.
  • Aunt Meg Greene (Lois Smith): Jo's aunt and mother-figure to her team.
  • Dr. Jonas Miller (Cary Elwes): The leader of the rival storm-chasing team; he aims to take credit for Bill's idea for DOROTHY in the pursuit of fame and profit.
  • Eddie (Zach Grenier): Jonas's reluctant assistant.
  • Young Jo (Alexa Vega): Witnesses her father killed by a powerful tornado.


Twister was a joint production between Warner Bros. and Universal Studios. (This fact is reflected in the movies comprising a double-bill advertised on the marquee of a drive-in theater featured in the film: The Shining, a Warner Bros. release, and Psycho, a Universal owned production). Both studios had often collaborated with another of the film's production companies, Amblin Entertainment, prior to this film.

The original concept and 10-page tornado-chaser story were presented to Amblin Entertainment in 1992 by motion picture business consultant and award-winning screenwriter Jeffrey Hilton [3]. Spielberg then presented the concept to writer Michael Chrichton.

After spending more than half a year on pre-production on Godzilla, director Jan De Bont left after a dispute over the budget and quickly signed on for Twister.[4] The production was plagued with numerous problems. Michael Crichton and his wife, Anne-Marie Martin, were paid a reported $2.5 million to write the screenplay. Joss Whedon was brought in to do rewrites through the early spring of 1995. When he got bronchitis, Steve Zaillian was brought in. Whedon returned and worked on revisions right through the start of shooting in May 1995. He left the project after getting married and two weeks into production, Jeff Nathanson was flown in to the set and worked on the script until principal photography ended.[4]

Halfway through filming both Bill Paxton and Helen Hunt were temporarily blinded by bright electronic lamps used to get the exposure down to make the sky behind the two actors look dark and stormy because it was too bright outside. Paxton remembers, "and these things literally sunburned our eyeballs. I got back to my room, I couldn't see".[4] To solve the problem, a Plexiglas filter was placed in front of the beams. The actors took eye drops and wore special glasses for a few days to recuperate. After filming in a ditch that contained bacteria, Hunt and Paxton had to have hepatitis shots. During the same scene, she repeatedly hit her head on a low wooden bridge because she was so exhausted from the demanding shoot that she forgot not to stand up so quickly.[4] Hunt did one stunt in which she opened the door of a vehicle that was speeding through a cornfield, stood up on the passenger side and was hit by the door on the side of her head when she let it go momentarily. As result, some sources claim that Hunt got a concussion. De Bont said, "I love Helen to death, but you know, she can be also a little bit clumsy," to which she responded, "Clumsy? The guy burned my retinas, but I'm clumsy ... I thought I was a good sport. I don't know ultimately if Jan chalks me up as that or not, but one would hope so".[4]

Some crew members felt De Bont was "out of control" and left five weeks into filming.[4] The camera crew led by Don Burgess left the production after five weeks, claiming that De Bont "didn't know what he wanted till he saw it. He would shoot one direction, with all the equipment behind the view of the camera, and then he'd want to shoot in the other direction right away and we'd have to move [everything] and he'd get angry that we took too long ... and it was always everybody else's fault, never his".[4] De Bont claims that they had to make schedules for at least three different scenes every day because the weather changed so often that "Don had trouble adjusting to that".[4] When De Bont knocked over a camera assistant who had missed a cue, Burgess and his crew left, much to the shock of the cast. Burgess and his crew stayed on one more week until a replacement was found in Jack N. Green. Just before the end of the shoot, Green was injured when a hydraulic house set, designed to collapse on cue, was mistakenly activated with him inside it. A rigged ceiling hit him in the head and he injured his back and had to go to the hospital. Green missed the last two days of principal photography and De Bont took over as his own director of photography.[4]

De Bont had to shoot many of the film's tornado-chasing scenes in bright sunlight when they could not get overcast skies and asked Industrial Light & Magic to more than double its original plan for 150 "digital sky-replacement" shots.[4] Principal photography had a certain time limit because Hunt had to return to film another season of Mad About You but Paul Reiser was willing to delay it for two-and-a-half weeks when the Twister shoot was extended. De Bont insisted on using multiple cameras and this led to the exposure of 1.3 million feet of raw film (most films use no more than 300,000 feet).[4]

De Bont claims that Twister cost close to $70 million with $2–3 million going to the director. It was speculated that last-minute re-shoots in March and April 1996 (to clarify a scene about Jo as a child) and overtime requirements in post-production and at ILM, raised the budget to $90 million.[4] Warner Bros. moved up the film's release date from May 17 to May 10 in order to give it two weekends before Mission: Impossible opened.


Twister featured both a traditional orchestral film score (by Mark Mancina) and several rock music songs, including an instrumental theme song composed and performed for the film by Van Halen. Both the rock soundtrack and the orchestral score were released separately on compact disc.

