The Full Wiki

U.S. II Corps: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to II Corps (United States) article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

II Corps
II Corps.patch.gif
II Corps shoulder sleeve insignia
Active 1918-1945
Country United States
Branch U.S. Army
Type Corps
Garrison/HQ Camp Kilmer
Engagements World War I
World War II
*Battle of Sidi Bou Zid
*Battle of the Kasserine Pass
*Battle of El Guettar
*Operation Husky
*Battle of Monte Cassino
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Mark W. Clark
George Patton
Omar Bradley
Geoffrey Keyes
U.S. Corps (1939 - Present)
Previous Next
I Corps (United States) III Corps (United States)

The US II Corps was a corps of the United States Army and the first American formation of any size to see combat in Europe or Africa during World War II.

Contents

History

Advertisements

World War I

The II Corps first saw significant action in Europe as a part of the main assault beginning the 1918 Second Battle of the Somme, while attached to the British Third Army. The initial secondary attack to begin that battle became known as the Third Battle of Albert, launched by the New Zealand Division. The attacks developed into an advance, which pushed the German 2nd Army back along a 50 mile front line. On August 22nd, the New Zealand Division took Albert, with the British and Americans advancing on Arras. On August 29th, Bapaume fell into British and American hands, which resulted in an advance by the Australian Corps, who crossed the Somme River on August 31st and broke the German lines during the Battle of Mont St. Quentin. Ultimately, the overall battle resulted in the German Army being pushed back to the Hindenburg Line, from which they would launch their spring offensive.

World War II

In late 1942, under the command of Major-General Lloyd Fredendall the II Corps landed in Oran as part of Operation Torch. After initially making good headway against German forces during the Tunisian Campaign, II Corps was defeated by German forces under Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim at the Battle of Sidi Bou Zid. II Corps was again decisively defeated during the Battle of the Kasserine Pass by troops under Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. The defeats were compounded by American inexperience, poor senior leadership, and lack of armor comparable to that in the German panzer forces, as well as the highly effective German high-velocity 88 mm anti-tank guns, which were used in screening tactics to destroy American tanks lured into pursuit of German armored forces.

In March 1943, after a change of command to General George Patton, the II Corps recovered its cohesion and fought well for the rest of the Tunisia Campaign, winning the Battle of El Guettar. The corps held the southern flank of British 1st Army during the destruction of the remaining Axis forces in North Africa.

In July 1943, the II Corps landed in Sicily as part of Operation Husky under command of the U.S. 7th Army. It played a key part in the liberation of the western part of the island. The corps consisted of the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division, U.S. 9th Infantry Division, and 45th Infantry Division (United States), all under the command of Lieutenant-General Omar Nelson Bradley.

The II Corps participated in a further amphibious operation at Salerno during the Allied invasion of Italy (Operation Avalanche). This operation included the U.S. 36th Infantry Division and 45th Infantry Division.

During the Spring offense in May 1944, the II Corps consisted of the US 85th and 88th Infantry Divisions. For the assault of the German Gothic Line, the II Corps consisted of the 34th Infantry Division, 88th Infantry Divisions, and 91st Infantry Division.

After the Anzio landings (Operation Shingle), Major-General Geoffrey Keyes was assigned commander of the II Corps. The corps fought from Monte Cassino, moved up the western side of Italy, and ended up on the right flank of US Fifth Army in May 1945.

The II Corps inactivated in Austria on 10 October, 1945 following Germany's surrender.

See also


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message