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Ulysses  
UlyssesCover.jpg
1922 first edition cover
Author James Joyce
Language English
Genre(s) Novel, Modernism, Stream of consciousness
Publisher Sylvia Beach
Publication date February 2, 1922
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)
Pages 644–1,000, depending on edition
ISBN 0-679-72276-9
OCLC Number 20827511
Dewey Decimal 823/.912 20
LC Classification PR6019.O9 U4 1990
Preceded by A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
(1916)
Followed by Finnegans Wake
(1939)

Ulysses is a novel by Irish author James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. One of the most important works of Modernist literature,[1] it has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement".[2]

Ulysses chronicles the passage of Leopold Bloom through Dublin during an ordinary day, June 16, 1904 (the day of Joyce's first date with his wife, Nora Barnacle[3]). The title parallels and alludes to Odysseus (Latinised into Ulysses), the hero of Homer's Odyssey (e.g., the correspondences between Leopold Bloom and Odysseus, Molly Bloom and Penelope, and Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus). Joyce fans worldwide now celebrate June 16 as Bloomsday.

Ulysses totals about 265,000 words from a vocabulary of 30,030 words (including proper names, plurals and various verb tenses)[4], divided into 18 "episodes". Since publication, the book attracted controversy and scrutiny, ranging from early obscenity trials to protracted textual "Joyce Wars." Ulysses' stream-of-consciousness technique, careful structuring, and experimental prose—full of puns, parodies, and allusions, as well as its rich characterisations and broad humour, made the book a highly regarded novel in the Modernist pantheon. In 1999, the Modern Library ranked Ulysses first on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.[5]

Contents

Background

Joyce first encountered Odysseus in Charles Lamb's Adventures of Ulysses—an adaptation of the Odyssey for children, which seemed to establish the Roman name in Joyce's mind. At school he wrote an essay on Ulysses as his "favourite hero".[6] Joyce told Frank Budgen that he considered Ulysses (which he pronounced "Oolissays"[7]) the only all-round character in literature.[8] He thought about calling Dubliners by the name Ulysses in Dublin,[9] but the idea grew from a story in Dubliners in 1906, to a "short book" in 1907,[10] to the vast novel which he began writing in 1914.

Structure

Joyce divided Ulysses into eighteen chapters or "episodes". At first glance much of the book may appear unstructured and chaotic; Joyce once said that he had "put in so many enigmas and puzzles that it will keep the professors busy for centuries arguing over what I meant", which would earn the novel "immortality".[11] The two schemata which Stuart Gilbert and Herbert Gorman released after publication to defend Joyce from the obscenity accusations made the links to the Odyssey clear, and also explained the work's internal structure.

Every episode of Ulysses has a theme, technique, and correspondences between its characters and those of the Odyssey. The original text did not include these episode titles and the correspondences; instead, they originate from the Linati and Gilbert schema. Joyce referred to the episodes by their Homeric titles in his letters. He took the titles from Victor Bérard's two-volume Les Phéniciens et l’Odyssée which he consulted in 1918 in the Zentralbibliothek of Zürich. Bérard's book served as the source of Joyce's idiosyncratic rendering of some of the Homeric titles: 'Nausikaa', the 'Telemachia'.

Part I: The Telemachiad

Episode 1, Telemachus

It is 8 a.m. on the morning of 16 June 1904 (the day Joyce first formally started courting Nora Barnacle).[12] Buck Mulligan (a callous, verbally aggressive and boisterous medical student) calls Stephen Dedalus (a young writer first encountered in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man) up to the roof of the Martello tower, Sandycove, overlooking Dublin bay. Stephen does not respond to Mulligan's aggressive and intrusive jokes. Stephen is focused on, and initially disdainful toward Haines (a nondescript, anti-Semitic Englishman from Oxford), whom Buck Mulligan invited around. Stephen's annoyance stems from the intrusion, as he was disturbed the previous night by Haines ranting in his sleep.

Mulligan and Dedalus proceed to look out over the sea, and Stephen is reminded of his deceased mother, for whom he is visibly still in mourning. This, and Stephen's refusal to pray at his mother's deathbed, remains an issue of some contention between the two. Stephen reveals that he once overheard Buck referring to his mother as "beastly dead." When faced with this, Buck makes a brief attempt to defend himself, but gives up shortly. He shaves and prepares breakfast, then all three eat. Buck then departs, and sings to himself, unknowingly, the song that Stephen once sang to his dying mother.

Later, Haines and Stephen walk down to the water, where Buck and his companions are swimming. We here learn that Buck has an absent friend from Westmeath who has a yet-unnamed girlfriend. Stephen declares his intention to depart, and Buck demands the house key and to be lent money. Departing, Stephen declares that he will not return to the tower tonight, citing Buck as a "Usurper."

Episode 2, Nestor

Stephen is teaching a history class on the victories of Pyrrhus of Epirus. The class is visibly bored, unconcerned with the subject and not disciplined. Before seeing the boys out of the classroom, Stephen tells the students a cryptic and impenetrable riddle about a fox burying his grandmother under a bush, which falls flat. One student, Sargent, stays behind so that Stephen can show him how to do a set of arithmetic exercises. Stephen indulges him, but looks at the aesthetically unappealing Sargent and tries to imagine Sargent's mother's love for him. Afterwards, Stephen visits the anti-Semitic school headmaster, Mr. Deasy, from whom he collects his pay and a letter to take to a newspaper office for printing. Deasy lectures Stephen on the satisfaction of money earned and the importance of efficient money management. This scene is the source of some of the novel's most famous lines, such as Dedalus's claim that "history is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake" and that God is "a shout in the street." He rejects Deasy's biased recollection of past events, which he uses to justify his prejudices. At the end of this episode, Deasy makes another incendiary remark against the Jews, stating that Ireland has never extensively persecuted the Jews because they were never let in to the country.

Episode 3, Proteus

In this chapter, characterized by its stream of consciousness narrative style, the action is presented to the reader through the prism of Stephen's interior monologue. He finds his way to Sandymount Strand and mopes around for some time, mulling various philosophical concepts, his family, his life as a student in Paris, and again, his mother's death. As Stephen reminisces and ponders, he lies down among some rocks, watches a couple and a dog, writes some poetry ideas, picks his nose, and urinates behind a rock.

Part II: The Odyssey

Episode 4, Calypso

The narrative shifts abruptly. The time is again 8 a.m., but the action has moved across the city to Eccles Street and to the second protagonist of the book, Leopold Bloom, a part-Jewish advertising canvasser. Bloom lives at No. 7 Eccles Street and is preparing breakfast at the same time as Mulligan in the tower. He walks to a butcher to purchase a pork kidney for his breakfast and returns to finish his cooking. He brings breakfast and the mail to his wife Molly, whose given name is Marion. He reads his own letter from their daughter, Milly. The chapter closes with his plodding to the outhouse and defecating.

