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HMS Chatham F87
HMS Chatham
Class overview
Builders: Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd,
Cammell Laird,
Swan Hunter
Operators:  Royal Navy
 Brazilian Navy
 Romanian Naval Forces
 Chilean Navy
Preceded by: Type 21
Succeeded by: Type 23
Subclasses: Batch 1 Broadsword
Batch 2 Boxer
Batch 3 Cornwall
In commission: 3 May 1979 - present day
Completed: 14
Active: 11
Lost: 2
General characteristics
Displacement: Batch 1: 4,400 tons
Batch 2: 4,800 tons
Batch 3: 5,300 tons
Length: Batch 1: 131.2 m (430 feet)
Batch 2: 146.5 m (480 feet)
Batch 3: 148.1 m (486 feet)
Beam: 14.8 m (48 feet)
Draft: Batch 1: 6.1 m (20 feet)
Batch 2 & 3: 6.4 m (21 feet)
Propulsion: Batch 1 & 2: 2-shaft COGOG Batch 3 & Brave: 2-shaft COGAG
  • 2 Rolls-Royce Spey SM1A boost gas turbines (37,540 shp / 28 MW)
  • 2 Rolls-Royce Tyne RM3C cruise gas turbines (9,700 shp/ 7.2 MW)
Speed: 30 knots (56 km/h (full))
18 knots (33.3 km/h (cruise))
Complement: Batch 1: 222
Batch 2: 273
Batch 3: 250
Aircraft carried: 2 x Lynx
1 x Sea King or Merlin (Brave onwards)
Rademaker (F49), a type 22 frigate of the Brazilian Navy

The Type 22 Broadsword class is a class of frigate built for the Royal Navy. Fourteen of the class were built in total, with production divided into three batches. Four Batch 3 ships remain in service with the Royal Navy. Seven ships of the earlier batches have been sold for further service with Brazil, Romania and Chile, two have been sunk as targets and the other sold for scrapping.

Contents

Design

The Type 22 was designed to be a specialist anti-submarine warfare vessel as part of the Royal Navy's contribution to NATO. Since then they have evolved into a general purpose frigate with weapons for use against other surface ships, aircraft and submarines. They were built in three batches giving rise to three sub-classes, the first Broadsword of four ships, the second Boxer of six ships and the third and final, Cornwall of four ships.

The four Broadswords (which included two Falklands War veterans) were sold to Brazil in the mid 1990s. Romania has acquired and modernized two of the Batch 2 ships, while a third was purchased by Chile.

The ships have enhanced command, control and co-ordination facilities that results in their often being used as deployment flagships.[1]

Evolution

The Type 22 was intended as a follow-on class to frigates of the successful Type 12 ("Rothesay" and "Whitby") and the Type 12M ("Leander") classes at a time when the Royal Navy drew a clear distinction between anti-submarine escorts (known as frigates) and air defence ships (destroyers). Type 22s thus began as ASW vessels, but were later to evolve into GPFs (general-purpose frigates) as the ASW/AD distinction blurred.

The role of the Type 22 within overall force architecture can be gauged from a naval staff requirement drawn up in 1967. Following the demise of the future carrier programme (CVA-01), the RN undertook a complete reappraisal of the future surface fleet, and concluded that the following five new ship types were required:

- A cruiser-type ship to operate large ASW helicopters (this requirement eventually led to the Invincible class carriers);

- An air defence destroyer smaller and cheaper than the 'County' class (this resulted in the Type 42 programme);

- A missile-armed frigate as an eventual successor to the Leander class (this requirement led to the Type 22);

- A cheap patrol frigate (this requirement led to the Type 21); and

- A dual-role MCMV successor to the 'Ton' class (this resulted in the 'Hunt' class)

Of these, the air defence destroyer appears to have been given highest priority, the imperative being to get Sea Dart to sea in numbers to replace the air defence capability which would be lost with the premature demise of the carrier fleet.

Visually, the Type 12 lineage in the Type 22 design is less than obvious, though there are said to be similarities in the underwater hull form. Due to the workload of the Admiralty design department in the 1960s, a private design (Type 21) was purchased as an interim stop-gap whilst the Type 22 was under development. The design process, already hampered by the priority given to the Type 21 and the urgently-needed Type 42, was further protracted by attempts to produce a common Anglo-Dutch design. The first Type 22 order was placed in 1972 with Yarrow Shipbuilders; Yarrow undertook much of the detailed design work whilst overall responsibility remained with the Ship Department at Bath.

