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Ukraine
Україна
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemЩе не вмерла України і слава, і воля  (Ukrainian)
Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny i slava i volya  (transliteration)
Ukraine's glory has not perished, nor her freedom

Location of  Ukraine  (green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Kiev
50°27′N 30°30′E / 50.45°N 30.5°E / 50.45; 30.5
Official language(s) Ukrainian
Demonym Ukrainian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Viktor Yanukovych
 -  Prime Minister Mykola Azarov
 -  Speaker of Parliament Volodymyr Lytvyn
Legislature Verkhovna Rada
Formation
 -  Kievan Rus' 8821 
 -  Kingdom of Rus' 11991 
 -  Cossack Hetmanate 1649 
 -  Ukrainian National Republic March 17, 1917 
 -  West Ukrainian National Republic November 1, 1918 
 -  Ukrainian SSR December 30, 1922 
 -  Independence from the Soviet Union August 24, 19912 
Area
 -  Total 603,628 km2 (44th)
233,090 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 7%
Population
 -  2009 estimate 46,011,300[1] (27th)
 -  2001 census 48,457,102 
 -  Density 77/km2 (115th)
199/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $337.268 billion[2] (34th)
 -  Per capita $7,342[2] (94th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $179.604 billion[2] (45th)
 -  Per capita $3,910[2] (97th)
Gini (2006) 31[3] (medium
HDI (2005) 0.788 (medium) (76th)
Currency Hryvnia (UAH)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ua
Calling code 380
1 The ancient state of Kievan Rus' was formed in 882 on the territory of modern Ukraine. .From the historiographical point of view, Rus' polity is considered by some historians and the Ukrainian parliament as an early predecessor of the Ukrainian nation.^ One of these projects, on the renewal of the rights of persons deported on ethnic grounds, had been considered by the Ukrainian parliament and approved at the second reading but was vetoed by the former president.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[4]
2 An independence referendum was held on December 1 after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on December 26. The current constitution was adopted on June 28, 1996.
.Ukraine (pronounced /juːˈkreɪn/ ( listen) yoo-KRAYN; Ukrainian: Україна, transliterated: Ukrayina, [ukrɑˈjinɑ]) is a country in Eastern Europe.^ Criminalization of Sexual Violence in Eastern Europe ,” West Ukrainian Center “Women’s Perspectives” (June 2002).
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ukraine is a destination, transit, and source country for sex and labor trafficking, with Ukrainian women most frequently being trafficked to European and Middle Eastern countries.
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Russian-Ukrainian linguistic boundary is itself fluid, especially in the central and eastern parts of the country, where a hybrid vernacular known as surzhik is widely used.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

It is bordered by Russia to the east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south. The city of Kiev is both the capital and the largest city of Ukraine.
Ukraine's modern history began with the East Slavs. From at least the 9th century, Ukraine was a center of the medieval living area of the East Slavs. This state, known as Kievan Rus', became a large and powerful nation, but disintegrated in the 12th century. .After the Great Northern War, Ukraine was divided among a number of regional powers, and by the 19th century, the largest part of Ukraine was integrated into the Russian Empire, with the rest under Austro-Hungarian control.^ In the past, the Russian interpretation of history has been used to justify the introduction of Russian institutions into Ukraine, as well as language, culture and Russian settlers.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church was absorbed into the Russian Orthodox Church in the late seventeenth century.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ukraine's relationship to Russia has been especially difficult because of the large number of Russians in Ukraine and the shared history, as well as the close cultural and linguistic ties between Ukrainians and Russians.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.After a chaotic period of incessant warfare and several attempts at independence (1917–21) following World War I and the Russian Civil War, Ukraine emerged in 1922 as one of the founding republics of the Soviet Union.^ The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights estimated in 2000 that twenty percent of women in Ukraine from ages 17 to 21 years have experienced rape or attempted rape.
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^ In the years after the civil war, three separate Slavic republics were established.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, forging a national identity capable of uniting the various regions and peoples of Ukraine became one of the central tasks facing the Ukrainian leadership.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic's territory was enlarged westward shortly before and after World War II, and southwards in 1954 with the Crimea transfer. .In 1945, the Ukrainian SSR became one of the co-founding members of the United Nations.^ Ukrainian government and the United Nations Development Programme , have helped to raise the public’s consciousness of domestic violence and family violence laws.
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[5]
Ukraine became independent again after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. This began a period of transition to a market economy, in which Ukraine was stricken with an eight year recession.[6] But since then, the economy experienced a high increase in GDP growth. Ukraine was caught up in the worldwide economic crisis in 2008 and the economy plunged. .GDP fell 20% from spring 2008 to spring 2009, then leveled off as analysts compared the magnitude of the downturn to the worst years of economic depression during the early 1990s.^ Yushchenko's authority was further compromised by poor economic performance in the aftermath of the Orange revolution (GDP fell from 12.5 per cent in 2004 to just 2.5 per cent for 2005) .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[7]
.Ukraine is a unitary state composed of 24 oblasts (provinces), one autonomous republic (Crimea), and two cities with special status: Kiev, its capital, and Sevastopol, which houses the Russian Black Sea Fleet under a leasing agreement.^ Second International conference Black Sea Grain: a new environment in Ukraine and regional prospects for growth .
  • Ukraine Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: Reference]

Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. .Since the collapse of the USSR, Ukraine continues to maintain the second largest military in Europe, after that of Russia.^ Since early 1994, Russia has sought dual citizenship for Russians living in Ukraine, a move fiercely resisted by Kyiv.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

The country is home to 46 million people, 77.8 percent of whom are ethnic Ukrainians, with sizable minorities of Russians, Belarusians and Romanians. .The Ukrainian language is the only official language in Ukraine, while Russian is also widely spoken.^ While comprehensive statistics on the prevalence of domestic violence are lacking, since the implementation of the 2001 law, Ukrainian law enforcement officials have kept data on reported domestic violence in each region of Ukraine .
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.The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which has heavily influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature and music.^ Ukraine is a destination, transit, and source country for sex and labor trafficking, with Ukrainian women most frequently being trafficked to European and Middle Eastern countries.
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

Early history

Human settlement in the territory of Ukraine dates back to at least 4500 BC, when the Neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture flourished in a wide area that included parts of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians.[8] Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was part of the Scythian Kingdom, or Scythia.
.Later, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras, Olbia, and Hermonassa, were founded, beginning in the 6th century BC, on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea, and thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the center of Old Great Bulgaria.^ In the past, the Russian interpretation of history has been used to justify the introduction of Russian institutions into Ukraine, as well as language, culture and Russian settlers.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Romanian government declared the referendum void in the area and has sought to raise the issue of the 1939 territorial transfer in negotiations with Ukraine.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Ukraine at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century the Oprishki, or outlaws of the Carpathians, and the robbers of the Ukraine, were so famed that in several instances they have become legendary heroes.

At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions and the land fell into the Khazars' hands.

Golden Age of Kiev

Map of the Kievan Rus' in the 11th century. .During the Golden Age of Kiev, the lands of Rus' covered modern western Ukraine, Belarus, and western Russia.^ While Ukrainian lands remained subordinated to Moscow following the 1917 revolution, Bolshevik rule did lead to an important change in the relationship between Russia and Ukraine.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In imperial Russia, the southern Ukrainian lands were known as Malorossiya (Little Russia) or New Russia, which with Russia and the lands of Belarus constituted the ‘natural' territory of the Russian state.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

But it did not include modern central, eastern, and southern Ukraine, which were inhabited by nomads and had a different history.
In the 9th century, much of modern-day Ukraine was populated by the Slavic tribes. .The so-called Kievan Rus was founded by Rus' people, Varangians who first settled around Ladoga and Novgorod, then gradually moved southward eventually reaching Kiev about 880. Kievan Rus' included the western part of modern Ukraine, Belarus, with larger part of it situated on the territory of modern Russia.^ It remains for me just to say a few words about the people who sing the songs and (with one digression) I will quote a few extracts from French and Ukrainian essayists:– .

During the 10th and 11th centuries, it became the largest and most powerful state in Europe.[3] In the following centuries, it laid the foundation for the national identity of Ukrainians and Russians.[9] .Kiev, the capital of modern Ukraine, became the most important city of the Rus'. According to the Primary Chronicle, the Rus' elite initially consisted of Varangians from Scandinavia.^ Most Russian historians take Kyivan Rus to be the forerunner of the modern Russian state.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

The Varangians later became assimilated into the local Slavic population and became part of the Rus' first dynasty, the Rurik Dynasty.[9] Kievan Rus' was composed of several principalities ruled by the interrelated Rurikid Princes. The seat of Kiev, the most prestigious and influential of all principalities, became the subject of many rivalries among Rurikids as the most valuable prize in their quest for power.
The Golden Age of Kievan Rus' began with the reign of Vladimir the Great (980–1015), who turned Rus' toward Byzantine Christianity. During the reign of his son, Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054), Kievan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural development and military power.[9] This was followed by the state's increasing fragmentation as the relative importance of regional powers rose again. After a final resurgence under the rule of Vladimir Monomakh (1113–1125) and his son Mstislav (1125–1132), Kievan Rus' finally disintegrated into separate principalities following Mstislav's death.
In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Pechenegs and the Kipchaks, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north.[10] The 13th century Mongol invasion devastated Kievan Rus'. Kiev was totally destroyed in 1240.[11] On the Ukrainian territory, the state of Kievan Rus' was succeeded by the principalities of Galich (Halych) and Volodymyr-Volynskyi, which were merged into the state of Galicia-Volhynia.

Foreign domination

In the centuries following the Mongol invasion, much of Ukraine was controlled by Lithuania (from the 14th century on) and since the Union of Lublin (1569) by Poland, as seen at this outline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as of 1619.
"Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire." Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891.
In the mid-14th century, Galicia-Volhynia was subjugated by Casimir III of Poland, while the heartland of Rus', including Kiev, fell under the Gediminas of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania after the Battle on the Irpen' River. .Following the 1386 Union of Krevo, a dynastic union between Poland and Lithuania, much of what became northern Ukraine was controlled by the increasingly Slavicised local Lithuanian nobles as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.^ Since the thirteenth century, Ukrainian lands have been at the intersection of shifting empires - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Crimean Tatar Khanate, Austro-Hungary and Russia.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, forging a national identity capable of uniting the various regions and peoples of Ukraine became one of the central tasks facing the Ukrainian leadership.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1939, the Red Army occupied the predominately Ukrainian territories of Poland; in 1940, Soviet Ukraine was extended to include northern Bukovyna and Bessarabia (from Romania).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.By 1569, the Union of Lublin formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and a significant part of Ukrainian territory was moved from Lithuanian rule to the Polish administration, as it was transferred to the Polish Crown.^ Since the thirteenth century, Ukrainian lands have been at the intersection of shifting empires - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Crimean Tatar Khanate, Austro-Hungary and Russia.
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^ The western territories also contained significant numbers of Ukrainians from the Uniate Church.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

Under the cultural and political pressure of Polonisation much upper class of Polish Ruthenia (another term for the land of Rus) converted to Catholicism and became indistinguishable from the Polish nobility.[12]
.Thus, the commoners, deprived of their native protectors among Rus nobility, turned for protection to the Cossacks, who remained fiercely Orthodox at all times and tended to turn to violence against those they perceived as enemies, particularly the Polish state and its representatives.^ This affected those Crimean Tatars who returned to their homeland after 1991 and found that they were denied citizenship rights, access to education, employment and housing.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Khan turned back, civilisation was saved, but the Ukraine was covered with corpses, on whose bones Cossacks arose who again checked the Tartars.

[13]
In the mid-17th century, a Cossack military quasi-state, the Zaporozhian Host, was established by the Dnieper Cossacks and the Ruthenian peasants fleeing Polish serfdom.[14] Poland had little real control of this land, yet they found the Cossacks to be a useful fighting force against the Turks and Tatars,[15] and at times the two allied in military campaigns.[16] However, the continued enserfment of peasantry by the Polish nobility emphasized by the Commonwealth's fierce exploitation of the workforce, and most importantly, the suppression of the Orthodox Church pushed the allegiances of Cossacks away from Poland.[15]
The Khanate of Crimea was one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the end of the 17th century.
Their aspiration was to have representation in Polish Sejm, recognition of Orthodox traditions and the gradual expansion of the Cossack Registry. These were all vehemently denied by the Polish nobility. .The Cossacks eventually turned for protection to Orthodox Russia, a decision which would later lead towards the downfall of the Polish-Lithuanian state,[14] and the preservation of the Orthodox Church and in Ukraine.^ The Khan turned back, civilisation was saved, but the Ukraine was covered with corpses, on whose bones Cossacks arose who again checked the Tartars.

[17]
In 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky led the largest of the Cossack uprisings against the Commonwealth and the Polish king John II Casimir.[18] Left-bank Ukraine was eventually integrated into Muscovite Russia as the Cossack Hetmanate, following the 1654 Treaty of Pereyaslav and the ensuing Russo-Polish War. .After the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century by Prussia, Habsburg Austria, and Russia, Western Ukrainian Galicia was taken over by Austria, while the rest of Ukraine was progressively incorporated into the Russian Empire.^ Symbolically, the Ukrainians, on the day of Ivan-Kupalo, throw his image into the water, and maidens fling garlands on the river and judge of their fortunes by the progress of the wreaths.

^ In the Ukraine at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century the Oprishki, or outlaws of the Carpathians, and the robbers of the Ukraine, were so famed that in several instances they have become legendary heroes.

^ They are called Little Russians to distinguish them from the mass of the Russian people–they are called Ukrainian, because they inhabit the frontier between Poland and Russia; one of the branches (in Austrian Galicia) bears the name of Ruthenian.

.From the beginning of the 16th century until the end of 17th century the Crimean Tatar raider bands made almost annual forays into agricultural Slavic lands searching for captives to sell as slaves.^ In the Ukraine at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century the Oprishki, or outlaws of the Carpathians, and the robbers of the Ukraine, were so famed that in several instances they have become legendary heroes.

[19] For example, from 1450 to 1586, eighty-six Tatar raids were recorded, and from 1600 to 1647, seventy.[20]

The Ruin

The Battle of Poltava in 1709, drawing by Denis Martens the Younger, 1726.
In 1657-1686 came "The Ruin," a devastating 30-year war between Russia, Poland, Turks and Cossacks for control of Ukraine. For three years Khmelnytsky's armies controlled present-day western and central Ukraine, but deserted by his Tatar allies, he suffered a crushing defeat at Berestechko, and turned to the Russian Czar for help.
In 1654, Khmelnytsky signed the Treaty of Pereiaslav, forming a military and political alliance with Russia that acknowledged loyalty to the Czar. The wars escalated in intensity with hundreds of thousands of deaths. Defeat came in 1686 as the "Eternal Peace" between Russia and Poland gave Kiev and the Cossack lands east of the Dnieper over to Russian rule and the Ukrainian lands west of the Dnieper to Poland.
In 1709 Cossack Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1687-1709) sided with Sweden against Russia in the Great Northern War (1700-1721). Mazepa, a member of the Cossack nobility, received an excellent education abroad and proved to be a brilliant political and military leader enjoying good relations with the Romanov dynasty. After Peter the Great became czar, Mazepa as hetman gave him more than twenty years of loyal military and diplomatic service and was well rewarded.
Eventually Peter recognized that in order to consolidate and modernize Russia's political and economic power it was necessary to do away with the hetmanate and Ukrainian and Cossack aspirations to autonomy. Mazepa accepted Polish invitations to join the Poles and Swedes against Russia. The move was disastrous for the hetmanate, Ukrainian autonomy, and Mazepa. He died in exile after fleeing from the Battle of Poltava (1709), where the Swedes and their Cossack allies suffered a catastrophic defeat at the hands of Peter's Russian forces
Zaporozhian Cossack with a head of a Muslim.
The hetmanate was abolished in 1764; the Zaporizhska Sich abolished in 1775, as centralized Russian control became the norm. .With the partitioning of Poland in 1772, 1793, and 1795, the Ukrainian lands west of the Dnieper were divided between Russia and Austria.^ While Ukrainian lands remained subordinated to Moscow following the 1917 revolution, Bolshevik rule did lead to an important change in the relationship between Russia and Ukraine.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ukraine's relationship to Russia has been especially difficult because of the large number of Russians in Ukraine and the shared history, as well as the close cultural and linguistic ties between Ukrainians and Russians.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In imperial Russia, the southern Ukrainian lands were known as Malorossiya (Little Russia) or New Russia, which with Russia and the lands of Belarus constituted the ‘natural' territory of the Russian state.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

From 1737 to 1834 expansion into the northern Black Sea littoral and the eastern Danube valley was a cornerstone of Russian foreign policy.
Lithuanians and Poles controlled vast estates in Ukraine, and were a law unto themselves. Judicial rulings from Cracow were routinely flouted. Heavily taxed peasants were practically tied to the land as serfs Occasionally the landowners battled each other using armies of Ukrainian peasants. The Poles and Lithuanians were Roman Catholics and tried with some success to covert the Orthodox lesser nobility. .In 1596 they set up the "Greek-Catholic" or Uniate Church, under the authority of the Pope but using Eastern rituals; it dominates western Ukraine to this day.^ The western territories also contained significant numbers of Ukrainians from the Uniate Church.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the Day of Kupalo, the old Pagan god of the Ukraine, maidens thread the mallow flowers together and make a wreath which they throw on the water.

.Tensions between the Uniates and the Orthodox were never resolved, and the religious differentiation left the Ukrainian Orthodox peasants leaderless, as they were reluctant to follow the Ukrainian nobles.^ While Ukrainian lands remained subordinated to Moscow following the 1917 revolution, Bolshevik rule did lead to an important change in the relationship between Russia and Ukraine.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[21]
The Cossack-led uprising called Koliivshchyna that erupted in the Ukrainian borderlands of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1768 involved ethnicity as one root cause of Ukrainian violence that killed tens of thousands of Poles and Jews. Religious warfare also broke out between Ukrainian groups. Increasing conflict between Uniate and Orthodox parishes along the newly reinforced Polish-Russian border on the Dnepr River in the time of Catherine II set the stage for the uprising. .As Uniate religious practices had become more Latinized, Orthodoxy in this region drew even closer into dependence on the Russian Orthodox Church.^ The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church was absorbed into the Russian Orthodox Church in the late seventeenth century.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

Confessional tensions also reflected opposing Polish and Russian political allegiances.[22]
After the annexation of the Crimean Khanate in 1783, the region was settled by migrants from other parts of Ukraine.[23] Despite the promises of Ukrainian autonomy given by the Treaty of Pereyaslav, the Ukrainian elite and the Cossacks never received the freedoms and the autonomy they were expecting from Imperial Russia. However, within the Empire, Ukrainians rose to the highest offices of Russian state, and the Russian Orthodox Church.[a] At a later period, the tsarist regime carried the policy of Russification of Ukrainian lands, suppressing the use of the Ukrainian language in print, and in public.[24]

19th century

In the 19th century the Ukrainian was a rural area largely ignored by Russia and Austria. With growing urbanization and modernization, and a cultural trend toward nationalism inspired by romanticism, a Ukrainian intelligentsia committed to national rebirth and social justice emerged. .The serf-turned-national-poet Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861) and the political theorist Mykhailo Drahomanov (1841-1895) led the growing nationalist movement.^ The political liberalization that accompanied Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms led to the emergence of a variety of nationalist groups.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In August the Republican Movement of Crimea (RDK), a Russian nationalist organization led by Yurii Meshkov, was formed.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Towards 1840 the great poet Shevchenko (1814-1861) combined by his genius all that was most profound in universal poetry with the genre of the popular poetry of the Ukraine.

