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Coordinates: 53°31′00″N 2°28′00″W / 53.5166°N 2.4668°W / 53.5166; -2.4668

Tyldesley
Elliot Street, Tyldesley.jpg
Elliot Street
Tyldesley is located in Greater Manchester
Tyldesley

 Tyldesley shown within Greater Manchester
Population 34,022 (2001 Census)
OS grid reference SD690023
    - London  170 mi (274 km) SE 
Metropolitan borough Wigan
Metropolitan county Greater Manchester
Region North West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town MANCHESTER
Postcode district M29
Dialling code 01942
Police Greater Manchester
Fire Greater Manchester
Ambulance North West
EU Parliament North West England
UK Parliament Worsley
List of places: UK • England • Greater Manchester

Tyldesley (pronounced /ˈtɪlzliː/ or /ˈtɪlsliː/) is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, in Greater Manchester, England.[1] It occupies an area north of Chat Moss near the foothills of the West Pennine Moors, 7.7 miles (12.4 km) east-southeast of Wigan and 8.9 miles (14.3 km) west-northwest of the city of Manchester. At the time of the United Kingdom Census 2001, Tyldesley, which includes the outlying areas of Astley, Shakerley, and Mosley Common, had a population of 34,000.

Historically a part of Lancashire, Tyldesley and its surroundings have provided evidence for the remains of a Roman road passing through the area on the ancient course between Coccium (Wigan) and Mamucium (Manchester).[2] Following the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain, Tyldesley was part of the manor of Warrington, until the Norman conquest of England, when Tyldesley constituted a township by the name of Tyldesley-with-Shakerley in the ancient parish of Leigh.[3]

The factory system, and textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, triggered a process of population growth and unplanned urbanisation in the area, such that by the early 20th century it was said that the newly emerged mill town was "eminently characteristic of an industrial district whose natural features have been almost entirely swept away to give place to factories, iron foundries, and collieries".[4] Although industrial activity declined in the late 20th century, land reclamation and post-war residential developments have continued to alter Tyldesley's landscape, and have encouraged renewed economic activity, particularly along Elliot Street—Tyldesley's central commercial area and its main throughfare.[2]

Contents

History

Toponymy

Tyldesley means "Tilwald's clearing", and is derived from the Old English (OE) personal name Tilwald (or Tīlwald) and leăh meaning "wood, clearing", suggesting that what is now open land was once covered with forest.[5] The name was recorded as Tildesleiha in about 1210. Alternative spellings include Tildeslei, Tildeslege, Tildeslegh, and Tildesley.[4] Tyldesley is situated at the edge of the Lancashire Plain just to the north of Chat Moss and the Banks of Tyldesley are where the foothills of the Pennines begin. The land rises from 100 feet (30 m) at the foot of the banks to 250 feet (76 m) at the highest point. The banks are about one and a half miles long and gave the town its early name of Tildesley Banks. The name Tyldesley is pronounced "Til-slee", locally it is also known as "Bongs". In local pronunciation "Banks" became corrupted to "Bongs". Banks refers to the hill upon which the town was established. The old name for Mosley Common was the "Hurst" or "Tyldesleyhurst", the suffix "hyrst" being a wooded hill (OE).[6]

Earliest history

The earliest evidence of human activity in Tyldesley is the remains of a Roman road which ran through the area, serving the camps at Coccium (Wigan) and Mamucium (Manchester).[2] The road ran from Keeper Delph in Boothstown, north west, crossing Mort Lane in Tyldesley, north west of Cleworth Hall and south of Shakerley Old Hall which were sited closer to the Roman road than the present main road, Elliot Street.[7] It continued towards the Valley at Atherton where coins have been found, on towards Gibfield and hence towards Wigan.[8]

In 1947 two urns containing about 550 Roman bronze coins, minted between AD 259 and AD 278, were found near the route of the ancient Roman road at Keeper Delph in Boothstown, near the old Tyldesley–Worsley border.[2][9] These coins are in the British Museum.[10] After the Roman departure from Britain, and into the history of Anglo-Saxon England, nothing was written about Tyldesley. Evidence for the presence of Saxons in what became a sparsely populated and isolated part of the country is provided by local place names that incorporate the Old English suffix of leah, such as Tyldesley,[5] Shakerley, and Astley.[11]