The length of the first four Type 22s was dictated by the dimensions of the undercover Frigate Refit Complex at Devonport Dockyard. The ships would be powered by a combination of Olympus and Tyne gas turbines in a COGOG (COmbined Gas turbine Or Gas turbine) arrangement. Machinery spaces were sited as far aft as possible to minimise shaft lengths. The after configuration was dictated by the requirement for a large hangar and a full-width flight deck..

Weapons fit was determined by the primary ASW role combined with a perceived need for a general purpose capability. The principal ASW weapons systems were the ship's Lynx helicopter and triple torpedo tubes (STWS), with 2087 towed array sonar a key part of the sensors fit. Air defence was provided in the form of two 'six-pack' launchers for the Seawolf (GWS 25) point-defence missile system. Surface warfare requirements were met by the provision of four Exocet SSM launchers, the standard RN fit at that time. The Broadsword design was unique to the Royal Navy in lacking a main gun armament. Although some of the Leander Class frigates had lost their main gun during upgrades, (Broadsword was the first to be designed from the beginning without a main cannon. This changed with the introduction of the Batch III ships.

Ordering of Type 22s proceeded slowly, in part because of the comparatively high unit cost of the ships. The unit cost of the last Type 12Ms had been about £10m; Type 21s cost around £20m each; when the first Type 22s were ordered, unit costs were estimated at £30m though, by the time that the first ship (HMS Broadsword) commissioned in 1979, inflation had driven this figure up to £68m, which was far higher than the cost of the contemporary Type 42s (HMS Glasgow, also commissioned in 1979, cost £40m).

After the first four ("Batch I") ships, the design was "stretched", with the Frigate Refit Complex suitably enlarged. Visually, and in addition to the increase in length, the biggest difference was the sharply raked stem, usually indicative of bow sonar (though none of the Batch II ships was thus fitted). An important addition to the Batch II group was a new Computer Assisted Command System (CACS-1), replacing the CAAIS fitted to the Batch I ships. A revised machinery installation was adopted from HMS Brave onwards, with Spey turbines replacing the previous Olympus. The future machinery arrangement would be COGAG (Combined Gas turbine And Gas turbine). By 1982, the quoted unit cost of a Type 22 had risen to £127m.

HMS London

This might have been the end of the Type 22 programme had it not been for the Falklands War (1982), in which the two ships of the class present (Broadword and Brilliant) acquitted themselves well. Replacement for ships lost in the South Atlantic were all of this class.

The last four ships of the class (the Batch III ships Cornwall, Cumberland, Campbeltown and Chatham) were of a greatly improved design. Reflecting lessons learned in the Falklands, the weapons fit was changed, becoming more optimised to a general warfare role. The ships were fitted with the 4.5" (114m) gun, primarily for NGS (Naval Gunfire Support for land forces). Exocet was replaced by the superior Harpoon with eight GWS 60 missile launchers fitted laterally abaft the bridge, and each ship would carry a Goalkeeper CIWS (Close-In Weapon System).

In their final form, the Type 22s were the largest frigates ever built for the Royal Navy - the follow-on Type 23 class would be appreciably smaller ships. Reflecting this, Type 22s are often deployed as flagships for NATO Task Groups.

Nomenclature

It was originally envisaged that all Type 22s would have names beginning with 'B' (Broadsword, etc), following the 'A' names used for Type 21s (Amazon, etc). This changed when two under-construction ships (Sheffield and Coventry) were re-named to commemorate ships lost in the South Atlantic, with London being similarly honoured. The alphabetical progression was re-established with the Batch III ships (Cornwall, etc) before being temporarily abandoned with the Type 23 class, named after Dukedoms (Norfolk, Lancaster, etc). The Royal Navy's latest escort class (the Type 45 or Daring class) have re-introduced the alphabetical progression.