Nationalist and socialist parties developed in the late 19th century. Austrian Galicia, which enjoyed substantial political freedom under the relatively lenient rule of the Hapsburgs, became the center of the nationalist movement. The Russian government responded to nationalism by placing severe restrictions on the Ukrainian language.[citation needed]

World War I and revolution

Ukraine entered World War I on the side of both the Central Powers, under Austria, and the Triple Entente, under Russia. .3.5 million Ukrainians fought with the Imperial Russian Army, while 250,000 fought for the Austro-Hungarian Army.^ In imperial Russia, the southern Ukrainian lands were known as Malorossiya (Little Russia) or New Russia, which with Russia and the lands of Belarus constituted the ‘natural' territory of the Russian state.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[25] During the war, Austro-Hungarian authorities established the Ukrainian Legion to fight against the Russian Empire. This legion was the foundation of the Ukrainian Galician Army that fought against the Bolsheviks and Poles in the post World War I period (1919–23). Those suspected of the Russophile sentiments in Austria were treated harshly. Up to 5,000 supporters of the Russian Empire from Galicia were detained and placed in Austrian internment camps in Talerhof, Styria, and in a fortress at Terezín (now in the Czech Republic).[26]
Soldiers of the Ukrainian People's Army listening to a blind kobzar bandura player
.With the collapse of the Russian and Austrian empires following World War I and the Russian Revolution of 1917, a Ukrainian national movement for self-determination reemerged.^ Despite the collapse of the Russian nationalist movement, minority questions remained acute in Crimea.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While Ukrainian lands remained subordinated to Moscow following the 1917 revolution, Bolshevik rule did lead to an important change in the relationship between Russia and Ukraine.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The status of the Russian language in Ukraine emerged as one of the most potentially divisive issues following the Orange Revolution.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.During 1917–20, several separate Ukrainian states briefly emerged: the Ukrainian People's Republic, the Hetmanate, the Directorate and the pro-Bolshevik Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (or Soviet Ukraine) successively established territories in the former Russian Empire; while the West Ukrainian People's Republic and the Hutsul Republic emerged briefly in the former Austro-Hungarian territory.^ The Republic of Ukraine, formerly called the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (UkSSR), is situated between the Russian Federation to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Moldova to the west, and the Black Sea to the south.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the years after the civil war, three separate Slavic republics were established.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, forging a national identity capable of uniting the various regions and peoples of Ukraine became one of the central tasks facing the Ukrainian leadership.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

In the midst of Civil War, an anarchist movement called the Black Army led by Nestor Makhno also developed in Southern Ukraine.[27] .However with Western Ukraine's defeat in the Polish-Ukrainian War followed by the failure of the further Polish offensive that was repelled by the Bolsheviks.^ While Ukrainian lands remained subordinated to Moscow following the 1917 revolution, Bolshevik rule did lead to an important change in the relationship between Russia and Ukraine.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

According to the Peace of Riga concluded between the Soviets and Poland, western Ukraine was officially incorporated into Poland who in turn recognised the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in March 1919, that later became a founding member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Soviet Union in December, 1922.[28]

Inter-war Polish Ukraine

The war in Ukraine continued for another two years; by 1921, however, most of Ukraine had been taken over by the Soviet Union, while Galicia and Volhynia were incorporated into independent Poland.
A powerful underground Ukrainian nationalist movement rose in Poland in the 1920s and 1930s, led by the Ukrainian Military Organization and the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). The movement attracted a militant following among students and harassed the Polish authorities. Legal Ukrainian parties, the Ukrainian Catholic Church, an active press, and a business sector also flourished in Poland. Economic conditions improved in the 1920s, but the region suffered from the Great Depression in the 1930s.

Inter-war Soviet Ukraine

Soviet recruitment poster featuring the Ukrainisation theme. The text reads: "Son! Enroll in the school of Red commanders, and the defence of Soviet Ukraine will be ensured."
The revolution that brought the Soviet government to power devastated Ukraine. It left over 1.5 million people dead and hundreds of thousands homeless. The Soviet Ukraine had to face the famine of 1921.[29]
Moscow encouraged a national renaissance in literature and the arts, under the aegis of the Ukrainization policy pursued by the national Communist leadership of Mykola Skrypnyk (1872-1933). Seeing the exhausted society, the Soviet government remained very flexible during the 1920s.[30] Thus, the Ukrainian culture and language enjoyed a revival, as Ukrainisation became a local implementation of the Soviet-wide Korenisation (literally indigenisation) policy.[28] .The Bolsheviks were also committed to introducing universal health care, education and social-security benefits, as well as the right to work and housing.^ This affected those Crimean Tatars who returned to their homeland after 1991 and found that they were denied citizenship rights, access to education, employment and housing.
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[31] Women's rights were greatly increased through new laws aimed to wipe away centuries-old inequalities.[32] Most of these policies were sharply reversed by the early 1930s after Joseph Stalin gradually consolidated power to become the de facto communist party leader and a dictator of the Soviet Union.
The communists gave a privileged position to manual labor, the largest class in the cities, where Russians dominated. The typical worker was more attached to class identity than to ethnicity. Although there were incidents of ethnic friction among workers (in addition to Ukrainians and Russians there were Poles, Germans, Jews, and others in the Ukrainian workforce), industrial laborers had already adopted Russian culture and language to a significant extent. Workers whose ethnicity was Ukrainian were not attracted to campaigns of Ukrainianization or de-Russification in meaningful numbers, but remained loyal members of the Soviet working class. .There was no significant antagonism between workers identifying themselves as Ukrainian or Russian; however, anti-Semitism was widespread.^ There are, however, numerous anti-Semitic groups active in Ukraine.
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^ Ukraine's relationship to Russia has been especially difficult because of the large number of Russians in Ukraine and the shared history, as well as the close cultural and linguistic ties between Ukrainians and Russians.
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^ In 1954, Nikita Khrushchev transferred Crimea to the jurisdiction of Ukraine as a symbol of the friendship between Ukrainians and Russians.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

DniproGES hydroelectric power plant under construction circa 1930
Starting from the late 1920s, Ukraine was involved in the Soviet industrialisation and the republic's industrial output quadrupled in the 1930s.[28]

Famine

The industrialisation had a heavy cost for the peasantry, demographically a backbone of the Ukrainian nation. To satisfy the state's need for increased food supplies and to finance industrialisation, Stalin instituted a program of collectivisation of agriculture as the state combined the peasants' lands and animals into collective farms and enforced the policies by the regular troops and secret police.[28] Those who resisted were arrested and deported and the increased production quotas were placed on the peasantry. The collectivisation had a devastating effect on agricultural productivity. As the members of the collective farms were not allowed to receive any grain until the unachievable quotas were met, starvation in the Soviet Union became widespread. In 1932–33, millions starved to death in a man-made famine known as Holodomor.[c] Scholars are divided as to whether this famine fits the definition of genocide, but the Ukrainian parliament and more than a dozen other countries recognise it as such.[c]
The famine claimed up to 10 million of Ukrainian lives as peasants' food stocks were forcibly removed by the Soviet government through NKVD (predecessor of KGB) and secret police. Stalin had full knowledge of the destructive force of the famine. It was his war on the peasantry that began with collectivization and dekulakization and as an attempt to eradicate peasant culture in its entirety. Stalin well understood that no sane person would voluntarily give up all of their hard-earned property for the withering idea of 'bright communist future'. Therefore, the famine's purpose was to break the spirit of Ukrainian farmers - the land owners - by depriving them of private property and means of survival. .Ellman explains the causes for the excess deaths in rural areas of Ukraine and Kazakhstan during 1931–34 by dividing the causes into three groups: objective nonpolicy-related factors, like the drought of 1931 and poor weather in 1932; inadvertent result of policies with other objectives, like rapid industrialization, socialization of livestock, and neglected crop rotation patterns; and deaths caused intentionally by a starvation policy.^ In June 1993, Russia and Ukraine agreed to divide the fleet, causing a rise of tension in the region.
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^ These brigands were like our English Robin Hood, robbing only the rich and dividing the spoil among the poor.

^ At the heart of contemporary ethnic relations in Ukraine are the competing historical interpretations of the region held by different ethno-linguistic groups.
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The Communist leadership perceived famine not as a humanitarian catastrophe but as a means of class struggle and used starvation as a punishment tool to force peasants into collective farms.[33]
It was largely the same groups of individuals who were responsible for the mass killing operations during the civil war, collectivisation, and the Great Terror. These groups were associated with Efim Georgievich Evdokimov (1891–1939) and operated in Ukraine during the civil war, in the North Caucasus in the 1920s, and in the Secret Operational Division within General State Political Administration (OGPU) in 1929–31. Evdokimov transferred into Communist Party administration in 1934, when he became Party secretary for North Caucasus Krai. But he appears to have continued advising Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Yezhov on security matters, and the latter relied on Evdokimov's former colleagues to carry out the mass killing operations that are known as the Great Terror in 1937–38.[34]

Attack on intellectuals and artists

With Stalin's change of course in the late 1920s, however, Moscow's toleration of Ukrainian national identity came to an end. Systematic state terror of the 1930s destroyed Ukraine's writers, artists, and intellectuals; the Communist Party of Ukraine was purged of its "nationalist deviationists". Two waves of Stalinist political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union (1929–34 and 1936–38) resulted in the killing of some 681,692 people; this included four-fifths of the Ukrainian cultural elite and three quarters of all the Red Army's higher-ranking officers.[28][b]

World War II

Soviet soldiers preparing rafts to cross the Dnieper (the sign reads "Give me Kiev!") in the 1943 Battle of the Dnieper
Following the Invasion of Poland in September 1939, German and Soviet troops divided the territory of Poland. Thus, Eastern Galicia and Volhynia with their Ukrainian population became reunited with the rest of Ukraine. The unification that Ukraine achieved for the first time in its history was a decisive event in the history of the nation.[35][36]
After France surrendered to Germany, Romania ceded Bessarabia and northern Bukovina to Soviet demands. The Ukrainian SSR incorporated northern and southern districts of Bessarabia, the northern Bukovina, and the Soviet-occupied Hertsa region. But it ceded the western part of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to the newly created Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. All these territorial gains were internationally recognised by the Paris peace treaties of 1947.
German armies invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, thereby initiating four straight years of incessant total war. The Axis allies initially advanced against desperate but unsuccessful efforts of the Red Army. In the encirclement battle of Kiev, the city was acclaimed as a "Hero City", for the fierce resistance by the Red Army and by the local population. .More than 600,000 Soviet soldiers (or one quarter of the Western Front) were killed or taken captive there.^ There are 151,000 Romanians and 258,600 Moldovans in Ukraine.
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^ They themselves have killed more men Than your Karmelūk has sins!

[37][38] .Although the wide majority of Ukrainians fought alongside the Red Army and Soviet resistance,[39] some elements of the Ukrainian nationalist underground created an anti-Soviet nationalist formation in Galicia, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (1942) that at times engaged the Nazi forces and continued to fight the USSR in the years after the war.^ After living for some time in Czernowitz and Moldavia the boy of eighteen joined the Austrian army and seven years later was made an officer, taking part in the Italian wars of 1859, when the Austrians opposed the French.

.Using guerilla war tactics, the insurgents targeted for assassination and terror those who they perceived as representing, or cooperating at any level with, the Soviet state.^ This affected those Crimean Tatars who returned to their homeland after 1991 and found that they were denied citizenship rights, access to education, employment and housing.
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^ They bloomed like the rose When to war went I. "Those dear black eyes That darkened be, When I went to Ukraine How they looked at me!"

[40][41] At the same time another nationalist movement fought alongside the Nazis. .In total, the number of ethnic Ukrainians that fought in the ranks of the Soviet Army is estimated from 4.5 million[39] to 7 million.^ In 1939, the Red Army occupied the predominately Ukrainian territories of Poland; in 1940, Soviet Ukraine was extended to include northern Bukovyna and Bessarabia (from Romania).
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[42][d] The pro-Soviet partisan guerilla resistance in Ukraine is estimated to number at 47,800 from the start of occupation to 500,000 at its peak in 1944; with about 50 percent of them being ethnic Ukrainians.[43] Generally, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army's figures are very undependable, ranging anywhere from 15,000 to as much as 100,000 fighters.[44][45]
.Initially, the Germans were even received as liberators by some western Ukrainians, who had only joined the Soviet Union in 1939. However, brutal German rule in the occupied territories eventually turned its supporters against the occupation.^ The territorial vision of the region has been reinforced by an ethno-cultural theory that links Ukrainians, Russians and Belarusians (‘three brotherly peoples') who together constitute ‘the Russian people'.
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^ Along with the establishment of Ukraine as a separate political unit, the most significant change that took place under Soviet rule was the three-stage territorial annexation along Ukraine's western border.
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^ The western territories also contained significant numbers of Ukrainians from the Uniate Church.
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Nazi administrators of conquered Soviet territories made little attempt to exploit the population of Ukrainian territories' dissatisfaction with Stalinist political and economic policies.[46] Instead, the Nazis preserved the collective-farm system, systematically carried out genocidal policies against Jews, deported others to work in Germany, and began a systematic depopulation of Ukraine to prepare it for German colonisation,[46] which included a food blockade on Kiev[47].
.The vast majority of the fighting in World War II took place on the Eastern Front,[48] and Nazi Germany suffered 93 percent of all casualties there.^ As the grass withers, as the leaf falls on the stream, Is borne to distance dim, The Cossack left this world, and took with him All that he had.

[49] The total losses inflicted upon the Ukrainian population during the war are estimated between five and eight million,[50][51] including over half a million Jews killed by the Einsatzgruppen, sometimes with the help of local collaborators. Of the estimated 8.7 million Soviet troops who fell in battle against the Nazis,[52][53][54] 1.4 million were ethnic Ukrainians.[52][54][d][e] So to this day, Victory Day is celebrated as one of ten Ukrainian national holidays.[55]

Post-World War II

Sergey Korolyov, the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the Space Race
The republic was heavily damaged by the war, and it required significant efforts to recover. More than 700 cities and towns and 28,000 villages were destroyed.[56] The situation was worsened by a famine in 1946–47 caused by the drought and the infrastructure breakdown that took away tens of thousands of lives.[57]
In 1945 Ukraine was one of the founding members of the United Nations organization. First Soviet computer MESM was built in Kiev Institute of Electrotechnology and became operational in 1950.
According to statistics, as of 1 January 1953, Ukrainians were second only to Russians among adult "special deportees", comprising 20% of the total. Apart from Ukrainians, over 450,000 ethnic Germans from Ukraine and more than 200,000 Crimean Tatars were victims of forced deportations.[58]
.Following the death of Stalin in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev became the new leader of the USSR. Being the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukrainian SSR in 1938-49, Khrushchev was intimately familiar with the republic and after taking power union-wide, he began to emphasize the friendship between the Ukrainian and Russian nations.^ The Ukrainians became the first singers of Europe; the celebrated Russian music is the music of the Ukraine, and it is an Ukrainian, Gogol, who has opened the way to the Russian romancers of genius."–C HARLES S EIGNOBOS , Professor at the Sorbonne.

In 1954, the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav was widely celebrated, and in particular, Crimea was transferred from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR.[59]
Already by 1950, the republic fully surpassed pre-war levels of industry and production.[60] During the 1946-1950 five year plan nearly 20 percent of the Soviet budget was invested in Soviet Ukraine, a five percent increase from prewar plans. As a result the Ukrainian workforce rose 33.2 percent from 1940 to 1955 while industrial output grew 2.2 times in that same period. Soviet Ukraine soon became a European leader in industrial production.[61] It also became an important center of the Soviet arms industry and high-tech research. Such an important role resulted in a major influence of the local elite. .Many members of the Soviet leadership came from Ukraine, most notably Leonid Brezhnev, who would later oust Khrushchev and become the Soviet leader from 1964 to 1982, as well as many prominent Soviet sportspeople, scientists and artists.^ There continues to be extensive bilingualism in Ukraine and many of those who identified themselves as Ukrainian-speakers also know Russian very well.
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On April 26, 1986, a reactor in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant exploded, resulting in the Chernobyl disaster, the worst nuclear reactor accident in history.[62] .At the time of the accident seven million people lived in the contaminated territories, including 2.2 million in Ukraine.^ For Russians, in contrast, Ukraine, in terms of both territory and people, is seen to have been historically an organic part of Russia.
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[63] After the accident, a new city, Slavutych, was built outside the exclusion zone to house and support the employees of the plant which was decommissioned in 2000. A report prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization attributed 56 direct deaths to the accident and estimated that there may have been 4,000 extra cancer deaths.[64]

Independence

The first launch of a Ukrainian rocket at the Sea Launch complex
On July 16, 1990, the new parliament adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine.[65] The declaration established the principles of the self-determination of the Ukrainian nation, its democracy, political and economic independence, and the priority of Ukrainian law on the Ukrainian territory over Soviet law. A month earlier, a similar declaration was adopted by the parliament of the Russian SFSR. This started a period of confrontation between the central Soviet, and new republican authorities. In August 1991, a conservative faction among the Communist leaders of the Soviet Union attempted a coup to remove Mikhail Gorbachev and to restore the Communist party's power. After the attempt failed, on August 24, 1991 the Ukrainian parliament adopted the Act of Independence in which the parliament declared Ukraine as an independent democratic state.[66] .A referendum and the first presidential elections took place on December 1, 1991. That day, more than 90 percent of the Ukrainian people expressed their support for the Act of Independence, and they elected the chairman of the parliament, Leonid Kravchuk to serve as the first President of the country.^ The Cossacks had disappeared, but their place was taken by the avengers of the people's sorrows–Robbers, Haidomaki, Oprishki–the Ukrainian Robin Hoods–and their deeds also are recorded in their songs.

^ They themselves have killed more men Than your Karmelūk has sins!

.At the meeting in Brest, Belarus on December 8, followed by Alma Ata meeting on December 21, the leaders of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, formally dissolved the Soviet Union and formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).^ Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, forging a national identity capable of uniting the various regions and peoples of Ukraine became one of the central tasks facing the Ukrainian leadership.
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^ While Ukrainian lands remained subordinated to Moscow following the 1917 revolution, Bolshevik rule did lead to an important change in the relationship between Russia and Ukraine.
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^ In imperial Russia, the southern Ukrainian lands were known as Malorossiya (Little Russia) or New Russia, which with Russia and the lands of Belarus constituted the ‘natural' territory of the Russian state.
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[67]
Orange-clad demonstrators gather in the Independence Square in Kiev on November 22, 2004
Although the idea of an independent Ukrainian nation had previously not existed in the 20th century in the minds of international policy makers[68], Ukraine was initially viewed as a republic with favorable economic conditions in comparison to the other regions of the Soviet Union.[69] However, the country experienced deeper economic slowdown than some of the other former Soviet Republics. During the recession, Ukraine lost 60 percent of its GDP from 1991 to 1999,[70][71] and suffered five-digit inflation rates.[72] Dissatisfied with the economic conditions, as well as the amounts of crime and corruption, Ukrainians protested and organised strikes.[73]
The Ukrainian economy stabilized by the end of the 1990s. A new currency, the hryvnia, was introduced in 1996. Since 2000, the country has enjoyed steady real economic growth averaging about seven percent annually.[6][74] .A new Constitution of Ukraine was adopted under second President Leonid Kuchma in 1996, which turned Ukraine into a semi-presidential republic and established a stable political system.^ Second International conference Black Sea Grain: a new environment in Ukraine and regional prospects for growth .
  • Ukraine Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: Reference]

Kuchma was, however, criticized by opponents for corruption, electoral fraud, discouraging free speech and concentrating too much of power in his office.[75] He also repeatedly transferred public property into the hands of loyal oligarchs.
.In 2004, Viktor Yanukovych, then Prime Minister, was declared the winner of the presidential elections, which had been largely rigged, as the Supreme Court of Ukraine later ruled.^ Peaceful protests against widespread fraud and the alleged victory of Leonid Kuchma's chosen ‘successor' Viktor Yanukovych resulted in the annulling of the election result by the Supreme Court.
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^ This deal later broke down, giving Yanukovych the chance to emerge as prime-minister.
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^ In a repeat election on 26 December, Viktor Yushchenko, a former minister with an overtly pro-Western orientation, was elected president with 52% of the vote.
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[76] The results caused a public outcry in support of the opposition candidate, Viktor Yushchenko, who challenged the outcome of the elections. This resulted in the peaceful Orange Revolution, bringing Viktor Yushchenko and Yulia Tymoshenko to power, while casting Viktor Yanukovych in opposition.[77] Yanukovych returned to a position of power in 2006, when he became Prime Minister in the Alliance of National Unity[78], until snap elections in September 2007 made Tymoshenko Prime Minister again.[79] Yanukovych was elected President in 2010.[80]
Conflicts with Russia over the price of natural gas briefly stopped all gas supplies to Ukraine in 2006 and again in 2009, leading to gas shortages in several other European countries.[81][82]

Government and politics

Verkhovna Rada, the Parliament of Ukraine
Ukraine is a republic under a mixed semi-parliamentary semi-presidential system with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and is the formal head of state.[83]
Ukraine's legislative branch includes the 450-seat unicameral parliament, the Verkhovna Rada.[84] The parliament is primarily responsible for the formation of the executive branch and the Cabinet of Ministers, which is headed by the Prime Minister.[85]
Laws, acts of the parliament and the cabinet, presidential decrees, and acts of the Crimean parliament may be abrogated by the Constitutional Court, should they be found to violate the Constitution of Ukraine. Other normative acts are subject to judicial review. The Supreme Court is the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction. Local self-government is officially guaranteed. Local councils and city mayors are popularly elected and exercise control over local budgets. The heads of regional and district administrations are appointed by the president.
Ukraine has a large number of political parties, many of which have tiny memberships and are unknown to the general public. Small parties often join in multi-party coalitions (electoral blocs) for the purpose of participating in parliamentary elections.

