United Kingdom general election, 1918: Wikis

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1910 · members United Kingdom members · 1922
United Kingdom general election, 1918
All 707 seats to the House of Commons
14 December 1918
First party Second party Third party
Andrew Bonar Law 02.jpg WilliamAdamson.jpg David Lloyd George.jpg
Leader Andrew Bonar Law William Adamson David Lloyd George
Party Coalition Conservative Labour Coalition Liberal
Leader since 1916 24 October 1917 7 December 1916
Leader's seat Glasgow Central West Fife Caernarvon Boroughs
Last election 271 seats, 40.4% 42 seats, 7.1% N/A
Seats won 332 57 127
Seat change +61 +15 N/A
Popular vote 3,472,738 2,245,777 1,396,590
Percentage 33.3% 21.5% 13.4%
Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Herbert Henry Asquith.jpg Eamon de Valera c 1922-30.jpg No Image
Leader H. H. Asquith Éamon de Valera George Nicoll Barnes
Party Liberal Sinn Féin National Democratic
Leader since 30 April 1908 1917 1918
Leader's seat East Fife (defeated) Clare East and Mayo East Glasgow Gorbals
Last election 272 seats, 40.5% N/A N/A
Seats won 36 73 9
Seat change -236 N/A N/A
Popular vote 1,388,784 497,107 156,834
Percentage 13.3% 1.5%

The United Kingdom general election of 1918 was the first to be held after the Representation of the People Act 1918, which meant it was the first United Kingdom general election in which all adult men and some women could vote. Polling was held on 14 December 1918, although the count did not begin until 28 December. The election was won by a coalition of the Conservatives under Andrew Bonar Law, most of the Liberals under David Lloyd George, and a few independent and former Labour MPs, and produced a government which retained Lloyd George as Prime Minister.

Candidates which had the official support of the coalition were issued a letter of endorsement from Lloyd George and Bonar Law, known as a "coupon", and so this election is often called the coupon election. Coupons were issued to 159 Liberal candidates and 364 Conservatives. It was also known as one of the khaki elections, due to the immediate postwar setting and the role of the demobilized soldiers.

Labour, led by William Adamson, vastly increased their share of the vote but only slightly increased their number of seats. They were, however, the main parliamentary opposition and surpassed the total votes of either Liberal party (although Labour's share was less than both combined and the Coalition Liberals alone had more seats). The anti-coalition Liberals under former Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith, won few seats.

January 1910 election MPs
December 1910 election MPs
1918 election MPs
1922 election MPs
1923 election MPs

Contents

Ireland

In Ireland, the Irish Parliamentary Party lost almost all their seats, most of which were won by Sinn Féin under Éamon de Valera (see Irish (UK) general election, 1918). The 73 Sinn Féin elected members declined to take their seat in the British House of Commons, sitting instead in the Irish revolutionary assembly, Dáil Éireann. On 17 May 1918 almost the entire leadership of Sinn Féin, including de Valera and Arthur Griffith, had been arrested. In total 47 of the Sinn Féin MPs were elected from jail. The Irish War of Independence broke out shortly after the election.

It was in this election also that the UK's first ever woman MP was elected: Constance Markiewicz (Sinn Féin, Dublin St Patrick's). Like the other Sinn Féin MPs, Markiewicz did not take her seat.

Results

The results in London
UK General Election 1918
Candidates Votes
Party Standing Elected Gained Unseated Net  % of total  % No. Net %
  Coalition Conservative 362 332 N/A N/A + 61 47.0 32.5 3,393,167
  Labour 361 57 N/A N/A + 15 8.1 20.8 2,171,230
  Liberal 276 36 N/A N/A - 236 5.1 13.0 1,355,398
  Coalition Liberal 145 127 127 0 + 127 18.0 12.6 1,318,844 N/A
  Conservative 80 47 47 0 + 47 6.6 5.9 610,681 N/A
  Sinn Féin 102 73 73 0 + 73 10.3 4.6 476,458 N/A
  Irish Parliamentary 57 7 2 69 - 67 1.0 2.2 226,498
  Coalition National Democratic 18 9 9 0 + 9 1.3 1.5 156,834 N/A
  Independent Labour 29 2 2 0 + 2 0.3 1.1 116,322
  Independent 42 2 2 0 + 2 0.3 1.0 105,261
  National 26 2 2 0 + 2 0.3 0.9 94,389 N/A
  Independent NFDSS 26 1 0 0 0 0.1 0.6 66,451 N/A
  Co-operative 10 1 1 0 + 1 0.1 0.6 57,785 N/A
  Independent Conservative 17 1 1 1 0 0.1 0.4 44,637
  Coalition Labour 5 4 4 0 + 4 0.1 0.4 40,641 N/A
  Labour Unionist 3 3 3 0 + 3 0.4 0.3 30,304 N/A
  Independent Liberal 9 1 1 0 + 1 0.1 0.2 24,985
  Agriculturalist 7 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.2 19,412 N/A
  National Democratic 8 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.2 17,991 N/A
  NFDSS 5 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 12,329 N/A
  Belfast Labour 4 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 12,164 N/A
  National Socialist 3 1 1 0 + 1 0.1 0.1 11,013 N/A
  Independent Coalition 1 1 1 0 + 1 0.1 0.1 9,274 N/A
  Highland Land League 4 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 8,710
  Women's Party 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 8,614 N/A
  British Socialist 3 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 8,394
  Independent Democratic 4 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 8,351 N/A
  Ind. Nationalist 6 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 8,183
  Socialist Labour 3 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 7,567
  Scottish Prohibition 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 5,212
  Independent Progressive 3 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 5,077
  Independent Labour and Agriculturalist 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 1,927
  Christian Socialist 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 597

Total votes cast: 10,434,700. All parties shown. Coalition Conservative vote is compared with Conservative vote in previous election. In each other case, the non-coalition vote is compared with the party's previous vote. The Independent NFDSS entry includes an Independent NADSS candidate, who gained a seat with 8,287 votes.

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Votes summary

Popular vote
All Coalition Parties
  
47.14%
Coalition Conservative
  
32.52%
Labour
  
20.81%
Liberal
  
12.99%
Conservative
  
5.85%
Coalition Liberal
  
12.64%
Sinn Féin
  
4.57%
Irish Parliamentary
  
2.17%
Coalition National Democratic
  
1.5%
Independent
  
3.74%
Others
  
3.21%
  
 
All Conservative Parties
  
39.09%
All Labour Parties
  
22.43%
All Liberal Parties
  
25.87%
All Irish Nationalist Parties
  
6.82%

Seats summary

Parliamentary seats
All Coalition Parties
  
66.9%
Coalition Conservative
  
46.96%
Labour
  
8.06%
Liberal
  
5.09%
Conservative
  
6.65%
Coalition Liberal
  
17.96%
Sinn Féin
  
10.33%
Irish Parliamentary
  
0.99%
Coalition National Democratic
  
1.27%
Independent
  
1.98%
Others
  
0.71%
  
 
All Conservative Parties
  
53.75%
All Labour Parties
  
8.91%
All Liberal Parties
  
23.2%
All Irish Nationalist Parties
  
11.32%

See also

References

External links


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