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Uija of Baekje
Hangul 의자왕
Hanja 義慈王
Revised Romanization Uija-wang
McCune–Reischauer Ŭija-wang
Monarchs of Korea
Baekje
  1. Onjo 18 BCE–29 CE
  2. Daru 29–77
  3. Giru 77–128
  4. Gaeru 128–166
  5. Chogo 166–214
  6. Gusu 214–234
  7. Saban 234
  8. Goi 234–286
  9. Chaekgye 286–298
  10. Bunseo 298–304
  11. Biryu 304–344
  12. Gye 344–346
  13. Geunchogo 346–375
  14. Geungusu 375–384
  15. Chimnyu 384–385
  16. Jinsa 385–392
  17. Asin 392–405
  18. Jeonji 405–420
  19. Guisin 420–427
  20. Biyu 427–455
  21. Gaero 455–475
  22. Munju 475–477
  23. Samgeun 477–479
  24. Dongseong 479–501
  25. Muryeong 501–523
  26. Seong 523–554
  27. Wideok 554–598
  28. Hye 598–599
  29. Beop 599–600
  30. Mu 600–641
  31. Uija 641–660

Uija of Baekje (? - 660?, r. 641[1] - 660) was the 31st and final ruler of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. His reign ended when Baekje was conquered by the alliance of the rival Korean kingdom Silla and China's Tang Dynasty.

Contents

Background

During this time, the northern Korean kingdom of Goguryeo, under the control of Yeon Gaesomun, took aggressive stances against Silla and the Tang. Silla responded by eventually allying closely with Tang China, threatening Baekje in the middle.

According to the Samguk Sagi, Uija was the eldest son of King Mu. According to a legend in the Samguk Yusa, Mu was a Baekje peasant who married a Silla princess (making her Uija's mother), but this is not considered orthodox history. Uija was made crown prince in 632 and became king upon his father's death in 641.

Reign

Although friendly with Tang China at first, Uija soon allied with Goguryeo to attack Silla. In 642, he led a campaign against Silla and conquered some 40 castles. He also sent a force of 10,000 to take Silla's Daeya Fortress and kill Kim Chunchu's son-in-law. The next year, with Goguryeo, Baekje attacked Silla again and tried to block its diplomatic route to Tang China. When Silla-Tang forces attacked Goguryeo in 645, he attacked Silla and took seven castles. Baekje and Goguryeo hit Silla's northern border in 655.

Soon upon becoming king, Uija undertook political reform to control the powers of the aristocracy. However, his reign was plagued by the internal power struggle among the nobles and corruption and decadence within the court.

As the court fell into disarray, the Silla-Tang alliance, repeatedly frustrated by Goguryeo's Yeon Gaesomun, changed strategy and decided to attack Goguryeo's ally Baekje first.

Fall of Baekje

In 660, Baekje's navy was defeated by Tang's navy force, and Silla's army led by Kim Yu-sin defeated Baekje's army led by Gye Baek. Baekje capital Sabi (in present-day Buyeo, Chungcheongnam-do) was surrounded by the Silla-Tang allied forces. Uija and the crown prince escaped to Ungjin (in present-day Gongju), but surrendered when Sabi fell.

He was taken to Tang along with his sons Buyeo Hyo and Buyeo Yung, 88 retainers, and 12,807 Baekje peasants. Another of his sons, Buyeo Pung, later attempted to restore his father's kingdom.

In 2000, his remains were retrieved from China and buried in a new tomb in Neungsan-ri, Buyeo-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea, near what was Baekje's final capital, Sabi.

Uija was his personal name; he did not receive a posthumous name.

References

  1. ^ The translators of Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz, Book One (Silk Pagoda, 2006), 66. ISBN 1596543485

External links

See also








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