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Euro-Ukrainian relations
European Union   Ukraine
Map indicating location of European Union and Ukraine
     European Union      Ukraine

According to the European parliament, the EU is seeking an increasingly close relationship with Ukraine, going beyond cooperation, to gradual economic integration and deepening of political cooperation.[1] Ukraine is said to be a priority partner within the European Neighborhood Policy. A joint EU-Ukraine Action Plan was endorsed by the European Council on 21 February 2005. It was based on the Partnership and cooperation agreement of 1994 and provided, according to the European Commission, a comprehensive and ambitious framework for joint of work with Ukraine in all key areas of reform.[1] On June 16, 2009, a new practical instrument was adopted - the EU - Ukraine Association Agenda.[2]

Further enlargement of the EU

According to the Ukrainian authorities, the European Neighbourhood Policy is not an adequate political instrument, since joining the EU was one of principal objectives of all governments since 1994. After the Orange revolution of 2004 that brought to power Viktor Yushchenko, the EU commission was very slow to react: little progress was made to put the largest European country on a path to eventual membership.

On 22 July 2008, it was announced that a "Stabilisation and Association" -type agreement would be signed between Ukraine and the EU on 8 September 2008 in Evian[3]. Talks on a free trade agreement between Ukraine and the European Union started on 18 February 2008 between the Ukrainian government and the European Commissioner Peter Mandelson.[4]

Currently, three political factions in Ukraine advocate joining the EU and developing closer ties with EU. As of December 2008 44.7% of all Ukrainians find it necessary for Ukraine to enter the European Union and 35.2% see no necessity in Ukraine's entering the EU.[5]

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The Orange Revolution of late 2004 improved Ukraine's European prospects; the opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko hinted that he would press the EU for deeper ties and described a four-point plan: acknowledgment of Ukraine as a market economy, entry in the World Trade Organization, associate membership in the European Union, and, finally, full membership.[6] The Ukrainian government has also asked Brussels for a clearer indication of Ukraine's prospects for membership, saying that "The approved Action Plan reflects only the level of Ukraine-EU relations that we could have reached before the presidential elections in 2004."[7]

In 2004 56% of Ukrainians were for EU membership and 16% against.[8] In 2008 63% of Ukrainians said they were in favour of joining the bloc. Western Ukraine was found to be generally more enthusiastic than Eastern Ukraine, but in most regions a majority thought their lives would improve faster if their country were inside the EU.[9]

In September 2009 two Ukrainian diplomats, backed by a number of others, went on record arguing that Ukraine should submit a formal application for membership in 2010 in order to get a clearer message from Brussels. However there is little chance of a consensus for endorsement of the application and internally; a 2009 poll indicates only 20% support from the Ukrainian people for membership.[10]

The view from European Union countries

However, some in the EU are doubtful concerning Ukraine's potential for membership. In 2002, EU Enlargement Commissioner Günter Verheugen said that "a European perspective" for Ukraine does not necessarily mean membership within 10 to 20 years; however, it is a possibility.

On 13 January 2005, the European Parliament almost unanimously (467 votes to 19 in favor) passed a motion stating the wish of the European Parliament to establish closer ties with Ukraine in view of the possibility of EU membership.[11] Though there is still a long way to go before negotiations about EU membership can start, the European Commission has stated that future EU membership will not be ruled out. Yushchenko has responded to the apathetic mood of the Commission by stating that he intends to send an application for EU membership "in the near future" and that he intends to scrutinize Ukraine's relationship with the Commonwealth of Independent States in order to assure that EU integration is possible, and, if not, to make it possible. Several EU leaders have already stated strong support for closer economic ties with Ukraine, but have stopped short of direct support for such a bid.

On 21 March 2005, Polish Foreign Minister Adam Daniel Rotfeld noted that Poland will, in every way, promote Ukraine's desire to be integrated with the EU, achieve the status of a market-economy country, and join the World Trade Organization. He also said, "At the present moment, we should talk concrete steps in cooperation instead of engaging in empty talk about European integration". Three days later, a poll of the six largest EU nations conducted by a French research company showed that the European public would be more likely to accept Ukraine as a future EU member than any other country that is not currently an official candidate.

