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United Nations
Flag
Map of UN member states
Note that this map does not represent the view of its members or the UN concerning the legal status of any country,[1] nor does it accurately reflect which areas's government have UN representation.
Headquarters International territory in Manhattan, New York City
Official languages Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Membership 192 member states
Leaders
 -  Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
Establishment
 -  United Nations Charter signed 26 June 1945 
 -  Entry into force of Charter 24 October 1945 
Website
www.un.org
.The United Nations Organization (UNO) or simply United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and the achieving of world peace.^ The horizons of democracy, of human rights, of national dignity, and of economic progress have all been extended.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While the maintenance of international peace and security is a primary objective of the United Nations, it is not its sole purpose.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These, as well as international organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can only become United Nations General Assembly observers, allowed to speak, but not vote, in General Assembly meetings.
  • Countries in the United Nations - Worldometers 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.worldometers.info [Source type: Original source]

.The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue.^ Instead of a united body of nations determined to counter aggression from any quarter, the world was divided first between ideologies, then between newly independent states and the traditional powers, and then between rich countries and poor.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She goes on to explain how foreign nationals enjoy immunity from punishment, and how no one is prosecuted if a brothel is raided and UN police are found inside.

^ Of course, in the current crisis, we have enjoyed a level of support from the Soviet Union unprecedented in the post-World War II era.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.^ Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
  • Countries in the United Nations - Worldometers 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.worldometers.info [Source type: Original source]

^ A reform audit should also examine whether some of the functions of the United Nations can be carried out more efficiently by other organizations.
  • A Miasmia of Corruption: The United Nations at 50 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Available evidence coupled with the United Nations' unwillingness to undergo a thorough audit raise serious questions about its mission and the means used to carry it out.
  • A Miasmia of Corruption: The United Nations at 50 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are currently 192 member states, including nearly every sovereign state in the world.^ There are currently 192 Member States in the United Nations.
  • Countries in the United Nations - Worldometers 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.worldometers.info [Source type: Original source]

^ However, although today all UN members are fully sovereign states, four of the original members (Belarus, India, the Philippines, and Ukraine) were not independent at the time of their admission.
  • Countries in the United Nations - Worldometers 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.worldometers.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Also included is a letter of transmittal detailing the State Department report on current U.N. activities, as well as a copy of Truman's official Report to Congress on the state of American activities in the U.N. during the year 1948.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

.From its offices around the world, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year.^ This year alone, US payments to the UN system (including the UN and specialized agencies and programs but not the World Bank) will total about $700 million.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ UN and many of its specialized and related agencies, International Monetary Fund (IMF), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), INTELSAT, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fields as diverse as nuclear non-proliferation, AIDS research and monitoring, and international terrorism, UN specialized agencies have helped governments take concerted international action.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The organization has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the United Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive).^ A state which is not of the United Nations may become a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice on to be determined in each case by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The International Court of Justice shall be the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations passes Resolution 678.

.Other prominent UN System agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).^ The United Nations is a global organization that includes nearly every country in the world.
  • United Nations Systems 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These, as well as international organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can only become United Nations General Assembly observers, allowed to speak, but not vote, in General Assembly meetings.
  • Countries in the United Nations - Worldometers 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.worldometers.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
  • Countries in the United Nations - Worldometers 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.worldometers.info [Source type: Original source]

.The UN's most visible public figure is the Secretary-General, currently Ban Ki-moon of South Korea, who attained the post in 2007. The organization is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.^ Even non-UN member South Korea has done so.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, Russian, English, and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government of -the United States of America.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States could theoretically pursue that project alone, but without the cooperation of the Japanese, Russians, Germans, French, British, and to a much lesser extent, the Chinese, the UN bureaucracy, as in the past, would be well positioned to stymie a grand audit.
  • A Miasmia of Corruption: The United Nations at 50 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]

