The Full Wiki

More info on United Free Church Of Scotland

United Free Church Of Scotland: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

United Free Church of Scotland
Classification Protestant
Orientation Calvinist
Polity Presbyterian
Associations incorporated into the Church of Scotland in 1929
Origin 1900
Merge of The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland and most of the Free Church of Scotland

The United Free Church of Scotland (or ‘U.F. Church’) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination formed in 1900 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (or U.P.) and the Free Church of Scotland, which in turn united with the Church of Scotland in 1929.

Contents

Origins

Religion in Scotland

Church of Scotland
Roman Catholic Church
Free Church of Scotland
Free Church of Scotland (Continuing)
United Free Church of Scotland
Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Associated Presbyterian Churches
Scottish Episcopal Church
Baptist Union of Scotland
Action of Churches Together in Scotland
Scottish Reformation
Bahá'ís
Buddhism
Hinduism
Islam
Judaism
Sikhism

The Free Church of Scotland seceded from the Church of Scotland in the Disruption of 1843. The United Presbyterian Church was formed in 1847 by a union of the United Secession and Relief Churches, both of which had split from the Church of Scotland. The two denominations united in 1900 to form the United Free Church (except for a small section of the Free Church who rejected the union and continued independently under the name of the Free Church).

Legal dispute: 'The Free Church Case'

The minority of the Free Church, which had refused to join the union, quickly tested its legality. They issued a summons, claiming that in altering the principles of the Free Church, the majority had ceased to be the Free Church of Scotland and therefore forfeited the right to its assets – which should belong to the remaining minority, who were the true ‘Free Church’. However, the case was lost in the Court of Session, where Lord Low (upheld by the second division) held that the Assembly of original Free Church had a right, within limits, to change its position.

An appeal to House of Lords, (not delivered until August 1 1904 due to a judicial death), reversed the Court of Session’s decision (by a majority of 5-2), and found the minority entitled to the assets of the Free Church. It was held that, by adopting new standards of doctrine (and particularly by abandoning its commitment to ‘the establishment principle’ – which was held to be fundamental to the Free Church), the majority had violated the conditions on which the property of the Free Church was held.

The judgement had huge implications; seemingly it deprived the Free Church element of the U.F. Church of all assets—churches, manses, colleges, missions, and even provision for elderly clergy. It handed large amounts of property to the remnant; more than it could make effective use of. A conference, held in September 1904, between representatives of the U. F. and the (now distinct) Free Church, to come to some working arrangement, found that no basis for agreement could be found. A convocation of the U. F. Church, held on December 15, decided that the union should proceed, and resolved to pursue every lawful means to restore their assets. As a result, the intervention of Parliament was sought.

A parliamentary commission was appointed, consisting of Lord Elgin, Lord Kinnear and Sir Ralph Anstruther. The question of interim possession was referred to Sir John Cheyne. The commission sat in public, and after hearing both sides, issued their report in April 1905. They stated that the feelings of both parties towards the other had made their work difficult. They concluded, however, that the Free Church was in many respects unable to carry out the purposes of the trusts, which, under the ruling of the House of Lords, was a condition of their holding the property. They recommended that an executive commission should be set up by act of parliament, in which the whole property of the Free Church, as at the date of the union, should be vested, and which should allocate it to the United Free Church, where the Free Church was unable to carry out the trust purposes.

The Churches (Scotland) Act 1905, which gave effect to these recommendations, was passed in August. The commissioners appointed were those on whose report the act was formed, plus two others. The allocation of churches and manses was a slow business, but by 1908 over 100 churches had been assigned to the Free Church. Some of the dispossessed U. F. Church congregations, most of them in the Highlands, found shelter for a time in the parish churches; but it was early decided that in spite of the objection against the erection of more church buildings in districts where many were now standing empty, 60 new churches and manses should at once be built at a cost of about £150,000. In October 1906 the commission intimated that the Assembly Hall, and the New College Buildings, were to belong to the U.F Church, whilst the Free Church received the offices in Edinburgh, and a tenement to be converted into a college, while the library was to be vested in the U. F. Church, but open to members of both. After having held its Assembly in university class-rooms for two years, and in another hail in 1905, in 1906 the U. F. Church again occupied the historic buildings of the Free Church. All the foreign missions and all the continental stations were also adjudged to the United Free Church. (Incidentally, the same act also contained provided for the relaxation of subscription in the Church of Scotland, thus Parliament had involved itself in the affairs of all Presbyterian churches.)