In October 2005, Commission president José Manuel Barroso said that the future of Ukraine is in the EU. On 9 November 2005, however, the European Commission in a new strategy paper suggested that the current enlargement agenda (Croatia and in the future the other ex-Yugoslavian countries) could block the possibility of a future accession of Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, and Moldova. Commissioner Olli Rehn said that the EU should avoid overexpansion, adding that the current enlargement agenda is already quite full.[12]

Attempts to change the French constitution to remove the compulsory referendum on all EU accessions after Croatia resulted in a new clause requiring compulsory referendums on the accession of all countries with a population of more than 5% of the EU's total population; this clause would apply to Ukraine and Turkey.[13] 5% of the EU's total population is currently (as of 2009) about 25 million people, so the EU population would need to almost double for Ukraine's 46 million people to make up less than 5%.

On 4 June 2009 some media outlets reported that Germany's Free Democratic Party openly stated in its programme that Ukraine has the right for the EU membership in the long term. This was the first major German political party to state this.[14]

Economic relations between Ukraine and the European Union

During the 1990s, Germany, the Netherlands and Italy remained major trading partners of Ukraine. According to Eurostat, between 2000 and 2007 EU trade in goods with Ukraine more than tripled in value: exports rose from 5.5 bn Euro to 22.4 bn, while imports increased from 4.8 bn Euro to 12.4 bn. Nevertheless, this increase didn't make Ukraine one of the EU's major trading partners. In 2007, Ukraine accounted for only 2% of EU exports and a mere 1% of European Union imports which is toward the bottom of the EU's top 20 trading partners (16th). According to the European commission paper, trade with Ukraine is dominated by manufactured goods. Nearly half of the EU exports to Ukraine in 2007 were machinery and vehicles and a further quarter were other manufactured articles. A quite similar structure can be seen in imports: unspecified manufactured articles accounted for two fifths followed by a crude metal for a further fifth. At the more detailed level, the main EU exports to Ukraine in 2007 were medicine, motor vehicles and mobile phones, while the main imports were iron and steel products, as well as sunflower seed oil, ferro-nickel, iron ores and oil. Among the EU27 Members States, Germany (5.9 bn Euro or 26% of EU exports) was the largest exporter, followed by Poland (4.1 bn or 18%). Italy (2.4 bn or 19%) was the largest importer followed by Bulgaria (1.6 bn or 13%) and Germany (1.3 bn or 11%). The largest surpluses in trade with Ukraine in 2007 were observed in Germany (+ 4.6 bn Euro) and Poland (+2.8 bn Euro) while Bulgaria scored the highest deficit ( -1.4 bn Euro) Source: European Commission/Eurostat paper issued before September 9 EU-Ukraine summit in Paris.

European perspective problem

Ukraine has always been seen as an important but uneasy to deal with political partner of the European Union. According to observers this is due to such factors as unwillingness of the EU to expand to the post-Soviet space, poor performance of Ukrainian economy, lack of democracy (during the 1990s) or internal instability (following the Orange revolution). Also, some experts notice the importance of the Russian factor in the Ukraine-EU relations.

The European project has not been completed as yet. It has not been completed because there is no full-fledged participation of Ukraine. We envy Poland, but we believe that Ukraine will be in the European Union.
PM Tymoshenko during celebrations of the 20th anniversary of the fall of communism in Poland (4 June 2009)[15]

Ukraine's desire to join the European institutions dates back to 1994 when the government declared that integration to the EU is the main foreign policy objective. In reality, little was done since Kiev had to take into account Russia, which remained its major trade partner and natural gas and fossil energy supplier.

The political dialogue between the EU and Ukraine started in 1994 when the Partnership and Cooperation agreement was signed. That document was focused on economic and social issues as well as on the necessity of improving public government and guaranteeing free press and civil rights. The framework set for political discussions was modest: yearly meeting between EU Troika and Ukrainian leadership and some inter ministerial consultations. The Partnership and Cooperation agreement of 1994 entered into force in 1998 and expired in 2008. None of top level meetings brought major changes to a reserved EU approach. Leaders focused chiefly on economic transition and human rights records as well as on issues connected to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its containment.

In March 2007, the EU and Ukraine started talks about a new "wider agreement," aiming at offering a legal framework for a closer economic cooperation and a better political dialogue. It was agreed that Ukraine and the EU would start a parallel negotiation concerning setting up a free trade area. Later in 2007 it was announced that this issue would be incorporated into the draft agreement as a separate chapter.