Contents

History

The signing of the UN Charter in San Francisco, 1945.
.Following in the wake of the failed League of Nations (1919–1946), which the United States never joined, the United Nations was established in 1945 to maintain international peace and promote cooperation in solving international economic, social and humanitarian problems.^ To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and .
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These include: membership, voting procedure and the abuse of the veto in the United Nations, conflict in Greece and Korea, the establishment of an interim committee on peace and security, and the regulation and reduction of conventional armaments.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The various specialized agencies, established by intergovernmental agreement and having wide international responsibilities, as defined in their basic instruments, in economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related fields, shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of Article 63 .
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization was begun under the aegis of the U.S. State Department in 1939. Franklin D. Roosevelt first coined the term 'United Nations' as a term to describe the Allied countries.^ The United Nations is under increasing attack by critics in the United States and other countries.
  • A Miasmia of Corruption: The United Nations at 50 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ban returns to the United Nations headquarters in New York on Monday for a Security Council meeting to discuss coordination of the massive international relief effort under way in Haiti.
  • UN chief says Haiti worst disaster in decades 23 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ UNESCO met to discuss how to preserve world heritage sites, like the Tower of London and the Great Barrier Reef , from the effects of global warming ; the United States said that the organization had no brief to discuss an unproven theory.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.The term was first officially used on 1 January 1942 when 26 governments signed the Atlantic Charter, pledging to continue the war effort.^ I believe that the continuing efforts spearheaded by the government of the United States and others to reform the United Nations, testify to our steadfast adherence to the original intent of the framers of the UN Charter.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ IN FAITH WHEREOF the representatives of the Governments of the United Nations have signed the present Charter.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, sign the present Charter and ratify it in accordance with Article 110 .
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

[3] .On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the Charter of the United Nations.^ Truman addressing the United Nations Conference.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The United Nations began relief operations.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White House press release, dated April 14, 1945, announcing that Soviet Foreign Secretary Molotov would attend the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

.The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council—France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States—and by a majority of the other 46 signatories.^ The present Charter shall come into force upon the deposit of by the Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist, the United King- dom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, and by a majority of the other signatory states.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Charter gives a special role to the five "permanent members" (China, France, United Kingdom, US, and USSR), any of which can veto a resolution.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It wants to eliminate the veto for permanent members of the Security Council.

The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, and the Security Council, took place in Westminster Central Hall in London in January 1946.[4]
.Since its creation, there has been controversy and criticism of the UN organization.^ Although the UN effort has been slow in becoming organized, there has been an outpouring of pledges of assistance from the international community.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

In the United States, an early opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began a "get US out of the UN" campaign in 1959, charging that the UN's aim was to establish a "One World Government." After the Second World War, the French Committee of National Liberation was late to be recognized by the US as the government of France, and so the country was initially excluded from the conferences that aimed at creating the new organization. .Charles de Gaulle criticized the UN, famously calling it le machin ("the thingie"), and was not convinced that a global security alliance would help maintaining world peace, preferring direct defence treaties between countries.^ To make sure that the latter would not happen, the UN Security Council--in effect, its five permanent members--was given the power to decide what measures should be taken in case of a threat to the peace.
  • A Miasmia of Corruption: The United Nations at 50 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Wilsonian internationalists saw the United Nations as a second--and perhaps final--chance to create a world body that would preserve the peace through collective security.
  • A Miasmia of Corruption: The United Nations at 50 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, they suggest the treaty would bolster U.S. national security.
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[5]

Organization

.The United Nations system is based on five principal organs (formerly six – the Trusteeship Council suspended operations in 1994);[6] the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice.^ The United Nations began relief operations.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

^ The UN wants the implementation of UN treaties such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and compulsory jurisdiction over all states by the International Criminal Court.

.Four of the five principal organs are located at the main United Nations headquarters located on international territory in New York City.^ A summit of world leaders met at the United Nations in New York City .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Court of Justice shall be the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. membership in the United Nations after a four-year transition period.
  • A Miasmia of Corruption: The United Nations at 50 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The International Court of Justice is located in The Hague, while other major agencies are based in the UN offices at Geneva, Vienna, and Nairobi.^ A state which is not of the United Nations may become a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice on to be determined in each case by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fields as diverse as nuclear non-proliferation, AIDS research and monitoring, and international terrorism, UN specialized agencies have helped governments take concerted international action.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The PLO made no other progress in its desire to be accepted as "state" in international agencies.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