Rock Score

  1. Van Halen - "Humans Being"
  2. Rusted Root - "Virtual Reality"
  3. Tori Amos - "Talula (BT's Tornado Mix)"
  4. Alison Krauss - "Moments Like This"
  5. Mark Knopfler - "Darling Pretty"
  6. Soul Asylum - "Miss This"
  7. Belly - "Broken"
  8. k.d. lang - "Love Affair"
  9. Nine Stories Feat. Lisa Loeb - "How"
  10. Red Hot Chili Peppers - "Melancholy Mechanics"
  11. Goo Goo Dolls - "Long Way Down"
  12. Shania Twain - "No One Needs to Know"
  13. Stevie Nicks Feat. Lindsey Buckingham - "Twisted"
  14. Edward & Alex Van Halen - "Respect the Wind"

Orchestral Score

  1. Oklahoma: Wheatfield
  2. Oklahoma: Where's My Truck?
  3. Oklahoma: Futility
  4. Oklahoma: Downdraft
  5. It's Coming: Drive In
  6. It's Coming: The Big Suck
  7. The Hunt: Going Green
  8. The Hunt: Sculptures
  9. The Hunt: Cow
  10. The Hunt: Ditch
  11. The Damage: Wakita
  12. Hailstorm Hill: Bob's Road
  13. Hailstorm Hill: We're Almost There
  14. F5: Dorothy IV
  15. F5: Mobile Home
  16. F5: God's Finger
  17. Other: William Tell Overture/Oklahoma Medley
  18. Other: End Title/Respect the Wind - written by Edward and Alex Van Halen

There are some orchestrated tracks that were in the movie but were not released on the orchestral score, most notably the orchestrated intro to Humans Being from when Jo's team left Wakita to chase the Hailstorm Hill tornado. Another omitted track is an alternate version of the Drive-In theme from when Jo and Bill are fleeing the F5 through the farm. Other, lesser-known tracks include an extended version of "Going Green" (when we first meet Jonas) and a short track from when the first tornado is initially spotted. Ironically, there are several parts released on the orchestral score that did not appear in the movie itself.


While doing an interview with Bullz-Eye to promote the new season of HBO's Big Love, Bill Paxton revealed that he recently had a meeting with producer Kathleen Kennedy about making Twister 2. This would be a sequel to the original Twister that featured Helen Hunt, Bill Paxton, Cary Elwes and Jami Gertz in 1996. Bill Paxton said he will be directing the movie if it gets produced.


Roger Ebert gave the film two-and-a-half stars out of four and wrote, "You want loud, dumb, skillful, escapist entertainment? Twister works. You want to think? Think twice about seeing it".[5] In her review for The New York Times, Janet Maslin wrote, "Somehow Twister stays as uptempo and exuberant as a roller-coaster ride, neatly avoiding the idea of real danger".[6] Entertainment Weekly gave the film a "B" rating and Lisa Schwarzbaum wrote, "Yet the images that linger longest in my memory are those of windswept livestock. And that, in a teacup, sums up everything that's right, and wrong, about this appealingly noisy but ultimately flyaway first blockbuster of summer".[7] In his review for the Los Angeles Times, Kenneth Turan wrote, "But the ringmaster of this circus, the man without whom nothing would be possible, is director De Bont, who now must be considered Hollywood's top action specialist. An expert in making audiences squirm and twist, at making us feel the rush of experience right along with the actors, De Bont choreographs action and suspense so beautifully he makes it seem like a snap".[8] Time magazine's Richard Schickel wrote, "when action is never shown to have deadly or pitiable consequences, it tends toward abstraction. Pretty soon you're not tornado watching, you're special-effects watching".[9] In his review for the Washington Post Desson Howe wrote, "it's a triumph of technology over storytelling and the actors' craft. Characters exist merely to tell a couple of jokes, cower in fear of downdrafts and otherwise kill time between tornadoes".[10]

Urban Legend

On May 21, 1996, a tornado destroyed a drive-in theater in Stoney Creek, Ontario which was scheduled to show the movie Twister in a real-life parallel to a scene in the film in which a tornado destroys a drive-in during a showing of the film The Shining.[11] The facts of this incident were exaggerated into an urban legend that the theater was actually playing Twister during the tornado.[12]

Theme park attraction

The film was used as the basis for the attraction Twister...Ride It Out at Universal Studios Florida, which features filmed introductions by Helen Hunt and Bill Paxton.


  1. ^ Twister (1996) - Trivia
  2. ^ HD DVD Disc Historical Release Dates | High Def Digest
  3. ^ Jeffrey Hilton -
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Daly, Steve (May 17, 1996). "The War of the Winds". Entertainment Weekly.,,292610,00.html. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  5. ^ Ebert, Roger (May 10, 1996). "Twister". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  6. ^ Maslin, Janet (May 10, 1996). "Twister". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  7. ^ Schwarzbaum, Lisa (May 24, 1996). "Twister". Entertainment Weekly.,,292676,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  8. ^ Turan, Kenneth (May 10, 1996). "Twister". Los Angeles Times.,0,4826494.story. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  9. ^ Schickel, Richard (May 20, 1996). "Twister". Time.,9171,984563,00.html?iid=digg_share. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  10. ^ Howe, Desson (May 10, 1996). "Twister: Special Effects and Hot Air". Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  11. ^ "Tornado Destroys Twister Theater". Associated Press. May 22, 1996. 
  12. ^ Steyn, Mark (May 24, 1996). "A Nobody in My Neck of the Woods". Daily Telegraph. 

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