Manor houses

The first Manor house in Tyldesley was Astley Hall or Damhouse, in 1212 the home of Hugh Tyldesley, Lord of the Manors of Astley and Tyldesley.[12] The hall is just inside the Tyldesley boundary but has been associated with Astley since the death of Henry Tyldesley in 1301, when the manor was divided among three of his sons. The Tyldesleys "were a family who gained a reputation for lawlessness and who had frequent disputes with their neighbours".[12] One notable exception was Hugh Tyldesley or Hugh the Pious,[13] who before his death in 1226 endowed a monastery, Cockersand Abbey in North Lancashire, granting it the lands of Shakerley, part of the Tyldesley lands.

The new Manor of Tyldesley eventually became known as the Garrett or Garrett Hall and in 1505 was in the possession of John Tyldesley. Garrett Hall, a timber-framed structure, was first recorded in 1505 and remained in the Tyldesley family until 1652 when Lambert Tyldesley died leaving no heir.[14] The new owners, the Stanleys, chose to live elsewhere and the hall was leased to tenant farmers. In 1732 the hall was sold to Thomas Clowes who continued leasing the property to tenants. In 1829 the hall became part of the Bridgewater Estates.[14][15] Generations of the Shakerley family lived in the hamlet of the same name at Shakerley Old Hall, close to the Shakerley Brook and the old road from Manchester to Wigan. They paid rent to Cockersand Abbey and dues of "one pair of white gloves at the feast of Easter" to Adam Tyldesley.[16]

About half a mile from Garrett Hall, Chaddock Hall was home to a family of yeomen farmers with the same name.[17] It was first mentioned in Lancashire Assizes Rolls from 1246, the name was spelt Chaydok, Lancashire Inquests from 1323 referred to Chaidoke and the Lancashire Lay Subsidy Roll in 1332 mentioned Chaidok. The last syllable probably is "oak".[13] It was central to a small hamlet of cottages that grew around it in the east of the township. The Chaddocks, like the Tyldesleys and the Shakerleys, had a reputation for lawlessness.[18]

Cleworth Hall, Cluworth in 1333, an estate of 163 acres (0.66 km2) on high ground near the centre of the township not far from the high road, was originally part of the Tyldesley lands.[4] In 1578 it passed into the hands of Nicholas Starkie through his marriage to Anne Parr and during his ownership in 1594 it became associated with witchcraft.[19] Two children, John and Anne Starkie became "possessed of evil spirits". A well known "conjurer" or wise man, Edmund Hartley, was in the area and was asked to cure the children which he apparently did. Hartley demanded money but this was refused and he threatened trouble. Starkie denounced him and he was taken for trial at Lancaster Assizes in 1597 where he was tried and found guilty of witchcraft. Hartley was hanged, twice, the rope broke at the first attempt.[20]

The tenants of the Tyldesley, Shakerley and Chaddock lands were often summoned to do military service. Archers from Chaddock fought at Crécy in 1346 and at Agincourt in 1415.[21] In 1360 William Chaddock was an archer on foot, "potens de corpore et bonis", or fit for active service in both body and accoutrements. A later muster roll shows Hugh Tyldesley to be an archer on horseback. Hugh Chaddock and Richard Tyldesley were both foot-archers serving under Herford. They all drew daily pay for service from 22 July to 21 October 1391.[21]

Chaddock Hall and Dam House survive today, the former as a private residence and Dam House as a Heritage Centre having previously been used as the office block for Astley Hospital.[12] Chaddock Hall is a Grade II Listed building, as is Damhouse.[22][23][24]

Banks Estate

In the early 1700s Tyldesley had no clear centre, it was a collection of cottages and farms around the manor halls towards the east of the township. There was no church or inn. This was to change after 1728 when Thomas Johnson, a Bolton merchant bought land to the west of the township, the Banks Estate. He bought more land in 1742 from the Stanleys of Garrett Hall and 1752 bought Davenports Farm in the west of the township. He died in 1764 leaving the land to his grandson, also Thomas Johnson.[25] Thomas "Squire" Johnson began to develop the town of Tildesley Banks which became "Bongs". His name lives on in Squires Lane and Johnson Street. The last quarter of the 18th century marked the beginning of a building boom in Tyldesley. The grid pattern of the present town is from this date.[26]

This is how John Aikin described the area in 1795 in his book A Description of the Countryside from 30 to 40 Miles around Manchester:[27]

The Banks of Tildesley, in the Parish of Leigh, are about one mile and a half in length, and command a most beautiful prospect into seven counties : the springs remarkably clear and most excellently adapted to the purposes of bleaching. The land is rich, but mostly in meadow and pastures, for milk butter, and the noted Leigh cheese. The estate had, in the year 1780, only two farm houses and eight or nine cottages, but now contains 162 houses, a neat chapel, and 976 inhabitants, who employ 325 looms in the cotton Manufactories ...