Existence 1900-1929

The U.F. Church was during its relatively short existence the second largest Presbyterian church in Scotland. The Free Church brought into the union 1068 congregations, the United Presbyterians 593. Combined they had a membership of some half a million Scots. The revenue of the former amounted to £706,546, of the latter to £361,743. The missionaries of both churches joined the union, and the united Church was then equipped with missions in various parts of India, in Manchuria, in Africa (Lovedale, Livingstonia, etc.), in Melanesia and in the West Indies.

The U.F.C was broadly liberal Evangelical in its approach to theology and practical issues. It combined an acceptance of the findings of contemporary science, and the more moderate results of higher criticism with commitment to evangelism and missions. The U.F.C. an approach to doctrinal conformity, which was fairly liberal for a Presbyterian denomination at the time. In its 1906 Act Anent Spiritual Independence of the Church, its General Assembly asserted the power to modify or define its Subordinate Standard (the Westminster Confession) and its laws. Although its subordinate standard remained, ministers and elders were asked to state their belief in ‘the doctrine of this Church, set forth in the Confession of Faith’. Thus the Church’s interpretation of doctrine was prioritised over the confession.

The united church had three divinity halls, at Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen, served by seventeen professors and five lecturers. The first moderator was Robert Rainy. It was gifted with a number of theologians and scholars, including James Denny H.R. Mackintosh, James Moffat as well as John and Donald Baillie (although the Baillies came to prominence after 1929).

Union with the Church of Scotland

As its early days were preoccupied with the aftermath of union, so its later days were with the coming union with the Church of Scotland. The problem was the CofS's position as an established church conflicted with the Voluntaryism of the UFC. Discussions began in 1909, but were complex.

The main hurdles were overcome by two parliamentary statutes, firstly the Church of Scotland Act 1921, which recognised the CofS's independence in spiritual matters (a right asserted by its Articles Declaratory of 1919). The second was the Church of Scotland (Properties and Endowments) Act 1925, which transferred the secular endowment of the church to a new body called the General Trustees. These measures satisfied the majority of the UFC that the Church-state entanglement of the CofS, which had been the cause of the Disruption of 1843 had at last ended.

In 1929, the merger with the Church of Scotland largely reversed the Disruption of 1843 and reunited much of Scottish Presbyterianism. However, once more a relatively small minority stayed out of the union, and retained the name of U.F. Church.

The continuing UFC, 1929-

Voluntaryism led some to oppose the union (the United Free Church Association, led by James Barr - minister of Govan and Labour MP for Motherwell). When it came, 14,000 UFC members remained outside, calling themselves the United Free Church (Continuing). The phrase 'continuing' was used for 5 years to avoid confusion between the remaining United Free Church and the pre union Church. It was dropped from the title in 1934. An agreement between the parties avoided the property disputes of the 1900 union.

The ongoing UFC continues in the 'broad evangelical' tradition. It was the first Scottish Presbyterian church to ordain a female minister (1935), and elected the same Elizabeth Barr moderator in 1960. The modern UFC is involved in the ecumenical movement in Scotland, and has, at present around 75 congregations in three Presbyteries.

The three Presbyteries are: the East which meets in Bo'ness and covers central Scotland, South Fife and the Lothians; the West which meets in Glasgow and covers Strathclyde and Lochaber; and the North meeting in Aberdeen and Perth covering Tayside, The Highlands, Grampian and the Northern Isles.

The General Assembly meets annually the first week in June in Perth.

