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Upstream transcription factor 1

PDB rendering based on 1an4.
Available structures
External IDs OMIM191523 MGI99542 HomoloGene31426 GeneCards: USF1 Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7391 22278
Ensembl ENSG00000158773 ENSMUSG00000026641
UniProt P22415 O09135
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_007122 NM_009480
RefSeq (protein) NP_009053 NP_033506
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
159.28 - 159.28 Mb
Chr 1:
173.25 - 173.25 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Upstream stimulatory factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the USF1 gene.[1][2]

This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs. This gene has been linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene.[2]


USF1 (human gene) has been shown to interact with USF2,[3][4] FOSL1[5] and GTF2I.[6][7]


  1. ^ Shieh BH, Sparkes RS, Gaynor RB, Lusis AJ (Jun 1993). "Localization of the gene-encoding upstream stimulatory factor (USF) to human chromosome 1q22-q23". Genomics 16 (1): 266–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1174. PMID 8486371. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: USF1 upstream transcription factor 1". 
  3. ^ Ewing, Rob M; Chu Peter, Elisma Fred, Li Hongyan, Taylor Paul, Climie Shane, McBroom-Cerajewski Linda, Robinson Mark D, O'Connor Liam, Li Michael, Taylor Rod, Dharsee Moyez, Ho Yuen, Heilbut Adrian, Moore Lynda, Zhang Shudong, Ornatsky Olga, Bukhman Yury V, Ethier Martin, Sheng Yinglun, Vasilescu Julian, Abu-Farha Mohamed, Lambert Jean-Philippe, Duewel Henry S, Stewart Ian I, Kuehl Bonnie, Hogue Kelly, Colwill Karen, Gladwish Katharine, Muskat Brenda, Kinach Robert, Adams Sally-Lin, Moran Michael F, Morin Gregg B, Topaloglou Thodoros, Figeys Daniel (2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. (England) 3: 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMID 17353931. 
  4. ^ Viollet, B; Lefrançois-Martinez A M, Henrion A, Kahn A, Raymondjean M, Martinez A (Jan. 1996). "Immunochemical characterization and transacting properties of upstream stimulatory factor isoforms". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 271 (3): 1405–15. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 8576131. 
  5. ^ Pognonec, P; Boulukos K E, Aperlo C, Fujimoto M, Ariga H, Nomoto A, Kato H (May. 1997). "Cross-family interaction between the bHLHZip USF and bZip Fra1 proteins results in down-regulation of AP1 activity". Oncogene (ENGLAND) 14 (17): 2091–8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201046. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 9160889. 
  6. ^ Roy, A L; Du H, Gregor P D, Novina C D, Martinez E, Roeder R G (Dec. 1997). "Cloning of an inr- and E-box-binding protein, TFII-I, that interacts physically and functionally with USF1". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 16 (23): 7091–104. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.23.7091. ISSN 0261-4189. PMID 9384587. 
  7. ^ Roy, A L; Meisterernst M, Pognonec P, Roeder R G (Nov. 1991). "Cooperative interaction of an initiator-binding transcription initiation factor and the helix-loop-helix activator USF". Nature (ENGLAND) 354 (6350): 245–8. doi:10.1038/354245a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 1961251. 