The Flaming Castle later the Castle Inn, at the top of Castle Street, was Tyldesley's first inn and dates from 1778.[28] The Green Dragon, now the George, dates from 1781 but was rebuilt in 1904.[29] Fullwell House was built in 1792, a substantial property at the western end of Squires Lane occupied by mill owners. It was demolished in 1935.[30] At the same time rows of two-storey brick terraces were being built at the west end of the town to house the workers who had migrated to Tyldesley to work in the factories and mines.

Industrial Revolution

Miners in Tyldesley during the 1926 United Kingdom general strike. Coal mining was the dominant industry in Tyldesley for over 100 years, until its decline following the Second World War.

Until the Industrial Revolution, Tyldesley was broadly rural with scattered communities concentrated around the old manor halls. Agriculture and a cottage spinning and weaving industry, mainly muslin and fustian,[31] were the chief occupations before 1800. Silk weaving became an important cottage industry in the Leigh, Astley and Tyldesley area after 1827 when silk was brought from Manchester.[32]

In 1772 Thomas Johnson opened his "Little Factory" for carding and spinning cotton. He opened "The Great Leviathon", a steam driven mill on Factory Street, for woollen spinning in 1792 but this quickly became a cotton mill. More cotton mills grew up to the west of the township close to the Hindsford and Shakerley Brooks which provided them with water. New Mills was the name given to the complex owned by Messrs. J & G Jones around Factory Street where in 1823 after a strike for increased wages and lockout by the millowners all the workers were sacked and new hands hired to replace them. These "scab" labourers were known as "knobsticks" and armed police had to be brought in to protect them assault by the dismissed labour force.[33] Joseph Wilson built a mill in nearby James Street which was extended and known as Hope Mill.[34] By 1838 James Burton owned most of the mills in the west of the town. He lived in Charles Street surrounded by his workforce.[35] His company owned 74 cottages and 57 cellars, a house in Elliot Street and the King's Arms public house. He died in 1868. In 1883 a fire at Burton's Mills caused £15,000 damage (£1.1 million as of 2010)[36] and by 1920 his mills were demolished.[37]

Tyldesley's most famous millowner was Caleb Wright, owner of the Barnfield Mills with a workforce of about 800. The last of Caleb Wright's mills, Barnfield No6 on Shuttle Street, was built in about 1894 on the site of an earlier mill—Resolution Mill—which was destroyed by fire in 1891. It was a concrete-floored multi-storey block for spinning, powered by an external engine house via a rope race.[38] It was demolished in the 1990s,[39] and the site is now occupied by a supermarket.

Coal had been mined in Shakerley in the 1400s. There is a record of a dispute between the Shakerleys and the Tyldesleys over the stealing of "seacoals" in 1429.[40] Shakerley Colliery was in existence in 1798.[41] Shakerley along with neighbouring Chowbent, in Atherton was a centre for making nails,[42] but was in decline by 1800. After 1800 Tyldesley grew to prominence, like many of its neighbours, through the coal and cotton industries.

Coal mining was the dominant industry in Tyldesley which was surrounded by collieries for over 100 years until its decline after the Second World War.[43] Gin Pit closed in 1955, Cleworth in 1963, Nook two years later in 1965, and Mosley Common in 1968. Tyldesley Miners Association, established in 1862,[44] opened the Tyldesley Miner's Hall on Elliot Street in 1893 and the Astley and Tyldesley Miner's Club opened at Gin Pit in 1927 and remains open.