See also

External links

References

Cameron, N. et al. (eds) Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology, Edinburgh T&T Clark 1993

Advertisements

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

UNITED FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, a religious organization, representing the union made in 1900 between the Free Church of Scotland (except a dissentient section who separated off and retained the name of Free Church) and the United Presbyterian Church. (See Free Church Of Scotland and United Presbyterian Church.) The first moderator was Dr Rainy (q.v.). The Free Church brought into the 'union 1077 congregations, the United Presbyterians 590; the revenue of the former amounted to 706, 546, of the latter to f361,743. The missionaries of both churches 1 The sect is not to be confused with the Moravian Brethren, whose official name, Unitas Fratrum, is commonly rendered in English '` United Brethren. " 2 Otterbein was an intimate friend of Francis Asbury and was greatly influenced by him.

joined the union, and the United Church was then equipped with missions in various parts of India, in Manchuria, in Africa (Lovedale, Livingstonia, &c.), in Melanesia and in the West Indies. The formula which was adopted allowed for development of doctrine, the candidate stating that he believes " in the doctrine of this Church, set forth in the Confession of Faith," the Church being thus set above the confession. The Church has three divinity halls, at Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen, served by seventeen professors and five lecturers.

The minority of the Free Church who had refused to join the union lost no time in testing the legality of the act of the majority in entering it. Their summons, dated the 14th of December 1900, claimed that in uniting with the United Presbyterian Church, which did not hold the principles of the Free Church, the majority had forfeited the right to the property of the Free Church, which must be judged to belong to the minority who remained faithful to the principles of the Free Church and were that Church. In the Scottish courts the case was decided in favour of the union by Lord Low on the 9th of August 1901, and by the second division of the Court of Session on the 4th of July 1902, it being held in both trials that the old Free Church had a right within limits to change its views and to do by its Assembly what had been done. The proceedings before the House of Lords on appeal were protracted by the death of one of the judges, which involved the necessity of a second hearing, and it was not till the 1st of August 1904 that the verdict was pronounced. By a majority of five to two the House of Lords reversed the decision of the Court of Session, allowed the appeal, and found the minority entitled to the funds and property of the Free Church. It was held that the majority of an independent church, adopting new standards of doctrine or ceasing to hold essential or fundamental doctrines of the church, forfeit the right to the property, which remains with the minority holding the church's original doctrine: also that the establishment principle was a fundamental doctrine of the Free Church, and that by entering a union on terms leaving that doctrine an open question, the majority had violated the conditions on which the property of the Free Church was held. On the plea that by the Declaratory Act of 1892 the Free Church had abandoned its doctrinal position, argument was heard, but the House of Lords did not decide.

Few legal decisions have occasioned so great consternation or such serious practical difficulties. At first sight it deprived the Free Church section of the United Church of all its material goods - churches, manses, colleges and missions, even of the provision for the old age of the clergy. It appeared to divert large amounts of church property from the uses for which it had been provided, and to hand it over to a body with which the United Church was deeply out of sympathy and which could have little prospect of making effective use of it. A conference held in September between representatives of the United Free and of the (now distinct) Free Church, in order to come to some working arrangement in view of the decision, found that no basis for such an agreement could be arrived at. Nothing remained but to invoke the intervention of parliament to put an end to an impossible situation. A convocation of ministers and elders of the United Free Church, held on the 15th of December, decided that the union should go on, and resolved to " take every lawful means of appealing to the nation and to parliament to rescue the funds and buildings of the Church for the sacred purposes for which they had been provided." The Free Church could not refuse to consent to this, and in December a commission was appointed, consisting of Lord Elgin, Lord Kinnear and Sir Ralph Anstruther, to inquire into matters connected with the two churches, while the question of interim possession was referred to Sir John Cheyne, as commissioner, for inquiry and action. The commission sat in public, and after hearing evidence on both sides, issued their report in April 1905. They reported that the state of feeling on one side and on the other had made their work difficult. They had concluded however that the Free Church was unable in many respects to carry out the purposes of the trusts, which, under the verdict of the House of Lords, was a condition of their holding the property, and that there was a case for parliamentary interference. They recommended that an executive commission should be set up by act of parliament, in which the whole property of the Free Church, as at the date of the union, should be vested, and which should allocate it to the United Free Church, where the Free Church was unable to carry out the trust purposes. The commission was to entertain suggestions which might be made to them for friendly arrangements.

