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Uniparental disomy
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 Q99.8
MeSH D024182

Uniparental disomy (UPD) occurs when a person receives two copies of a chromosome, or part of a chromosome, from one parent and no copies from the other parent. [1]

Contents

Pathophysiology

UPD can occur as a random event during the formation of egg or sperm cells or may happen in early fetal development. It can also occur during trisomic rescue.

  • When the child receives, two (identical) replica copies of a single homolog of a chromosome, this is called an isodisomic UPD. Isodisomy (homozygous) indicates either a meiosis II error or postzygotic duplication.

Phenotype

Most occurrences of UPD result in no phenotypical anomalies. However, if the UPD causing event happens during meiosis II, the genotype may include identical copies of the uniparental chromosome (isodisomy), leading to the manifestation of rare recessive disorders. UPD should be suspected in an individual manifesting a recessive disorder, where only one parent is a carrier.

Uniparental inheritance of imprinted genes can also result in phenotypical anomalies. Few imprinted genes have been identified, however uniparental inheritance of an imprinted gene can result in the loss of gene function which can lead to delayed development, mental retardation, or other medical problems.

All chromosomes

Occasionally, all chromosomes will be inherited from one parent, due to either a sperm fertilizing an empty egg and duplicating itself, or a diploid egg that is not fertilized. The effect is similar to triploidy, with either a molar pregnancy with no embryo if only paternal genes are present, or an embryo with no placenta if only maternal genes are present. Neither condition ever results in a liveborn infant.

History

The first clinical case of UPD was reported in 1988 and involved a girl with cystic fibrosis and unusually short stature who carried two copies of maternal chromosome 7.[4] Since 1991, out of the 47 possible disomies, 29 have been identified among individuals ascertained for medical reasons. This includes Chromosome 2, 5-11, 13-16, 21 and 22.

References

  1. ^ Robinson WP (May 2000). "Mechanisms leading to uniparental disomy and their clinical consequences". Bioessays 22 (5): 452–9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(200005)22:5<452::AID-BIES7>3.0.CO;2-K. PMID 10797485.  
  2. ^ 608149
  3. ^ 32320
  4. ^ Spence JE, Perciaccante RG, Greig GM, Willard HF, Ledbetter DH, Hejtmancik JF, Pollack MS, O'Brien WE, Beaudet AL (1988). "Uniparental disomy as a mechanism for human genetic disease". American Journal of Human Genetics 42 (2): 217-226. PMID 2893543. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1715272/pdf/ajhg00125-0007.pdf.  

External links

This article incorporates public domain text from The U.S. National Library of Medicine








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