Episode 5, The Lotus Eaters

Bloom now begins his day proper, furtively making his way to a post office (by an intentionally indirect route), where he receives a love letter from one 'Martha Clifford' addressed to his pseudonym, 'Henry Flower'. He buys a newspaper and meets an acquaintance, C. P. M'Coy; while they chat, Bloom attempts to ogle a woman wearing stockings, but is prevented by a passing tram. Next, he reads the letter and tears up the envelope in an alley. He makes his exit via a Catholic church service and thinks about what is going on inside it. He goes to a chemist, then meets another acquaintance, Bantam Lyons, to whom he unintentionally gives a racing tip for the horse Throwaway. Finally, Bloom visits the baths to wash for the rest of the day.

Episode 6, Hades

The episode begins with Bloom entering a funeral carriage with three others, including Stephen's father Simon Dedalus. They make their way to Paddy Dignam's funeral at Glasnevin cemetery, passing Stephen and making small talk on the way. Bloom scans his newspaper. There is discussion of various deaths, forms of death, and the tram-line before arriving and getting out. They enter the chapel into the service and subsequently leave with the coffin cart. Bloom sees a mysterious man wearing a mackintosh during the burial and reflects upon various subjects. Leaving, he points out a dent in a friend's hat.

Episode 7, Aeolus

At the newspaper office, Bloom attempts to place an ad, while Stephen arrives bringing Deasy's letter about 'foot and mouth' disease. The two do not meet. Bloom notices a worker typesetting an article in backwards print, and this reminds him of his father reading the Haggadah of Pesach (written in Hebrew, read from right to left). The episode is broken up into short sections by newspaper-style headlines, and is characterized by a deliberate abundance of rhetorical figures and devices. Lenehan appears in this section.

Episode 8, The Laestrygonians

Most of this episode is Bloom's stream-of-consciousness as he walks down the street, hungry, his thoughts peppered with allusions to food. During his walk, Bloom meets a former girlfriend, Josie Breen. Her husband, Mr. Breen, received an anonymous postcard in the morning, with "u.p.: up" written on it. Mr. Breen is subsequently attempting to respond with legal action.

Bloom then enters Burton's restaurant. Repulsed by the sight of people eating like animals, he makes a hasty exit heading instead to Davy Byrne's. Inside, Bloom is greeted by Nosey Flynn. Bloom consumes a gorgonzola cheese sandwich and a glass of burgundy. When Bloom leaves the restaurant, Nosey Flynn talks to other patrons about Bloom's character.

Bloom goes to the National Museum to look at the statue of Venus, and, in particular, her bottom. Bloom suddenly spots Boylan across the street. Panicked, he sharply turns into the gates of the National Museum.

Episode 9, Scylla and Charybdis

At the National Library, Stephen explains to various scholars his biographical theory of the works of Shakespeare, especially Hamlet, which he claims are based largely on the posited adultery of Shakespeare's wife, Anne Hathaway. Bloom enters the National Library to look up the Keyes ad. He only encounters Stephen briefly and unknowingly at the end of the episode. Buck Mulligan does see Bloom, however, and jokingly warns Stephen of Bloom's possible homosexuality.

Episode 10, The Wandering Rocks

In this episode, nineteen short vignettes depict the wanderings of various characters, major and minor, through the streets of Dublin. The chapter ends with an account of the cavalcade of the Lord Lieutenant, William Humble, Earl of Dudley, through the streets, where it is encountered by the various characters we have met in the episode. Neither Stephen nor Bloom sees the Viceroy's procession.

This chapter is unique in that it draws Homeric parallels to an incident that is described third-hand in the Odyssey. That is to say, the Wandering Rocks are spoken about in the Odyssey, but never experienced by its protagonist, Odysseus. This is perhaps why Joyce disembodies the narrative from the three main characters.

Episode 11, The Sirens

In this episode, dominated by motifs of music, Bloom has dinner with Stephen's uncle Richie Goulding at the Ormond Hotel, while Molly's lover, Blazes Boylan, proceeds to his rendezvous with her. While dining, Bloom watches the seductive barmaids Lydia Douce and Mina Kennedy and listens to the singing of Simon Dedalus and others.

Episode 12, The Cyclops

This chapter is narrated largely by an unnamed denizen of Dublin, although his style of speech is heavily modelled on John Joyce, Joyce's father. He runs into Hynes and they enter a pub for a drink. At the pub, they meet Alf Bergan and a character referred to only as the 'Citizen', who is largely modeled on Michael Cusack, founder of the Gaelic Athletic Association. Eventually, Leopold Bloom enters waiting to meet Martin Cunningham. The citizen is discovered to be a fierce Fenian and begins berating Bloom. The atmosphere quickly becomes anti-Semitic and Bloom escapes upon Cunningham's arrival. The chapter is marked by extended digressions made outside the voice of the unnamed narrator: hyperboles of legal jargon, Biblical passages, Irish mythology, etc., with lists of names often extending half a page. The episode title Cyclops refers both to the narrator, who is often quoted with 'says I', and to the Citizen, who fails to see the folly of his narrow-minded thinking.

Episode 13, Nausicaa

Three young women, Cissy Caffrey, Edy Boardman, and Gerty MacDowell, have come to the strand to watch a display of fireworks. The chapter opens by following Gerty's stream of consciousness as she daydreams of finding someone to love her. Eventually, Bloom appears and they begin to flirt from a distance. The girls are about to leave when the fireworks start. Cissy and Edy leave to get a better view, but Gerty remains. Bloom has made his way to the rocks of Sandymount Strand where he encounters the young beauty. Bloom becomes the romantic stranger to Gerty by watching her from a distance. She sees Bloom's troubled face and ponders over what terrible thing may have cast him out upon this rocky shore. It is here that Gerty becomes like the Virgin Mary, the beacon "to the storm-tossed heart of man" (346). Her romantic notions of marriage and passion become more abundant as she views Bloom.

Gerty becomes anxious for her friends to leave and inquires of the time as a subtle hint that they should be getting on their way. One of the girls approaches Bloom, asking for the time. Bloom discovers that his watch has stopped at half past four. Later the reader discovers that this is probably the time at which Bloom's wife, Molly, was committing adultery with Blazes Boylan. Bloom does not strike up a conversation with the girl but rather keeps his focus on Gerty who is now fully aware of her admirer. The girls decide that it is late and begin to leave. As they are packing up the children's things, Gerty begins to entice the stranger through the exploitation of her body.

At about this time the benediction at the church has drawn to a close and fireworks are set off. Everyone runs to see the fireworks except for Gerty and Bloom. Gerty, filled with passion, is enticed by the fireworks as she tilts her body backwards to see. As she moves back on the rocks she deliberately exposes herself fully to Bloom. At this moment a long Roman candle is shot off into the air. Gerty sees the long rocket as it goes "higher and higher" (Joyce 366) and leans back even further, exposing even more to Bloom. Gerty's sexual excitement grows as she is "trembling in every limb" (Joyce 366). The imagery of the long rocket corresponds with Bloom's manhood as he is masturbating to Gerty's display in time with the rocket. Finally the two reach their climax as the Roman candle explodes in the air and from it gushes out "a stream of rain gold hair threads" (Joyce 367).

