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USS Pampanito, with SS Jeremiah O'Brien moored astern
USS Pampanito, with SS Jeremiah O'Brien moored astern
Career
Builder: Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine[1]
Laid down: 15 March 1943[1]
Launched: 12 July 1943[1]
Commissioned: 6 November 1943[1]
Decommissioned: 15 December 1945[1]
Struck: 20 December 1971[1]
Status: Museum ship in San Francisco, California since 21 November 1975[2]
General characteristics
Class and type: Balao-class diesel-electric submarine[2]
Displacement: 1,526 long tons (1,550 t) surfaced[2]
2,391 long tons (2,429 t) submerged[2]
Length: 311 feetinches (94.95 m)[2]
Beam: 27 ft 3 in (8.31 m)[2]
Draft: 16 ft 10 in (5.13 m) maximum[2]
Propulsion:

4 × Fairbanks-Morse Model 38D8-⅛ 10-cylinder opposed piston diesel engines driving electrical generators[2][3]
2 × 126-cell Sargo batteries[4]
4 × high-speed Elliott electric motors with reduction gears [2]
two propellers [2]
5,400 shp (4.0 MW) surfaced[2]

2,740 shp (2.0 MW) submerged[2]
Speed: 20.25 knots (37.50 km/h) surfaced[4]
8.75 knots (16.20 km/h) submerged[4]
Range: 11,000 nautical miles (20,000 km) surfaced at 10 knots (19 km/h)[4]
Endurance: 48 hours at 2 knots (3.7 km/h) submerged[4]
75 days on patrol
Test depth: 400 feet (120 m)[4]
Complement: 10 officers, 70–71 enlisted[4]
Armament: 10 × 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes
 (six forward, four aft)
 24 torpedoes [4]
1 × 4-inch (102 mm) / 50 caliber deck gun [4]
Bofors 40 mm and Oerlikon 20 mm cannon
USS PAMPANITO (submarine)
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. National Historic Landmark
Location: Fisherman's Wharf-Pier 45, San Francisco, California
Governing body: Private
Added to NRHP: January 14, 1986[5]
Designated NHL: January 14, 1986[6]
NRHP Reference#: 86000089

USS Pampanito (SS-383/AGSS-383), a Balao-class submarine, was a United States Navy ship, the only one named for a variety of the pompano fish (see gafftopsail pompano). She completed six war patrols from 1944 to 1945 and served as a Naval Reserve Training ship from 1960 to 1971. She is now a National Historic Landmark, preserved as a memorial and museum ship in the San Francisco Maritime National Park Association located at Fisherman's Wharf.

Contents

History: 1943-1970

USS Pampanito's keel was laid down by the Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, Maine, on 15 March 1943. She was launched on 12 July 1943, sponsored by Mrs. James Wolfender, and commissioned on 6 November 1943, with Lieutenant Commander Charles B. Jackson, Jr. in command.

After shakedown off New London, Connecticut, Pampanito transited the Panama Canal and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 14 February 1944. Her first war patrol, from 15 March to 2 May, was conducted in the southwest approaches to Saipan and Guam. She served on lifeguard duty south of Yap, then scored two torpedo hits on a destroyer before sailing for Midway Island and Pearl Harbor for refit and repairs to a hull badly damaged by depth charges.

Pampanito’s second war patrol, from 3 June to 23 July, took place off Kyūshū, Shikoku, and Honshū. On 23 June, a submerged Japanese submarine fired two torpedoes, just missing Pampanito. On 6 July, Pampanito damaged a Japanese gunboat, and 11 days later headed for Midway Island.

Pampanito’s third war patrol, from 17 August to 28 September, a "wolfpack" operation with submarines Growler (SS-215) and Sealion (SS-315), was conducted in the South China Sea. On 12 September, she sank 10,509 ton POW ship Kachidoki Maru carrying 900 British prisoners, the 5,135 ton tanker Zuihō Maru, and damaged a third ship. On 15 September, she moved back to the area of the original attack and found men clinging to makeshift rafts. As the sub moved closer, the men were heard to be shouting in English. Pampanito was able to pick up 73 British and Australian survivors and called in three other subs, Sealion, Barb (SS-220) and Queenfish (SS-393), to assist with the rescue. She then set course for Saipan, disembarked the survivors, and steamed on to Pearl Harbor.