Other UN institutions are located throughout the world.
.The six official languages of the United Nations, used in intergovernmental meetings and documents, are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish,[2] while the Secretariat uses two working languages, English and French.^ The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, Russian, English, and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government of -the United States of America.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hans Blix, the head of the United Nations ' inspection commission, negotiated a deal with Iraq to allow the return of weapons inspectors within two weeks.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A United Nations official in Sudan lamented that violence in Darfur has gotten worse since the signing of a recent peace accord.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Five of the official languages were chosen when the UN was founded; Arabic was added later in 1973. The United Nations Editorial Manual states that the standard for English language documents is British usage and Oxford spelling, the Chinese writing standard is Simplified Chinese.^ Date: Oct 1, 1990 10/1/90 Category: Fact Sheets Country: United States Subject: Trade/Economics , United Nations [TEXT] Background .
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the United States pays approximately one quarter of the United Nations' expenses, about 25 percent of Sevan's legal fees will be paid by American taxpayers.
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Daniel Patrick Moynihan, the US ambassador to the UN during the administration of Gerald Ford, will later admit in his memoirs: “The Department of State desired that the United Nations prove utterly ineffective in whatever measures it undertook [with regard to East Timor].

.This replaced Traditional Chinese in 1971 when the UN representation of China was changed from the Republic of China to People's Republic of China.^ Location objects provide a representation of their document's current address , and allow the current entry of the browsing context 's session history to be changed, by adding or replacing entries in the history object.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

General Assembly

.The General Assembly is the main deliberative assembly of the United Nations.^ The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Letters, dated, July 19, 1946, from John Foster Dulles and Michigan Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg to President Harry S. Truman, Dulles thanking Truman for reappointment as an alternate U.S. representative to the United Nations General Assembly, and Vandenberg thanking Truman for a July 18th letter.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

^ With 15 minutes allotted to him, Libyan leader Colonel Muammar el-Qaddafi spoke to the General Assembly of the United Nations for more than an hour.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Composed of all United Nations member states, the assembly meets in regular yearly sessions under a president elected from among the member states.^ Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, speaking at the United Nations in New York , proclaimed his love for all the world's peoples, and suggested that the United States halt domestic fuel production and buy its energy from him “at a fifty percent discount.” .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Series of letters, spanning June 1, 1950-June 13, 1950, between Sumner Welles, Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace, and President Harry S. Truman, initiated by a June 1, 1945 letter from Welles to Wallace in which Welles emphatically stated that the proposed United Nations Charter should provide for a definite date when proposed revisions to the charter be considered by a Constitutional Assembly of all the member states.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

^ January 10, 1949 letter from John Foster Dulles to President Harry S. Truman resigning as a United States representative to the 3rd Regular Session of the United Nations General Assembly.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

.Over a two-week period at the start of each session, all members have the opportunity to address the assembly.^ Attached is correspondence related to Lie's invitation to Truman to address the opening of the 1946 session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York, and two notes regarding Truman's meetings with Lie.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two- thirds majority of the members present and voting.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Traditionally, the Secretary-General makes the first statement, followed by the president of the assembly.^ The drag-and-drop feedback must be generated from the first of the following sources that is available: .
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Following these guidelines will also often make your Web content more usable to users in general.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Statement, dated August 24, 1950, by President Harry S. Truman declaring his nominations for U.S. representatives to the 5th Session of the United Nations General Assembly.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

.The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Westminster Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.^ Statement, dated August 24, 1950, by President Harry S. Truman declaring his nominations for U.S. representatives to the 5th Session of the United Nations General Assembly.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Radiogram, dated January 10, 1946, from William Green of the American Federation of Labor, to James F. Byrnes regretting that the AFL was denied the opportunity to be represented at the United Nations Conference and setting forth the AFL's positions on U.N. organizational issues.
  • Truman Library: United Nations Online Research File 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.trumanlibrary.org [Source type: Reference]

^ US President Bill Clinton will be the first to sign the treaty, followed by 70 other nations, including Britain, China, France, and Russia.

.When the General Assembly votes on important questions, a two-thirds majority of those present and voting is required.^ The general assembly has 53 voting members from Africa compared to 3 voting members from North America.