Gerty then leaves, revealing herself to be lame, and leaving Bloom meditating on the beach. Gerty's display of her body is inset with allusions to the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament taking place across the street from the strand in a Catholic church. This is usually read as Joyce's playful punning on the ceremonial display of the 'Body of Christ' in the form of the Host coupled with Gerty's displaying her own body to Bloom (who is clearly acting out his own version of an Adoration). Gerty's final revelation of being 'lame' is also read as Joyce's opinion of the state of the Roman Catholic Church, especially in Ireland. The first half of the episode is marked by an excessively sentimental style, and it is unclear how much of Gerty's monologue is actually imagined by Bloom.

The prose style of this chapter parodies the cheap romantic magazines for women or feminine novlettes, popular in the early 20th Century; as precursors to 'chick-lit', the magazine prose-style was over-written and florid and so in the first half of this chapter, the Joycian prose is full of cliches and hackneyed phrases.

Episode 14, The Oxen of the Sun

Bloom visits the maternity hospital where Mina Purefoy is giving birth, and finally meets Stephen, who is drinking with Buck Mulligan and his medical student friends. They continue on to a pub to continue drinking, following the successful birth of the baby. This chapter is remarkable for Joyce's wordplay, which seems to recapitulate the entire history of the English language to describe a scene in an obstetrics hospital, from the Carmen Arvale

Deshil Holles Eamus. Deshil Holles Eamus. Deshil Holles Eamus.

to something resembling alliterative Anglo-Saxon poetry

In ward wary the watcher hearing come that man mildhearted eft rising with swire ywimpled to him her gate wide undid. Lo, levin leaping lightens in eyeblink Ireland's westward welkin. Full she dread that God the Wreaker all mankind would fordo with water for his evil sins. Christ's rood made she on breastbone and him drew that he would rathe infare under her thatch. That man her will wotting worthful went in Horne's house.

and on through skillful parodies of, among others, Malory, the King James Bible, Bunyan, Pepys, Defoe, Addison and Steele, Sterne, Goldsmith, Junius, Gibbon, Lamb, De Quincey, Landor, Dickens, Newman, Ruskin and Carlyle, before concluding in a haze of nearly incomprehensible slang, bringing to mind American English employed in advertising. Indeed, Joyce organized this chapter as three sections divided into nine total subsections, representing the trimesters and months of gestation.

This extremely complex chapter can be further broken down structurally. It consists of sixty paragraphs. The first ten paragraphs are parodies of Latin and Anglo-Saxon language, the two major predecessors to the English language, and can be seen as intercourse and conception. The next forty paragraphs, representing the 40 weeks of gestation in human embryonic development, begin with Middle English satires; they move chronologically forward through the various styles mentioned above. At the end of the fiftieth paragraph, the baby in the maternity hospital is born, and the final ten paragraphs are the child, combining all the different forms of slang and street English that were spoken in Dublin in the early part of the 20th century.

Episode 15, Circe

Episode Fifteen takes the form of a play script with stage directions and descriptions, with characters’ names appearing above their dialogue. The majority of the action of Episode Fifteen occurs only as drunken hallucinations.

The episode opens on Mabbot Street, or what Joyce––following journalistic practice––calls "Nighttown", one of the entranceways to Dublin's red-light district. Stephen and Lynch walk toward a brothel. Bloom attempts to follow Stephen and Lynch to Nighttown, but soon loses them. Here, the episode's first hallucination begins, in which Bloom is confronted by family members, such as Molly Bloom and his parents, and also by Gerty MacDowell, in regards to various offences.

Awakening from this hallucination, Bloom feeds a dog. This act leads onto another hallucination in which Bloom is questioned by a pair of Night-Wardens. From here, Bloom then imagines facing trial, accused of a variety of outlandish crimes, including forgery and bigamy, possibly alluding to a subconscious guilt over his marital duplicity. Bloom is accused and testified against by recognisable figures like Myles Crawford, and Paddy Dignam. Mary Driscoll states that Bloom made inappropriate advances towards her when she was under his employment. Shaking off this fantasy, Bloom is approached by Zoe Higgins, a local prostitute. Zoe tells him Stephen is currently in the brothel that she works in. Another fantasy ensues, in which Bloom gives a campaign speech. Attracting the attention and subsequent admiration of both the Irish and Zionists, and is subsequently hailed as the leader of "Bloomusalem." The hallucination turns more surreal and unpredictable when Bloom is accused of yet more outlandish offenses and for having rumoured sexual abnormalities. Bloom is then declared a woman, and spontaneously gives birth to eight children. Zoe then reappears, signalling the end of the hallucination, with only a second having actually passed since she last spoke.

After Bloom is led inside the brothel and sees Stephen, another hallucination begins with the arrival of Lipoti Virag, who lectures Bloom about sexual attitudes and conduct. Then, the owner of the brothel, Bella Cohen, appears and soon turns into a male version of herself "Bello," who proceeds to dominate and humiliate Bloom, who is conversely referred to in the feminine. In this hallucination, Bloom proceeds to "die". After his "death" he converses with the nymph from the picture in the Blooms’ bedroom, who berates Bloom for his fallibility. Bloom, regaining a degree of triumphant confidence, stands up to the nymph, questioning her own sexual attitudes.

Bloom then returns to reality, finding Bella Cohen before him. Bloom takes his lucky potato from Zoe and Stephen pays for the services received, in his drunken state, paying far more than necessary. Seeing this, Bloom confiscates the rest of Stephen's money. Another hallucination starts, involving Bloom watching Boylan and Molly fornicate. Returning to consciousness, Bloom finds Stephen dancing to the pianola. Another hallucination then starts, this time Stephen's, in which the rotting cadaver of his mother rises up from the floor to confront him, a manifestation of his own guilt and lingering uncertainty over his role in his mother's death. Terrified, Stephen uses his walking stick to smash a chandelier. Bloom quickly repays Bella, who demands more than is fair for the damage, then runs after Stephen, worried for his safety.

Bloom quickly finds Stephen engaged in a heated argument, and Dedalus gets punched and knocked out. The police arrive and the crowd disperses. Bloom tends on and checks Stephen, as an apparition of Rudy, Bloom's deceased child, appears, underlining the parental feelings Leopold has built up toward the younger Stephen.

This episode is the longest in the novel yet occurs within a rather short time-frame. Molly's letter from Boylan and Bloom's from Martha are reworked into a series of seductive letters ending in a trial. Bloom's sexual infidelities, beginning with Lotty Clarke and ending with Gerty McDowell, are relived and reconciled.

Part III: The Nostos

Episode 16, Eumaeus

Bloom and Stephen go to the cabman's shelter to restore the latter to his senses, where they encounter a drunken sailor, D. B. Murphy. Leaving the shelter with Bloom, Stephen meets Corley, familiar to readers of the Dubliners story "Two Gallants".

Episode 17, Ithaca

Bloom returns home with Stephen, who refuses Bloom's offer of a place to stay for the night. The two men urinate in the backyard beside the sleeping dog, Stephen departs and wanders off into the night,[13] and Bloom goes to bed. The episode is written in the form of a rigidly organized catechism, and was reportedly Joyce's favourite episode in the novel.