There were several mining disasters in Tyldesley, including the worst at Yew Tree Colliery in Sale Lane on 11 December 1858. An explosion of firedamp caused by a safety lamp cost 25 lives, the youngest 11 and the oldest 35 years of age. The victims are buried in the churchyard at St George's Church.[48][49] Another explosion on 6 March 1877 at Great Boys Colliery cost eight lives[50] and on 2 October 1883 six men died when the cage rope broke at Nelson Colliery in Shakerley.[51] On 1 October 1895 five men including the colliery manager and undermanager died at Shakerley Colliery after an explosion of firedamp.[52]

Another important employer in Tyldesley was Grundy's Foundry. Its founder was John Grundy a local shop keeper. His idea was a warm air heating system to heat churches and halls. He built a foundry close to the railway in Lower Elliot Street.[53]

Land reclamation and new housing developments have changed the face of the town's outlying areas, but the centre still retains the atmosphere of a bustling market town,[54] with a refurbished market square. The steep terraces branching off the main streets give the town a distinctive character.

Governance

Tyldesley Town Hall, from 1924 the headquarters of the former Tyldesley Urban District Council. It was built as the Liberal Club in 1881.

Tyldesley forms an electoral ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan. The ward elects three councillors to the 75-member metropolitan borough council, Wigan's local authority. As of 2009, the three ward councillors of Tyldesley are members of the Liberal Democrats.[54] They form part of the opposition Democratic Alliance grouping on the Labour controlled council.[55]

Historically, Tyldesley formed part of the Hundred of West Derby, a judicial division of southwest Lancashire.[56] Tyldesley cum Shakerley was one of the six townships or vills that made up the ancient parish of Leigh.[57][58] The townships existed before the parish.[58] Tyldesley cum Shakerley was the largest of the six townships in the parish at 2,610 acres (10.6 km2): Tyldesley having an area of 1,970 acres (8.0 km2) and Shakerley 520 acres (2.1 km2).[4] The manor of Tyldesley was held by the de Tyldesley family from the de Botelers, whose chief manor was at Warrington.[4]

Under the terms of the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 the townships formed part of the Leigh Poor Law Union which was established on 26 January 1837 comprising an area covering the whole of the ancient parish of Leigh and part of Winwick. There were workhouses in existence in Pennington, Culcheth, Tyldesley and Lowton, but a central workhouse at Atherleigh replaced these in the 1850s.[59] In 1866 Tyldesley was constituted a separate civil parish.[60] In 1863 the Local Government Act 1858 was adopted for the township of Tyldesley-with-Shakerley, meaning it was governed by a local board of health, a type of regulatory body responsible for standards of hygiene and sanitation in the township. The first Tyldesley Local Board of Health was formed after elections on 24 October 1863. Of those elected were local industrialists—Caleb Wright and Oliver Burton, mill owners, William Ramsden and George Green, colliery owners. They were a mixture of Tories and Liberals. The local board took over the gas works in 1865, in 1876 built the first swimming baths, opened Tyldesley Cemetery in Hough Lane in 1876 and built sewage works at Morley's Hall in Astley in 1884. The offices of the local board were in Lower Elliot Street, where the council also had a fire station and depot.[61] Under the Public Health Act 1875 the local board gained additional duties and powers as an urban sanitary district and under the Local Government Act 1894 Tyldesley-with-Shakerley became an urban district of the administrative county of Lancashire, with an elected urban district council (UDC). What became Tyldesley Town Hall was originally the township's Liberal Club, opened in 1881, and was taken over by Tyldesley Urban District Council as their headquarters in 1924. Actions of Tyldesley UDC included the opening of Tyldesley Park on Astley Street in 1902, the provision of the Carnegie Library in 1909, and council housing estates at Sale Lane, Mosley Common and Shakerley.[62]

In 1933, Lancashire County Council conducted a review of its political structure resulting in a reorganisation of districts in the county, with reference to the Local Government Act 1929. A new Tyldesley Urban District was formed by the amalgamation of Tyldesley with Shakerley Urban District and the parish of Astley from the abolished Leigh Rural District.[63] The urban district was abolished in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, when the area became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, a local government district of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester.[1][64]

Tyldesley's MP is Barbara Keeley who won the parliamentary seat for Worsley at the 2005 General Election.[65] Following a review of parliamentary representation in Greater Manchester, the Boundary Commission recommended that Tyldesley should be part of the Leigh constituency at the next general election. [66]