^ Two days after the opening of the UN General Assembly, and one day after the Taliban defeat, the Security Council adopts Resolution 1378.

^ Countries around the world welcomed those actions, which, together with the major improvement in US-USSR relations, created a positive atmosphere for last year's UN General Assembly.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Examples of important questions include: recommendations on peace and security; election of members to organs; admission, suspension, and expulsion of members; and, budgetary matters.^ The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article 12 , may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These questions shall include: recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security, the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the election of the members of the Economic and Social Council, the election of members of the Trusteeship Council in accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 86, the admission of new Members to the United Nations, the suspension of the rights and privileges of membership, the expulsion of Members, questions relating to the operation of the trusteeship system, and budgetary questions.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

All other questions are decided by majority vote. .Each member country has one vote.^ Chance that a U.N. member country other than the U.S. or Israel did not vote for a 1999 ban on “an arms race in space ”: 0 .
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Apart from approval of budgetary matters, resolutions are not binding on the members. .The Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security that are under Security Council consideration.^ The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article 12 , may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters and may make recommendations with respect to any such matters to the General Assembly, to the Members of the United Nations, and to the specialized agencies concerned.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of inter- national peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is not a Member of the United Nations in accordance with Article 35 , paragraph 2, and, except as provided in Article 12 , may make recommendations with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Conceivably, the one state, one vote power structure could enable states comprising just eight percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote.^ Because the United States pays approximately one quarter of the United Nations' expenses, about 25 percent of Sevan's legal fees will be paid by American taxpayers.
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This Document must then be populated with DOM nodes that represent the tree structure of the input passed to the parser, as defined by the XML specification, the Namespaces in XML specification, and the DOM Core specification.
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^ When a feature specifically only applies to one of the two languages, it is called out by explicitly stating that it does not apply to the other format, as in "for HTML, ...
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.September 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] However, as no more than recommendations, it is difficult to imagine a situation in which a recommendation by member states constituting just eight percent of the world's population, would be adhered to by the remaining ninety-two percent of the population, should they object.^ No armies should be needed -- just our United Nations.

^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
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^ If there is a character in the string input at position position , and it is either a U+0020 SPACE, U+002C COMMA, or U+003B SEMICOLON character, then advance position to the next character in input , or to beyond the end of the string if there are no more characters.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.(See List of countries by population.^ Other countries froze the assets of those on that list before 9/11, but the US did not (see March 8, 2001 ).

)

Security Council

.The Security Council is charged with maintaining peace and security among countries.^ The Security Council resolutions will be enforced—the just demands of peace and security will be met—or action will be unavoidable.

^ I think it's really sweet how they're spreading the love around the member countries of the UN Security Council!
  • Kathryn Cramer: United Nations 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The UN Charter authorizes the Security Council to facilitate the peaceful settlement of disputes among members of the UN. The 15-member Council meets whenever necessary.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.While other organs of the United Nations can only make 'recommendations' to member governments, the Security Council has the power to make binding decisions that member governments have agreed to carry out, under the terms of Charter Article 25.[7] The decisions of the Council are known as United Nations Security Council resolutions.^ The United Nations passes Resolution 678.

^ Security Council Resolution 435 on Namibia.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Security Council Resolution 431 on Namibia.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Security Council is made up of 15 member states, consisting of 5 permanent members – China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States – and 10 non-permanent members, currently Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Gabon, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, Turkey, and Uganda.^ The Trusteeship Council shall consist of the following Members of the United Nations: .
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall be elected for a term of two years.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Military Staff Committee consist of the Chiefs of Staff of the permanent members of the Security Council or their representatives.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The five permanent members hold veto power over substantive but not procedural resolutions allowing a permanent member to block adoption but not to block the debate of a resolution unacceptable to it.^ The Charter gives a special role to the five "permanent members" (China, France, United Kingdom, US, and USSR), any of which can veto a resolution.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It wants to eliminate the veto for permanent members of the Security Council.

^ They want the veto power of the five permanent members of the Security Council to be abolished, thus reducing the influence of the US at the UN. The UN held a grandiose Millennium Assembly Sept 5-9 2000 in New York City.