In our course, aimed at the full return of Ukraine into the united Europe, we do not need alternatives
President Yushchenko at the XVI Summit of Central and East European Heads of States (19 June 2009)[16]

Days before the summit, the Ministers of foreign affairs of Member States agreed during their meeting in Avignon (France) that association agreement to be signed with Ukraine will have nothing to do with "European association agreements", a general term to call pre-accession instruments the EU signed with many Eastern European States (from Poland to Romania in the beginning of 1990s, Western Balkans by the end of the 1990s). Media reported that the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany were strongly opposed to including "Ukraine is a European State" into EU legally binding documents. This was considered a failure of Kuchma-era politician Mr. Roman Shpek, then Ukrainian ambassador to Brussels. He was replaced by Mr. A. Veselovskyy, a more experienced diplomat.

The 12th EU - Ukraine annual summit of 9 September 2008 (Paris)

The Paris summit of September 2008 was a major event in the EU-Ukraine bilateral relations. It was hosted by Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France and president-in-office of the European Council. Also, Javier Solana, the High Representative of the EU for common foreign and security policy and some other high ranking officials from Brussels attended the event.

According to Ukraine's president, Viktor Youschenko, "the message he received from the EU was full of hope and promise"[17]. However, most observers noticed the lack of unity among Member States as far as Ukraine's future is concerned. In fact, the EU has pledged to tighten economic and political ties with Ukraine, while refusing to put the country on a path to join the bloc[18]

The only thing which was viewed as a substantial progress was the name of the new enhanced agreement replacing the PCA: an Association Agreement between the EU and Ukraine. However, the presidency-in-office emphasized that the issue of recognizing European aspiration of Ukraine was not on the agenda.

Also, Ukraine and the EU agreed on starting talks leading to complete lifting of visa requirements for Ukrainians. As far as economic and trade cooperation is concerned, leaders only expressed hope that the ongoing negotiation process on establishing a free-trade area between the EU and Ukraine could be finalised by the end of 2009[19].

However, the biggest disappointment for Ukraine was that Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg opposed any explicit wording of a European perspective of Ukraine. Once again, the European Commission formula for Ukraine - "the future cannot be prejudged" - was used to resist pro-European demands of the Ukrainian leadership to recognize the country's right to join the bloc in the future. As a result, the EU official position dating back to 2004 did not change, despite numerous arguments in favor of supporting Ukraine from Poland, the Baltic States, the UK, the Czech Republic and other Member States.

Some observers underline that the so-called "Old Europe" club insisted that it was not the right time to offer such a gift to Ukraine. They were chiefly Germany and Italy where respectively F.W. Steinmeyer and Silvio Berlusconi are viewed as strong lobbyists of Russian interests in the shared neighbourhood.

The official communiqué of the summit does however state that "Ukraine's future is in Europe". The new "Association agreement" would be composed of four parts, each covering a different area. These are political dialogue and foreign and international security policy; justice and internal security issues; economic and social cooperation; and the establishment of a comprehensive free-trade area.

The diplomatic efforts of the EU aiming to pacify victorious Russia had a direct impact on the EU-Ukraine summit, prompting a last-minute change in the location of the meeting from Evian to Paris to allow to the EU leaders more time to rest after their return from Moscow and Tbilisi.

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Documents adopted

Declaration on the Association agreement

In a 10 paragraph text, the EU acknowledges:

1) Ukraine's progress in implementing democratic reforms as evidenced in the parliamentary elections of September 2007 was successful.

2) Ukraine's progress in economic reforms, rewarded by its accession to the Word Trade Organization in early 2008.

3) the substantial progress in negotiating the new enhanced agreement since its beginning in March 2007 under the German presidency of the EU.

4) that Ukraine, as a European country, shares a common history and common values, with the countries of the European Union.

5) that the new enhanced agreement should be an Association agreement which leaves open the way for further progressive developments in EU-Ukraine relations.

6) Ukraine's European aspirations and welcomes its European choice.

7) that gradual convergence of Ukraine with the EU in political, economic and legal areas will contribute to further progress in bilateral relations.

8) that the Association agreement will renew the common institutional framework, facilitate the deepening of relations in all areas, strengthen political association and economic integration between the EU and Ukraine by means of reciprocal rights and obligations.