Episode 18, Penelope

The final episode, which also uses the stream of consciousness technique seen in Episode 3, consists of Molly Bloom's Soliloquy: eight enormous sentences (without punctuation) written from the viewpoint of Bloom's wife.

The first sentence begins with Molly expressing annoyance and surprise that Bloom has asked her to serve him breakfast in bed, as it is he that usually does this for her, (such as in the fourth episode, Calypso). She then guesses that Bloom has had an orgasm today, and is reminded of his past possible infidelity with other women. In turn, she thinks of her afternoon spent with Boylan, whose conventional and masculine lovemaking technique provided a welcome change after a decade of celibacy and Bloom's strange lovemaking techniques. Yet, Molly feels Bloom is more virile than Boylan and remembers how handsome Bloom was when they were courting. Reminded of Josie's and the mentally unstable Denis Breen's marriage, Molly feels that she and Bloom are lucky, despite their current marital difficulties.

In Molly's second sentence, she reflects upon her previous and current admirers: Boylan; the tenor Bartell D’Arcy, whom she was kissed by in a church; Lt. Gardner, who died during the Boer War. Molly then thinks about her husband's underwear fetish. She then thinks about seeing Boylan on Monday and their upcoming trip to Belfast alone. She then thinks of her career: concert singing, and Bloom's help. Thinking about her future meetings with Boylan, Molly decides that she must lose weight. She thinks about how Bloom should quit his advertising job at Freeman and get better paid work elsewhere, like in an office. But then remembers having to plead with Mr. Cuffe, a previous employer, to get Bloom's job back after he was fired. Cuffe refused.

Moving on to the third sentence, Molly thinks of the time Bloom suggested she pose naked in exchange for money, and of pornographic imagery, which she associates with the nymph painting that Bloom used to explain the concept of metempsychosis earlier this morning. Her thoughts once again turn to Boylan and of her orgasm earlier.

Molly's fourth sentence begins with a train whistle and her Gibraltar childhood, her companions there, and recollections of how she had resorted to writing herself letters after they left, out of boredom and loneliness. Molly then thinks about how Milly sent her a card this morning, whereas her husband received a whole letter. She imagines that she may receive another love letter from Boylan, as she did earlier.

This line of thought leads to the next sentence, in which she recalls her first love letter, from Lieutenant Mulvey, whom she kissed under the bridge in Gibraltar. She later lost contact with him and wonders what he would be like now. Her thoughts turn again to her career, and she remains dismissive of silly girl singers. Molly wonders what path her career could have taken had she not married Bloom.

In her sixth sentence, Molly thinks again about Milly and how it was Bloom's idea to send Milly to Mullingar to learn photography, because he sensed Molly's and Boylan's impending affair. She feels that Milly has become as Molly used to be. Molly senses the start of her period, confirmation that her tryst with Boylan has not caused a pregnancy. Events of the day spent with Boylan run through her mind.

In her seventh sentence, Molly climbs quietly back into bed and thinks of the times she and Bloom have had to relocate. Their financial situation makes Molly worry that Leopold may have wasted money on another woman, or on the Dignam family out of pity. Her mind then turns to Stephen, whom she met during his childhood. She predicts that Stephen is probably not stuck-up, and is most likely clean. Furthermore, she fantasizes about future sexual encounters with him, including fellatio. Molly resolves to study before meeting him so he will not look down upon her.

In her eighth sentence, Molly thinks of her husband's strange habits, how he never embraces her, instead kissing her bottom, as he did earlier. Molly speculates that the world would be much improved if it consisted of Matriarchal Societies, run exclusively by women. She thinks again of Stephen, and of his mother's death, and that of Rudy's death, she then ends this line of thought as it is making her depressed. Molly thinks about arousing Bloom in the morning, then revealing the details of her affair with Boylan to make him realize his culpability. Molly then decides to procure some flowers, in case Stephen Dedalus decides to come around. Thinking of flowers, Molly thinks of the day she and Bloom spent at Howth, his marriage proposal, and her response, reaffirming her love for Leopold, even during a period of turbulence within the marriage.

The concluding period following the final words of her reverie is one of only three punctuation marks in the chapter, the others being after the fourth and eighth "sentences." When written this episode contained the longest "sentence" in English literature, 4,391 words expressed by Molly Bloom.[14]

Publication history

Written over a seven-year period from 1914 to 1921, the novel was serialised in the American journal The Little Review from 1918 until the publication of the Nausicaä episode led to a prosecution for obscenity.[15] In 1919, sections of the novel also appeared in the London literary journal The Egoist, but the novel itself was banned in the United Kingdom until the 1930s.[citation needed] In 1920 after the US magazine The Little Review serialized a passage of the book dealing with the main character masturbating, a group called the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, who objected to the book's content, took action to attempt to keep the book out of the United States. At a trial in 1921 the magazine was declared obscene and as a result Ulysses was banned in the United States. In 1933, the publisher Random House arranged to import the French edition and have a copy seized by customs when the ship was unloaded, which it then contested. In United States v. One Book Called Ulysses, U.S. District Judge John M. Woolsey ruled on December 6, 1933 that the book was not pornographic and therefore could not be obscene,[16] a decision that has been called "epoch-making" by Stuart Gilbert.[17] The Second Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the ruling in 1934.[18]

The publication history of Ulysses is disputed and obscure. There have been at least eighteen editions, and variations in different impressions of each edition. Notable editions include the first edition published in Paris on 2 February 1922 by Sylvia Beach at Shakespeare and Company (only 1000 copies printed), the pirated Roth edition, published in New York in 1929, the Odyssey Press edition of 1932 (including some revisions generally attributed to Stuart Gilbert, and therefore sometimes considered the most accurate edition); the 1934 Random House US edition, the first English edition of the Bodley Head in 1936, the revised Bodley Head Edition of 1960, the revised Random House edition of 1961 (reset from the Bodley Head 1960 edition), and the Gabler critical and synoptic edition of 1984.

According to Joyce scholar Jack Dalton, the first edition of Ulysses contained over two thousand errors but was still the most accurate edition published.[19] As each subsequent edition attempted to correct these mistakes, it incorporated more of its own. Hans Walter Gabler's 1984 edition was the most sustained attempt to produce a corrected text, but it received much criticism, most notably from John Kidd. Kidd's main theoretical criticism is of Gabler's choice of a patchwork of manuscripts as his copy-text (the base edition with which the editor compares each variant), but this fault stems from an assumption of the Anglo-American tradition of scholarly editing rather than the blend of French and German editorial theories that actually lay behind Gabler's reasoning. The choice of a multiple copy-text is seen to be problematic in the eyes of some American editors, who generally favor the first edition of any particular work as copy-text. Less subject to differing national editorial theories, however, is the claim that for hundreds of pages—about half the episodes of Ulysses—the extant manuscript is purported to be a 'fair copy' which Joyce made for sale to a potential patron. (As it turned out, John Quinn, the Irish-American lawyer and collector, purchased the manuscript.) Diluting this charge somewhat, is the fact that the theory of (now lost) final working drafts is Gabler's own. For the suspect episodes, the existing typescript is the last witness. Gabler attempted to reconstruct what he called 'the continuous manuscript text', which had never physically existed, by adding together all of Joyce's accretions from the various sources. This allowed Gabler to produce a 'synoptic text' indicating the stage at which each addition was inserted. Kidd and even some of Gabler's own advisers believe this method meant losing Joyce's final changes in about two thousand places[citation needed]. Far from being 'continuous', the manuscripts seem to be opposite. Jerome McGann describes in detail the editorial principles of Gabler in his article for the journal Criticism, issue 27, 1985. In the wake of the controversy, still other commentators charged that Gabler's changes were motivated by a desire to secure a fresh copyright and another seventy-five years of royalties beyond a looming expiration date.