.The ten temporary seats are held for two-year terms with member states voted in by the General Assembly on a regional basis.^ Each member of the General Assembly shall have one vote.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The UNGA elects the 10 non-permanent members to serve overlapping 2-year terms.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A state which is not of the United Nations may become a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice on to be determined in each case by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

The presidency of the Security Council is rotated alphabetically each month,[8] and is held by Gabon for the month of March 2010.

Secretariat

.The United Nations Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide.^ November 1960 Article The untold story of the UN's Congo army By Joseph Kraft SEE ALSO: Afro-Asian politics ; Career as United Nations secretary-general ; Civil War, 1960-1965 ; Hammarskjöld, Dag ; Diplomatic negotiations in international disputes ; United Nations ; Zaire PDF IMAGES .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hans Blix, the head of the United Nations ' inspection commission, negotiated a deal with Iraq to allow the return of weapons inspectors within two weeks.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters and may make recommendations with respect to any such matters to the General Assembly, to the Members of the United Nations, and to the specialized agencies concerned.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings.^ The United Nations said the world needed to create 500 million new jobs over the next ten years.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ In 1996, the United Nations used some of the Al Qaqaa explosives to destroy a large Iraqi germ warfare facility.

^ It is entirely appropriate for America, as for us, to reserve their position if the United Nations does not meet its responsibilities.” [ BBC, 10/18/2002 ; BBC, 10/18/2002 ] .

.It also carries out tasks as directed by the UN Security Council, the UN General Assembly, the UN Economic and Social Council, and other UN bodies.^ The General Assembly and, under its authority, the Trusteeship Council, in carrying out their functions, may: .
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Economic and Social Council shall perform such functions as fall within its competence in connexion with the carrying out of the recommendations of the General Assembly.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Secretary-General shall act in that capacity in all meetings of the General Assembly, of the Security Council, of the Economic and Social Council, and of the Trusteeship Council, and shall perform such other functions as are entrusted to him by these organs.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The United Nations Charter provides that the staff be chosen by application of the "highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity," with due regard for the importance of recruiting on a wide geographical basis.^ Due regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The paramount consideration in the employment of the staff and in the determination of the conditions of service shall be the necessity of securing the highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Charter provides that the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any authority other than the UN. Each UN member country is enjoined to respect the international character of the Secretariat and not seek to influence its staff.^ In the performance of their duties the Secretary-General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other authority externa to the Organization.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to respect the exclusively inter- national character of the responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The present Charter shall be ratified by the signatory states in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Secretary-General alone is responsible for staff selection.
.The Secretary-General's duties include helping resolve international disputes, administering peacekeeping operations, organizing international conferences, gathering information on the implementation of Security Council decisions, and consulting with member governments regarding various initiatives.^ We helped to create the Security Council.

^ He neglects to mention, however, that 297.1(c) requires mandatory dispute resolution if it is alleged that, in exercising its sovereign rights governing resources, the coastal state acts in contravention of international standards "which are applicable to the coastal State and which have been established by this Convention or through a competent international organization or diplomatic conference in accordance with this Convention."
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The General Assembly may consider the general principles of co-operation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments, and may make recommendations with regard to such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to both.
  • The Avalon Project : United Nations Charter; June 26, 1945 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Key Secretariat offices in this area include the Office of the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations.^ Harper's Index Source: United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations (N.Y.C.) .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harper's Index Source: U.N. Department of Peacekeeping Operations (N.Y.C.) .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter that, in his or her opinion, may threaten international peace and security.^ The Security Council resolutions will be enforced—the just demands of peace and security will be met—or action will be unavoidable.

^ Two days after the opening of the UN General Assembly, and one day after the Taliban defeat, the Security Council adopts Resolution 1378.