9) that the Association agreement will provide a solid basis for further convergence between the EU and Ukraine on foreign policy and security issues, including promoting respect for the principles of independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders.

10) that the establishment of a deep and comprehensive free trade area with large scale regulatory approximation of Ukraine to EU standards, will contribute to the gradual integration of Ukraine into the EU internal market.

11)that the current EU-Ukraine Action Plan is to be replaced by a new practical instrument by March 2009 with a view to preparing the implementation of the Association agreement.

12) that a visa dialogue with the long-time perspective of establishing a visa free regime should be launched; relevant conditions should be developed.

Declaration on cooperation

The document's title is "deepening EU-Ukraine cooperation" In the first chapter, the necessity to replace the Action plan by a new mechanism is underlined.

In the second chapter - Foreign and Security Policy - it was agreed on a further convergence in positions in regional and international issues within the existing framework of political consultations, Ukraine's alignments with the EU statements and positions, as well as Ukraine's participation in the EU's efforts on crisis management. The EU welcomed the establishment and encouraged further development of regular dialogue between military bodies, namely the EU Military Committee and the General Headquarters of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Also, it was stated that Ukraine and the European Defense Agency will establish close contacts to discuss military capability issues.

The third chapter - Cooperation in Energy sphere - underlines that the energy security needs of the EU and Ukraine are intrinsically linked. It says that the EU welcomed the imminent start of negotiations regarding the accession of Ukraine to the Energy Community treaty and the preparatory studies concerning the synchronous interconnection of the Ukrainian electricity networks with that of the Union for the Coordination of the Transmission of Energy.

In the fourth chapter - Justice, Liberty and Security - the implementation of agreements on facilitation on the issuance of visas and readmission was discussed. Also, the issues of local border traffic, joint border controls at the border crossing points on common borders were mentioned. Then, as far as visa free travel is concerned, the document points that the dialogue on the level of experts is expected to be launched before the end of 2008. The negotiation should be focused on some specific issues: document security, illegal migration, readmission, public order and security, external relations.

The fifth chapter - the Environment - shows that Ukraine has reconfirmed its commitments under Espoo, Aarus and other relevant multilateral environmental agreements.

The sixth chapter - Trade, Economy and Transport - covers Ukraine's future accession to the Charter for small enterprises. In the field of civil aviation, it welcomes the launch of Common Aviation Area negotiations which are expected to be concluded by the end of 2008. In this context adopting of a new Ukraine's Air Code is said to be compulsory. Also some other issues related to land transport infrastructure were mentioned.

In further two chapters - EURO2012 and Transnistria - the EU and Ukraine made some general statements, in particular concerning Border Assistance Mission at the Ukrainian-Moldovan border. The EU expressed the will to come back to the 5+2 format of negotiation on the Transnistria.

Declaration on Georgia

In a special declaration on Georgia, the EU and Ukraine expressed their concern over the armed conflict between Russia and Georgia. The text is a partial copy of the 1 September 2008 European Council extraordinary meeting. The EU and Ukraine confirmed the right of every nation to chose freely its foreign policy orientations and joining alliances. Besides backing the Six-points ceasefire and troop withdrawal plan, the EU and Ukraine called for a reinforced cooperation in the region and stressed that the conflict settlement should be achieved with the respect of territorial integrity of Georgia.

Paris summit facts and wording

On the visa free talks between the EU and Ukraine:

There won't be any road map for Ukraine [in this matter]. Such terms as "road map" apply to some other [partner] countries. We'd rather call it "conditions"... We succeeded in inserting [into the text] the word "conditions" [for a visa free travel]. A. Veselovsky, Ukrainian ambassador to the EU in an interview to UNIAN. [Balkan States are on a path of a visa free travel and they all got from the EU a set of specific conditions called a road map]

On the nature of the Association agreement: The Association agreement between the EU and Ukraine "neither closes any roads, nor opens them". (N. Sarkozy)

On the community of values and common history: "We have a common history and we share common values" (N. Sarkozy)

On the exceptional relationship: "We will build up our Eastern partnership in the region where Ukraine will be granted an exceptional relationship" (N. Sarkozy)

On the personal role of the president-in-office: "I speak in the name of the EU, in the name of unity. I was not allowed by the Union to make any other declarations" (N. Sarkozy on the "European perspective" issue)