In June 1988 John Kidd published 'The Scandal of Ulysses' in the New York Review of Books, charging that not only did Gabler's changes overturn Joyce's last revisions, but in another four hundred places Gabler failed to follow any manuscript whatever, making nonsense of his own premises. Kidd accused Gabler of unnecessarily changing Joyce's spelling, punctuation, use of accents, and all the small details he claimed to have been restoring. Instead, Gabler was actually following printed editions such as that of 1932, not the manuscripts. More sensationally, Gabler was found to have made genuine blunders, the most famous being his changing the name of Dubliner Harry Thrift to 'Shrift' and cricketer Captain Buller to 'Culler' on the basis of handwriting irregularities in the extant manuscript. (These 'corrections' were undone by Gabler in 1986.)

In December 1988, Charles Rossman's 'The New Ulysses: The Hidden Controversy' for the New York Review revealed that Gabler's own advisers felt too many changes were being made, but that the publishers were pushing for as many alterations as possible. Then Kidd produced a 174-page critique that filled an entire issue of the Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, dated the same month. This 'Inquiry into Ulysses: The Corrected Text' was the next year published in book format and on floppy disk by Kidd's James Joyce Research Center at Boston University. Gabler and others rejected Kidd's critique, and the scholarly community remains divided. To this day, many European critics teach the Gabler edition while their counterparts in the U.S. tend to shy away from it.

In 1990 Gabler's American publisher Random House quietly replaced the Gabler edition with its 1961 version, and in the United Kingdom the Bodley Head press revived its 1960 version. In both the UK and USA, Everyman's Library, too, republished the 1960 Ulysses. In 1992 Penguin dropped Gabler and reprinted the 1960 text. The Gabler version is at present available from Vintage International. Reprints of the imperfect 1922 first edition are now widely available, largely due to a temporary (but since revived) copyright expiration.

While much ink has been spilt over the faults and theoretical underpinnings of the Gabler edition, the much vaunted Kidd edition has yet to materialize. In 1992 W.W. Norton announced that a Kidd edition of Ulysses was about to be published as part of a series called "The Dublin Edition of the Works of James Joyce." This book had to be withdrawn, however, when the Joyce estate objected. The estate has chosen to refuse to authorize any further editions of Joyce's work for the present but has recently signed a deal with Wordsworth Editions to bring out a bargain version of the novel in January 2010, ahead of copyright expiration in 2012.[20] [21]

Media adaptations

In 1958, a stage adaptation of the novel, named Ulysses in Nighttown, was produced, starring Zero Mostel. The play incorporated many of the dialogue-heavy parts of the novel, and much like it began at the tower in Sandycove and ended with Molly's soliloquy. It was revived in the 1970s.

In 1967, a film version of the book was directed by Joseph Strick, and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay.

In 1974, chapter 15 was staged in the Polish Teatr Ateneum under the name of New Bloomusalem. It was staged again in 1999 in Teatr Narodowy (National Theater). Both plays were directed by Jerzy Grzegorzewski.

On Bloomsday 1980, the Abbey Theatre launched a celebrated one-man show Joycemen by Irish actor Eamon Morrissey. The show consisted of extracts from Ulysses ranging from Bloom's breakfast to Molly's soliloquy, and included as a tour de force a celebrated version of the rowdy pub scene in Cyclops where he played all the characters. The show opened to acclaim at the Peacock Theatre in Dublin and was repeated, including global tours, until the late 1980's.

On Bloomsday 1982, the Irish National Broadcaster RTÉ aired a full-cast dramatised radio production of Ulysses, that ran uninterrupted for 29 hours and 45 minutes, being perhaps the longest radio programme ever made. It has been commercially released on CD and mp3.

BBC Radio broadcast a dramatisation of Ulysses read by Sinéad Cusack, James Greene, Stephen Rea, Norman Rodway, and others in 1993. This performance had a running time of 5 hours and 50 minutes.

In 2003, a movie version Bloom was released starring Stephen Rea.

The unabridged text of Ulysses has been performed by Jim Norton, with Marcella Riordan. This recording was released by Naxos Records on 22 audio CDs in 2004. It follows an earlier abridged recording with the same actors.

Each June 16, Symphony Space in New York City performs as a staged reading, over the entire day, many passages from the book. It culminates with a guest star reading the final chapter, ending roughly at midnight.

In 2006, playwright Sheila Callaghan's Dead City, a contemporary stage adaptation of the book set in New York City, and featuring the male figures Bloom and Dedalus re-imagined as female characters Samantha Blossom and Jewel Jupiter, was produced in Manhattan by New Georges.[22]

Allusions and references to other works

See also: Musical Allusions In Ulysses

Aside from the obvious footprint of Homer's Odyssey, Joyce used hundreds of other writers and their works during the composition of Ulysses.

Samuel Rosenberg, in his book Naked is the Best Disguise, noted similarities between the section in which Bloom tracks Dedalus and a section in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's A Study in Scarlet. Rosenberg also notes other references to Doyle's writings.