Military

Ukrainian army soldiers aboard a BTR-80 in Iraq
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited a 780,000 man military force on its territory, equipped with the third-largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world.[86][87] .In May 1992, Ukraine signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in which the country agreed to give up all nuclear weapons to Russia for "disposal" and to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state.^ Ukraine signed the European Languages Charter on 2 May 1996, and on 24 December 1999 the Verkhovna Rada enacted a law to ratify it.
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^ Following a national crisis over Ukraine's gas supply, in which Russia briefly severed gas supplies to the country, the Verkhovna Rada voted to dismiss the government in January 2006, further weakening Yushchenko in the run-up to the March 2006 parliamentary elections.
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^ In 1992 Germany and Ukraine agreed that Ukraine would resettle up to 400,000 Germans from Russia/Kazakhstan in the southern districts of Ukraine.
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Ukraine ratified the treaty in 1994, and by 1996 the country became free of nuclear weapons.[86] Currently Ukraine's military is the second largest in Europe, after that of Russia.[88]
Ukraine took consistent steps toward reduction of conventional weapons. It signed the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which called for reduction of tanks, artillery, and armoured vehicles (army forces were reduced to 300,000). The country plans to convert the current conscript-based military into a professional volunteer military not later than in 2011.[89]
A Ukrainian peacekeeper in Kosovo
Ukraine has been playing an increasingly larger role in peacekeeping operations. Ukrainian troops are deployed in Kosovo as part of the Ukrainian-Polish Battalion.[90] A Ukrainian unit was deployed in Lebanon, as part of UN Interim Force enforcing the mandated ceasefire agreement. There was also a maintenance and training battalion deployed in Sierra Leone. In 2003–05, a Ukrainian unit was deployed in Iraq, as part of the Multinational force in Iraq under Polish command. The total Ukrainian military deployment around the world is 562 servicemen.[91]
Following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state.[92] The country has had a limited military partnership with Russia, other CIS countries and a partnership with NATO since 1994. In the 2000s, the government was leaning towards the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and a deeper cooperation with the alliance was set by the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future.[89]

Administrative divisions

The system of Ukrainian subdivisions reflects the country's status as a unitary state (as stated in the country's constitution) with unified legal and administrative regimes for each unit.
.Ukraine is subdivided into twenty-four oblasts (provinces) and one autonomous republic (avtonomna respublika), Crimea.^ "Though there should be twenty-four Never one like my true love!"

Additionally, the cities of Kiev, the capital, and Sevastopol, both have a special legal status. The 24 oblasts and Crimea are subdivided into 490 raions (districts), or second-level administrative units. The average area of a Ukrainian raion is 1,200 square kilometres (460 sq mi); the average population of a raion is 52,000 people.[93]
Urban areas (cities) can either be subordinated to the state (as in the case of Kiev and Sevastopol), the oblast or raion administrations, depending on their population and socio-economic importance. Lower administrative units include urban-type settlements, which are similar to rural communities, but are more urbanized, including industrial enterprises, educational facilities, and transport connections, and villages.
In total, Ukraine has 457 cities, 176 of them are labeled oblast-class, 279 smaller raion-class cities, and two special legal status cities. These are followed by 886 urban-type settlements and 28,552 villages.[93]

Geography

The Ai-Petri 1200 m above mean sea level
At 603,700 square kilometres (233,100 sq mi) and with a coastline of 2,782 kilometres (1,729 mi), Ukraine is the world's 44th-largest country (after the Central African Republic, before Madagascar). It is the largest whole-Europe country and the second largest country in Europe (after the European part of Russia, before metropolitan France).[3]
.The Ukrainian landscape consists mostly of fertile plains (or steppes) and plateaus, crossed by rivers such as the Dnieper (Dnipro), Seversky Donets, Dniester and the Southern Buh as they flow south into the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov.^ B Y a river, swiftly flowing, Perched Holubka and Holub, 59 Lovers, how they kissed each other!

To the southwest, the delta of the Danube forms the border with Romania. The country's only mountains are the Carpathian Mountains in the west, of which the highest is the Hora Hoverla at 2,061 metres (6,762 ft), and those on the Crimean peninsula, in the extreme south along the coast.[94]
Ukraine has a mostly temperate continental climate, although a more Mediterranean climate is found on the southern Crimean coast. Precipitation is disproportionately distributed; it is highest in the west and north and lowest in the east and southeast. Western Ukraine, receives around 1,200 millimetres (47.2 in) of precipitation annually, while Crimea receives around 400 millimetres (15.7 in). Winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland. Average annual temperatures range from 5.5 °C (41.9 °F)–7 °C (44.6 °F) in the north, to 11 °C (51.8 °F)–13 °C (55.4 °F) in the south.[95]

Regionalism

There are not only clear regional differences on questions of identity but historical cleavages remain evident at the level of individual social identification. Attitudes toward the most important political issue, relations with Russia, differed strongly between L'viv, identifying more with Ukrainian nationalism and the Greek Orthodox religion, and Donetsk, predominantly Russian and favorable to the Soviet era, while in central and southern regions, as well as Kiev, such divisions were less important and there was less antipathy toward people from other regions. .However, all were united by an overarching Ukrainian identity based on shared economic difficulties, showing that other attitudes are determined more by culture and politics than by demographic differences.^ Linen all bleached and white Lies in my neighbour's chest– Ah, but an eyebrow black Counts more than all the rest!

[96]

Economy

Kiev skyscrapers
Dnipropetrovsk skyscrapers
Kiev, the economic heart of the city
The Ukrainian-made Antonov An-225.
In Soviet times, the economy of Ukraine was the second largest in the Soviet Union, being an important industrial and agricultural component of the country's planned economy.[3] With the collapse of the Soviet system, the country moved from a planned economy to a market economy. The transition process was difficult for the majority of the population which plunged into poverty.[97] Ukraine's economy contracted severely following the years after the Soviet collapse. Day to day life for the average person living in Ukraine was a struggle. A significant number of citizens in rural Ukraine survived by growing their own food, often working two or more jobs and buying the basic necessities through the barter economy.[98]
In 1991, the government liberalized most prices to combat widespread product shortages, and was successful in overcoming the problem. At the same time, the government continued to subsidize state-run industries and agriculture by uncovered monetary emission. The loose monetary policies of the early 1990s pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels. For the year 1993, Ukraine holds the world record for inflation in one calendar year.[99] Those living on fixed incomes suffered the most.[28]
Prices stabilized only after the introduction of new currency, the hryvnia, in 1996. The country was also slow in implementing structural reforms. Following independence, the government formed a legal framework for privatisation. However, widespread resistance to reforms within the government and from a significant part of the population soon stalled the reform efforts. A large number of state-owned enterprises were exempt from the privatisation process.
In the meantime, by 1999, the GDP had fallen to less than 40 percent of the 1991 level,[100] but recovered to slightly above the 100 percent mark by the end of 2006.[70] In the early 2000s, the economy showed strong export-based growth of 5 to 10 percent, with industrial production growing more than 10 percent per year.[101] Ukraine was hit by the economic crisis of 2008 and in November 2008, the IMF approved a stand-by loan of $16.5 billion for the country.[102]
Ukraine's 2007 GDP (PPP), as calculated by the CIA, is ranked 29th in the world and estimated at $359.9 billion.[3] Its GDP per capita in 2008 according to the CIA was $7,800 (in PPP terms), ranked 83rd in the world.[3] Nominal GDP (in U.S. dollars, calculated at market exchange rate) was $198 billion, ranked 41st in the world.[3] By July 2008 the average nominal salary in Ukraine reached 1,930  hryvnias per month.[103] .Despite remaining lower than in neighbouring central European countries, the salary income growth in 2008 stood at 36.8 percent[104] According to the UNDP in 2003 4.9 percent of the Ukrainian population lived under 2 US dollar a day[105] and 19.5 percent of the population lived below the national poverty line that same year.^ The Rusyns (Ruthenians) remain unrecognized as an official ethnic group even though they are recognized in neighbouring countries.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russian-Ukrainian linguistic boundary is itself fluid, especially in the central and eastern parts of the country, where a hybrid vernacular known as surzhik is widely used.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Haidamaky they call us, forever the same, And we lay down our lives, caring nothing for fame.

[106]
Ukrainian administrative divisions by monthly salary
Ukraine produces nearly all types of transportation vehicles and spacecraft. Antonov airplanes and KrAZ trucks are exported to many countries. The majority of Ukrainian exports are marketed to the European Union and CIS.[107] Since independence, Ukraine has maintained its own space agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU). Ukraine became an active participant in scientific space exploration and remote sensing missions. Between 1991 and 2007, Ukraine has launched six self made satellites and 101 launch vehicles, and continues to design spacecraft.[108] So to this day, Ukraine is recognised as a world leader in producing missiles and missile related technology.[109][110]
The country imports most energy supplies, especially oil and natural gas, and to a large extent depends on Russia as its energy supplier. While 25 percent of the natural gas in Ukraine comes from internal sources, about 35 percent comes from Russia and the remaining 40 percent from Central Asia through transit routes that Russia controls. At the same time, 85 percent of the Russian gas is delivered to Western Europe through Ukraine.[111]
The World Bank classifies Ukraine as a middle-income state.[112] Significant issues include underdeveloped infrastructure and transportation, corruption and bureaucracy. In 2007 the Ukrainian stock market recorded the second highest growth in the world of 130 percent.[113] According to the CIA, in 2006 the market capitalisation of the Ukrainian stock market was $111.8 billion.[3] .Growing sectors of the Ukrainian economy include the information technology (IT) market, which topped all other Central and Eastern European countries in 2007, growing some 40 percent.^ Central & Eastern European Steel .
  • Ukraine Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: Reference]

[114]

Transportation in Ukraine

Tourism

Ukraine occupies 8th place in the world by the number of tourists visiting, according to the World Tourism Organisation rankings.[115]
The Seven Wonders of Ukraine are the seven historical and cultural monuments of Ukraine, which were chosen in the Seven Wonders of Ukraine.

Culture

A collection of traditional pysanky from Volyn
Ukrainian customs are heavily influenced by Christianity, which is the dominant religion in the country.[116] Gender roles also tend to be more traditional, and grandparents play a greater role in raising children than in the West.[117] The culture of Ukraine has been also influenced by its eastern and western neighbours, which is reflected in its architecture, music and art.
The Communist era had quite a strong effect on the art and writing of Ukraine.[118] In 1932, Stalin made socialist realism state policy in the Soviet Union when he promulgated the decree "On the Reconstruction of Literary and Art Organisations". This greatly stifled creativity. During the 1980s glasnost (openness) was introduced and Soviet artists and writers again became free to express themselves as they wanted.[119]
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral in Kiev, an example of Ukrainian architecture.
The tradition of the Easter egg, known as pysanky, has long roots in Ukraine. These eggs were drawn on with wax to create a pattern; then, the dye was applied to give the eggs their pleasant colours, the dye did not affect the previously wax-coated parts of the egg. After the entire egg was dyed, the wax was removed leaving only the colourful pattern. This tradition is thousands of years old, and precedes the arrival of Christianity to Ukraine.[120] In the city of Kolomya near the foothills of the Carpathian mountains in 2000 was built the museum of Pysanka which won a nomination as the monument of modern Ukraine in 2007, part of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine action.
The traditional Ukrainian diet includes chicken, pork, beef, fish and mushrooms. Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of potatoes, grains, fresh and pickled vegetables. Popular traditional dishes include varenyky (boiled dumplings with mushrooms, potatoes, sauerkraut, cottage cheese or cherries), borscht (soup made of beets, cabbage and mushrooms or meat) and holubtsy (stuffed cabbage rolls filled with rice, carrots and meat). Ukrainian specialties also include Chicken Kiev and Kiev Cake. .Ukrainians drink stewed fruit, juices, milk, buttermilk (they make cottage cheese from this), mineral water, tea and coffee, beer, wine and horilka.^ On the Day of Kupalo, the old Pagan god of the Ukraine, maidens thread the mallow flowers together and make a wreath which they throw on the water.

[121]

Language

Percentage of native Ukrainian speakers by subdivision.
 
Percentage of native Russian speakers by subdivision.[f]
According to the Constitution, the state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian. .While Russian, which was the de facto official language of the Soviet Union, is widely spoken, especially in eastern and southern Ukraine.^ The elections saw the political return of Yanukovych as leader of the Party of the regions, a party ostensibly representing the interests of Russian-speakers in Ukraine, including demands for Russian to be instated as an official language in the republic.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ukraine's relationship to Russia has been especially difficult because of the large number of Russians in Ukraine and the shared history, as well as the close cultural and linguistic ties between Ukrainians and Russians.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In July 1991, Russian became the official language of the peninsula.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

According to the 2001 census, 67.5 percent of the population declared Ukrainian as their native language and 29.6 percent declared Russian.[122] Most native Ukrainian speakers know Russian as a second language.
These details result in a significant difference across different survey results, as even a small restating of a question switches responses of a significant group of people.[f] Ukrainian is mainly spoken in western and central Ukraine. In western Ukraine, Ukrainian is also the dominant language in cities (such as Lviv). In central Ukraine, Ukrainian and Russian are both equally used in cities, with Russian being more common in Kiev,[f] while Ukrainian is the dominant language in rural communities. In eastern and southern Ukraine, Russian is primarily used in cities, and Ukrainian is used in rural areas.
For a large part of the Soviet era, the number of Ukrainian speakers declined from generation to generation, and by the mid-1980s, the usage of the Ukrainian language in public life had decreased significantly.[123] Following independence, the government of Ukraine began restoring the image and usage of Ukrainian language through a policy of Ukrainisation,[124]. Today, all foreign films and TV programs, including Russian ones, are subbed or dubbed in Ukrainian.
According to the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian is the only state language of the republic. However, the republic's constitution specifically recognises Russian as the language of the majority of its population and guarantees its usage 'in all spheres of public life'. Similarly, the Crimean Tatar language (the language of 12 percent of population of Crimea[125]) is guaranteed a special state protection as well as the 'languages of other ethnicities'. Russian speakers constitute an overwhelming majority of the Crimean population (77 percent), with Ukrainian speakers comprising just 10.1 percent, and Crimean Tatar speakers 11.4 percent.[126] But in everyday life the majority of Crimean Tatars and Ukrainians in Crimea use Russian.[127]

Literature

The history of Ukrainian literature dates back to the 11th century, following the Christianisation of the Kievan Rus’.[128] The writings of the time were mainly liturgical and were written in Old Church Slavonic. Historical accounts of the time were referred to as chronicles, the most significant of which was the Primary Chronicle.[129][g] Literary activity faced a sudden decline during the Mongol invasion of Rus'.[128]
Taras Shevchenko (1814–1861)
Ukrainian literature again began to develop in the 14th century, and was advanced significantly in the 16th century with the introduction of print and with the beginning of the Cossack era, under both Russian and Polish dominance.[128] The Cossacks established an independent society and popularized a new kind of epic poems, which marked a high point of Ukrainian oral literature.[129] .These advances were then set back in the 17th and early 18th centuries, when publishing in the Ukrainian language was outlawed and prohibited.^ Kyiv resisted these attempts, labelling them unconstitutional as the constitution recognizes only Ukrainian as a state language.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Russian language became compulsory in all secondary schools throughout the republic and it became difficult to publish material in Ukrainian.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

Nonetheless, by the late 18th century modern literary Ukrainian finally emerged.[128]
The 19th century initiated a vernacular period in Ukraine, lead by Ivan Kotliarevsky’s work Eneyida, the first publication written in modern Ukrainian. .By the 1830s, Ukrainian romanticism began to develop, and the nation’s most renowned cultural figure, romanticist poet-painter Taras Shevchenko emerged.^ Towards 1840 the great poet Shevchenko (1814-1861) combined by his genius all that was most profound in universal poetry with the genre of the popular poetry of the Ukraine.

Where Ivan Kotliarevsky is considered to be the father of literature in the Ukrainian vernacular; Shevchenko is the father of a national revival.[130]
Then, in 1863, use of the Ukrainian language in print was effectively prohibited by the Russian Empire.[24] .This severely curtained literary activity in the area, and Ukrainian writers were forced to either publish their works in Russian or release them in Austrian controlled Galicia.^ They are called Little Russians to distinguish them from the mass of the Russian people–they are called Ukrainian, because they inhabit the frontier between Poland and Russia; one of the branches (in Austrian Galicia) bears the name of Ruthenian.

The ban was never officially lifted, but it became obsolete after the revolution and the Bolsheviks’ coming to power.[129]
Ukrainian literature continued to flourish in the early Soviet years, when nearly all literary trends were approved. These policies faced a steep decline in the 1930s, when Stalin implemented his policy of socialist realism. The doctrine did not necessarily repress the Ukrainian language, but it required writers to follow a certain style in their works. .Literary activities continued to be somewhat limited under the communist party, and it was not until Ukraine gained its independence in 1991 when writers were free the express themselves as they wished.^ The range of identities that have emerged in Ukraine over the centuries have since independence manifested themselves in the form of ethno-regionalist movements.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The singers–the Kobzars–accompany themselves on the kobza while they sing the glories of the Ukraine.

[128]

Music and Dance

Soviet postage stamp depicting traditional Ukrainian musical instruments
Ukrainian Welcome Dance Pryvit
.Music is a major part of Ukrainian culture, with a long history and many influences.^ The Tartars played the same part in Ukrainian history as the Indians in America.

.From traditional folk music, to classical and modern rock, Ukraine has produced a long list of internationally recognized musical talent including Tchaikovsky and Okean Elzy.^ On acceding to the Council of Europe in 1995, Ukraine committed itself to a long list of commitments, including ratification of the main CoE treaties.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.Elements from traditional Ukrainian folk music made their way into Western music and even into modern Jazz.^ A selection of folk-songs made into a song-cycle, some being fragmentary ) .

In the world of dance, Ukrainian influence is evident from Polka to the The Nutcracker.