Geography

At 53°30′59″N 2°28′0″W / 53.51639°N 2.466667°W / 53.51639; -2.466667 (53.5166°, -2.4668°), and 170 miles (274 km) northwest of central London, Tyldesley is situated 7.7 miles (12.4 km) east-southeast of Wigan and 8.9 miles (14.3 km) west-northwest of the city of Manchester, and at the eastern end of the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan. Topographically, Tyldesley is situated at the edge of the Lancashire Plain just to the north of Chat Moss and the Banks of Tyldesley are where the foothills of the Pennines begin. The land rises from about 100 ft (30 m) at the foot of the banks to 250 ft (76 m) at the highest point. The banks are about one and a half miles long, they are an escarpment with the scarp slope facing south with the gentler dip to the north. The underlying rocks are largely coal measures covered with boulder clay. Streams drain the area including the Shakerley and Hindsford brooks which flow in to Glaze Brook a tributary of the River Mersey.[4] Heavily industrialised during the 19th century, Tyldesley has become a residential area since the demise of the coal industry and closure of the cotton mills. The main road through Tyldesley is the A577 which runs along the ridge on which Tyldesley is situated.

Demography

Tyldesley compared
2001 UK census Tyldesley[67] Wigan (borough)[68] England
Total population 34,022 301,415 49,138,831
White 97.7% 98.7% 91.0%
Asian 0.7% 0.4% 4.6%
Black 0.3% 0.2% 2.3%

As of the 2001 UK census, Tyldesley had a population of 34,022. The 2001 population density was 13,789 inhabitants per square mile (5,324 /km2), with a 100 to 97.4 female-to-male ratio.[69] Of those over 16 years old, 27.3% were single (never married), 47.8% married and 8.2% divorced.[70] Although the proportion of divorced people was similar to that of Wigan and England, the rates of those who were single and married were significantly different to the national and Wigan averages (Wigan: 42.4% single, 36.6% married; England: 44.3% single, 34.7% married).[71] Tyldesley's 13,621 households included 24.0% one-person, 46.1% married couples living together, 10.2% were co-habiting couples, and 9.0% single parents with their children.[72] Of those aged 16–74, 27.0% had no academic qualifications, lower than 28.9% in all of England and much lower than the 35.3% for the Wigan borough.[73][74]

Population change

Population growth in Tyldesley from 1881–1961
Year 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1939 1951 1961
Population 9,954 12,891 14,843 15,582 15,650 14,846 17,851 18,101 16,813

Tyldesley Cum Shakerley CP/Tn [75]

Economy

Tyldesley compared
2001 UK Census Tyldesley[76] Wigan (borough)[77] England
Population of working age 25,021 220,196 35,532,091
Full time employment 46.8% 41.7% 40.8%
Part time employment 11.9% 11.9% 11.8%
Self employed 7.9% 6.2% 8.3%
Unemployed 2.7% 3.2% 3.3%
Retired 11.5% 13.7% 13.5%

According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, the industry of employment of residents aged 16–74 was 18.1% retail and wholesale, 16.5% manufacturing, 12.1% property and business services, 10.9% health and social work, 7.4% education, 7.1% transport and communications, 7.6% construction, 5.8% public administration, 5.0% finance, 4.1% hotels and restaurants, 0.8% energy and water supply, 0.5% agriculture, 0.1% mining, and 4.2% other. Compared with national figures, the town had a relatively low percentage working in agriculture.[78] The census recorded the economic activity of residents aged 16–74, 2.6% students were with jobs, 3.2% students without jobs, 4.7% looking after home or family, 6.7% permanently sick or disabled, and 2.1% economically inactive for other reasons.[76]

The main concentrations of employment are at Chaddock Lane between Astley and Mosley Common and at Parr Brow to the north of Mosley Common.[79]

Landmarks

A church made of light brown sandstone. It has a high spire rising up into a blue sky. Beneath it, in the foreground is green grass.
The Parish Church of St George is a Grade II listed building, and with a spire 150 feet (46 m) high, is one of Tyldesley's chief landmarks.