Pampanito’s fourth war patrol, from 28 October to 30 December, took place off Formosa and the coast of southeastern China with Sea Cat (SS-399), Pipefish (SS-388), and Searaven (SS-196). Sinking 1200 ton cargo ship Shinko Maru Number One, 19 November, she damaged a second ship before putting in to Fremantle for refit. Her fifth war patrol in the Gulf of Siam, from 23 January to 12 February 1945, with Guavina (SS-362), was highlighted by two sinkings, the 6,968-ton cargo ship Engen Maru 6 February and the 3,520-ton passenger-cargo ship Eifuku Maru on 8 February.

Refitted at Subic Bay, Pampanito returned to the Gulf of Siam for her sixth war patrol. Operating with Caiman (SS-323), Sealion, and Mingo (SS-261), she sighted only one target before sailing for Pearl Harbor.

From Pearl Harbor the ship proceeded to San Francisco for overhaul, departing for Pearl Harbor again 1 August. With the end of the war, she was ordered to return to San Francisco. She was decommissioned at Mare Island on 15 December 1945. She remained in reserve until April 1960 when she was assigned to Naval Reserve Training at Mare Island Naval Shipyard. Reclassified AGSS-383, 6 November 1962, she served as a Naval Reserve Training ship at Vallejo, California, until she was stricken from the Navy Register on 20 December 1971.[1]

Pampanito earned six battle stars for World War II service.

Museum ship

Pampanito was turned into a memorial and museum at San Francisco on 21 November 1975,[2] transferred to the Maritime Park Association (formerly the National Maritime Museum Association) on May 20, 1976, and opened to the public on March 15, 1982.[7]

Masts and conning tower, with broom and tree, in March 2003

In 1986, Pampanito was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and declared to be a National Historic Landmark.[6][5][8]

She is now owned and operated by the San Francisco Maritime National Park Association and is moored at Pier 45 in San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf area, where she is open for visiting.

She flies a broom from her mast, indicating a "clean sweep": a successful patrol that "swept the enemy from the seas." In total, she sank four Japanese ships and damaged six others, with a total of more than 27,000 tons of enemy shipping sunken.

Pampanito has completed four maintenance drydockings since becoming a memorial and museum.[9] "The Pampanito still has several working parts, including one torpedo tube, the periscope, engines, galley and ice-cream maker."[10] The museum runs educational programs including one that allows organized groups of children and adults to sleep overnight in the submarine's 48 bunk beds.[11]

In 1995, she played the fictional rust-bucket USS Stingray (SS-161) in the movie Down Periscope. The movie, with Kelsey Grammer as the ship's captain, is set in Charleston and Norfolk harbors, on the U.S. east coast, but San Francisco's Fort Mason is prominent behind the submarine in the closing shot of the movie. Filming is actually of the Pampanito sailing under tow in San Francisco Bay and venturing past the Golden Gate Bridge.[12] It had been fifty years since she sailed under the bridge.[9]

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Friedman, Norman (1995). U.S. Submarines Through 1945: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. pp. 285–304. ISBN 1-55750-263-3.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bauer, K. Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775-1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 275–280. ISBN 0-313-26202-0.  
  3. ^ U.S. Submarines Through 1945 pp. 261–263
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i U.S. Submarines Through 1945 pp. 305-311
  5. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. http://www.nr.nps.gov/.  
  6. ^ a b "USS PAMPANITO (submarine)". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1949&ResourceType=Structure. Retrieved 2008-03-12.  
  7. ^ "USS PAMPANITO (SS-383) Fact Sheet". Maritime Park Association. http://www.maritime.org/facts.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-26.  
  8. ^ Butowsky, Harry A. National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: USS Pampanito (SS 383), May 1985, National Park Service (accompanied by 3 exterior photos, 3 interior, and 2 artist renderings)
  9. ^ a b "WELCOME TO USS PAMPANITO (SS-383)". Maritime Park Association. http://www.maritime.org/pamphome.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-12.  
  10. ^ John Koopman (2007-01-08). "World War II sub taking shore leave for refitting". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/01/08/BAG6RNEJJI1.DTL. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  11. ^ "USS PAMPANITO (SS-383) Overnight Program". Maritime Park Association. http://www.maritime.org/scout.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  12. ^ "Trivia for Down Periscope (1996)". http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0116130/trivia. Retrieved 2008-03-12.  

References

External links

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