Sport

Andriy Shevchenko, Ukrainian football player
The new Donbass Arena
Ukraine greatly benefited from the Soviet emphasis on physical education. Such policies left Ukraine with hundreds of stadia, swimming pools, gymnasia, and many other athletic facilities.[131] The most popular sport is football. The top professional league is the Vyscha Liha, also known as the Ukrainian Premier League. The two most successful teams in the Vyscha Liha are rivals FC Dynamo Kyiv and FC Shakhtar Donetsk. Although Shakhtar is the reigning champion of the Vyscha Liha, Dynamo Kyiv has been much more successful historically, winning two UEFA Cup Winners' Cups, one UEFA Super Cup, a record 13 USSR Championships and a record 12 Ukrainian Championships; while Shakhtar only won four Ukrainian championships and one and last UEFA Cup.[132]
Many Ukrainians also played for the Soviet national football team, most notably Igor Belanov and Oleg Blokhin, winners of the prestigious Golden Ball Award for the best football player of the year. .This award was only presented to one Ukrainian after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Andriy Shevchenko, the current captain of the Ukrainian national football team.^ Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, forging a national identity capable of uniting the various regions and peoples of Ukraine became one of the central tasks facing the Ukrainian leadership.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Soviet system, which had ensured the primacy of Russians and Russified regions over other ethnic groups and regions, was challenged by new political forces, primarily Ukrainian nationalists.
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The national team made its debut in the 2006 FIFA World Cup, and reached the quarterfinals before losing to eventual champions, Italy. Ukrainians also fared well in boxing, where the brothers Vitaliy Klychko and Volodymyr Klychko have held world heavyweight championships.
Ukraine made its Olympic debut at the 1994 Winter Olympics. So far, Ukraine has been much more successful in Summer Olympics (96 medals in four appearances) than in the Winter Olympics (five medals in four appearances). Ukraine is currently ranked 35th by number of gold medals won in the All-time Olympic Games medal count, with every country above it, except for Russia, having more appearances.

Demographics

Ethnic composition of Ukraine
Ukrainians
  
77.8%
Russians
  
17.3%
Belarusians
  
0.6%
Moldovans
  
0.5%
Crimean Tatars
  
0.5%
Bulgarians
  
0.4%
Hungarians
  
0.3%
Romanians
  
0.3%
Poles
  
0.3%
Other
  
1.7%
Source: Ethnic composition of the population of Ukraine, 2001 Census
Ethnic Ukrainians in Ukraine (2001)
.According to the Ukrainian Census of 2001, ethnic Ukrainians make up 77.8% of the population.^ The 2001 census shows that the overall population of Crimea has declined slightly, by 1 per cent, from 2,063,600 in 1989 to 2,033,700.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The proportion of ethnic Russians in the Crimean population has declined from 65.6 per cent in 1989 to 58.3 per cent in the 2001 census.
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^ It is believed that if these trends continue, then by the next census in 2011 Crimea will have lost its position as the only Ukrainian region with an ethnic Russian majority.
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Other significant ethnic groups are Russians (17.3%), Belarusians (0.6%), Moldovans (0.5%), Crimean Tatars (0.5%), Bulgarians (0.4%), Hungarians (0.3%), Romanians (0.3%), Poles (0.3%), Jews (0.2%), Armenians (0.2%), Greeks (0.2%) and Tatars (0.2%).[133] The industrial regions in the east and southeast are the most heavily populated, and about 67.2 percent of the population lives in urban areas[134][135].

Demographic crisis

Ukraine has been in a demographic crisis since the 1980s because of its high death rate and a low birth rate. The population is shrinking 150,000 a year because of the lowest birth rate in Europe combined with one of the highest death rates in Europe.
In 2007, the country's population was declining at the fourth fastest rate in the world.[136]
Population of Ukraine (in millions) from 1950-2009.[137][138]
Life expectancy is falling. The nation suffers a high mortality rate from environmental pollution, poor diets, widespread smoking, extensive alcoholism, and deteriorating medical care.[139][140]
In 2008 more than 500,000 children were born in Ukraine, 20 percent more than in 2004. Infant mortality rates have also dropped from 10.4 deaths to 8.9 per 1,000 children under one year of age. This is still high in comparison, however, to many other nations.[141]
According to the United Nations poverty and poor health care are the two biggest problems Ukrainian children face. .More than 26 percent of families with one child, 42 percent of families with two children and 77 percent of families with four and more children live in poverty, according to United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.^ There is no flower in this world prettier than the Cranberry: No one is so lovely as a mother to a child.

^ Her land is torn in two, Her children are broken in four parts, Her visage is darkened; she is wan Because of the evil deeds of the Tartars.

[141] In November 2009 Ukrainian human rights ombudsman Nina Karpacheva stated that the lives of many of Ukraine’s 8.2 million kids remain tough.[141]

Fertility

The current birth rate in Ukraine is 9.55 births/1,000 population, and the death rate is 15.93 deaths/1,000 population.
The phenomenon of lowest-low fertility, defined as total fertility below 1.3, is emerging throughout Europe and is attributed by many to postponement of the initiation of childbearing. .Ukraine, where total fertility (a very low 1.1 in 2001), is one of the world's lowest, shows that there is more than one pathway to lowest-low fertility.^ There continues to be extensive bilingualism in Ukraine and many of those who identified themselves as Ukrainian-speakers also know Russian very well.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no flower in this world prettier than the Cranberry: No one is so lovely as a mother to a child.

Although Ukraine has undergone immense political and economic transformations during 1991-2004, it has maintained a young age at first birth and nearly universal childbearing. Analysis of official national statistics and the Ukrainian Reproductive Health Survey show that fertility declined to very low levels without a transition to a later pattern of childbearing. Findings from focus group interviews suggest explanations of the early fertility pattern. These findings include the persistence of traditional norms for childbearing and the roles of men and women, concerns about medical complications and infertility at a later age, and the link between early fertility and early marriage.[142]

Natalist policies

To help mitigate the declining population, the government continues to increase child support payments. .Thus it provides one-time payments of 12,250 Hryvnias for the first child, 25,000 Hryvnias for the second and 50,000 Hryvnias for the third and fourth, along with monthly payments of 154 Hryvnias per child.^ The music for this song is captivating and haunts one; the first two lines are slow, the rest of the measure being in quick, lively time.

[104][143] The demographic trend is showing signs of improvement, as the birth rate has been steadily growing since 2001.[144] Net population growth over the first nine months of 2007 was registered in five provinces of the country (out of 24), and population shrinkage was showing signs of stabilising nationwide. In 2007 the highest birth rates were in the Western Oblasts.[145]

Famines

The government-imposed famines of the 1930s, followed by the devastation of World War II, comprised a demographic disaster. Life expectancy at birth fell to a level as low as ten years for females and seven for males in 1933 and plateaued around 25 for females and 15 for males in the period 1941-44.[146]

Migration

Significant migration took place in the first years of Ukrainian independence. More than one million people moved into Ukraine in 1991–2, mostly from the other former Soviet republics. In total, between 1991 and 2004, 2.2 million immigrated to Ukraine (among them, 2 million came from the other former Soviet Union states), and 2.5 million emigrated from Ukraine (among them, 1.9 million moved to other former Soviet Union republics).[147] Currently, immigrants constitute an estimated 14.7 % of the total population, or 6.9 million people; this is the fourth largest figure in the world.[148] .In 2006, there were an estimated 1.2 million Canadians of Ukrainian ancestry,[149] giving Canada the world's third-largest Ukrainian population behind Ukraine itself and Russia.^ Ukraine's relationship to Russia has been especially difficult because of the large number of Russians in Ukraine and the shared history, as well as the close cultural and linguistic ties between Ukrainians and Russians.
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^ There continues to be extensive bilingualism in Ukraine and many of those who identified themselves as Ukrainian-speakers also know Russian very well.
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^ While Ukrainian lands remained subordinated to Moscow following the 1917 revolution, Bolshevik rule did lead to an important change in the relationship between Russia and Ukraine.
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List of largest cities in Ukraine by population (2001 Census)[150]
Rank City Division Pop. Rank City Division Pop.
1 Kiev Kiev 2,611,327 11 Luhansk Luhansk 463,097
2 Kharkiv Kharkiv 1,470,902 12 Makiivka Donetsk 389,589
3 Dnipropetrovsk Dnipropetrovsk 1,065,008 13 Simferopol Crimea 358,108
4 Odessa Odessa 1,029,049 14 Vinnytsia Vinnytsia 356,665
5 Donetsk Donetsk 1,016,194 15 Sevastopol Sevastopol 342,451
6 Zaporizhia Zaporizhia 815,256 16 Kherson Kherson 328,360
7 Lviv Lviv 732,818 17 Poltava Poltava 317,998
8 Kryvyi Rih Dnipropetrovsk 668,980 18 Chernihiv Chernihiv 304,994
9 Mykolaiv Mykolaiv 514,136 19 Cherkasy Cherkasy 295,414
10 Mariupol Donetsk 492,176 20 Sumy Sumy 293,141

Religion

"What religious group do you belong to?". Sociology poll by Razumkov Centre about the religious situation in Ukraine (2006)      Atheist or do not belong to any church      UOC - Kiev Patriarchate      UOC (Moscow Patriarchate)      UAOC      Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church      Roman Catholic Church
.The dominant religion in Ukraine is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which is currently split between three Church bodies: the Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church autonomous church body under the Patriarch of Moscow, and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church.^ Ukrainian Grain Forum, Kiev, Ukraine 10-13 May 2005 .
  • Ukraine Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: Reference]

[116]
A distant second by the number of the followers is the Eastern Rite Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, which practices a similar liturgical and spiritual tradition as Eastern Orthodoxy, but is in communion with the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church and recognises the primacy of the Pope as head of the Church.[155]
.Additionally, there are 863 Roman Catholic communities, and 474 clergy members serving some one million Roman Catholics in Ukraine.^ Some one has borne him there, Some one has put in place A scarlet cloth, 54 with prayer, Over the up-turned face.

[116] The group forms some 2.19 percent of the population and consists mainly of ethnic Poles and Hungarians, who live predominantly in the western regions of the country.
Protestant Christians also form around 2.19 percent of the population. Protestant numbers have grown greatly since Ukrainian independence. The Evangelical Baptist Union of Ukraine is the largest group, with more than 150,000 members and about 3000 clergy. The second largest Protestant church is the Ukrainian Church of Evangelical faith (Pentecostals) with 110000 members and over 1500 local churches and over 2000 clergy, but there also exist other Pentecostal groups and unions and together all Pentecostals are over 300,000, with over 3000 local churches. Also there are many Pentecostal high education schools such as the Lviv Theological Seminary and the Kiev Bible Institute. .Other groups include Calvinists, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutherans, Methodists and Seventh-day Adventists.^ Seventh Day Adventists Armenia .
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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon Church) is also present.[116]
There are an estimated 500,000 Muslims in Ukraine, and about 250,000 of them are Crimean Tatars.[156] There are 487 registered Muslim communities, 368 of them on the Crimean peninsula. In addition, some 50,000 Muslims live in Kiev; mostly foreign-born.[157] The Jewish community is a tiny fraction of what it was before World War II. The cities with the largest populations of Jews in 1926 were Odessa, 154,000 or 36.5% of the total population; and Kiev, 140,500 or 27.3%.[158]
.The 2001 census indicated that there are 103,600 Jews in Ukraine, although community leaders claimed that the population could be as large as 300,000. There are no statistics on what share of the Ukrainian Jews are observant, but Orthodox Judaism has the strongest presence in Ukraine.^ There are 151,000 Romanians and 258,600 Moldovans in Ukraine.
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^ Ukraine also has smaller populations of Poles, Jews, Romanians, Armenians, Hungarians and other nationalities.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 2001 census shows that the overall population of Crimea has declined slightly, by 1 per cent, from 2,063,600 in 1989 to 2,033,700.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

Smaller Reform and Conservative Jewish (Masorti) communities exist as well.[116]

Education

Ukraine produces the fourth largest number of post-secondary graduates in Europe, while being ranked seventh in population.
.According to the Ukrainian constitution, access to free education is granted to all citizens.^ A great poet and a great citizen, his name is sacred to all Ukrainians."

.Complete general secondary education is compulsory in the state schools which constitute the overwhelming majority.^ Russian language became compulsory in all secondary schools throughout the republic and it became difficult to publish material in Ukrainian.
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Free higher education in state and communal educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis.[159] There is also a small number of accredited private secondary and higher education institutions.
Because of the Soviet Union's emphasis on total access of education for all citizens, which continues today, the literacy rate is an estimated 99.4%.[3] Since 2005, an eleven-year school program has been replaced with a twelve-year one: primary education takes four years to complete (starting at age six), middle education (secondary) takes five years to complete; upper secondary then takes three years.[160] In the 12th grade, students take Government Tests, which are also referred to as school-leaving exams. These tests are later used for university admissions.
The Ukrainian higher education system comprises higher educational establishments, scientific and methodological facilities under federal, municipal and self-governing bodies in charge of education.[161] The organisation of higher education in Ukraine is built up in accordance with the structure of education of the world's higher developed countries, as is defined by UNESCO and the UN.[162]

Infrastructure

Most of the Ukrainian road system has not been upgraded since the Soviet era, and is now outdated. The Ukrainian government has pledged to build some 4,500 km (2,800 mi) of motorways by 2012.[163] In total, Ukrainian paved roads stretch for 164,732 kilometres (102,360 mi).[3] Rail transport in Ukraine plays the role of connecting all major urban areas, port facilities and industrial centers with neighbouring countries.
The heaviest concentration of railroad track is located in the Donbas region of Ukraine. Although the amount of freight transported by rail fell by 7.4 percent in 1995 in comparison with 1994, Ukraine is still one of the world's highest rail users.[164] The total amount of railroad track in Ukraine extends for 22,473 kilometres (13,964 mi), of which 9,250 kilometres (5,750 mi) is electrified.[3]
Ukraine is one of Europe’s largest energy consumers; it consumes almost double the energy of Germany, per unit of GDP.[165] A great share of energy supply in Ukraine comes from nuclear power, with the country receiving most of its nuclear fuel from Russia. .The remaining oil and gas, is also imported from the former Soviet Union.^ This reality shaped the subsequent course of the Orange Revolution in ways very different to the former Soviet Union's other ‘colour revolutions'.
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Ukraine is heavily dependent on its nuclear energy. The largest nuclear power plant in Europe, the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, is located in Ukraine.
In 2006, the government planned to build 11 new reactors by the year 2030, in effect, almost doubling the current amount of nuclear power capacity.[166] Ukraine's power sector is the twelfth-largest in the world in terms of installed capacity, with 54 gigawatts (GW).[165] Renewable energy still plays a very modest role in electrical output. In 2007 47.4% of power came from coal and gas (approx 20% gas), 47.5% from nuclear (92.5 TWh) and 5% from hydro.[166]
Other

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace[5] Global Peace Index[167] 82 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 85 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 146 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 82 out of 133

See also

References

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  162. ^ "System of the Education of Ukraine". Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. http://www.education.gov.ua/pls/edu/docs/common/education_eng.html. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  163. ^ Bose, Mihir (July 7, 2008). "The long road to Kiev". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/mihirbose/2008/07/uefa_is_happy_with_the.html. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  164. ^ "Transportation in Ukraine". U.S. Government Printing Office. http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/lps3997/9510uktn.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-22. 
  165. ^ a b "Ukraine". Energy Information Administration (EIA). US government. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Ukraine/Full.html. Retrieved 2007-12-22. 
  166. ^ a b "Nuclear Power in Ukraine". World Nuclear Association. http://world-nuclear.org/info/inf46.html. Retrieved 2007-12-22. 
  167. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

Notes

a.^ Among the Ukrainians that rose to the highest offices in the Russian Empire were Aleksey Razumovsky, Alexander Bezborodko, Ivan Paskevich. .Among the Ukrainians who greatly influenced the Russian Orthodox Church in this period were Stephen Yavorsky, Feofan Prokopovich, Dimitry of Rostov.^ There continues to be extensive bilingualism in Ukraine and many of those who identified themselves as Ukrainian-speakers also know Russian very well.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church was absorbed into the Russian Orthodox Church in the late seventeenth century.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The territorial vision of the region has been reinforced by an ethno-cultural theory that links Ukrainians, Russians and Belarusians (‘three brotherly peoples') who together constitute ‘the Russian people'.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

b.^ See the Great Purge article for details.
c.1 2 Estimates on the number of deaths vary. Official Soviet data is not available because the Soviet government denied the existence of the famine. See the Holodomor article for details. .Sources differ on interpreting various statements from different branches of different governments as to whether they amount to the official recognition of the Famine as Genocide by the country.^ The Rusyns (Ruthenians) remain unrecognized as an official ethnic group even though they are recognized in neighbouring countries.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

For example, after the statement issued by the Latvian Sejm on March 13, 2008, the total number of countries is given as 19 (according to Ukrainian BBC: "Латвія визнала Голодомор ґеноцидом"), 16 (according to Korrespondent, Russian edition: "После продолжительных дебатов Сейм Латвии признал Голодомор геноцидом украинцев"), "more than 10" (according to Korrespondent, Ukrainian edition: "Латвія визнала Голодомор 1932-33 рр. геноцидом українців") Retrieved on 2008-01-27.
d.1 2 These figures are likely to be much higher, as they do not include Ukrainians from nations or Ukrainian Jews, but instead only ethnic Ukrainians, from the Ukrainian SSR.
e.^ This figure excludes POW deaths.
f.1 2 3 According to the official 2001 census data (by nationality; by language) about 75 percent of Kiev's population responded 'Ukrainian' to the native language (ridna mova) census question, and roughly 25 percent responded 'Russian'. On the other hand, when the question 'What language do you use in everyday life?' was asked in the .2003 sociological survey, the Kievans' answers were distributed as follows: 'mostly Russian': 52 percent, 'both Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure': 32 percent, 'mostly Ukrainian': 14 percent, 'exclusively Ukrainian': 4.3 percent.^ Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar minorities still suffer discrimination by the ethnic Russian majority in Crimea and have called for the Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar languages to be given a status equal to Russian.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 2001 Ukrainian census indicated that 14.8 per cent of ethnic Ukrainians considered Russian their first language.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Russians, Tatars and Ukrainians, who are largely settled in the north of the peninsula, have all sought to establish their own ethnically exclusive organisations.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]


"What language is spoken in Ukraine?". Welcome to Ukraine. 2003/2. http://www.wumag.kiev.ua/index2.php?param=pgs20032/72. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
g.^ Such writings were also the base for Russian and Belarusian literature.
h.^ Without the city of Inhulets.

Print sources

Reference books

  • Encyclopedia of Ukraine (University of Toronto Press, 1984-93) 5 vol; partial online version, from Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies
  • Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia. ed by Volodymyr E. KubijovyC; University of Toronto Press. 1963; 1188pp [6] online at Questia
  • Dalton, Meredith. Ukraine (Culture Shock! A Survival Guide to Customs & Etiquette) (2001)
  • Evans, Andrew. Ukraine (2nd ed 2007) The Bradt Travel Guide online excerpts and search at Amazon.com
  • Johnstone, Sarah. Ukraine (Lonely Planet Travel Guides) (2005)

Recent (since 1991)

  • Aslund, Anders, and Michael McFaul.Revolution in Orange: The Origins of Ukraine's Democratic Breakthrough (2006)
  • Birch, Sarah. Elections and Democratization in Ukraine Macmillan, 2000 online edition
  • Edwards Mike: "Ukraine - Running on empty" National Geographic Magazine March 1993
  • Kuzio, Taras: Contemporary Ukraine: Dynamics of Post-Soviet Transformation, M.E. Sharpe, 1998, ISBN 0-7656-0224-5
  • Kuzio, Taras. Ukraine: State and Nation Building Routledge, 1998 online edition
  • Shamshur O. V., Ishevskaya T. I., Multilingual education as a factor of inter-ethnic relations: the case of the Ukraine, in Language Education for Intercultural Communication, By D. E. Ager, George Muskens, Sue Wright, Multilingual Matters, 1993, ISBN 1-85359-204-8
  • Shen, Raphael (1996). Ukraine's Economic Reform: Obstacles, Errors, Lessons. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0275952401. 
  • Whitmore, Sarah. ''State Building in Ukraine: The Ukrainian Parliament, 1990-2003 Routledge, 2004 online edition
  • Wilson, Andrew, Ukraine's Orange Revolution (2005)
  • Wilson, Andrew, The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation, 2nd ed. 2002; online excerpts at Amazon
  • Wilson, Andrew, Ukrainian Nationalism in the 1990s: A Minority Faith, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-57457-9
  • Zon, Hans van. The Political Economy of Independent Ukraine. 2000 online edition

Historical

  • Boshyk, Yuri (1986). Ukraine During World War II: History and Its Aftermath. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. ISBN 0920862373. 
  • Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule. Harvard U. Press, 2004. 448 pp.
  • Cliff, Tony (1984). Class Struggle and Women’s Liberation. Bookmarks. ISBN 0906224128. 
  • Gross, Jan T. Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia (1988).
  • Hrushevsky, Michael. A History of Ukraine (1986)
  • Kohut, Zenon E.; Nebesio, Bohdan Y.; and Yurkevich, Myroslav. Historical Dictionary of Ukraine. Scarecrow Press, 2005. 854 pp.
  • Luckyj, George S. Towards an Intellectual History of Ukraine: An Anthology of Ukrainian Thought from 1710 to 1995. (1996)
  • Lower, Wendy. Nazi Empire-Building and the Holocaust in Ukraine. U. of North Carolina Press, 2005. 307 pp.
  • Magocsi, Paul Robert, A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press, 1996 ISBN 0-8020-7820-6
  • Overy, Richard : The Dictators, W. W. Norton & Company, 2004, ISBN 0-393-02030-4
  • Piotrowski Tadeusz, Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947, McFarland & Company, 1998, ISBN 0-7864-0371-3
  • Redlich, Shimon. Together and Apart in Brzezany: Poles, Jews, and Ukrainians, 1919-1945. Indiana U. Press, 2002. 202 pp.
  • Reid, Anna. Borderland: A Journey Through the History of Ukraine (2003) online edition
  • Roberts, Geoffrey (2006). Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War 1939-1953. Yale University Press. ISBN 0920862373. 
  • Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History, 1st edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
  • Weiner, Amir, Making Sense of War: The Second World War and the Fate of the Bolshevik Revolution, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-09543-4, Part II
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L (1995). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521558794. 
  • Zabarko, Boris, ed. Holocaust In The Ukraine, Mitchell Vallentine & Co, 2005. 394 pp.