Notes

  1. ^ Harte, Tim (Summer, 2003). "Sarah Danius, The Senses of Modernism: Technology, Perception, and Aesthetics". Bryn Mawr Review of Comparative Literature 4 (1). http://www.brynmawr.edu/bmrcl/Summer2003/Danius.html. Retrieved 2001-07-10.  (review of Danius book).
  2. ^ Beebe (1971), p. 176.
  3. ^ Keillor, Garrison, "The Writer's Almanac", Feb. 2, 2010.
  4. ^ Vora, Avinash (2008-10-20). "Analyzing Ulysses". http://avinashv.net/2008/10/analyzing-ulysses/. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  5. ^ "100 Best Novels". Random House. 1999. http://www.randomhouse.com/modernlibrary/100bestnovels.html. Retrieved 2007-06-23.  This ranking was by the Modern Library Editorial Board of authors and critics; readers ranked it 11th. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man was ranked third by the board.
  6. ^ Gorman (1939), p. 45.
  7. ^ Keillor (2010), 5th ¶.
  8. ^ Budgen (1972), p.
  9. ^ Borach (1954), p. 325.
  10. ^ Ellmann (1982), p. 265.
  11. ^ "The bookies' Booker...". The Observer. November 5, 2000. http://books.guardian.co.uk/bookerprize2000/story/0,,392737,00.html. Retrieved 2002-02-16. 
  12. ^ Edna O'Brien, Great Biographies: James Joyce. Irish Independent, 2007.
  13. ^ Hefferman, James A. W. (2001) Joyce’s Ulysses. Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company LP.
  14. ^ It was surpassed in 2001 by Jonathan Coe's The Rotters' Club (novel)|The Rotters' Club. Parody, Antal (2004). Eats, Shites & Leaves: Crap English and How to Use it. Michael O'Mara. ISBN 1843170981. 
  15. ^ Ellmann, Richard (1982). James Joyce. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 502–04. ISBN 0-1950-3103-2. 
  16. ^ United States v. One Book Called "Ulysses", 5 F.Supp. 182 (S.D.N.Y. 1933).
  17. ^ "Ulysses (first American edition)". James Joyce, Ulysses: The Classic Text: Traditions and Interpretations. University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. 2002. http://www.uwm.edu/Library/special/exhibits/clastext/clspg174.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  18. ^ United States v. One Book Entitled Ulysses by James Joyce, 72 F.2d 705 (2nd Cir. 1934)
  19. ^ Dalton, pp. 102, 113
  20. ^ Max, D.T. (2006-06-19). "The Injustice Collector". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/06/19/060619fa_fact. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  21. ^ Battles, Jan (2009-08-09). "Budget Ulysses to flood the market". The Sunday Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/ireland/article6788825.ece. Retrieved 2009-11-30. 
  22. ^ Robertson, Campbell (June 16, 2006). "Playwright of 'Dead City' Substitutes Manhattan for Dublin". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/16/theater/16bloo.html. Retrieved March 18, 2010. 

References

  • Beebe, Maurice (Fall 1972). "Ulysses and the Age of Modernism". James Joyce Quarterly (University of Tulsa) 10 (1): 172–88. 
  • Blamires, Harry. The Bloomsday Book: A Guide Through Joyce's Ulysses, Methuen (1966).
  • Borach, Georges. Conversations with James Joyce, translated by Joseph Prescott, College English, 15 (March 1954).
  • Burgess, Anthony. Here Comes Everybody: An Introduction to James Joyce for the Ordinary Reader (1965); also published as Re Joyce.
  • Burgess, Anthony. Joysprick: An Introduction to the Language of James Joyce (1973).
  • Budgen, Frank. James Joyce and the Making of Ulysses. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, (1960).
  • Budgen, Frank (1972). James Joyce and the making of 'Ulysses', and other writings. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-192-11713-0. 
  • Campbell, Joseph. Mythic Worlds, Modern Words. Canada: New World Library, 2004.
  • Dalton, Jack. The Text of Ulysses in Fritz Senn, ed. New Light on Joyce from the Dublin Symposium. Indiana University Press (1972).
  • Derrida, Jacques (1992) ‘Ulysses’ Gramophone: Hear Say Yes In Joyce. in Acts of Literature. Ed. Derek Attridge. New York: Routledge, 1992. pp. 253-309.
  • Ellmann, Richard. James Joyce. Oxford University Press, revised edition (1983).
  • Ellmann, Richard, ed. Selected Letters of James Joyce. The Viking Press (1975).
  • Gifford, Don with Seidman, Robert J. Ulysses Annotated: Notes for James Joyce's Ulysses, Revised and Expanded Edition, University of California Press (1988).
  • Gilbert, Stuart. James Joyce's Ulysses: A study, Faber and Faber (1930).
  • Gorman, Herbert. James Joyce: A Definitive Biography (1939).
  • Heffernan, James A. W. Joyce's Ulysses, The Teaching Company LP (2001).
  • Kain, Richard M. Fabulous Voyager: A Study of James Joyce's Ulysses, University of Chicago Press (1947).
  • Kenner, Hugh. Ulysses, Unwin Critical Library (1980).
  • Mood, John. Joyce's "Ulysses" for Everyone, Or How to Skip Reading It the First Time. Bloomington, Indiana: Author House, 2004. ISBN 1-4184-5104-5.
  • Schwaber, Paul. The Cast of Characters, Yale University Press (1999).
  • Weldon, Thornton. Allusions in Ulysses: An Annotated List. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968 and 1973. ISBN 978-0-8078-4089-4.

Further reading

  • Arnold, Bruce. The Scandal of Ulysses: The Life and Afterlife of a Twentieth Century Masterpiece. Rev. ed. Dublin: Liffey Press, 2004. ISBN 190-4148-45X.
  • Attridge, Derek, ed. James Joyce's Ulysses: A Casebook. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 2004. ISBN 978-0-1951-5830-4.
  • Benstock, Bernard. Critical Essays on James Joyce's Ulysses. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8161-8766-9.
  • Duffy, Enda, The Subaltern Ulysses. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8166-2329-5.
  • Ellmann, Richard. Ulysses on the Liffey. New York: Oxford UP, 1972. ISBN 978-0-1951-9665-8.
  • French, Marilyn. The Book as World: James Joyce's Ulysses. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1976. ISBN 978-0-6740-7853-6.
  • Gillespie, Michael Patrick and A. Nicholas Fargnoli, eds. Ulysses in Critical Perspective. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006 . ISBN 978-0-8130-2932-0.
  • Goldberg, Samuel Louis. The Classical Temper: A Study of James Joyce's Ulysses. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1961 and 1969.
  • Henke, Suzette. Joyce's Moraculous Sindbook: A Study of Ulysses. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1978. ISBN 978-0-8142-0275-3.
  • Killeen, Terence. Ulysses Unbound: A Reader's Companion to James Joyce's Ulysses. Bray, County Wicklow, Ireland: Wordwell, 2004. ISBN 978-1-8698-5772-1.
  • McKenna, Bernard. James Joyce's Ulysses: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-3133-1625-8.
  • Murphy, Niall. A Bloomsday Postcard. Dublin: Lilliput Press, 2004. ISBN 978-1-8435-1050-5.
  • Norris, Margot. A Companion to James Joyce's Ulysses: Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays From Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Boston: Bedford Books, 1998. ISBN 978-0-3122-1067-0.
  • Schutte, William M. James Index of Recurrent Elements in James Joyce's Ulysses. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1982. ISBN 978-0-8093-1067-8.
  • Vanderham, Paul. James Joyce and Censorship: The Trials of Ulysses. New York: New York UP, 1997. ISBN 978-0-8147-8790-8.
  • Weldon, Thornton. Allusions in Ulysses: An Annotated List. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968 and 1973. ISBN 978-0-8078-4089-4.

Editions in print

Facsimile texts of the manuscript

  • Ulysses, A three volume, hardcover, with slip-case, facsimile copy of the only complete, handwritten manuscript of James Joyce's Ulysses. Three volumes. Quarto. Critical introduction by Harry Levin. Bibliographical preface by Clive Driver. The first two volumes comprise the facsimile manuscript, while the third contains a comparison of the manuscript and the first printings, annotated by Clive Driver. These volumes were published in association with the Philip H. &. A.S.W. Rosenbach Foundation (now known as the Rosenbach Museum & Library), Philadelphia. New York: Octagon Books (1975).