On the cooperation on the preparations for 2012 European football championship: According to the final communiqué of the summit, Ukraine and the EU agreed to cooperate "within the framework of existing cooperation mechanisms" on the issue of EURO 2012. (UNIAN, EU news, 1.09.2008)

On the necessity of setting up of common border checkpoints: "The leaders call Ukraine and neighbouring Member States to consider the possibility of establishing of a common border control and setting up of common border checkpoints. This could improve and facilitate transborder traffic and commerce, respecting security standards and environmental legislation". (UNIAN, EU news, 1 September 2008)

On the Transnistria issue: "The sides voiced their mutual interest in resuming of talks in the format 5+2 in order to accelerate the conflict resolution" (UNIAN, EU news, 1 September 2008)

Post summit developments

On 15 September, the Ukrainian government announced that the negotiations on various chapter of the Association agreement are continuing with political chapter being provisionally closed and the fourth round on free trade being scheduled for October 2008 . However, according to Deputy Prime Minister H. Nemyria, due to slow dynamics, the chapter of free trade is expected to be concluded by the end of 2009. The Ukrainian side expressed that it would not agree to sign the document before the free trade settlement.

Earlier, in an interview to the BBC, H. Nemyria stressed that some political forces in Ukraine wanted to use recent events in the Caucasus to achieve their unspecified goals. He reiterated the official stand of Ukraine's government on Georgia which is based on full respect of this country's national sovereignty within its internationally recognized borders. The Deputy Prime Minister drew attention to the fact that Ukraine had been among the first countries to provide for humanitarian and financial aid at the very beginning of the August 2008 crisis.

On 2 October 2008 Ukraine President Yushchenko announced that the Association agreement between the country and the EU would be signed "within six-eight months". On that day he met with the King of Sweden Charles XVI Gustav who paid a State visit to Kiev. According to Yushchenko "the agreement is half-ready, and he hopes that there will be a possibility to finalize and sign it under Swedish presidency in the EU". He also welcomed the "European" initiative of Eastern European partnership suggested earlier by Swedish and Polish Foreign Ministers.

On 20-24 October 2008 the EU and Ukraine held a negotiation round on the free trade area chapter of the Association agreement. According to some Ukrainian media, the "EU promised to liberalize trade relations". Ukraine's representative told that one must not "focus too much" on negotiation since there is a lot to be done by Ukrainian government to meet certain criteria. He also said, that "soon, the Balkans will enter into the European trade space and therefore Ukraine might lose these markets". That's why Ukraine has to move forward as least as soon as Balkans. The EU did not comment on that.

On October 29, 2008 the EU Commissioner Jacques Barrot and Ukrainian officials met in Brussels to launch negotiations on visa-free travel. Kiev has been asking for a "road map" to visa lifting including travel document security, irregular migration, public order and foreign relations. But the EU justice commissioner avoided to give any specific dates. Moreover, Ukrainian side argues that 2007 visa facilitation agreement is not fully implemented by Member States. The European Commission representative was quoted as saying that Brussels is ready to impose sanctions against those who do not respect the agreement. Spanish, Dutch, German and Belgian Embassies were cited among most active rules breachers. Making visa processing lengthy and expensive is one of major agreement violation. On 28 October 2008 Belgian PM Yves Leterme told that Ukrainians need to avoid middlemen in visa procedures if they want to reduce their cost. The problem is that some consulates, including Belgian, oblige visa seekers to deal with a middleman.

According to Ukrainian President Yushchenko some embassies of EU countries often require Ukrainians to present documents, which had not been foreseen in the agreement on simplification of visa regulations. Around five per cent of Ukrainians willing to travel to the EU are denied visas, which, according to Yushchenko "does not meet the standards of our agreements with the EU".[20]

In September 2009, high-ranking Ukrainian diplomats proposed that Ukraine should apply for EU membership after the presidential election in January 2010, around March 2010, which would mean that the official response to the application would likely take place in early 2011 during the Polish presidency of the European Union.[21]