External links

Government
General information
Ukrainian culture

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Ukraine
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:up-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Kyiv
Government Republic
Currency Hryvnia (UAH)
Area total: 603,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 603,700 sq km
Population 48,396,470 (July 2002 est.)
Language Ukrainian (official), Russian (defacto second language and universally understood), Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
Religion Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate), Protestant, Jewish, Muslim
Calling Code +380
Internet TLD .ua
Time Zone UTC +2
.Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, Ukrayina) is a country in Eastern Europe.^ Other countries in Eastern & Central Europe .

^ Ukraine is one of the largest countries in Europe.
  • GlobaLex - A Research Guide to Ukrainian Law 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ukraine, country in eastern Europe, and the second largest country in Europe after Russia.
  • Ukraine: Introduction 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.uazone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It lies at the northwest end of the Black Sea, with Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland to the northwest, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, and Romania to the south west and south, with Moldova in between.^ Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 526 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 97 km .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ukraine is bordered on the west by Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary; on the southwest by Romania and Moldova; on the south by the Black Sea and Sea of Azov; on the east and northeast by Russia; and on the north by Belarus.
  • Ukraine: Introduction 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.uazone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the country (the central and eastern portions) was formerly a part of Russian Empire; after the October Revolution and the Civil War, the entire country - known as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic - was a part of the Soviet Union.^ The western part of the country is the most affected.
  • Ukraine Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Other countries in Eastern & Central Europe .

^ The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) was a founding member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922.
  • Ukraine: Introduction 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.uazone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ukraine is the second-largest country in Europe, albeit with a slightly declining population.^ Ukraine is one of the largest countries in Europe.
  • GlobaLex - A Research Guide to Ukrainian Law 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ukraine, country in eastern Europe, and the second largest country in Europe after Russia.
  • Ukraine: Introduction 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.uazone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The People of Ukraine The population of Ukraine was estimated in 1996 at 51,230,000, giving the country a population density of 85 persons per sq km (220 per sq mi).
  • Ukraine: Introduction 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.uazone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

.Ukrainian history is long and proud, with the inception of Kyivan (or Kievan) Rus as the most powerful state in Medieval Europe.^ In the 11th century, Kievan Rus was, geographically, the largest state in Europe.
  • Ukraine (05/09) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cultural and religious legacy of Kievan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Situated on lucrative trade routes, Kyiv quickly prospered as the center of the powerful state of Kievan Rus.
  • Ukraine (05/09) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .While this state fell prey to Mongol conquest, the western part of Ukraine became part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from the 14th until the 18th century, even modern Ukraine owes it a debt of sorts.^ Polish parts of Ukraine annexed by Russia in the Second and Third Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

^ Most of Ukraine became part of Poland.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the territory of what is modern Ukraine was annexed by Poland and Lithuania in the 14th century, but during that time, Ukrainians began to conceive of themselves as a distinct people, a feeling that survived subsequent partitioning by greater powers over the next centuries.
  • Ukraine (05/09) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A subsequent Ukrainian state was able to - in the face of pressure from the ascendant Muscovy - remain autonomous for more than a century, however the Russian Empire absorbed much of Ukraine in the 18th century, to the detriment of their culture and identity.^ During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My point being, I know Russian culture and language is more prevalent and influential in Ukraine today than Austrian culture or Polish culture, but if Moscow gets to muck around in Kiev's internal affairs on the basis of former geographical contiguity, then I vote that Vienna gets a shot at screwing with the election results too.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The cultural and religious legacy of Kievan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite a brief, but uncertain, flash of independence at the end of the czarist regime, Ukraine was incorporated into the new USSR after the Russian Civil War in 1922 and subject to two disastrous famines (1932-33 and 1946) as well as brutal fighting during World War II. As a Soviet republic, the Ukrainian language was often 'sidelined' when compared to Russian to varying degrees; Stalinist repressions during the 1930s, attempts at decentralisation during the Khrushchev administraion and the retightening of controls during the Brezhnev-Kosygin era of the 1970s and early 1980s.^ Ukrainian Republic of the Far East "Green Ukraine" (1918 - 1922) .

^ Ukrainian and Russian are the principal languages.
  • Ukraine (05/09) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ukraine was the last of the former Soviet republics to adopt a new constitution.
  • Ukraine: Introduction 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.uazone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In any case, the traditionally bilingual province had signs in both Russian and Ukrainian in virtually all cities, including Lviv, where Ukrainian is most prevalent.^ It was written in the Russian language but by Ukrainian authors and in the 1890s included some articles in Ukrainian.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Times were hard for the top layer of Ukrainian society, but even harder for middle and lower classes and peasants, who suffered most from Russian exploitation.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ LVIV has become a Cosmopolitan European City you can buy most any consumer type goods there.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.The 1986 Chernobyl accident was a further catastrophe to the republic but also widely considered as an event which, in the long run, galvanized the population in regional sentiment and led to increasing pressure on the central government to promote autonomy.^ Unit 4 was destroyed in the 1986 accident, unit 2 was shut down after a turbine hall fire in 1991, unit 1 was closed in 1997 and unit 3 closed at the end of 2000 due to international pressure.
  • Nuclear Power in Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Key Results: USAID will consider this objective met when sustainable nation-wide agricultural policy reforms are implemented and private farmers in selected regions enjoy opportunities to increase their production and marketing of agricultural commodities.
  • USAID CP FY2000: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet another law was passed, in first reading, to devolve some powers of the central government to regional councils.

.Ukraine declared its sovereignty within the Soviet Union in July 1990 as a prelude to unfolding events in the year to come.^ Jul 1990 State sovereignty declared by Ukraine.

^ The United States, for its part, was uneasy about Ukraine retaining possession of the world's third largest nuclear arsenal, which it had inherited when the Soviet Union dissolved.
  • Ukraine: Introduction 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.uazone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Religious activity remained relatively strong in Ukraine, and it has greatly expanded since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
  • Ukraine: Introduction 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.uazone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's Parliament) again declared its independence in early December 1991 following the results of referendum in November 1991 which indicated overwhelming popular support (90% in favour of independence).^ Independence Day, 24 August (1991); the date of 22 January (1918), the day Ukraine first declared its independence (from Soviet Russia), is now celebrated as Unity Day .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following a failed coup against Gorbachev in the Soviet Union, the Ukrainian parliament declared independence on 24 August 1991, overwhelmingly approved by referendum and internationally recognized.
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Independence Day, 24 August (1991); note - 22 January 1918, the day Ukraine first declared its independence (from Soviet Russia) and the day the short-lived Western and Central Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This declaration became a concrete reality as the Soviet Union formally ceased to exist on December 25, 1991. Initially, there were severe economic difficulties, hyperinflation, and oligarchal rule prevailed in the early years following independence.^ August 1991 (from the Soviet Union) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following a failed coup against Gorbachev in the Soviet Union, the Ukrainian parliament declared independence on 24 August 1991, overwhelmingly approved by referendum and internationally recognized.
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All urgent and required stabilization measures of the "sarcophagus"--the concrete shelter hastily built around the damaged reactor by the Soviet Union in the months following the disaster--including radiation and worker safety are complete.
  • Ukraine (05/09) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The issues of cronyism, corruption and alleged voting irregularities came to a head during the heavily-disputed 2004 Presidential election, where allegations of vote-rigging sparked what became known as the "Orange Revolution". This revolution resulted in the subsequent election of opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko as President.^ A peaceful mass protest "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary elections and become prime minister in August of 2006.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets of Kiev and other cities to protest electoral fraud and express support for Yushchenko, and conducted ongoing peaceful demonstrations during what came to be known as the "Orange Revolution."

^ A peaceful mass protest "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. The new government presents its citizens with hope that the country may at last attain true freedom and prosperity.


Central Ukraine
The political, economic, and cultural center of Ukraine, centered around the capital Kiev
Crimea
A peninsula that serves mainly as Russia's favorite beach resort, with some beautiful Black Sea coastline and mountainous interior
Western Ukraine
Historically under the control of non-Russian European countries for centuries (e.g Poland, Lithuania, Austria, Romania, Czechoslovakia and Turkey); accordingly you'll find Central European architecture, cuisine, language and religion here
Eastern Ukraine
The heavily industrialized and Russified coal-mining region of the Donbass, home to big Soviet cities and much of the country's ethnic Russian population
.
Southern Ukraine
The popular Ukrainian Black Sea coast (albeit not quite so popular as the Crimea), best known for the magnificent city of Odessa
The Kyiv Pechersk Lavra in Kyiv, Ukraine.</span><span class=^ The primary beneficiaries of these activities are the citizens of the areas in which USAID activities are concentrated, including Lviv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Kiev, Crimea, Slavutych, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kharkiv and Odessa.
  • USAID CP FY2000: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cities: Capital --Kiev (often transliterated as Kyiv from Ukrainian, pop.

^ Ukraine has about 150 colleges and universities, of which the most important are at Kiev, Lviv, and Kharkiv.

First built in 1051." src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/4/0/3/79496093805729114.jpg" width="250" height="178" border="0" class="thumbimage" />
The Kyiv Pechersk Lavra in Kyiv, Ukraine. First built in 1051.
'Mother' Motherland statue in Kyiv Ukraine stands in the centre of the Museum of the Great Patriotic War.
'Mother' Motherland statue in Kyiv Ukraine stands in the centre of the Museum of the Great Patriotic War.
North part of Czarnohora (Eastern Carpathians), the highest mountains in Ukraine. The highest peak on the picture is Howerla (2061 m)
.
North part of Czarnohora (Eastern Carpathians), the highest mountains in Ukraine.
^ Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south .
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galicia, Bukovyna and Carpathian Ukraine were incorporated into the Austro-Hungarian (Habsburg) Empire and the rest of Ukraine became part of Russia.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Crimea and some parts of eastern Ukraine -- areas with substantial ethnic Russian minorities -- local and regional governments permit Russian as a language for local official correspondence.

The highest peak on the picture is Howerla (2061 m)
Khotyn Fortress in the town of Khotyn, Ukraine
Khotyn Fortress in the town of Khotyn, Ukraine
The Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle in Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine
The Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle in Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine
Potemkin Stairs in Odessa which extend for 142 meters. They were so well designed that they create an optical illusion. <a name=.A person looking down the stairs sees only the landings, and the steps are invisible, but a person looking up sees only steps, and the landings are invisible."^ PM on November 23, 2004 Wow, 41 posts about Ukraine and only one person has called it " the Ukraine", glad to see the word is catching on :-) posted by bobo123 at 10:58 PM on November 23, 2004 Rastafari: Shut up.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/2/1/7/84640902559615765.jpg" width="250" height="188" border="0" class="thumbimage" />
Potemkin Stairs in Odessa which extend for 142 meters. They were so well designed that they create an optical illusion. .A person looking down the stairs sees only the landings, and the steps are invisible, but a person looking up sees only steps, and the landings are invisible.
Freedom Square, in Kharkiv.</span><span class=^ PM on November 23, 2004 Wow, 41 posts about Ukraine and only one person has called it " the Ukraine", glad to see the word is catching on :-) posted by bobo123 at 10:58 PM on November 23, 2004 Rastafari: Shut up.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The third largest city-centre square in Europe."^ Ukraine, Europe's second largest country during the twentieth century, occupies 232,200 square miles (603,700 square kilometers).
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/2/6/0/17751292078332146.jpg" width="250" height="164" border="0" class="thumbimage" />
Freedom Square, in Kharkiv. .The third largest city-centre square in Europe.
The Swallow's Nest, one of the Neo-Gothic châteaux fantastiques near Yalta, Ukraine.^ Ukraine, Europe's second largest country during the twentieth century, occupies 232,200 square miles (603,700 square kilometers).
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/10/2/9/6/26646022572115842.jpg" width="250" height="333" border="0" class="thumbimage" />
The Swallow's Nest, one of the Neo-Gothic châteaux fantastiques near Yalta, Ukraine.
Livadia Palace near Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine
Livadia Palace near Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine
Balaklava Harbour, Crimea
Balaklava Harbour, Crimea

Get in

Visa requirements and customs

.Tourist visas are no longer required for citizens of the European Union, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Andorra, Vatican City, Monaco, Iceland, Norway, San Marino, Mongolia, Serbia, Montenegro and the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (except Turkmenistan).^ Establishing trade relations with the G7 countries (the seven largest industrialized countries: United States, Japan, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Canada) is a priority for Ukraine's international economic strategy.
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The governments of Germany, Canada, and Great Britain as well as the European Union, United Nations Development Program and the World Bank are all providing funds for programs to promote the development of SMEs.
  • USAID CP FY2000: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1569, with the Union of Lublin, the dynastic link between Poland and Lithuania was transformed into a constitutional union of the two States as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

.This applies only for tourist travel lasting less than 90 days.^ U.S. citizens are exempt from the requirement to have a Ukrainian visa as long as the duration of their stay in Ukraine does not exceed 90 days and the purpose of their travel is tourism, private travel, or business.
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The conference highlighted the GOUs success in reducing the number of days required to register businesses from 35 to less than four, and in reducing business registration costs by almost 50%.
  • USAID CP FY2000: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For other countries, visas are obtainable within a few hours of visiting a Ukrainian consulate having received a 'letter of invitation' from one's prespective lodging or business provider.^ For additional information about Ukrainian visas and related policy, please contact the nearest Ukrainian Embassy or Consulate.
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War II many Ukrainian artists immigrated into the United States and other Western countries.
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USAID has also worked with the leading Ukrainian business school, the International Management Institute, in implementing a one-year intensive training course leading to an MBA in banking.
  • USAID CP FY2000: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More information is available at Ukraine's Embassy in your country and/or the Foreign service departments of your national governments (or their embassy websites here in Ukraine).^ Information regarding demonstrations in Ukraine can be found on the U.S. Embassy Kyiv website .
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More information can be found on the U.S. Embassy's website in the document “ Medical Services in Kyiv .” .
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visit the Embassy of Ukraine’s website for the most current visa information.
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Always know how much currency you have with you.^ How much do you need for life after basic living some luxuries, American life it is never enough.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Been covered in the nytimes, washpost, latimes, npr, cnn, foxnews, my local paper, exactly how much media coverage do you want at this point?
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Customs officials might inquire about the amount being brought into the country.^ The increased pressure on resources brought about by the return of the Tatars from Central Asia has helped to channel social and economic competition into ethno-political confrontation.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Maybe that's why I'm being stubborn about this - the only solution I can conceive of that makes any sense is splitting up the country.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is prohibited to bring large amounts of Ukrainian currency (hryvnia) in to the country unless it was declared upon leaving Ukraine.^ Registration can be extended in certain situations by Ukrainian immigration authorities and will be valid only for continuous stay in the country, but not for re-entry to Ukraine.
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A traveler may take up to EUR 10,000 or its equivalent into or out of Ukraine under oral declaration to Ukrainian customs authorities, if asked.
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ukraine signed a Charter Agreement with NATO in 1997, sent troops to Kosovo in close cooperation with NATO countries, signed an agreement for NATO use of Ukrainian strategic airlift assets, and has declared interest in eventual membership.
  • Ukraine (05/09) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is advisable to check in advance the customs regulations (e.g. the Boryspol Airport website, which has an English version) as rules and regulations have the habit of changing at short and unannounced notice.
.When entering the country you will be required to complete an immigration form - currently this is a simple white document with two parts that have more or less identical information.^ More information can be found on the U.S. Embassy's website in the document “ Medical Services in Kyiv .” .
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under Ukrainian law, police are permitted to stop anyone for any reason and check his or her identification documents (the only two such documents police will recognize are passports and immigration cards, which foreign visitors are required to carry at all times).
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The” as a prefix for a country name is more complex than you (likely) realize.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

.Both parts should be completed on arrival: the immigration officer will keep one part and you have to retain the second, which you will need to show to the immigration officer on your departure from the country.^ Still not convinced you need one?
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Avoid giving grammar lessons when you confuse “its” and “it’s” (end of your second sentence).
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ What ever helps you get through your poor life in THE very poor country of The ukraine… .
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

.It is not advisable to lose this easily lost scrap of paper, as you'll almost certainly have difficulties on leaving Ukraine (and likely incur a "fine" too).^ A Ukraine spade looks like a spade on card the shovels they have & break often & not to mention you have to fashion your own handle from stick.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Mar 17, 2008 at 00:31 by Merlin Alex: looks like last time you were in Ukraine during Soviet times or right after.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ You'll lose if you don't love, I swear, But–charm me–maybe I won't care!

.You will need to know where you are going to stay as this is required on the form and the immigration officer will insist that it be filled in.^ A booking form will appear which lists all the specific trains you need to book.
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ You need to buy tickets by phone or using the booking form above, as you cannot book this journey online.
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ If you have Relatives form Ukraine or want to take a trip there let me know I can help you with arrangement www.bystiv.com belozer@bctonline.com .
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

By plane

The cheapest way to fly into Ukraine is through the Kyiv Boryspil International Airport. .The main international hubs for these flights are Budapest, Frankfurt, Milan, Munich, Prague, London, Rome, Vienna and Warsaw with several flights a day of Austrian AUA, CSA Czech Airlines, LOT, Lufthansa, Alitalia, Air France, British Airways, KLM and MALEV - Hungarian Airlines; also Ukraine International, which code-shares on these routes with the respective carriers, and another Ukrainian carrier, AeroSvit.^ AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Ukraine’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Ukraine’s air carrier operations.
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We call on the Government of Ukraine to respect the will of the Ukrainian people, and we urge all Ukrainians to resolve the situation through peaceful means.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You can book trains from London to Krakow, Prague or Bratislava online, see the London to Poland page , London to Slovakia page or London to the Czech Republic page for step-by-step instructions.
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Special offers on flights come and go, depending on the whim of the carrier. .Recently the low-cost airline Wizzair started operations within Ukraine and will start one international route from Kyiv to London Luton airport in December 2008. The only other low cost carrier serving Ukraine is AirBaltic, with flights routing through either Riga, Latvia, or Vilnius, Lithuania.^ In accordance with its agreement with the G7 and European Commission in 1995, Ukraine permanently closed the last operating reactor at the Chornobyl site on December 15, 2000.
  • Ukraine (05/09) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mar 16, 2008 at 19:06 by ScoreFace Demonoid was one of the most organized torrent sites I’ve ever seen and thank you Ukraine for you lawlessness.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ Written by Ernesto on March 16, 2008 Demonoid, once one of the most popular BitTorrent trackers, has reappeared again, this time hosted in Ukraine.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

AeroSvit could also be considered a somewhat low-cost carrier.
.There are several airlines which offer direct flights to cities like Dnipropetrovsk (Lufthansa), Donetsk (Lufthansa, Austrian), Odessa (MALEV, LOT, Austrian, CSA Czech Airlines), Kharkiv and Lviv (LOT, Austrian Airlines), but they are more expensive.^ The primary beneficiaries of these activities are the citizens of the areas in which USAID activities are concentrated, including Lviv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Kiev, Crimea, Slavutych, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kharkiv and Odessa.
  • USAID CP FY2000: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USAID has helped to create regional associations of realtors in Lviv, Odessa, Kharkiv, and Odessa.
  • USAID CP FY2000: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides that, the Viking were there long before the south Europeans, but they apparently liked their own homes more.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

To fly inside Ukraine, the most common airline is AeroSvit. .It is the unofficial national airline, and its routes cover all of Ukraine's major destinations.^ Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members following a Western compromise with the Soviet Union, which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics.
  • Ukraine (05/09) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2004 the national newspaper Den (The Day) published the results of a major poll on religious beliefs by the All-Ukraine Sociological Service.
  • Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Planes used are newer Boeing 737 and 767 aircraft. Ukraine International also recently introduced flights within the country from its hub in Kyiv, mainly flying newer Boeing 737 aircraft.