Facsimile texts of the 1922 first edition

  • Ulysses, The 1922 Text, with an introduction and notes by Jeri Johnson, Oxford University Press (1993). A World Classics paperback edition with full critical apparatus. ISBN 0-19-282866-5
  • Ulysses: A Reproduction of the 1922 First Edition, Dover Publications (2002). Paperback. ISBN 978-0486424446
  • Ulysses: A Facsimile of the First Edition Published in Paris in 1922, Orchises Press (1998). This hardback edition closely mimics the first edition in binding and cover design. ISBN 978-0914061700

Based on the 1960 Bodley Head/1961 Random House editions

  • Ulysses, Vintage International (paperback, 1990)
  • Ulysses: Annotated Student's Edition, with an introduction and notes by Declan Kiberd, Penguin Twentieth Century Classics (paperback, 1992).
  • Ulysses: The 1934 Text, As Corrected and Reset in 1961, Modern Library (hardback, 1992). With a foreword by Morris L. Ernst.
  • Ulysses, Everyman's Library, (hardback, 1997)
  • Ulysses, Penguin Modern Classics (paperback, 2000), with an introduction by Declan Kiberd.
  • Ulysses, Random House (hardback, 2002). With a foreword by Morris L. Ernst.

Based on the 1984 Gabler edition

  • Ulysses: The corrected text, Edited by Hans Walter Gabler with Wolfhard Steppe and Claus Melchior, and a new preface by Richard Ellmann, Vintage International (1986). This follows the disputed Garland Edition.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

A man of genius makes no mistakes. His errors are volitional and are the portals to discovery.

Ulysses (1922) is a novel by James Joyce, written in Trieste, Zurich, and Paris (1914-1921). It tells in great detail many incidents of the life of Leopold Bloom and those around him on the single day of 16 June 1904. This commemorated the date Joyce first went out with Nora Barnacle, whom he had met a few days before, and which has since become celebrated in Ireland and elsewhere as Bloomsday.

