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Upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I

PDB rendering based on 1k99.
Available structures
1k99, 1l8y, 1l8z, 1v63, 1v64, 1wgf
Symbols UBTF; NOR-90; UBF
External IDs OMIM600673 MGI98512 HomoloGene7970 GeneCards: UBTF Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE UBTF 202692 s at tn.png
PBB GE UBTF 214881 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7343 21429
Ensembl ENSG00000108312 ENSMUSG00000020923
UniProt P17480 Q05DS1
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001076683 NM_001044383
RefSeq (protein) NP_001070151 NP_001037848
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
39.64 - 39.65 Mb
Chr 11:
102.12 - 102.14 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Nucleolar transcription factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UBTF gene.[1][2]

Upstream binding factor (UBF) is a transcription factor required for expression of the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S ribosomal RNAs, along with SL1 (a complex of TBP (MIM 600075) and multiple TBP-associated factors or 'TAFs'). Two UBF polypeptides, of 94 and 97 kD, exist in the human (Bell et al., 1988). UBF is a nucleolar phosphoprotein with both DNA binding and transactivation domains. Sequence-specific DNA binding to the core and upstream control elements of the human rRNA promoter is mediated through several HMG boxes (Jantzen et al., 1990).[supplied by OMIM][2]


UBTF has been shown to interact with Casein kinase 2, alpha 1,[3] TAF1C,[4][5] Retinoblastoma protein[6] and TAF1.[7]


  1. ^ Matera AG, Wu W, Imai H, O'Keefe CL, Chan EK (May 1997). "Molecular cloning of the RNA polymerase I transcription factor hUBF/NOR-90 (UBTF) gene and localization to 17q21.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping". Genomics 41 (1): 135–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4647. PMID 9126496.  
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: UBTF upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I".  
  3. ^ Voit, R; Kuhn A, Sander E E, Grummt I (Jul. 1995). "Activation of mammalian ribosomal gene transcription requires phosphorylation of the nucleolar transcription factor UBF". Nucleic Acids Res. (ENGLAND) 23 (14): 2593–9. ISSN 0305-1048. PMID 7651819.  
  4. ^ Voit, R; Grummt I (Nov. 2001). "Phosphorylation of UBF at serine 388 is required for interaction with RNA polymerase I and activation of rDNA transcription". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 98 (24): 13631–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.231071698. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 11698641.  
  5. ^ Zhai, W; Comai L (Aug. 2000). "Repression of RNA polymerase I transcription by the tumor suppressor p53". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (16): 5930–8. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 10913176.  
  6. ^ Hannan, K M; Hannan R D, Smith S D, Jefferson L S, Lun M, Rothblum L I (Oct. 2000). "Rb and p130 regulate RNA polymerase I transcription: Rb disrupts the interaction between UBF and SL-1". Oncogene (ENGLAND) 19 (43): 4988–99. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203875. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 11042686.  
  7. ^ Lin, Chih-Yin; Tuan JoAnn, Scalia Pierluigi, Bui Tiffany, Comai Lucio (Dec. 2002). "The cell cycle regulatory factor TAF1 stimulates ribosomal DNA transcription by binding to the activator UBF". Curr. Biol. (England) 12 (24): 2142–6. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 12498690.  