By train

.One can enter Ukraine by train [2] [3] from any land-bordering neighbor.^ The neighboring areas centered around Kharkiv were called Slobidshchyna meaning free (from serfdom) lands also referred to as Sloboda Ukraine.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

.When coming from Western Europe there will be a wait at the border while the train's bogies are changed in order to adapt to a different rail gauge.^ I don't think Russian troops would have to come across the border, they'd already be there.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Late at night, the train is shunted into the gauge-changing shed at Yagodin (the Ukrainian frontier point) and jacked up to have its wheels changed from standard European (4' 8") gauge to Russian 5' gauge.
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Wait there–and my sore heart shall come to tell the tale of him– No end there is to Dunai; no eyes for me shall dim.

.It's generally quicker and cheaper to buy a ticket to the border and then change trains, rather than wait getting through train.^ How to buy European train tickets...
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Buy Ukrainian train tickets online ...
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Is it cheaper to buy at the ticket office?
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Generally, in Ukraine railway travel is much cheaper than flying, and is comparable (but probably cheaper) to bus or car travel.^ A large part of SME activity in Ukraine currently exists in the informal economy, so the actual figures for SME employment are probably higher than the official figures.
  • USAID CP FY2000: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It will take at most a whole day to ride across the country, so unless you are in hurry take a train.^ Click to Play The ride is on Electika that the short run day trains are called in Ukraine.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ A winter train ride the video starts on the way from Kelminitksy to LVIV it a grey winter day.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Unless you have Ukrainian friends who take you around everywhere, you will need tour leaders and organizers who speak your language and take care of your day-to-day needs.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.It's good practice to take long-distance trains, which are much more comfortable.^ A pleasant and interesting town, it can be reached by regular local train from Simferopol, as well as long distance ones from Kiev and Moscow.
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Avoid cheap third-class travel if you're cautious of local experiences.

By car

.The nearest significant town on the Polish side is Przemyśl, and it's straightford to find by following route # 4 (which passes through Przemyśl), also known as the E40 in European terms.^ It may be the case that countries you pass through en route to your destination may require a separate transit visa.
  • Ukraine Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Ukrainian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When you arrive, the road is fairly narrow (no motorway/autobahn this) with a queue of trucks and vans parked to the right of the road; a hard-core parking area with cafe/bar to the left. .Don't stop behind the goods vehicles, slip up the side of them and then feed into the customs area when the guy flags you forward (for courteous Europeans, you're not jumping the queue - commercial traffic goes through a different process).^ You think the “will of the people” argument would hold up in court?
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ LVIV has become a Cosmopolitan European City you can buy most any consumer type goods there.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ By all means buy tickets at the ticket office if you're flexible, but trains can get fully-booked so it's good to pre-book if you want a specific date and train.
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

If you're in an EU registered car then make for the EU-passports, passport control section. .Thence to Ukrainian passport control and then Ukrainian customs and then you're through.^ And yes, I know that they speak Ukrainian, but unless you’re going to be living in the western half of Ukraine, it’s not a very practical language to learn.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

.It used to be a nightmare, with apocalyptic tales of 5-6+ hours at the border (and as of July 2007, this is still a possibility), but the Ukrainians have made great advances in efficiency and it takes about an hour to make the crossing (September 2005 - still true in Feb 2006).^ With the Ukrainian economy booming, income levels rising and the banking sector becoming more advanced, more and more Ukrainians are taking bank loans to buy a house or start a business...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

^ VOB + BYuT (1st time)(acting to 4 Feb 2005) 8 Sep 2005 - 4 Aug 2006 Yurii Ivanovych Yekhanurov (b.

^ At the start of the 1870s the centre of the Ukrainian movement was in Kyiv, where censorship was relaxed and which made literary and scientific activity possible.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Don't expect the border police to treat you in a friendly or even respectful manner, in fact, expect anything ranging from neutral to extremely obnoxious behavior.^ You’re pretty foolish if you expect a comment thread on the net on a tiny article to do anything other than be a source of mirth.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ (Srsly, WTF?) I didn’t even bother to see if you’d posted anything else, which I guess you did, who cares though.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you think that Swedish police are rough… you are in for a treat.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

.Once through, just follow the main road towards Lviv on the E40 - this is the route right across Ukraine to Kyiv (and thence on to the East).^ The train ride from Derszhkordon near Bystiv and the Polish-Ukrainian border, east to Lviv in the early morning was truly interesting account of Belozer's Ukraine.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ The Thomas Cook Rail Map of Europe is the best and most comprehensive map of train routes right across Europe, from Portugal in the west to Istanbul, Moscow & Ukraine in the east, from Finland in the north to Sicily & Crete in the south.
  • How to travel by train from London to Kiev & Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Ukraine has about 150 colleges and universities, of which the most important are in Kyiv, Lviv, and Kharkiv.
  • Ukraine (05/09) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stick to this - the main towns on the way are Lviv, Rivne, Zhytomyr.^ Marching westward, the main Cossack force reached and besieged the city of Lviv and the fortress town Zamostc.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Watch out about 15-20 km inside Ukraine, I think the village is called Mostiska, as they have gone crazy about traffic calming measures here (speed bumps or sleeping policemen).^ Perhaps it could be true if they where from Villages I cooked shashlik (Ukraine BBQ Kabobobs) that night at my place & we had Vodka.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ It doesn't matter what people's opinions inside the country are about the loss of international credibility, because they're in no position to know that.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We wasted out life here in USA we have nothing at all except plastic tarp to sleep under.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.They're like icebergs across the road, and very badly marked.^ Russia has had a long history of despotism, they're quite used to power grabs like this.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And yes, I know that they speak Ukrainian, but unless you’re going to be living in the western half of Ukraine, it’s not a very practical language to learn.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

And there are about four or five sets of them through the village. .Other than that, take care on the road, which although the main East/West highway, and the main road route into the EU, still remains in a miserable condition (surface-wise).^ Sizable populations of Welsh-Americans still live in this region, although most people of Welsh ancestry are assimilated into American society, as indicated by the high Intermarriage rate and migration of many Welsh to the West Coast.
  • European-Americans - Bibliography 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And you'll soon realise why Ukraine has such poor statistics in relation to driver and pedestrian fatalities and injuries.^ What ever helps you get through your poor life in THE very poor country of The ukraine… .
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

Drive defensively is the optimum advice re the roads, other road users and the walking, riding public.

By foot

You can walk across the 200 meter long bridge from Sighetul Marmatiei, Romania. .But once you get to Slatina, Ukraine, it may be difficult to engage onward travel unless you came in a car.^ Of course, depending on the results of this election, we may be back to "the" Ukraine once again.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You may had heard the joke in Movies Ukraine Mafia is more brutal then Russian Mafia.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ And yes, I know that they speak Ukrainian, but unless you’re going to be living in the western half of Ukraine, it’s not a very practical language to learn.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

Bicycling is also a possibility in summer.

By bus

There are inexpensive direct bus services to Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk from Poland. They usually offer a budget level of comfort and cost about 90 to 100 hyrvnia (20 US$)

By boat

.There are some ferries from Istanbul, Georgia, Varna (Bulgaria) to Odessa or to Crimea.^ Just let it play will get to LVIV & show some life there Architecture then onto Odessa then Yalta .
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[4]

Get around

The quickest way to get around big cities is the so-called marshrutka - the minibuses which follow routes much like the regular buses do. .You can generally flag them down or ask them to stop at places other than the specified bus-stops.^ If for any reason you are planning to stay longer than 90 days, please apply for tourist visa with extended duration of stay (one tab down on the left).
  • Ukraine Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Ukrainian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You’re pretty foolish if you expect a comment thread on the net on a tiny article to do anything other than be a source of mirth.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ If for any reason you are planning to stay longer than 90 days, please apply for business visa with extended duration of stay (one tab down on the left).
  • Ukraine Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Ukrainian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fare is paid as soon as you get in, and is fixed no matter how far you want to go.^ He says America going down reference in fuel prices & Hurricanes I can go on if you read this far & have interest in Ukraine as a place to Visit.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ No matter how blatant the theft of the elections, few people believe Ukrainians will muster the political will necessary to overturn the results.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Been covered in the nytimes, washpost, latimes, npr, cnn, foxnews, my local paper, exactly how much media coverage do you want at this point?
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

This is the same for the conventional buses, tram, trolley-buses and the Metro. .You tell the driver that you want to get off when you're approaching the destination.^ You’re just as far off as someone from the US claiming all credit, bubbeleh.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

.Each city has an inter-city bus station from which you can go pretty much anywhere in Ukraine.^ He says America going down reference in fuel prices & Hurricanes I can go on if you read this far & have interest in Ukraine as a place to Visit.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ I say unto you–do what is right; Flee to the cities of Ukraine.

^ Asparagirl at 11:21 PM on November 23, 2004 Wow The Ukraine is going all flutzy and you too are missing the point!, Europeans are growing up...
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

Fares and quality of service vary widely.

By train

Trains in Ukraine are really cheap. For example: Simferopol to Lviv for €8 ("platzkart") on overnight train with sleeping-car.
.The problem is that trains are quite popular in Ukraine and you have to buy the tickets well in advance.^ Supervisors have been trained in both Western-based inspection techniques and off-site risk analysis, as well as in rehabilitation techniques for problem banks.
  • USAID CP FY2000: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It Old world you can not buy in USA. You can use regular granule yeast I use this to make Kvas it an Ancient Ukraine Drink.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ It much higher octane then anything you can buy in USA. Since then I have spent much time in Ukraine.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.There are always 3 kinds of ticket counters: 1 group for trains that go on the same day, 1 for trains that go within 7 days and 1 for trains that go within 45 days.^ 'Twill be always the same, while I draw my breath, From the hour of my birth to the day of my death.

^ The Ukrainians continue to exist as a distinct cultural group within American society, although many are, at the same time, active participants in the national economic System.
  • European-Americans - Bibliography 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Buying tickets for the same day is usually not such a big problem as long as they are still available.^ But on a day they married me; As I was bidden I married–and, my blinded eyes Forever hidden, The world grew dark upon that morning– Such is my fortune, O unhappy fortune!

^ Be joyful, my brothers, each day that is ours, No life such as this can last long.

^ Making these eggs is a long but fun process, and they are not actually eaten, but displayed in the centre of the table (usually around the bread).

.But tickets for trains that leave not on the same day you usually have to stand in line for a long time.^ I have not worn you out with wearing; Saturday afternoon I wore you, On Sunday all the dear day long, On Monday just one little hour .

^ There will come a day, a Sunday, when you will wish for me; you will weep long and sore–'O where now is my daughter?'"

^ "We know not what year this may be, Because we have no calendars in our Seech– Our 'Meassiatz' 19 is now in the heaven; This day is the same day as with you.

.You might want to get the more expensive tickets ("SV" and "kupe").^ I would have you painted, that I might keep you To dance beneath but one night more; I would have you gilded, that so enwreathèd I might walk as in days of yore.

^ You individually might feel it’s unethical to download something, but just as many people, or more, or fewer, might feel it’s just as unethical to pursue filesharing in the first place.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When he wants to get his hands dirty and put his name behind the accusations you'll get more media coverage than you can handle (IF that ever happens..
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

Being a foreigner and traveling in "platzkart" (compartments without doors) is safe and enjoyable. .People sometimes stroll along the corridor looking for mischief, but just be aware as you would anywhere.^ You think the “will of the people” argument would hold up in court?
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You individually might feel it’s unethical to download something, but just as many people, or more, or fewer, might feel it’s just as unethical to pursue filesharing in the first place.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since there was nothing physical involved, you would look at generated vs lost value here.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

.If you keep your valuable objects somewhere inside your sleeping bag or close to your body you should not experience any problems with theft.^ Imagine you are on your death bed…..what will be important to you will be the experiences of your life, Family & love you shared with others that will have most meaning.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Tortured, while, bound in irons, Germans shall tear your flesh, And there you'll sleep for aye."

^ However you should keep your profile up-to-date and expose communication activity.

A first class cabin is a very good deal. .The cabin has (staple)beds for two persons and you have privacy and safety because you can lock the door.^ "My door is too strong for you– My locks are of trusty steel."

The price from Lviv to Odesa was in 2004 round €25 p.p!

By car

It is possible to get around in Ukraine by car, but one must be aware of certain particulars:
The signs are all in Ukrainian (Cyrillic alphabet). Only a few signs (every 200km or so) are written in the Latin alphabet, and indicate main cities. .It is recommended you have a good road map (those available are mainly in Ukrainian, but Latin alphabet maps are starting to appear), because place names aren't well posted on road signs.^ PM on November 23, 2004 Well, apparently, in this blogger 's backyard, if you read the first few lines of this post of hers .
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The truck starts we are off in a winter wonderland on snow covered roads to Mostiska where I purchase 4 concrete rings that are used for wells casing.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ I see you pissing all over the thread for this (amazingly good) post, and can't help but wonder.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

You are strongly advised to respect the signs, especially speed limits. .Be aware that unlike in Western countries, where limits are repeated several times, in Ukraine, an obligation or a prohibition is often indicated on a single sign, which you must not miss.^ Thus sayeth Wikipedia: “Before the country’s independence in 1991, the country was often referred to as “The Ukraine.” The term ‘Ukraine’ rather than ‘The Ukraine’ is now predominant in diplomacy and journalism.” .
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ Since when is Ukraine prefixed with ‘the’ all the time…[/quote] Since every country is usually considered ultimate to their own name.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ A Ukraine spade looks like a spade on card the shovels they have & break often & not to mention you have to fashion your own handle from stick.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.And even these signs are often far off the road, covered by branches, etc.^ The truck starts we are off in a winter wonderland on snow covered roads to Mostiska where I purchase 4 concrete rings that are used for wells casing.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

The police are always there to remind you.
Speed in cities is limited to 60km/h (40mph). However people do drive fast anyway.
Speed in "nationals" (single carriageway countryside roads) is limited to 90km/h (55mph). The poor average quality of the roads already acts as a speed checker.
Speed on highways (motorways) is limited to 110-120km/h (75mph).
Be aware that corruption is widespread among Ukrainian police, and tourists are an especially profitable target. .When you are stopped for speeding or other offenses, officers might aggressively try and extract ridiculous sums of money from you (€100 and up), offering "reductions" if you pay on the spot (the proposed alternative being some unpleasant and more expensive way, all made up).^ We'll "moveon" when you stop being so afraid to deal with your personal victories not being perfect in your own fragile little egos.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A selection of folk-songs made into a song-cycle, some being fragmentary ) .

^ Just to make you happy and so you will shut up, I personally admit that file-sharing is “unlawful” in some form or another.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

.If you're asked anything beyond that, demand a written ticket for you to pay later instead.^ You’re pretty foolish if you expect a comment thread on the net on a tiny article to do anything other than be a source of mirth.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

Don't let them intimidate you. It's very useful to have an embassy phone number handy for these cases. .If you mention that, they'll let you off the hook quicker than you know it.^ A Ukraine spade looks like a spade on card the shovels they have & break often & not to mention you have to fashion your own handle from stick.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ "O my brothers, pray you run To let my mother know, To let my mother know!

^ Other than that, they are ripping me off by producing garbabe, so right back at them.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

At any rate, write down the officers' badge numbers, rank, plate number of the police car, and notify the nearest embassy/consulate in detail, to help fight these corrupt practices.
.Fuel is no longer a problem in Ukraine, especially for those who remember travelling to Ukraine during the early 1990s, when gasoline was considered precious.^ This is in part because many identify themselves as Ukrainians or Russians and because the U.S. census no longer considers the Carpatho-Rusyns as a distinct group.
  • European-Americans - Bibliography 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But our privacy stops right at the edge of using it to shield unlawful acts, and people have little problem with abridging the privacy and freedom of those who would abuse it over and over.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ukraine VS America Peak oil With the Peak Oil Coming true Believe it or not there is no debate on fuel increases we all see.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

Today, there are plenty service stations. .There are varying types of fuel, such as diesel, unleaded 95 octane, and (more rarely) unleaded 98 octane; one finds also 80 and 76 octane.^ The next project is a tire change that takes another Hour to find one then the process of hot water is repeated again but more quickly.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Note that if you choose to fill-up in a rural filling station, you will need to pay first, and in cash.^ Often you will get slab wood that is just a log sliced up that you will need to trim sides square.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Even there many stations do accept credit cards, however.^ There are not many places left that will accept them so time is running out for the pirate bay.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

The state of the roads is a huge subject:
.The main roads are okay for all cars, as long as you don't go too fast.^ I have not worn you out with wearing; Saturday afternoon I wore you, On Sunday all the dear day long, On Monday just one little hour .

^ Asparagirl at 11:21 PM on November 23, 2004 Wow The Ukraine is going all flutzy and you too are missing the point!, Europeans are growing up...
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like the smllaer town & village girls You can sit in park on summer day & watch pretty girls all day long.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Numerous running repairs have created a patchwork road surface, and it will seriously test your suspension - even on the major dual carriageways.^ Not even a majority of your fellow citizens agree with that statement.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PissOnYourParade at 2:06 PM on November 24, 2004 Not even a majority of your fellow citizens agree with that statement.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Secondary roads are passable, but beware: certain zones can be full of potholes and you must treat them with extra care, or avoid them entirely.^ An aging population not only affects families that must care for their elderly parents and grandparents, it is a burden on an entire economy...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

.Roads between villages are often little more than dirt tracks and not metalled.^ Especially when this has the potential of being a far more significant event for the world, let alone the Ukrainian people, than the choice between Kerry and Bush.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s little more than $4000 per week.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The punishments for a single track are more than grand theft auto, drinking & driving, distributing controlled substances, and the list goes on.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

Road works have been ongoing, but the quality of the roads is shy of Western Europe (with the exception of Kyiv)...
Be careful when driving in towns or villages. Sometimes pets prefer to walk on the road, and they are a hazard for all drivers. .You're likely to see plenty of animals hit by cars, so be prepared...^ You ought to move to a police state and see what it really is like.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DevilsAdvocate at 9:40 AM on November 24, 2004 You ought to move to a police state and see what it really is like.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bicycle traffic is not very common, but you will sometimes see an aged man transporting a sack of grass on an old road-bike or a cycling enthusiast in bright clothes riding a semi-professional racing bike.^ When President tells you to conserve oil when he is an Oil Man there is something very wrong.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

Those are even more likely to be met on well-maintained roads where the pavement is smooth. .Also cyclists will use both lanes of the road in both directions equally ie you are just as likely to meet a cyclist coming towards you, riding on the verge, as you will travelling in your direction.^ "That from your side you send me so Just ere the coming of the night?