For many years Tyldesley's landscape was dominated by its factory chimneys and pit headgear. Since the closure of the mines and demolition of the factories, St George's Parish Church—one of the few structures in the town built of stone, with a spire rising to 150 feet (46 m) in height—and Top Chapel in the Market Square have become the chief landmarks; both are Grade II listed buildings.[80][81] Tyldesley's built environment is almost uniformly constructed of brick.[82]

Transport

Edward Entwistle, the driver of the first inter-city scheduled passenger train in the world, was born in Tyldesley in 1815. He drove the passenger service on the Liverpool to Manchester railway.[83]

In 1861 the London and North Western Railway revived powers granted to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway to build a railway from Eccles to Wigan through Tyldesley.[84] Tyldesley railway station was to the east of the junction of the branch to Kenyon Junction[85] on the Liverpool to Manchester Line via Leigh and Pennington.[86] The Earl of Ellesmere cut the first sod at Worsley on 11 September 1861 and the line opened to traffic on 1 September 1864.[87] The Eccles-Tyldesley-Leigh-Kenyon Branch closed on 3 May 1969 as a result of the Beeching Axe.[88] The former trackbed which passes through the Wigan MBC area was reserved, in case the rail route could be reinstated, in the Unitary Development Plan, UDP. The current proposal for the Leigh-Tyldesley area is a guided bus[89] route along the trackbed joining the A580 close to Roe Green[90] but this not universally popular. [91] The nearest railway station is Atherton which is 1.2 miles (1.9 km) to the north on the Wigan to Manchester line.

In 1900, a Bill authorising the South Lancashire Tramways Company to construct over 62 miles (100 km) of tramway in southern Lancashire was given Royal Assent.[92] However, by November 1900 the South Lancashire Electric Traction and Power Company had acquired the shares. The first section of tramway opened on 20 October 1902 between Lowton and Four Lanes Ends via Leigh and Atherton and on 25 October 1902 a branch from Atherton to Tyldesley was opened and Tyldesley got its first tram. This company got into financial difficulty and in turn became Lancashire United Tramways later Lancashire United Transport. In August 1931 trams were replaced by trolley buses.[93] Because of Tyldesley's narrow streets trams, and later trolley buses, had to follow a one-way system; eastbound trams ran along Shuttle Street and Milk Street and westbound trams used Elliot Street and Castle Street, a system now used by all traffic. Tyldesley is connected to neighbouring towns by bus services operated by South Lancs Travel of Atherton and First Manchester.

Education

Plaque on the Old St George's School

George Ormerod gave a site for a school to the west of St George's Church and subscriptions paid for the building, a national school which opened in 1827. St George's School had separate boys and girls departments, it catered for all age groups.[94] A day school was opened in the old Wesley Chapel in 1856 and in 1864 a new school built which lasted until 1912.[95] A school opened in Johnson St in 1872. This lasted as an infant school into the 1960s. The building still stands.[96] Garrett Hall Boys Secondary School opened in 1935.[97] It is now the site of Garrett Hall Primary School.

School Locality Description Website
St George's Central C.E. Primary Tyldesley Primary school website
Tyldesley Primary Tyldesley Primary school website
Garrett Hall Primary Tyldesley Primary school website
St. John's C.E. Primary Mosley Common Mosley Common Primary school website
Tyldesley Fred Longworth High Tyldesley Secondary school website
St. Stephen's C.E. Primary Astley Astley Primary school website
St. Ambrose Barlow Catholic Primary Astley Primary school website
St Mary's Catholic High Astley Astley Secondary school website
Holy Family Roman Catholic Primary Boothstown Boothstown Primary school website
Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Primary Hindsford Atherton Atherton Primary school website
Hindsford C.E. Primary Atherton Primary school website

The main school for secondary education in Tyldesley is Fred Longworth High School, which was awarded Arts College status in 1998. Children in Tyldesley also attend other high schools in the area including Hesketh Fletcher CE High School in Atherton, St Mary's RC High School in Astley, the only Catholic high school and sixth form in the area and Bedford High School, Leigh.

St George's Central Primary School, is an amalgamation in the late 1990s of the historical St George's Cof E and Central C of E Schools. Central C of E School in Darlington Street was sometimes referred to as the "Mission School". Other primary schools in Tyldesley are Tyldesley Primary School and Garrett Hall Primary. Until recently there was a school in Shakerley but this has now closed.[98] Children of primary age in Tyldesley attend schools in Astley, Boothstown, Mosley Common and Hindsford, Atherton.