Further reading

  • Chan EK, Imai H, Hamel JC, Tan EM (1991). "Human autoantibody to RNA polymerase I transcription factor hUBF. Molecular identity of nucleolus organizer region autoantigen NOR-90 and ribosomal RNA transcription upstream binding factor.". J. Exp. Med. 174 (5): 1239–44. doi:10.1084/jem.174.5.1239. PMID 1940801.  
  • Jantzen HM, Admon A, Bell SP, Tjian R (1990). "Nucleolar transcription factor hUBF contains a DNA-binding motif with homology to HMG proteins.". Nature 344 (6269): 830–6. doi:10.1038/344830a0. PMID 2330041.  
  • Bell SP, Learned RM, Jantzen HM, Tjian R (1988). "Functional cooperativity between transcription factors UBF1 and SL1 mediates human ribosomal RNA synthesis.". Science 241 (4870): 1192–7. doi:10.1126/science.3413483. PMID 3413483.  
  • Voit R, Kuhn A, Sander EE, Grummt I (1995). "Activation of mammalian ribosomal gene transcription requires phosphorylation of the nucleolar transcription factor UBF.". Nucleic Acids Res. 23 (14): 2593–9. doi:10.1093/nar/23.14.2593. PMID 7651819.  
  • Hempel WM, Cavanaugh AH, Hannan RD, et al. (1996). "The species-specific RNA polymerase I transcription factor SL-1 binds to upstream binding factor.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (2): 557–63. PMID 8552083.  
  • Hanada K, Song CZ, Yamamoto K, et al. (1996). "RNA polymerase I associated factor 53 binds to the nucleolar transcription factor UBF and functions in specific rDNA transcription.". EMBO J. 15 (9): 2217–26. PMID 8641287.  
  • Pluta AF, Earnshaw WC (1996). "Specific interaction between human kinetochore protein CENP-C and a nucleolar transcriptional regulator.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (31): 18767–74. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.31.18767. PMID 8702533.  
  • Whitehead CM, Winkfein RJ, Fritzler MJ, Rattner JB (1998). "ASE-1: a novel protein of the fibrillar centres of the nucleolus and nucleolus organizer region of mitotic chromosomes.". Chromosoma 106 (8): 493–502. doi:10.1007/s004120050271. PMID 9426281.  
  • Voit R, Hoffmann M, Grummt I (1999). "Phosphorylation by G1-specific cdk-cyclin complexes activates the nucleolar transcription factor UBF.". EMBO J. 18 (7): 1891–9. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.7.1891. PMID 10202152.  
  • Liu CJ, Wang H, Lengyel P (1999). "The interferon-inducible nucleolar p204 protein binds the ribosomal RNA-specific UBF1 transcription factor and inhibits ribosomal RNA transcription.". EMBO J. 18 (10): 2845–54. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.10.2845. PMID 10329630.  
  • Hannan KM, Hannan RD, Smith SD, et al. (2000). "Rb and p130 regulate RNA polymerase I transcription: Rb disrupts the interaction between UBF and SL-1.". Oncogene 19 (43): 4988–99. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203875. PMID 11042686.  
  • Kalousek I, Krízková P (2001). "Lymphocyte mitogenic transformation is accompanied by phosphorylation of the nucleolar transcription factor UBF.". Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 46 (7): 1163–71. PMID 11075946.  
  • Pelletier G, Stefanovsky VY, Faubladier M, et al. (2002). "Competitive recruitment of CBP and Rb-HDAC regulates UBF acetylation and ribosomal transcription.". Mol. Cell 6 (5): 1059–66. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)00104-0. PMID 11106745.  
  • Miller G, Panov KI, Friedrich JK, et al. (2001). "hRRN3 is essential in the SL1-mediated recruitment of RNA Polymerase I to rRNA gene promoters.". EMBO J. 20 (6): 1373–82. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.6.1373. PMID 11250903.  
  • Seither P, Iben S, Thiry M, Grummt I (2002). "PAF67, a novel protein that is associated with the initiation-competent form of RNA polymerase I.". Biol. Chem. 382 (8): 1163–70. doi:10.1515/BC.2001.146. PMID 11592397.  
  • Voit R, Grummt I (2002). "Phosphorylation of UBF at serine 388 is required for interaction with RNA polymerase I and activation of rDNA transcription.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (24): 13631–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.231071698. PMID 11698641.  
  • Stefanovsky VY, Pelletier G, Hannan R, et al. (2002). "An immediate response of ribosomal transcription to growth factor stimulation in mammals is mediated by ERK phosphorylation of UBF.". Mol. Cell 8 (5): 1063–73. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00384-7. PMID 11741541.  
  • Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH, et al. (2002). "Directed proteomic analysis of the human nucleolus.". Curr. Biol. 12 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00650-9. PMID 11790298.  
  • Dühr S, Torres-Montaner A, Astola A, et al. (2002). "Molecular analysis of the 5' region of human ribosomal transcription factor UBF.". DNA Seq. 12 (4): 267–72. doi:10.3109/10425170109025001. PMID 11916260.  


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