^ Walking in the meadow The Cossack sings– He sings until Tchornobriva 69 Comes out of the hut, And he asks her: "Did your mother hurt you?"

^ P2P is whatever you make of it, there are an equal number of uses that are legal, as well as illegal.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

And almost invariably without lights or bright clothing so be extra careful when driving at night and dawn/dusk.
Also, don't be surprised to see plenty of horse drawn carts - even on the dual carriageways.
.If you need a good GPS navigation solution for Ukraine, look here : [5] , or just google for GPS Ukraine.^ You need to look at where the packets get routed to.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However the streets are mainly named with cyrilic letters, rarely you’d find the name in latin, so start reading Cyrilic in order to get the street you are on, or just take GPS map with you.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ Just need to tie some loose ends and if all goes well, you WILL hear from us.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

It's not as much detailed as in the western countries, but it's the best available, quite precise and easy to use.

By bus

.There are two major bus companies that run buses from all of the major cities to and from Kyiv, they are Avtolux, and Gunsel.^ Even any attempts to obtain justice were punished; when, in 1737, Kyiv's city counselors tried to defend their rights against Russian excesses, they were all jailed.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

Prices run about 55-70 Hryvnia (11-13 USD) for service to Dnipropetrovsk and Kharkiv.
The major advantage that the bus service has, is that it leaves from Boryspil and stops in Kyiv, so if your destination is not Kyiv, its easier then taking a bus to the Main Passenger Railway Station in Kyiv.
.They are standard coach buses, serve cold drinks and tea, show movies, and make a stop about every 3-4 hours.^ Often they will drink tea (chai), wine, or coffee afterwards with a simple dessert, such as a fruit pastry.

They run every few hours.
Avtolux has a VIP bus to and from Odessa that has nice leather seats and is more less non-stop. .It departs once a day, takes four hours or so both to and from Kyiv, and costs about 130-150 Hryvnia.^ An annual remembrance day called Provody on the Sunday after Easter gathers families at ancestral graves to see off once again the souls of the departed.
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the days of joking about Yeltsin's similarity to Ted Kennedy once again...
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In USA at Costco month supply of 30 Capsules is about $130 In Ukraine same Drug cost me $6.20 for month supply.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

By plane

Aerosvit offers cheap flights and is a time-saving alternative to the slow and inefficient train service. .For example the flight Odesa-Kyiv (One-Way) is ~180 USD (including Tax & all fees) and takes 1.5 hours.^ I’ve deleted all my torrents from Demonoid and apparently I can’t get new ones since the frontend is down… I guess the only way is to have old torrents available?
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ The next project is a tire change that takes another Hour to find one then the process of hot water is repeated again but more quickly.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ In 980, Prince Volodymyr defeated all his brothers and unified the country into one powerful state with Kyiv as the capital.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

However, be sure to book early for the cheapest fares.
The flights can be booked online via www.aerosvit.ua, comfortably in English.
WizzAir, as of early 2009, offers flights between Lviv, Kyiv and Simferopol at competitive prices.

By thumb

Hitchhiking in Ukraine is average. It's possible to go by hitchhiking - usually cargo trucks will take you for free - but it's still worth to try stop personal cars as well. .Good people are everywhere; you may be picked up in a Lada or a Lexus.^ You think the “will of the people” argument would hold up in court?
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Drink your good health, if drink you may.

(More usually the former.)
The usual hitchhiking gesture (also used to hail taxis and marshrutkas) is to face oncoming traffic and point at the road with a straight right arm held away from the body. Sometimes, for visibility, you may add a downward waving motion of the open right hand.

Talk

.Ukrainian is the official language.^ However, local pro-communist officials still resist Ukrainian and other ethnic languages except Russian in public life.
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Near the neighbouring countries, Russian, Romanian, Polish, and Hungarian are spoken.^ In Europe and the Near and Middle East, Armenians have lived under the control of the Turks, Russians, and Iranians and have formed distinct ethnic Minorities in countries such as Lebanon.
  • European-Americans - Bibliography 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethnic groups : Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001) .

.Russian is a close relative of Ukrainian and is most often the language of choice in the south and east of Ukraine.^ Main languages: Ukrainian, Russian.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This relatively small margin of victory compared to most presidential elections in the post-Soviet region reflected the reality of what some analysts have called ‘the two Ukraines' - a nationalist Ukraine, concentrated in the west of the country and Kyiv, oriented towards a Ukrainian identity, the Ukrainian language, Europe and the West, and Russian-oriented Ukraine, comprising both some russophone Ukrainians and the substantial Russian population living in the east and south, oriented towards Russia and the Russian language.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In his poems Shevchenko protested against injustices and suppression of freedom in Ukraine, encouraged preservation of Ukrainian language and reminded russianized descendants of Cossacks forgotten truth and glory of Ukrainian past.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is safe to assume that virtually any Ukrainian will understand Russian, however, beware that in the western parts people may be reluctant to help you if you speak Russian, though as a foreigner Ukrainians will be more forgiving than to Russian visitors.^ Ukrainians know Russian in Western Ukraine they prefer to speak Ukrainian.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Especially when this has the potential of being a far more significant event for the world, let alone the Ukrainian people, than the choice between Kerry and Bush.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You can keep trying to perpetuate the myth but there is no empirical evidence to support there being anything more than a statistically insignificant loss.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the other hand, in eastern parts and especially Crimea, Russian is the most commonly spoken language.^ However Russians made peace with Poland, captured Zaliznyak, Honta and many other Haydamaks and handed them over to the Poles.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In central and eastern part of the country you may also find people using these two languages simultaneously (so called surzhyk—mix of languages).^ Expect RAIDS, where the members will not just have a “slap” on the wrist like you Eurotrash Sweds are use to, in Eastern Europe, we do things differently.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I enjoy it, and it is sicking to see you people constantly try to call it something it’s not.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To ensure lasting domination over these two parts of Ukraine, Russians tried to suppress the Ukrainian culture.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is also common for people to talk to others in their native language, irrespective of the interlocutor’s one, so a visitor speaking Russian may be responded to in Ukrainian and vice-versa.^ It was written in the Russian language but by Ukrainian authors and in the 1890s included some articles in Ukrainian.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ BTW, identifies itself as Russian while a large number of Ukrainians are russian speaking...
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is also why it was such a big deal for Georgia's president to address the people of Ukraine today in Ukrainian rather than Russian, even though he'd presumably know the latter language far better.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Kyiv, the capital, speaks both languages, but Russian is more commonly used.^ I have a horrible memory, but I can say for certain that the Russian language definitely does have the ability to convey both "the Something" and "Something" as separate linguistic ideas.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every language has them, but they are more critical in languages that don't have articles (like Latin or Russian).
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1169 prince Andrey Bogolyubski conquered and destroyed Kyiv and established his capital in Vladimir near present site of Moscow, thus originating present Russian state.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

.So, Ukrainian is more frequently met in Central and Western Ukraine, Russian - in Eastern and Southern parts of the country.^ Ukrainians know Russian in Western Ukraine they prefer to speak Ukrainian.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Yushchenko's fans called the Russian language "a thug's language", and Yanukovich promised to make it the second official language of the country Western Ukraine strives for more econonic/cultural integration with the west, Eastern Ukraine is more afraid of leaving Mother Russia's embrace.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russian-Ukrainian linguistic boundary is itself fluid, especially in the central and eastern parts of the country, where a hybrid vernacular known as surzhik is widely used.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.Young people are more likely to speak a little English, as it is the most widely taught foreign language in school.^ Questions of speaking another language preparation of students of the higher school in conditions of credit-modular system of training .
  • Ukraine Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I know most people in Ukraine Village mostly the young want to escape to City & embrace consumerism.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ That's interesting; I always thought it was just a convention of British English that extended to other English-speaking countries, like "the Hague".
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

If you are traveling to Ukraine, learn either basic Ukrainian or basic Russian beforehand (i.e. know your phrase book well) and/or have some means of access to a bi-lingual speaker - their mobile/cell/handy number (everyone has a mobile phone) can be a godsend. Virtually nobody in any official position (Train Stations, Police, Bus drivers, Information Desks, etc.) will be able to speak any language other than Ukrainian or Russian. .If you already know another Slavic language you will be able to communicate sufficiently.^ And yes, I know that they speak Ukrainian, but unless you’re going to be living in the western half of Ukraine, it’s not a very practical language to learn.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ That way When one closes you already have another one to fall back on?
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

It is a good idea to familiarize yourself with the Cyrillic alphabet; this will save you a lot of time and difficulty.

Buy

To shop you will most certainly need local currency (hryvnia). .US Dollar, Euro, British Pound and other currency exchange points are very common in cities, and the exchange rate is usually very fair (except in Kyiv, where the exchange rate is higher compared to other cities).^ Ukraine’s leasing industry is experiencing strong growth on a percentage basis, but the amount of lease financing is still very low compared to other countries.
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

.However, sometimes and in some banks there are problems with cash deposits (or that is the official version), so do not exchange too many dollars unless you're traveling to the more provincial areas.^ That's some nice irony you got there.
  • Ukraine vs. Russia, 2004 style? | MetaFilter 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You can keep trying to perpetuate the myth but there is no empirical evidence to support there being anything more than a statistically insignificant loss.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But there were also many who remained steadfastly on pure Ukrainian ground, mainly energetic elements of youth, but also some members of the old generation.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

When doing person-to-person payments you might be able to pay in US dollars or Euros, as those are widely recognized, and you might in fact get better rates than in official exchange points. However, be careful, because it's not legal to make payments with foreign currency.
.If you want to buy any kind of artwork (paintings, easter eggs) in Kyiv, the place to visit is Andriivskij Uzviz (Андріївський узвіз in Ukrainian, Андреевский спуск in Russian).^ If you really want to do them a favor, learn Russian and befriend a few of them.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1767 the Tsarina ordered the election of deputies from all parts of the Russian Empire in order to be informed what kind of government the people wanted.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He says America going down reference in fuel prices & Hurricanes I can go on if you read this far & have interest in Ukraine as a place to Visit.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.BE AWARE THAT IT IS ILLEGAL TO TAKE OUT OF THE COUNTRY ANY ITEMS OF HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE including badges, medals, icons, historical paintings, etc...^ The baroque era secularized Ukrainian painting, popularizing portraiture even in religious painting: The icon Mary the Protectress, for example included a likeness of Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This law is strictly enforced at all exit points of the country and one risks heavy fines and/or imprisonment.^ In 980, Prince Volodymyr defeated all his brothers and unified the country into one powerful state with Kyiv as the capital.
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: Original source]

  • As of November 2009
    1 UAH = 0.123 USD (1 USD = 8.15 UAH)
    1 UAH = 0.082 EUR (1 EUR = 12.20 UAH)
    1 UAH = 0.075 (1 GBP = 13.40 UAH)
Salo
Salo
Ukrainian cuisine is quite tasty, but just as other cuisines in the region uses a lot of fat ingredients, especially in the festive dishes. Traditional local food includes "salo" (salted lard) and soups like "borshch" (борщ in Ukr.) made of red beets or "solianka" (солянка in Ukr.) which is a delicious meat soup. .The first, salo, is perhaps something you might not make yourself try - however is a delicious side dish, as for the soups being a must-have dish.^ Really it is up to you to decide whether to learn both sides of history, then decide for yourself.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

Borsch
Borsch
.If you are outside a big city or in doubt about food, exercise caution and common sense about where you buy food.^ LVIV has become a Cosmopolitan European City you can buy most any consumer type goods there.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Click to Play LVIV has become a Cosmopolitan European City you can buy most any consumer type goods there.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ I can buy you and your family put you out on the street suckin dick to pay for the gas(petrol) in my big American car.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

.Try to buy groceries only in supermarkets or large grocery stores, always check the expiration date, and never buy meat or dairy products on the street (you can buy them on the market, but not near the market).^ What could be more irritating than litter on the streets of your native city, especially if you have spent your lifetime trying to clean it up?
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

^ She has money to buy you mini skirts, but never for flowers for the teacher!”...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

^ I can buy you and your family put you out on the street suckin dick to pay for the gas(petrol) in my big American car.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

.When choosing a restaurant at which to eat, you will find one that you like based on the menu posted by the entrance of every establishment.^ They can just make new ones, much like your copying which you claim is so unique.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

.This may sound strange, but in most towns in Ukraine there are some very good restaurants, sometimes even luxurious ones, and these restaurants do serve properly made food.^ There is a lively reassessment of these elements in contemporary Ukraine in a new stage of identity development.
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LVIV has become a Cosmopolitan European City you can buy most any consumer type goods there.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ They may not be able to give you a good and definitive reason as to why, but they most certainly don’t feel that one song on the internet is worth upwards of US$10,000 .
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

.If you like traveling to more remote parts of the country and are in doubt about what to eat, remember that vegetables are always a safe choice.^ And so can you if you don’t like what I think about it.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I would like to stay and flame you all but it feels like beating on a little girl.Feel free to flame me you weak pathetic waste of a life.Just remember we own you.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ The” as a prefix for a country name is more complex than you (likely) realize.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

.Along the way you may find nice places to eat not by following the rare signs, but just by tracing the sky for the smoke of traditional wood fires.^ Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan you very nice place.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ However the streets are mainly named with cyrilic letters, rarely you’d find the name in latin, so start reading Cyrilic in order to get the street you are on, or just take GPS map with you.
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ The Europeans just rob it from them :f[/quote] I think you’ll find I created America… .
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

.These are often places where they serve traditional Ukrainian food, including very tasty shashlyky (шашлики in Ukr.^ Traditional Ukrainian food products are domestic.
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ukrainians observe ancient funeral traditions very faithfully.
  • Culture of Ukraine - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are at a point now where these corporations are attacking the very people that made it successful in the first place.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

). .Restauranteurs are very friendly, and more often than not you will be one of their first foreign visitors.^ You can keep trying to perpetuate the myth but there is no empirical evidence to support there being anything more than a statistically insignificant loss.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I would have you painted, that I might keep you To dance beneath but one night more; I would have you gilded, that so enwreathèd I might walk as in days of yore.

^ What could be more irritating than litter on the streets of your native city, especially if you have spent your lifetime trying to clean it up?
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

Next to the "borshch" you might also ask for "varenyky" (вареники in Ukr. - dumplings filled with meat or vegetables) or "deruny" (деруни - potato pancakes). You have to try varenyky with potatoes and cottage cheese in a sautéed onion and sourcream sauce - it's a fantastic dish. .These are just starters, but ones that might fill you up quickly.^ Just to make you happy and so you will shut up, I personally admit that file-sharing is “unlawful” in some form or another.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why fight these expensive legal battles when you can just move the servers.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I would have you painted, that I might keep you To dance beneath but one night more; I would have you gilded, that so enwreathèd I might walk as in days of yore.

Drink

The Ukrainian specialty is horilka (the local name for vodka) with pepper. Other kinds of vodka are also quite popular - linden (tilia), honey, birch, wheat. Prices range from $2 to $30 (1-7€)/0,5 l. Souvenir bottles are available for higher prices (some bottles reach upwards of $50 (35€)/0.5 l). There is a great choice of wine, both domestic and imported. The domestic wines mostly originate in the south, in the Crimean region - known for wine making dating back to early Greek settlement over 2,000 years ago, although wines from the Carpathian region of Uzhorod are also quite tasty. .Prices for local wine range between $2 to $50 (2-35€) per bottle of 0,75 l (avoid the cheapest wines, $1 or less, as these are sometimes bottled as house wines but sold as local vintages), however, one can find genuine Italian, French, Australian wines from $50 per bottle and more in big supermarkets and most restaurants.^ The next project is a tire change that takes another Hour to find one then the process of hot water is repeated again but more quickly.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

The price of imported wines dropped significantly over the last number of years and trends indicate further reductions in price.
There are a lot of beverages (both alcoholic and non-alcoholic). Ukrainian beer is of very good quality. Beer from barrels or kegs (more common in cafes) is often watered down. .Canned beer is not very common in Ukraine and sometimes not of the same quality as the same variety sold in bottles.^ In America it is $95 a Bottle in Ukraine same Drug Made in England Same Packaging with Russian label is $15.It is the same Exact Drug both made in England by Glaxosmith.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ The Truck is a conversion to run Natural Gas very Common In Ukraine & Russia.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

The best beers are brewed by Lvivske, Obolon and PPB (Persha Privatna Brovarnia). Imported beers are also widely available but more expensive – for instance, a bottle of Austrian Edelweiss can cost upwards of $2USD while average price of Ukrainian beer is 50¢. All told, Ukrainian beers are very tasty and gaining popularity elsewhere in Europe.
Of non-alcoholic beverages one should try kvas – a typically slavic drink made of rye or wheat. During the summer one can easily buy it from designated street vendors. It’s better to buy it in bottles due of unknown cleanness of the barrel. Dairy drinks, of all sorts, are also available, although mostly in supermarkets. .Bottles of mineral water are available everywhere, as well as lemonades, beer, and strong drinks.^ On the crest of the hill is the rye, cut high on its blooming stem: Down below is a well where the horses drink water drawn for them.

^ Drinks: Напитки: Coke Кока-кола Sprite Спрайт Icy cola Monk Water Мінеральна вода Vodka Горілка Beer Пиво .
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.When seeking to buy bottled water make sure to ask for "voda bez hazu" (water without gas) otherwise you are likely to be handed the carbonated drink.^ There Is no way to get water from wells her since water is 200' deep here not 10'-20' where you can hand dig well as in village.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Support them by: attending their gigs, buying their concert merch, flat out donate to them if you like.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You may be strong Alpha yourself, father would not like you otherwise, but can work together easily since he is you father in-law.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

WARNING. Never buy vodka or konjak (the local name for brandy) outside supermarkets or liquor stores, for there are a lot of fakes. Every year a few die as a result of methyl alcohol poisoning - a compound used to make fake vodkas.

Sleep

Hotels might be a traumatic experience for a westerner anywhere outside Kyiv. The cheaper the hotel, the larger the chance of some quite unfortunate surprises, especially for those not familiar with the Soviet-style level of service which still remains in many places.
There are many mid- range (E 25-45) options outside Kyiv. For instance in IvanoFrankivsk (near the Carpathians), the going rate is approximately 35 euro for a suite (bedroom and sitting room)in Hotel Nadia. Many hotels have the choice between renovated rooms/suites ("western style") and not renovated rooms (easteuropean style). The last choice is more than 50% cheaper and gives you a spacious old fashioned 2 room suite, basic but clean!
There are only three 5-star hotels: in Kyiv called the Premier Palace and Opera, and another one in Doneck called Donbass Palace, but they are very expensive. Two western hotels recently opened, Radisson SAS and Hyatt. They are not on the cheap side either and are usually full, so make reservations in advance.
.Another option is to rent an apartment on the Internet before you leave your country.^ Your sweetheart is fooling you, she weds another to-day.'

^ What ever helps you get through your poor life in THE very poor country of The ukraine… .
  • Demonoid Tracker Moves to Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: General]

^ If this one leaves you, do not fret, Another will come soon.

There's many to choose from in Kyiv and Odessa. Tip: Read Kyiv in your pocket on Internet!
.What many people from ex-soviet countries do is to go to the railway station, where they try to find people who are willing to rent a room.^ So the people who have the most creativity can create more high standard fare and the lamers who churn out crap go back to flipping burgers… .
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If “artists” and the greedy, lazy industry around them are as prepared to put effort into generating an income for themselves as I am (and many other people are for themselves) they’ll be fine.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

.Prices are usually much cheaper and if there are enough people offering the room you can make great deals (in Yalta people are almost fighting to be able to talk to you).^ If I download a song and tell 10 people it’s great who did not know about it without me, then you now suddenly have “1 lost sale” and 10 buyers.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ P2P is whatever you make of it, there are an equal number of uses that are legal, as well as illegal.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How much do you need for life after basic living some luxuries, American life it is never enough.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.These deals are usually not legal and they will take you to a corner before negotiating.^ Why fight these expensive legal battles when you can just move the servers.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It best to slow cook these are naturally grown range turkeys they are tough if you cook them fast since they lead an athletic life running free.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Make sure they have warm water, and don't be afraid to say it's not what you expected when seeing the room.^ The hot water warms the block Antifreeze forget it they use water & drain after every .
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Oct 07, 2009 at 00:59 by wf …you expect companies to just stand by while they lose money and do nothing because of internet anonymity?
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, if/when you are going to spend money — make sure as little (or none) goes to products that mostly benefit the RIAA/MPAA. .
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

Learn

There are a lot of foreign students in Ukrainian universities. .Bribery is huge, you can obtain a diploma here having attended just twice (the first and last days of study) if you have money.^ I have not worn you out with wearing; Saturday afternoon I wore you, On Sunday all the dear day long, On Monday just one little hour .