Construction programme

Pennant Name (a) Hull builder Ordered Laid down Launched Accepted into service[2] Commissioned Estimated building cost[3]
Batch 1
F88 Broadsword Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Glasgow [4] 8 February 1974 [4][5] 7 February 1975 [4] 12 May 1976 [4] 21 February 1979 [6] 4 May 1979 [7] £68,600,000 [8][9]
F89 Battleaxe Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Glasgow [4] 5 September 1975 [4] 4 February 1976 [4] 18 May 1977 [4] 20 December 1979 [4][8] 28 March 1980 [4][10] £69,200,000 [8][11]
F90 Brilliant Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Glasgow [4] 7 September 1976 [4] 25 March 1977 [4] 15 December 1978 [4] 10 April 1981 [4][8] 15 May 1981 [4][10] £102,200,000 [8]
F91 Brazen Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Glasgow [4] 21 October 1977 [4] 18 August 1978 [4] 4 March 1980 [4] 11 June 1982 [4][8] 2 July 1982 [4][10] £112,000,000 [8]
Batch 2
F92 Boxer Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Glasgow [4] 25 April 1979 [4] 1 November 1979 [4] 17 June 1981 [4] 23 September 1983 [4][8] 22 December 1983 [4][10] £147,000,000 [12]
F93 Beaver Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Glasgow [4] 25 April 1979 [4] 20 June 1980 [4] 8 May 1982 [4] 18 July 1984 [4][13] 13 December 1984 [4][10] £148,000,000 [12]
F94 Brave Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Glasgow [4] 27 August 1981 [4] 24 May 1982 [4] 19 November 1983 [4] 21 February 1986 [4][13] 4 July 1986 [4][10] £166,000,000 [12]
F95 London Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Glasgow [4] 23 February 1982 [4] 7 February 1983 [4] 27 October 1984 [4] 6 February 1987 [13] 5 June 1987 [10] £159,000,000 [12]
F96 Sheffield Swan Hunter (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Wallsend-on-Tyne.[14] 2 July 1982 [4] 29 March 1984 [4] 26 March 1986 [4] 25 March 1988 [13] 26 July 1988 [10] £151,000,000 [15]
F98 Coventry Swan Hunter (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Wallsend.[14] 14 December 1982 [4] 29 March 1984 [4] 8 April 1986 [4] 1 July 1988 [13] 14 October 1988 [10] £147,000,000 [15]
Batch 3
F99 Cornwall Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Glasgow [4] 14 December 1982 [4] 19 September 1983 [4] 14 October 1985 [4] 19 February 1988 [13] 23 April 1988 [10] £131,050,000 [10]
F85 Cumberland Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Glasgow [4] 27 October 1984 [4] 12 October 1984 [4] 21 June 1986 [4] 18 November 1988 [13] 10 June 1989 [10] £141,170,000 [10]
F86 Campbeltown Cammell Laird (Shipbuilders) Ltd,[14] Birkenhead January 1985 [4] 4 December 1985 [4] 7 October 1987 [14] 24 February 1989 [13] 27 May 1989 [10] £161,970,000 [10]
F87 Chatham Swan Hunter (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Wallsend.[14] 28 January 1985 [4][16] 12 May 1986 [4] 20 January 1988 [14] 4 May 1990 [10] £175,280,000 [10]

On 11 January 1985, Mr. Dalyell asked the Secretary of State for Defence: "what is the latest cost estimate of a type 22 frigate, with stores, spare parts and ammunition." The Secretary of State for Defence, Mr. Lee, replied: "The average cost of a batch III type 22 frigate is currently estimated at about £140 million at 1984–85 prices. The cost of embarked helicopters, the first outfit of stores, spare parts and ammunition are estimated at about £18 million at the same price level."[17]

Crew

Department Officers Senior Rates Junior Rates Total
Operations 10 18 63 91
Weapons Engineering 2 14 27 43
Marine Engineering 2 21 32 55
Supply & Secretariat 2 6 27 35
Royal Marines 1 9 10
Ships Flight 2 4 4 10
Total 18 64 162 244
Source: Marriott, Leo Modern Combat Ships 4, Type 22, pub Ian Allan, 1986, ISBN 0-7110-1593-7 page 49.

Running costs

Date Running cost What is included Citation
1981-82 £11.0 million Average annual running cost of Type 22s at average 1981–82 prices and including associated aircraft costs but excluding the costs of major refits. [18]
1985-86 £12 million The average cost of running and maintaining a type 22 frigate for one year. [19]
1987-88 £4.8 million The average annual operating costs, at financial year 1987-88 prices of a type 22 frigate. These costs include personnel, fuel, spares and so on, and administrative support services, but exclude new construction, capital equipment, and refit-repair costs. [20]
2001-02 £11.9 million Type 22 Batch 3 frigate, average annual operating costs, based on historic costs over each full financial year. The figures include manpower, maintenance, fuel, stores and other costs (such as harbour dues), but exclude depreciation and cost of capital. [21]
2002-03 £13.1 million [21]

Availability

In February 1998, the Secretary of State for Defence, Dr Reid said: "Type 22 frigates achieved approximately 82 to 86 per cent. average availability for operational service in each of the last five years. This discounts time spent in planned maintenance."[22]