Further reading

  • Corre S, Galibert MD (2006). "[USF as a key regulatory element of gene expression]". Med Sci (Paris) 22 (1): 62–7. PMID 16386222. 
  • Lee JC, Lusis AJ, Pajukanta P (2007). "Familial combined hyperlipidemia: upstream transcription factor 1 and beyond.". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 17 (2): 101–9. doi:10.1097/01.mol.0000217890.54875.13. PMID 16531745. 
  • Roy AL, Meisterernst M, Pognonec P, Roeder RG (1992). "Cooperative interaction of an initiator-binding transcription initiation factor and the helix-loop-helix activator USF.". Nature 354 (6350): 245–8. doi:10.1038/354245a0. PMID 1961251. 
  • Gregor PD, Sawadogo M, Roeder RG (1991). "The adenovirus major late transcription factor USF is a member of the helix-loop-helix group of regulatory proteins and binds to DNA as a dimer.". Genes Dev. 4 (10): 1730–40. doi:10.1101/gad.4.10.1730. PMID 2249772. 
  • Henrion AA, Martinez A, Mattei MG, et al. (1995). "Structure, sequence, and chromosomal location of the gene for USF2 transcription factors in mouse.". Genomics 25 (1): 36–43. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(95)80107-W. PMID 7774954. 
  • Ferré-D'Amaré AR, Pognonec P, Roeder RG, Burley SK (1994). "Structure and function of the b/HLH/Z domain of USF.". Embo J. 13 (1): 180–9. PMID 8306960. 
  • Viollet B, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Henrion A, et al. (1996). "Immunochemical characterization and transacting properties of upstream stimulatory factor isoforms.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (3): 1405–15. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.3.1405. PMID 8576131. 
  • Ghosh AK, Datta PK, Jacob ST (1997). "The dual role of helix-loop--helix-zipper protein USF in ribosomal RNA gene transcription in vivo.". Oncogene 14 (5): 589–94. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1200866. PMID 9053857. 
  • Pognonec P, Boulukos KE, Aperlo C, et al. (1997). "Cross-family interaction between the bHLHZip USF and bZip Fra1 proteins results in down-regulation of AP1 activity.". Oncogene 14 (17): 2091–8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201046. PMID 9160889. 
  • Roy AL, Du H, Gregor PD, et al. (1998). "Cloning of an inr- and E-box-binding protein, TFII-I, that interacts physically and functionally with USF1.". Embo J. 16 (23): 7091–104. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.23.7091. PMID 9384587. 
  • Pajukanta P, Nuotio I, Terwilliger JD, et al. (1998). "Linkage of familial combined hyperlipidaemia to chromosome 1q21-q23.". Nat. Genet. 18 (4): 369–73. doi:10.1038/ng0498-369. PMID 9537421. 
  • Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788–95. doi:10.1101/gr.143000. PMID 11076863. 
  • Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, et al. (2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.". Genome Res. 11 (3): 422–35. doi:10.1101/gr.154701. PMID 11230166. 
  • Bengtsson SH, Madeyski-Bengtson K, Nilsson J, Bjursell G (2002). "Transcriptional regulation of the human carboxyl ester lipase gene in THP-1 monocytes: an E-box required for activation binds upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2.". Biochem. J. 365 (Pt 2): 481–8. doi:10.1042/BJ20020223. PMID 11945176. 
  • Villavicencio EH, Yoon JW, Frank DJ, et al. (2002). "Cooperative E-box regulation of human GLI1 by TWIST and USF.". Genesis 32 (4): 247–58. doi:10.1002/gene.10078. PMID 11948912. 
  • Coulson JM, Edgson JL, Marshall-Jones ZV, et al. (2003). "Upstream stimulatory factor activates the vasopressin promoter via multiple motifs, including a non-canonical E-box.". Biochem. J. 369 (Pt 3): 549–61. doi:10.1042/BJ20021176. PMID 12403649. 
  • Salero E, Giménez C, Zafra F (2003). "Identification of a non-canonical E-box motif as a regulatory element in the proximal promoter region of the apolipoprotein E gene.". Biochem. J. 370 (Pt 3): 979–86. doi:10.1042/BJ20021142. PMID 12444925. 
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932. 
  • Pickwell GV, Shih H, Quattrochi LC (2003). "Interaction of upstream stimulatory factor proteins with an E-box located within the human CYP1A2 5'-flanking gene contributes to basal transcriptional gene activation.". Biochem. Pharmacol. 65 (7): 1087–96. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(03)00037-6. PMID 12663044. 


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