The Churches (Scotland) Act, which gave effect to these recommendations, was passed on the 11th of August 1905. It contained (see Church of Scotland) a clause (No. 5) providing for the relaxation of subscription in the Established Church, parliament thus interesting itself in the affairs of all Presbyterian churches. The commissioners were those on whose report the act was formed, with the addition of two others. In October 1906 the commission intimated that the Assembly Hall, with the New College Buildings find the High Church, were to be the property of the United Free Church, the Free Church receiving the offices in Edinburgh, and a tenement to be converted into a college, while the library was to be vested in the United Free Church, but open to members of both churches. After having occupied class-rooms in the university for two sessions, and held an assembly (1905) in another hall, the United Free Church in 1906 again occupied in its own right the historic buildings of the Free Church. All the foreign missions. and all the continental stations were adjudged to the United Free Church. The allocation of churches and manses was a slow business, but in 1908 over too churches had been assigned to the Free Church. Some of the dispossessed United Free Church congregations, most of them in the Highlands, found shelter for a time in the parish churches; but it was early decided that in spite of the objection against the erection of more church buildings in districts where many were now standing empty, 60 new churches and manses should at once be built at a cost of about 150,000. (A. M.*) the union of the two crowns, and the adoption of the name of Great Britain for the common country (Teulet, meat. Caille d M. de la Mothe, Dec. 20). But in England the innovation at first met with great opposition. Various objections, sentimental and practical, were urged against it in parliament; and the judges, when appealed to by the king, declared that the adoption of the title would invalidate all legal processes. At length, on the 10th of October 1604, the king, weary of the discussion, cut the knot by assuming the title by royal proclamation,. and in due course the inscription " J. D. G. Mag. Brit. F. et H. Rex " appeared on his coins. In November 1604 we find the king instructing the lords commissioners of the Gunpowder Plot to try and discover if the prisoner was the author of a most " cruel pasquil " against him for assuming the name of Britain.

For further details see Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series;. and J. Spedding, Letters and Life of Lord Bacon, vol iii. (London, 1861-1874).

England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland are politically united under a parliament (q.v.), consisting of the king, the House of Lords 2 and the House of Commons,' the prerogatives of the Crown being exercised through responsible ministers. The executive government is carried on under the supervision of the ministers of state (see Ministry), the more important of whom are united in the cabinet (q.v.). The first minister of the Crown or prime minister is appointed by the king, and having made choice of his colleagues, recommends them for appointment. (See the separate articles on the various offices. For the judiciary system, see Court; Appeal;. &c.) The table at the foot of this column shows the imperial revenue and expenditure, with the amount of revenue per head of population of the United Kingdom for various years. The financial year now ends on the 31st of March of the year following that quoted. The figures before 1907 did not include the revenue assigned to local purposes. The deficit in 1909 was due to delay in passing the Finance Act.

Year ending March 31st.

1891.

1896.

1901.

1906.

1910.

Funded debt. .. .. .. .

579,47 2, 082

589,146,878

551,182,153

634, 47,4 2 9

614,868,547

Terminable annuities. .. ... .

66,550,579

49,183,748

60,154,800

43,459,548

35,876,861

Unfunded debt. .. .. .. .. .

36,140,079

9,975,800

78,133,000

65,713,000

62,500,000

Other capital liabilities*. .. ... .

1,317,719

3,979,940

14,464,396

45,770,210

49,218,217

Total gross liabilities of the state. .. .

683,480,459

652,286,366

703,934,349

788,990,187

762,463,625

Assets

Suez Canal shares

3,532,0401

22,627,000t

25,806,000

31,080,000.f

35,295,000

Other assets .

1,740,397

939,354

712,760

2,586,799

4,118,352

Exchequer balances at banks of England and Ireland

6,370,897

8,975,201

5,596,918

10,451,487

2,831,248

  • These are in respect of sums borrowed under certain acts. t Nominal value. + Estimated market value on the 31st of March each year.

<< United Brethren In Christ

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland >>


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message