  • Stately, plump Buck Mulligan came from the stairhead, bearing a bowl of lather on which a mirror and a razor lay crossed. A yellow dressinggown, ungirdled, was sustained gently behind him on the mild morning air.
    • First lines, Ch. 1: Telemachus
  • The snotgreen sea. The scrotumtightening sea.
    • Ch. 1: Telemachus
  • He kills his mother but he can't wear grey trousers.
    • Ch. 1: Telemachus
It is a symbol of Irish art. The cracked lookingglass of a servant.
  • It is a symbol of Irish art. The cracked lookingglass of a servant.
    • Ch. 1: Telemachus
  • If you and I could only work together we might do something for the island. Helenise it.
    • Ch. 1: Telemachus
  • Kingstown pier, Stephen said. Yes, a disappointed bridge.
    • Ch. 2: Nestor
  • I fear those big words, Stephen said, which make us so unhappy.
    • Ch. 2: Nestor
History, Stephen said, is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake.
  • History, Stephen said, is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake.
    • Ch. 2: Nestor
  • Stephen jerked his thumb towards the window, saying:
    — That is God.
    Hooray! Ay! Whrrwhee!
    — What? Mr Deasy asked.
    — A shout in the street, Stephen answered, shrugging his shoulders.
    • Ch. 2: Nestor
  • — I just wanted to say, he said. Ireland, they say, has the honour of being the only country which never persecuted the jews. Do you know that? No. And do you know why?
    He frowned sternly on the bright air.
    — Why, sir? Stephen asked, beginning to smile.
    — Because she never let them in, Mr Deasy said solemnly.
    A coughball of laughter leaped from his throat dragging after it a rattling chain of phlegm. He turned back quickly, coughing, laughing, his lifted arms waving to the air.
    — She never let them in, he cried again through his laughter as he stamped on gaitered feet over the gravel of the path. That’s why.
    On his wise shoulders through the checkerwork of leaves the sun flung spangles, dancing coins.
    • Ch. 2: Nestor
  • Mr. Leopold Bloom ate with relish the inner organs of beasts and fowls. He liked thick giblet soup, nutty gizzards, a stuffed roast heart, liver slices filled with crustcrumbs, fried hencod's roes. Most of all he liked grilled mutton kidneys which gave to his palate a fine tang of faintly scented urine.
    • Ch. 4: Calypso
  • — Mrkgnao! the cat said loudly.
    She blinked up out of her avid shameclosing eyes, mewing plaintively and long, showing him her milkwhite teeth. He watched the dark eyeslits narrowing with greed till her eyes were green stones. Then he went to the dresser, took the jug Hanlon's milkman had just filled for him, poured warmbubbled milk on a saucer and set it slowly on the floor.
    — Gurrhr! she cried, running to lap.
    • Ch. 4: Calypso
  • — You don't want anything for breakfast?
    A sleepy soft grunt answered:
    — Mn.
    • Ch. 4: Calypso
Unsheathe your dagger definitions...
  • Vulcanic lake, the dead sea: no fish, weedless, sunk deep in the earth. No wind would lift those waves, grey metal, poisonous foggy waters. Brimstone they called it raining down: the cities of the plain: Sodom, Gomorrah, Edom. A dead sea in a dead land, grey and old. Old now. It bore the oldest, the first race. A bent hag crossed from Cassidy's clutching a noggin bottle by the neck. The oldest people. Wandered far away over all the earth, captivity to captivity, multiplying, dying, being born everywhere. It lay there now. Now it could bear no more. Dead: an old woman's: the grey sunken cunt of the world.
    • Ch. 4: Calypso
  • Come forth Lazarus! And he came fifth and lost the job.
    • Ch. 6: Hades
  • DEAR DIRTY DUBLIN
    • Ch. 7: Aeolus
  • Monsieur de la Palisse, Stephen sneered, was alive fifteen minutes before his death.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
  • Unsheathe your dagger definitions. Horseness is the whatness of allhorse. Streams of tendency and eons they worship.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
  • Bosh! Stephen said rudely. A man of genius makes no mistakes. His errors are volitional and are the portals of discovery.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
As we, or mother Dana, weave and unweave our bodies... so does the artist weave and unweave his image.
  • If others have their will Ann hath a way. By cock, she was to blame. She put the comether on him, sweet and twentysix. The greyeyed goddess who bends over the boy Adonis, stooping to conquer, as prologue to the swelling act, is a boldfaced Stratford wench who tumbles in a cornfield a lover younger than herself.
  • Our national epic has yet to be written.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
  • Coffined thoughts around me, in mummycases, embalmed in spice of words. Thoth, god of libraries, a birdgod, moonycrowned. And I heard the voice of that Egyptian highpriest. In painted chambers loaded with tilebooks.
    They are still. Once quick in the brains of men. Still: but an itch of death is in them, to tell me in my ear a maudlin tale, urge me to wreak their will.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
  • As we, or mother Dana, weave and unweave our bodies, Stephen said, from day to day, their molecules shuttled to and fro, so does the artist weave and unweave his image.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
  • His own image to a man with that queer thing genius is the standard of all experience, material and moral.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
The mocker is never taken seriously when he is most serious.
  • The mocker is never taken seriously when he is most serious.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
Love loves to love love.
  • You know Manningham's story of the burgher's wife who bade Dick Burbage to her bed after she had seen him in Richard III and how Shakespeare, overhearing, without more ado about nothing, took the cow by the horns and, when Burbage came knocking at the gate, answered from the capon's blankets: William the conqueror came before Richard III.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
  • A father, said Stephen, battling against hopelessness, is a necessary evil.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
  • Paternity may be a legal fiction. Who is the father of any son that any son should love him or he any son?
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
By Jesus... I'll brain that bloody jewman for using the holy name. By Jesus, I'll crucify him so I will...
  • — They are sundered by a bodily shame so steadfast that the criminal annals of the world, stained with all other incests and bestialities, hardly record its breach. Sons with mothers, sires with daughters, lesbic sisters, loves that dare not speak their name, nephews with grandmothers, jailbirds with keyholes, queens with prize bulls. The son unborn mars beauty: born, he brings pain, divides affection, increases care. He is a new male: his growth is his father's decline, his youth his father's envy, his friend his father's enemy.
    • Ch. 9: Scylla and Charybdis
  • Shakespeare is the happy hunting ground of all minds that have lost their balance.
    • ** Ch. 10: The Wandering Rocks
It is as painful perhaps to be awakened from a vision as to be born.
  • It soared, a bird, it held its flight, a swift pure cry, soar silver orb it leaped serene, speeding, sustained, to come, don't spin it out too long long breath he breath long life, soaring high, high resplendent, aflame, crowned, high in the effulgence symbolistic, high, of the ethereal bosom, high, of the high vast irradiation everywhere all soaring all around about the all, the endlessnessnessness...
    • Ch. 11: Sirens
  • Tap. Tap. A stripling, blind, with a tapping cane came taptaptapping by Daly’s window where a mermaid hair all streaming (but he couldn’t see) blew whiffs of a mermaid (blind couldn’t), mermaid, coolest whiff of all.
    • Ch. 11: Sirens
  • But it's no use, says he. Force, hatred, history, all that. That's not life for men and women, insult and hatred. And everybody knows that it's the very opposite of that that is really life.
    — What? says Alf.
    — Love, says Bloom. I mean the opposite of hatred.
    • Ch. 12: Cyclops
  • Love loves to love love.
    • Ch. 12: Cyclops
  • Your God was a jew. Christ was a jew like me.
    Gob, the citizen made a plunge back into the shop.
    By Jesus, says he, I'll brain that bloody jewman for using the holy name. By Jesus, I'll crucify him so I will.
    • Ch. 12: Cyclops
  • It is as painful perhaps to be awakened from a vision as to be born.
    • Ch. 14: The Oxen of the Sun
  • Absence makes the heart grow younger.
    • Ch. 15: Circe
  • But O, oblige me by taking away that knife. I can't look at the point of it. It reminds me of Roman history.
    • Ch. 16: Eumaeus
  • People could put up with being bitten by a wolf but what properly riled them up was a bite from a sheep.
    • Ch. 16: Eumaeus
  • If he had smiled why would he have smiled? To reflect that each one who enters imagines himself to be the first to enter whereas he is always the last term of a preceding series even if the first term of a succeeding one, each imagining himself to be first, last, only and alone whereas he is neither first nor last nor only nor alone in a series originating in and repeated to infinity.
    • Ch. 17: Ithaca
  • The heaventree of stars hung with humid nightblue fruit.
    • Ch. 17: Ithaca
  • He kissed the plump mellow yellow smellow melons of her rump, on each plump melonous hemisphere, in their mellow yellow furrow, with obscure prolonged provocative melonsmellonous osculation.
    • Ch. 17: Ithaca
  • I suppose she was pious because no man would look at her twice.
    • Ch. 18: Penelope
I love flowers Id love to have the whole place swimming in roses...
  • O Jamesy let me up out of this.
    • Ch. 18: Penelope
  • I love flowers Id love to have the whole place swimming in roses God of heaven theres nothing like nature the wild mountains then the sea and the waves rushing then the beautiful country with the fields of oats and wheat and all kinds of things
    • Ch. 18: Penelope; This is a portion of the famous passage often known as "Molly Bloom's Soliloquy" which ends the book. The passage has been used as the basis for the song "The Sensual World" by Kate Bush, and another called "Yes" by Amber.
...and then I asked him with my eyes to ask again yes and then he asked me would I yes to say yes...
  • the sun shines for you he said the day we were lying among the rhododendrons on Howth head in the grey tweed suit and his straw hat the day I got him to propose to me yes first I gave him the bit of seedcake out of my mouth and it was leapyear like now yes 16 years ago my God after that long kiss I near lost my breath yes he said I was a flower of the mountain yes so we are flowers all a womans body yes that was one true thing he said in his life and the sun shines for you today yes that was why I liked him because I saw he understood or felt what a woman is and I knew I could always get round him and I gave him all the pleasure I could leading him on till he asked me to say yes and I wouldnt answer first only looked out over the sea and the sky I was thinking of so many things he didnt know
    • Ch. 18: Penelope
  • I was a Flower of the mountain yes when I put the rose in my hair like the Andalusian girls used or shall I wear a red yes and how he kissed me under the Moorish wall and I thought well as well him as another and then I asked him with my eyes to ask again yes and then he asked me would I yes to say yes my mountain flower and first I put my arms around him yes and drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.
    • Ch. 18: Penelope. Last lines.

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Ulysses (novel)
by James Joyce
This edition of Ulysses by James Joyce is based on the pre-1923 print editions. Chapter divisions and titles, though not present in these editions, have been added to avoid confusion and aid the modern reader.


Contents

Part I: The Telemachiad

Part II: The Odyssey

Part III: The Nostos

PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1941, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 60 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.


Simple English

Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce. The complete book was first published in 1922, although parts of it had appeared elsewhere earlier.

The story takes place on June 16, 1904, and is about a man named Leopold Bloom, who walks around Dublin. The book also tells the story of Molly Bloom, his wife, and of Stephen Dedalus, a school teacher.

The book became famous for several reasons, but mainly because it is written in a new style called stream of consciousness. The book is now thought to be an important book of modernist literature. Many professors and teachers teach this book in universities and colleges.

Other websites

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

== Background ==


Joyce first encountered Odysseus in Charles Lamb's Adventures of Ulysses - an adaptation of the Odyssey for children, which seemed to establish the Roman name in Joyce's mind. At school he wrote an essay on Ulysses as his 'favourite hero'.[5] Joyce told Frank Budgen that he considered Ulysses the only all-round character in literature.[6] He thought about calling Dubliners by the name Ulysses in Dublin,[7] but the idea grew from a story in Dubliners in 1906, to a 'short book' in 1907,[8] to the vast novel which he began writing in 1914.









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