Ships - disposal and current state

Pennant Name Commissioned
by RN
Disposal
by RN
Sale contract signed Re-commissioned
new owner
Home port Status
Batch 1
F88 Broadsword 3 May 1979 [4] 30 June 1995 to Brazil.[23] 18 November 1994 [24] 30 June 1995 [24] Active in Brazil as F Greenhalgh (F46)
F89 Battleaxe 28 March 1980 [4] 30 April 1997 to Brazil.[23] 18 November 1994 [24] 30 April 1997 [24] Active in Brazil as F Rademaker (F49)
F90 Brilliant 15 May 1981 [4] 30 August 1996 to Brazil.[23] 18 November 1994 [24] 31 August 1996 [24] Laid up in Brazil as F Dodsworth (F47)
F91 Brazen 2 July 1982 [4] 30 August 1996 to Brazil.[23] 18 November 1994 [24] 31 August 1996 [24] Active in Brazil as F Bosísio (F48)
Batch 2
F92 Boxer 22 December 1983 [4] 4 August 1999 decommissioned.
1999 deleted.[25]
Sunk as target in August 2004.
F93 Beaver 13 December 1984 [4] 1 May 1999 decommissioned.
1999 deleted.[25]
21 February 2001 for scrap. Sold for Scrap
F94 Brave 4 July 1986 [4] 23 March 1999 decommissioned.
1999 deleted.[25]
Sunk as target in August 2004 by the submarine, HMS Sceptre and the frigate, HMS Argyll.[26][27]
F95 London 5 June 1987 14 January 1999 decommissioned.
1999 deleted.[25]
14 January 2003 to Romania.[28] 21 April 2005 [28] Active in Romania as Regina Maria (F222)
F96 Sheffield 26 July 1988 15 November 2002 decommissioned.[29] April 2003 to Chile.[30] 5 September 2003 [30] Valparaiso Active in Chile as Almirante Williams (FF-19)
F98 Coventry 14 October 1988 December 2001 decommissioned.[31]
2001 deleted.[25]
14 January 2003 to Romania.[28] 9 September 2004 [28] Active in Romania as Regele Ferdinand (F221)
Batch 3
F99 Cornwall 23 April 1988 Devonport Active
F85 Cumberland 10 June 1989 Devonport Active
F86 Campbeltown 27 May 1989 Devonport Active
F87 Chatham 4 May 1990 Devonport Active

In May 2000, the Secretary of State for Defence was asked: "what was the planned service life of(a) HMS London, (b) HMS Beaver, (c) HMS Boxer and (d) HMS Brave; and what was the forecast date for withdrawal from Royal Navy service, prior to the decision in the Strategic Defence Review to dispose of them." The Minister of State for the Armed Forces, John Spellar, replied: "The planned service for each ship was 18 years. The additional information is given in the table."[32] Note that the 18 years was dated from the date of acceptance, not the date first commissioned.

Ship Pre-SDR date for withdrawal Citation
HMS Boxer 31 January 2002 [32]
HMS Beaver 31 December 2002 [32]
HMS Brave 29 February 2004 [32]
HMS London 28 February 2005 [32]

In July 2000, the Secretary of State for Defence was asked: when he planned to withdraw the remaining Type 22 Batch II frigates from service. The Minister of State for the Armed Forces, John Spellar, replied: "Plans for the withdrawal from service of the Type 22 Batch 2 frigates currently in service are as follows:"