On October 5, 2009 Head of the Verkhovna Rada committee for European integration Borys Tarasyuk commented "the EU see the implementation of a free visa regime for Ukrainians travelling to EU countries only as a long-term prospect". Ukrainian politicians continue to insist that the implementation of that free visa regime should take place by 2012, when the European Football Championship will be held in Ukraine and Poland. According to Tarasyuk, the main obstacles to the implementation of a free visa regime between Ukraine and EU is the fact that Ukraine "hasn't finished its work on legislation concerning forming a demographic [database], which then could become a good basis for issuing biometric passports" and the fact that there is no general database on the issuing of foreign passports to Ukrainian citizens. According to Tarasyuk the EU fear that this grants the opportunity for mass falsification.[22]

On December 16, 2009 the European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso stated "our Ukrainian friends need to do more if they want us to help them more." He also stated that "enlargement is not possible in the current situation."[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b [1]
  2. ^ http://www.rac.org.ua/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/enp/EU_Ukraine_Association_Agenda.pdf
  3. ^ New enhanced agreement between Ukraine and EU called “Agreement on Association”
  4. ^ EU launches talks on free trade agreement with Ukraine - International Herald Tribune
  5. ^ Nearly 45 percent of Ukrainians say European Union membership essential, Kyiv Post (29 December 2008)
  6. ^ EUobserver article (subscription only)
  7. ^ EUobserver article (subscription only)
  8. ^ ELECTION BRIEFING NO. 16 - EUROPE AND THE UKRAINIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 2004, European Parties Elections and Referendums Network/University of Sussex
  9. ^ Ukrainians dream of EU future, BBC News (January 28, 2008)
  10. ^ Rettman, ANdrew (17 September 2009) Ukraine diplomats take a risk on EU application, EUobserver
  11. ^ European Parliament resolution on the results of the Ukraine elections (13 January 2005)
  12. ^ EUobserver article (subscription only)
  13. ^ EurActiv.com - French Parliament strikes blow to Turkish EU bid | EU - European Information on Enlargement & Neighbours
  14. ^ Підтримка з Берліна: німецькі ліберали за вступ України в ЄС (Ukrainian)
  15. ^ Tymoshenko: European project not finished because Ukraine is not there, UNIAN (4 June 2009)
  16. ^ Ukraine should be an integral part of Europe - President Yushchenko, UNIAN (19 June 2009)
  17. ^ Reuters, 9 September 2009
  18. ^ www.bloomberg.org, 9 September 2009, article of Hélène Fouquet and James
  19. ^ www.bloomberg.com, 9 September 2009
  20. ^ President requests to push improvement of Ukraine-EU visa relations, UNIAN (12 June 2009)
  21. ^ http://euobserver.com/9/28676
  22. ^ Tarasiuk: European Union not to implement free visa regime with Ukraine in near future, Kyiv Post (October 5, 2009)
  23. ^ Barroso: Ukrainian friends of Europe should do more if they hope for assistance, Kyiv Post (December 16, 2009)

Literature

  • Anatolij Ponomarenko: "Die europäische Orientierung der Ukraine: Dekret des Präsidenten der Ukraine über die Strategie der Integration der Ukraine in die Europäische Union; Partnerschaftsabkommen zwischen der EU und der Ukraine". Zentrum für Europäische Integrationsforschung, Bonn 1999. 42 S. ISBN 3-933307-39-2 (German)
  • Dezseri, Kalman [ed.]: Economic and political relations after the EU enlargement: the Visegrad countries and Russia, Ukraine, Belarius and Moldov, Budapest 2004.
  • Wolfgang Tiede and Sabina Krispenz: "Die Ukraine auf dem Weg in die Europäische Union?" ("Ukraine on the way to the European Union?" in Osteuropa-Recht (OER)) 2008 (German Law Journal), vol. 6, pp. 417-426.
  • Wolfgang Tiede and Christina Schröder: Die Ukraine auf dem Weg in die NATO? ("Ukraine on the Way to NATO Membership?"), in Osteuropa-Recht (OER)) 2009 (German Law Journal), vol. 3, pp. 294-304 (German).
  • Andreas Umland: „Europa und die ukrainische Misere: Weil die EU dem Land eine Mitgliedschaft gar nicht in Aussicht stellt, trägt sie zum Chaos in Kiew bei. Ein historischer Fehler", in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, 1 November 2009, p. 15 (German).
  • Wolfgang Tiede und Jakob Schirmer: „Die Östliche Partnerschaft der EU, in WeltTrends (Journal for International Politics and Comparative Studies), vol. 71 (March/April 2010) (German).

External links


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