^ My days go on, and my years fly past, And I never was happy, from first to last.

^ I said, "I have you, Naidorozcha Devchina, The first time for you, the last for me!"

.That's a hyperbole, of course, but the real life is not much different.^ This reality shaped the subsequent course of the Orange Revolution in ways very different to the former Soviet Union's other ‘colour revolutions'.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Ukraine : Ukraine Overview 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

Of course if one wants to obtain good knowledge they will, but motivation in such a situation is low.

Stay safe

.Many people will tell you that you can take a copy of your visa with you.^ And if it was “stealing” and not “sharing”, then you could say that when people download stuff from you that you have in your torrent program, then they are “stealing” from you, even though you don’t own the copyright.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And as you point out, the “Patriot” Act walked right over many protections, and the people accept it, so the trends are clear.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If I download a song and tell 10 people it’s great who did not know about it without me, then you now suddenly have “1 lost sale” and 10 buyers.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

Sadly, some people experience trouble over this. It's always better to carry your passport with you. A photocopy can be refused as proof of identity. .A phone call to a local that can help you will often prove very effective to help you.^ Recycled cells help soldiers call home Paying by Phone Slowly Coming to the U.S. Can you spot the hidden fees in prepaid phone cards?
  • Ukraine Phone Cards | Ukraine Calling Cards - Cheap Ukraine Phone Card to Ukraine 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

^ Ukraine Neighboring Countries: Romania 0.4¢ »  Poland 0.3¢ »  Belarus 11.1¢ »  Russia 1.1¢ »  Moldova 6.9¢    Using this phone card to call Ukraine will save you money!
  • Ukraine Phone Cards | Ukraine Calling Cards - Cheap Ukraine Phone Card to Ukraine 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

Get the details of your local embassy and/or consulates in advance and note their emergency numbers.
.If you can it is useful to have a bi-lingual acquaintance who can be called in an emergency or if you encounter difficulties.^ Leave the flowers you used to tend–who will watch them grow?

^ Ukraine Neighboring Countries: Romania 0.4¢ »  Poland 0.3¢ »  Belarus 11.1¢ »  Russia 1.1¢ »  Moldova 6.9¢    Using this phone card to call Ukraine will save you money!
  • Ukraine Phone Cards | Ukraine Calling Cards - Cheap Ukraine Phone Card to Ukraine 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

.If staying for any length of time it is advisable to get a local SIM card for your mobile for emergencies, and for cheaper local calls/texts.^ Calling Plans NEW! FREE Phone Cards NEW! UNLIMITED Calling Cards My Referral Affiliate Program My Rewards Program My Account Tell A Friend International Dialing Code Domestic Dialing Code How To Buy Prepaid Calling Card Resources (Links) Telecom News Check Your Country Local Time .
  • Ukraine Phone Cards | Ukraine Calling Cards - Cheap Ukraine Phone Card to Ukraine 25 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

These are widely available, cheap (often free) and easy to 'top-up'

Crime Issues

As in any other country, using common sense when traveling in Ukraine will minimize any chances of being victim of petty crime and theft. .Try not to publicize the fact that you're a foreigner or flaunt your wealth: by clothing or otherwise.^ That’s like trying to accuse somebody of stealing the air you breath in a parking lot out in public.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ LoL You trying to reinvent the law to fit your views saying is stealing when the law states otherwise is what then.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

With the exception of Kyiv, Odessa, and other large cities, foreign tourists are still quite rare. As in any other country, the possibility of petty theft exists. In Kyiv, make sure to guard your bags and person because pickpocketing is very common. .Guides have told tourists to watch certain people because they heard people say, "They look like Americans: let's follow them for a while and see what we can get."^ A Ukraine spade looks like a spade on card the shovels they have & break often & not to mention you have to fashion your own handle from stick.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Oct 03, 2009 at 14:35 by scurvydogg38 try this google keyword seach, looks like they index torrents to me .
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He heard her answer softly: "I would like, my son, to write you, But they made me a tomb so lofty That I may not rise from beneath it.

.Opposite, if you are arrested by police or other law enforcement, do your best to inform them that you're a foreign visitor.^ Imagine you are on your death bed…..what will be important to you will be the experiences of your life, Family & love you shared with others that will have most meaning.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ LoL You trying to reinvent the law to fit your views saying is stealing when the law states otherwise is what then.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

Not many police officials speak foreign languages freely, but many people are eager to assist in translation.
.Don't drink alcohol in a company of unknown people (which may be suggested more freely than in the West).^ The punishments for a single track are more than grand theft auto, drinking & driving, distributing controlled substances, and the list goes on.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But you need to understand some people have reasons for it, other than “I want it for free”.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

.You don't know how much are they going to drink (and convince you to drink with them) and what conflicts may arise after that.^ How may we know what day it is in Ukraine?

^ How you shall grieve Full well I know."

^ Fain Am I to tell you once again How like the clouds they seem to be.

.Also, many Ukrainians, known for a penchant for a good drink, can sometimes consume such an amount of vodka that would be considered lethal for the average beer-accustomed Westerner.^ "Drink your good health, if drink you would, But around my head misfortune flies.

Your Financial Security

Ukraine is a predominantly cash economy. The network of bank offices and ATMs (Bankomats) has grown quickly and are now readily available in all but the smallest villages. .Do check the security of the machine - it would be wise to use one that is obviously at a bank, rather than in another establishment.^ "Rather would I, Pan Kanovsky, fall and die, Than in arms I loathe, like yours, ever lie!"

.You can use your credit cards (mostly MasterCard & Visa) or cash traveler's cheques easily.^ A Ukraine spade looks like a spade on card the shovels they have & break often & not to mention you have to fashion your own handle from stick.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ There is no essential liberty in your basement when you use it for unlawful acts and with probable cause, the authorities are going in, just as they should.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

Credit and debit cards are accepted by the supermarkets. But avoid using your credit/debit cards for payments at establishments in smaller towns as retailers are not trained and controlled enough to ensure your card privacy. Instead, it is widely acceptable to pay cash. Locals (especially businesspeople) sometimes carry, and pay in cash amounts considered unusually large in other countries. Don't suspect criminal activity in every such case.
.Also, it is strongly recommended to avoid individual (street) currency exchangers as there are thieves among such exchangers, that may instead give you old, Soviet-era currency or also coupons that have been withdrawn from circulation since the mid 1990's.^ You may be strong Alpha yourself, father would not like you otherwise, but can work together easily since he is you father in-law.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ There across The street comes tiresome Hritz instead To eat my lovely cake and bread!

Use special exchange booths (widely available) and banks; also be wary of exchange rate tricks like 5.059/5.62 buy/sell instead of 5.59/5.62.
The Euro and US dollar are generally accepted as alternative forms of currency, particularly in tourist areas. They are also the most widely accepted convertible currency at the exchange booths, with British pounds in third place.

Racism Issues

The area around the U.S. embassy in Kiev is known for the provocateur groups targeting black people, and there have been reports of such attacks on Andriyivski, the main tourist street that runs from Mykhailivska down into Podil. Particulary in rural areas, having dark skin is often a source of prejudice. Antisemitism is still a lingering problem in some Eastern regions.
.Anecdotal experience is that there is some underlying racism in Ukraine, indeed much of the former Soviet Union.^ Most of the Ukraine Speak Russian being influenced by the days of Soviet Union & lost most of the Ancient Traditions.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Foreign tourists need some sort of buffer to have a good (and safe) experience in Ukraine.
  • Ukraine Old World Village Experience 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC belozer.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Ukraine local long form: none local short form: Ukrayina former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing :: Names 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: Reference]

Migrants from Middle and Central Asia and gypsies receive much closer and frequent attention from the militsiya (police). .Always have your passport (or a photocopy of the main pages if you're concerned about losing it or if you're staying in a hotel that is holding it) as foreigners are treated more favorably than others.^ You can keep trying to perpetuate the myth but there is no empirical evidence to support there being anything more than a statistically insignificant loss.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most destinations, including Ukraine, require that you have adequate un-used pages in your passport, allowing for any necessary stamps upon arrival and departure.
  • Ukraine Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Ukrainian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Make sure your passport has blank Visa pages.
  • Ukraine Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Ukrainian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is not to say that it is unsafe or threatening, but it is better to be forewarned of the realities.

Accident Hazards

While there's a lot of swimming and diving attractions throughout Ukraine, local water rescue is tremendously underfunded. .It is unlikely that you would be noticed while drowning, especially on the river.^ If you had drowned me in my bath, my Mother, I would not have exchanged my fate with any earthly king's.

Use only officially established beaches.
Ukraine has some of the worst statistics for road related deaths and injuries in the world - so act accordingly. Take care when crossing the roads; walk and drive defensively - be aware that traffic overtakes on both the inside and outside. .Sometimes you even need to take care when using the sidewalks, as in rush-hours the black, slab-sided Audi/BMW/Mercedes sometimes opt to avoid the traffic by using the wide sidewalks; pedestrians or not.^ (Srsly, WTF?) I didn’t even bother to see if you’d posted anything else, which I guess you did, who cares though.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I take just black eyebrows, Only eyes of blue; And upon your table– Tears I leave for you.

Owners/drivers of expensive cars have been known, at times, to be more careless of the safety of pedestrians. Drivers rarely grant priority to pedestrians crossing a road unless there are pedestrian lights. Always watch out for your safety.
Also be warned that pavements suffer in the same way as the roads in terms of collapsing infrastructure. Take care when walking, especially in the dark and away from the downtown areas of the main cities (a torch/flashlight is a useful possession) as the streets are poorly lit, as are most of the entries/stairwells to buildings, and the street and sidewalk surfaces are often dangerously pot-holed. Don't step on man-hole covers, as these can 'tip' dropping your leg into the hole with all the potential injuries!

Stay healthy

There is radiation contamination in the northeast from the accident at Chornobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. However the effect is negligible unless you permanently live in Chornobyl area itself. There are even tours to the town of Prypyat' which is the closest to the station. The town is famous for the haunting scenery of blocks of apartment buildings abandoned in 1986, now standing out amid the vegetation which spawned from years of neglect.
Do not drink tap water. Major reason of this is that water in many regions is disinfected using chlorine, so taste is horrible. Whenever possible buy bottled water, which is freely available and generally OK.
Ukraine has the highest adult HIV prevalence rate in Europe at nearly 1.5% or 1 in 66 adults. Be Safe.

Respect

Respect the fact that Ukraine is an independent nation. You may find that people are sensitive about being grouped as "Russians".
The Ukrainians have their own ethnicity, and do not like being seen as Russians.
.Ukraine is by no means a conservative country with respect to clothing, behaviour, overcharging you if they can get by with it, getting what you paid for (quality).^ There is no essential liberty in your basement when you use it for unlawful acts and with probable cause, the authorities are going in, just as they should.
  • Chased From Sweden, Pirate Bay Sails To Ukraine | TorrentFreak 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "There is no good news here; this that you see means blood!"

Raising the issue of Ukraine in the context as being part of The Soviet Union may be un welcomed by the locals. The Holodomor, like The Holocaust is a sensitive issue. It is probably best to not praise The Soviet Union or Joseph Stalin, Soviet leader during the time of WWII and The Holodomor.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.UKRAINE (" frontier"), the name formerly given to a district of European Russia, now comprising the governments of Kharkov, Kiev, Podolia and Poltava.^ OFFICIAL NAME: Ukraine CAPITAL: Kiev SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Multiparty Republic AREA: 603,700 Sq Km (233,100 Sq Mi) ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION: 51,736,000 .
  • Ukraine - Atlapedia Online 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.atlapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Central Ukraine is comprised of the following oblasts: Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Kiev (both the oblast and city), Kirovohrad, Poltava, Sumy and Zhytomyr.
  • Ukraine - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

^ At the turn of the century, nine guberniy (governments) of Russia approximately matched the eastern and central parts of present-day Ukraine: Chernigov, Kharkov, Kherson, Kiev, Podolia, Poltava, Taurida, Volhynia, and Yekaterinoslav (see Russia for more details).
  • Ukraine Regions 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.statoids.com [Source type: Reference]

The portion east of the Dnieper became Russian in 1686 and the portion west of that river in 1793.

<< Ukaz
Ulan >>

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
Location of Ukraine

Alternative forms

  • Ocraine (obsolete)
  • Ukrain (obsolete)
  • Ukrania, Ucrania (obsolete)

Etymology

1688 Ucrania, Ukrain, Ukraine, Ukrania, 1762 Ocraine. .Adaptation of Polish Ukraina, Russian Украина (Ukraína), or Ukrainian Україна (Ukraḯna), from the specific use, originally meaning “borderland” or “marches”.^ In the east, Polish and Russian governments in 1920 ordered Jews to live in a territory in the Ukraine known as The Pale of Settlement (originally created in 1792).
  • History of Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.dpcamps.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ultimate goal of Ukrainian nationalism was the independence of a Greater Ukraine, embracing Russian Ukraine, Polish Galicia, and Czechoslovakian Ruthenia.

^ Ukrainian Software Russian Software Polish Software Links .
  • Ukrainian Map (Road Map of Ukraine, Ukrain): Kyiv (Kiev), Lviv (Lvov), Odesa (Odessa), Kharkiv (Kharkov), Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk (Dniepropetrovsk) Luhansk (Lugansk). Travel to Ukraine, Ukrainian Translation Software, Flowers and Gifts to Ukraine, Ukrainian Woman. Kyyiv, L'vov, L'viv, Donetzk, Donets'k, Dnipropetrovsk, Luhans'k, Mykolayiv, Nikolayev, Kherson, Zaprizhzhya, Zaporozye, Zaporozhye, Simferopol, Crimea, Ternopol, Ternopil, Uzhgorod, Zakarpatska, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ivano-Frankovsk, Rivne, Rovno, Rovnoe, Lutsk, Luzk, Kirovohrad, Kirovograd, Cherkasy, Poltava, Sumy, Vinnytsya, Cherihiv, Chernigov, Zhytomyr, Khmelnytskyy. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ukrainianweb.com [Source type: General]
  • Flowers to Ukraine. Flower Delivery in Ukraine. Send Gifts to Ukrain - Baskets, Sweets, Roses - to Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkiv (Kharkov), Kyiv (Kiev), Odessa, Donetsk, Lugansk (Luhansk), Lviv (Lvov), Kherson, Nikolaev, Gorlovka, Kramatorsk, Makeevka. Ukrainia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ukrainianweb.com [Source type: General]

.From Old East Slavic оу (u), at) + краи (krai), edge).^ It comes from an Old Slavic root word "krai" which is a homonym for both the word "border" and for the word "land", hence the name "Ukraina" is often described as meaning "borderland".
  • Ukraine - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Details in Wikipedia: Name of Ukraine.^ The transliteration of the place names is being done according to the Romanization of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanization_of_Ukrainian .
  • History of Cities and Villages 20 September 2009 2:30 UTC www.torugg.org [Source type: General]

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Ukraine
Plural
-
Ukraine
.
  1. A country in Eastern Europe; was long part of the Russian Empire, then of the Soviet Union.^ Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe.
    • Ukraine Hotels and Resorts : Holiday Vacation Trips Europe 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukraine.tripholidays.com [Source type: News]
    • SALTO - Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.salto-youth.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Other countries in Eastern & Central Europe .

    ^ Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe .
    • Ukraine Travel Guide - Ukraine Interactive Map - iGuide 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC iguide.travel [Source type: News]

    Official name: Ukraine.

Usage notes

.Since the country's independence in 1991, style guides recommend Ukraine, without an article.^ Since Ukraine gained its independence in 1991 there has been a constant struggle that has divided the country.
  • Country Business Intelligence Reports: Ukraine 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.oxfordbusinessgroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ukraine country travel guide .
  • Ukraine country guide with photos and pictures 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukrainetrek.com [Source type: General]

^ Ukraine country guide with photos and pictures .
  • Ukraine country guide with photos and pictures 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC ukrainetrek.com [Source type: General]

Previously, the most common usage was the Ukraine.

Translations

See also

Related terms

Quotations


Danish

Proper noun

Ukraine
  1. Ukraine

French

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Ukraine f
  1. Ukraine

Related terms


German

Proper noun

Ukraine f.
  1. Ukraine

Simple English

Ukraine Україна
File:Flag of File:Lesser Coat of Arms of
Official flag Coat of Arms
National information
National anthem: Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy i slava i volya
About the people
Official languages: Ukrainian
Population: (# of people)
  - Total: 47,732,079 (ranked 24)
  - Density: 80 per km²
Geography / Places
[[Image:|250px|none|country map]] Here is the country on a map.
Capital city: Kiev
Largest city: Kiev
Area
  - Total: 603,700 km² (ranked 43)
  - Water:n/a km² (n/a%)
Politics / Government
Established: From the Soviet Union (24 August 1991)
Leaders: President Victor Yanukovych
Prime Minister Mykola Azarov
Economy / Money
Currency:
(Name of money)
Hryvnia (грн.)
International information
Time zone: +02:00
Telephone dialing code: 380
Internet domain: .UA

Ukraine (Україна, [ukrajina]) is a country in Europe. Russia is to the East of Ukraine, Belarus is to the North, Poland and Slovakia are to the West, Hungary, Romania, Moldova and self-proclaimed Transnistria are to the South West and the Black Sea is to the South.

Ukraine is a republic. The capital of Ukraine is Kiev (Київ — Kyiv [Kyjiv] by Ukrainian; Киев by Russian [Kijef]). It was a part of the Soviet Union from 1922 until 1991.

Contents

Official language

The official language of Ukraine is Ukrainian (українська мова, [ukrajin’s’ka mova] by Ukrainian), but 30 to 41 % use Russian in every day life.

Division of Ukraine

Ukraine is divided into 24 oblasts, Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Автономна Республіка Крим [avtonomna respublika krym] by Ukrainian) and two cities with special status — Kyiv and Sevastopol in Crimea.

The largest cities of Ukraine

The largest cities in Ukraine are:

History

While Ukraine was a part of the Soviet Union, millions of people starved to death in 1932 and 1933 in the Holodomor.

Presidents of Ukraine

The Presidents of the third republic are:

Modern History

In the Soviet epoch Ukraine was a Soviet Socialist Republic in Soviet Union. Independence day — 24 August 1991.

President elections: 1 December 1991, July 1994, October-November 1999, October-December 2004

Parliament elections: March 1994, March 1998, March 2002, March 2006, September 2007 (prematurely)

Constitution of Ukraine was adopted by Parliament (Verkhovna Rada) 28 July 1996 with changes 8 December 2004.

Orange Revolution

The political demonstrations in autumn-winter 2004 after falsification of Presidential elections that gathered millions of people all over the country. On November 26, 2004, Victor Yuschenko lost the Ukrainian presidential election (Viktor Yanukovych was declared winner). However, Yuschenko and his followers argued that the election had been corrupted. They argued that the election results had been falsified by the Ukrainian government, in support of the opposing candidate Victor Yanukovych. They organized political demonstrations in autumn-winter 2004 that gathered millions of people all over the country. They called the demonstrations The Orange Revolution. Former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko was an important ally of Victor Yuschenko during the demonstrations. The Constitutional Court of Ukraine ordered a second round of elections, which Yuschenko won.

krc:Украинаkoi:Украинаrue:Україна



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Ukraine, which are similar to those in the above article.