  • "HMS Sheffield 2012 - to be superseded by a T45 Destroyer"
  • "HMS Coventry 2001 - to be superseded by HMS St. Albans, a T23 Frigate."[33]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Frigate with formidable firepower, BBC News
  2. ^ The term used in Navy Estimates and Defence Estimates is "accepted into service". Hansard has used the term acceptance date. Leo Marriott in his various books uses the term "completed", as does Jane's Fighting Ships. These terms all mean the same thing: the date the Navy accepts the vessel from the builder. This date is important because maintenance cycles, etc. are generally calculated from the acceptance date.
  3. ^ "Unit cost, i.e. excluding cost of certain items (e.g. aircraft, First Outfits)." - Text from Defences Estimates
    "They do not include other costs, such as those for Government Furnished Equipment (GFE)—as they are not held centrally for each ship and could be provided only at disproportionate cost." Bob Ainsworth, Minister of State for the Armed Forces, 16 July 2008.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq Marriott, Leo Modern Combat Ships 4, Type 22, pub Ian Allan, 1986, ISBN 0-7110-1593-7 page 103.
  5. ^ Hansard HC Deb 24 November 1977 vol 939 cc869-70W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about contracts, 24 November 1977.
    First Type 22 Frigate (HMS Broadsword) the planned order date when tender invited was October 1973. The contract was placed in February 1974.
  6. ^ >Hansard: HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 cc357-8W 357W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence regarding warship costs, 23 October 1989. said 21 February 1979.
    Marriott, Leo Modern Combat Ships 4, Type 22, pub Ian Allan, 1986, ISBN 0-7110-1593-7 page 103 said 24 January 1979.
  7. ^ Hansard 16 July 2008 : Columns 452W The response to a question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 2008, said 4 May 1979.
    Marriott, Leo Modern Combat Ships 4, Type 22, pub Ian Allan, 1986, ISBN 0-7110-1593-7 page 103 says 3 May 1979.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Hansard: HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 cc357-8W 357W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence regarding warship costs, 23 October 1989. This section is mislabelled - it is the first part of the table that is continued on Hansard: HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 c360W .
  9. ^ Marriott, Leo Modern Combat Ships 4, Type 22, pub Ian Allan, 19866, ISBN 0-7110-1593-7 page 20 says £68 million
    Jane's Fighting Ships, 1982-83 says £68,600,000.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Hansard 16 July 2008 : Columns 451W and 452W Questions to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 2008.
  11. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships, 1982-83 also says £69,200,000.
  12. ^ a b c d Hansard: HC Deb 23 November 2000 vol 357 c271W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about the cost when new of (a) HMS London, (b) HMS Boxer, (c) HMS Beaver and (d) HMS Brave, 23 November 2000.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Hansard HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 cc358-61W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence on 23 October 1989 asking him to list the Royal Navy vessels built in each of the past 15 years, showing the cost of each and the yards in which they were constructed.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 1988-89pub Jane's Publishing, ISBN 0-7106-0858-6, pages 657-8.
  15. ^ a b Hansard 24 May 2007 : Column 1390W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence which naval vessels have been sold by the Royal Navy in the last five years; what the (a) vessel type, (b) service cost and (c) destination country was in each case; and if he will estimate the (i) original costs of each vessel and (ii) financial gains accrued to public funds as a result of each sale, 24 May 2007.
  16. ^ Hansard HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 c360W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence on 23 October 1989 asking him to list the Royal Navy vessels built in each of the past 15 years, showing the cost of each and the yards in which they were constructed. This states 28 January 1988 - the 1988 must be a scanning error for 1985.
  17. ^ Hansard 11 January 1985 c561W
  18. ^ Hansard HC Deb 16 July 1982 vol 27 cc485-6W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 1982.
  19. ^ Hansard HC Deb 22 January 1987 vol 108 c730W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 22 January 1987.
  20. ^ Hansard HC Deb 10 March 1989 vol 148 c44W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 10 March 1989.
  21. ^ a b Hansard HC Deb 09 September 2003 vol 410 cc346-7W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence 9 September 2003.
  22. ^ Hansard 5 Feb 1998 : Column: 762 Answer by Secretary of State for Defence, Dr Reid, 5 February 1998.
  23. ^ a b c d Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 1996-97 Pub Jane's Information Group, 1996, ISBN 0-7106-1355-5 pages 766-7.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 2002-03 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2002, ISBN 0-7106-2432-8 page 60.
  25. ^ a b c d e Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 2002-03 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2002, ISBN 0-7106-2432-8 page 761.
  26. ^ "Naval Ships". Hansard. Parliament of the United Kingdom. 19 November 2003. http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/2003/nov/19/naval-ships#S6CV0413P2_20031119_CWA_522. Retrieved 29 November 2009.  
  27. ^ "Royal Navy". Hansard. Parliament of the United Kingdom. 11 October 2004. http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/2004/oct/11/royal-navy#S5LV0665P0_20041011_LWA_61. Retrieved 29 November 2009.  
  28. ^ a b c d Saunders, Stephen Jane's Fighting Ships, 2008-09 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2008, ISBN 97-0-7106-2845-9 page 628.
  29. ^ BBC HMS Sheffield is decommissioned.
  30. ^ a b Saunders, Stephen Jane's Fighting Ships, 2008-09 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2008, ISBN 97-0-7106-2845-9 page 110.
  31. ^ www.hmscoventry.co.uk
  32. ^ a b c d e Hansard HC Deb 22 May 2000 vol 350 cc318-9W Response by the Minister of State for the Armed Forces, to a question: "what was the planned service life of(a) HMS London, (b) HMS Beaver, (c) HMS Boxer and (d) HMS Brave; and what was the forecast date for withdrawal from Royal Navy service, prior to the decision in the Strategic Defence Review to dispose of them."
  33. ^ Hansard 11 Jul 2000 : Column: 449W Questions to the Secretary of State for Defence.

References

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