Kingshill School in Lower Elliot St was a special school but has recently closed.[99]

Religion

Tyldesley Top Chapel is a Grade II listed buildings facing the Market Square

Tyldesley's first place of worship, Top Chapel was built in the Square in 1789[100] for the Countess of Huntingdon's sect which had broken away from the Church of England. John Wesley had preached in Shakerley laying the foundations for a place of worship in the area. Later in the 1780s George Whitfield who had worked with John Wesley earlier on in his ministry also preached in Shakerley. The local squire, Thomas Johnson, gifted land on the highest point of Tyldesley for a chapel and Lady Huntingdon, a supporter of John Wesley supplied money for the building materials. The chapel was completed in 1789 and became known as the Top Chapel due to its geographical location. The chapel has its own graveyard.[100]

Before 1825 Tyldesley had no church, and for ecclesiastical purposes, lay within the ancient parish of Leigh in the Diocese of Chester.[101] This diocese divided in 1847, when the present Diocese of Manchester was created.[102] For ritual baptisms, marriages and burials, the people of Tyldesley, had to travel to churches that lay outside of the township's boundaries, including Leigh Parish Church or its daughter churches at Astley St Stephen's or Atherton, St John the Baptist, Deane Parish Church or Eccles Parish Church.

The Parish Church of St George, Tyldesley a chapel of ease under the mother church of Leigh, St Mary's, was built in 1825 on land donated by Thomas Johnson. It was a Waterloo church, paid for by money from the parliament of the United Kingdom raised by the Church Building Act 1818, and said to be a celebration of Britain's victory in the Battle of Waterloo.[101] Robert Smirke was an official architect to the Office of Works and advised the Parliamentary Commissioners on the building of new churches from 1818 onwards, including St George, Tyldesley. The chapel was consecrated on 19 September 1825, dedicated to Saint George.[101] The church could seat 1,100 people, it is 112 feet (34 m) in length, 60 feet (18 m) in width and its spire, a local landmark is 150 feet (46 m) in height.[101] George Ormerod gave the land for the churchyard and also six bells which were cast at Downham Market, in Norfolk.[103]

There are also chapels of the Congregational, Primitive Methodist, Wesleyan Methodist, Baptist, Welsh Congregational, Welsh Calvinistic, and Independent Methodist connexions.[4] The Welsh chapels served the many Welsh people who migrated to Tyldesley after the opening of the railway in 1864.[82]

Sport

Tyldesley Swimming Club

The idea for a public swimming baths came from Caleb Wright. The Local Board built Tyldesley Baths in Union Street at a cost of £1,300 (£90,000 as of 2010)[36] and they opened to great celebrations in 1876. Tyldesley Swimming Club was formed as soon as the Baths opened. The Union Street Baths closed on health grounds in 1960 and the old Majestic Cinema on Castle Street was converted into the present public baths in 1964.[104]

Rugby Union

Tyldesley Football Club was formed in 1881 and in 1895 was one of the founder Clubs of the Northern Union. (Rugby League) The club late rejoined the RFU in 1911. The club played at Well Street for many years before moving to St.George's Park, Astley Street in November 2001. In 2008/09 season the 1st XV lost 8-7 to Cullompton (Devon) in the Senior Vase Final at Twickenham.[105]

Culture

Tyldesley's wealth as an industrial town resulted in many outlets for the entertainment of its population, including cinemas and public houses. Two cinemas were built in the town, the Carlton on Johnson Street, opened in 1911,[106] and the Majestic in Castle Street, opened in 1923.[107] Films were also shown in Tyldesley Miner's Hall from 1908.[108] In 1902 Tyldesley Urban District Council acquired land for a public park on Astley Street.[93] A public library was opened in 1908 with the aid of an Andrew Carnegie Grant,[96] on the site of the old Temperance Hall and Mechanics Institute on Stanley Street.

Founded in 1877, Tyldesley Good Templars Band was the town's first Brass Band. Tyldesley Band today is a member of the North West Brass Band Association and meets in the chapel building on Milk Street.[109] Tyldesley Little Theatre in Lemon Street is home to an amateur dramatic society, members of the Greater Manchester Drama Federation. The auditorium is a small 150-seat theatre with a traditional proscenium arch stage, stalls and balcony seating.[110]

See also

References

Notes
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  6. ^ Mills (1998),p.404.
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