^ Kofi Annan , the secretary general of the United Nations , called for an international peacekeeping force in Liberia ; President Bush called for the resignation of President Charles Taylor; Taylor invited Bush to send American troops to make peace.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Secretary-General

The current Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon of South Korea.
The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General, who acts as the de facto spokesman and leader of the UN. The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon, who took over from Kofi Annan in 2007 and will be eligible for reappointment when his first term expires in 2011.[9]
.Envisioned by Franklin D. Roosevelt as a "world moderator", the position is defined in the UN Charter as the organization's "chief administrative officer",[10] but the Charter also states that the Secretary-General can bring to the Security Council's attention "any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security",[11] giving the position greater scope for action on the world stage.^ Gives the geographical position of the person or organization.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These goals interlock with the goal of preserving international peace because the UN's founders realized that a peaceful world needed to be a prosperous one, and that prosperity could not be achieved without guarantees of individual rights, chief among which is the right to self-determination.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Security Council resolutions will be enforced—the just demands of peace and security will be met—or action will be unavoidable.

.The position has evolved into a dual role of an administrator of the UN organization, and a diplomat and mediator addressing disputes between member states and finding consensus to global issues.^ At the same time, a hopeful agreement on a potential UN role in Cambodia was forged by the permanent members of the Security Council.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bush administration disagrees with the United Nations and other member states over what precisely should qualify as a “material breach” of UN Resolution 1441 (see November 8, 2002 ).

^ The UN Charter authorizes the Security Council to facilitate the peaceful settlement of disputes among members of the UN. The 15-member Council meets whenever necessary.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[9]
.The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly, after being recommended by the Security Council, any member of which can veto,[12] and the General Assembly can theoretically override the Security Council's recommendation if a majority vote is not achieved, although this has not happened so far.^ Jacques Bernard, director-general of the nine-member electoral council, denied accusations that the council voided many votes for Preval.
  • Kathryn Cramer: United Nations 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think it's really sweet how they're spreading the love around the member countries of the UN Security Council!
  • Kathryn Cramer: United Nations 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two days after the opening of the UN General Assembly, and one day after the Taliban defeat, the Security Council adopts Resolution 1378.

[13] .There are no specific criteria for the post, but over the years it has become accepted that the post shall be held for one or two terms of five years, that the post shall be appointed on the basis of geographical rotation, and that the Secretary-General shall not originate from one of the five permanent Security Council member states.^ We are a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

^ The UNGA elects the 10 non-permanent members to serve overlapping 2-year terms.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In its editorial, Post editors lament: Since that country began serving a term on the U.N. Security Council last year, the government of President Thabo Mbeki has consistently allied itself with the world's rogue states and against the Western democracies.
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[13]
Secretaries-General of the United Nations[14]
No. Name Country of origin Took office Left office Note
1 Trygve Lie  Norway 2 February 1946 10 November 1952 Resigned
2 Dag Hammarskjöld  Sweden 10 April 1953 18 September 1961 Died while in office
3 U Thant  Burma 30 November 1961 1 January 1972 First Secretary-General from Asia
4 Kurt Waldheim  Austria 1 January 1972 1 January 1982
5 Javier Pérez de Cuéllar  Peru 1 January 1982 1 January 1992 First Secretary-General from South America
6 Boutros Boutros-Ghali  Egypt 1 January 1992 1 January 1997 First Secretary-General from Africa
7 Kofi Annan  Ghana 1 January 1997 1 January 2007
8 Ban Ki-moon  South Korea 1 January 2007 Incumbent

International Court of Justice

.The International Court of Justice (ICJ), located in The Hague, Netherlands, is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations.^ May 1949 Article A warning on world government By Warren R. Austin SEE ALSO: International organization ; 1945-1953 ; United Nations PDF IMAGES .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ No single nation or region can do this alone: it will require comprehensive international cooperation as required by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea."
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States has worked with other nations to coordinate an international effort to provide assistance to those desperately in need.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Established in 1945 by the United Nations Charter, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice.^ The United Nations began relief operations.
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^ Within the United Nations system, programs, funds and specialized agencies work to improve the conditions of particular populations and oversee the enforcement of specific rights, such as the right to health, through the World Health Organization , and labor rights, through the International Labor Organization .
  • United Nations Systems 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When a country becomes a member of the United Nations, it undertakes the obligations set forth in the Charter of the United Nations , which includes the promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all people.
  • United Nations Systems 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the Court.^ Is the small, but tenacious, opposition rooted in traditional conservative mistrust of international legal bodies, such as the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court?
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, sharing the building with the Hague Academy of International Law, a private centre for the study of international law.^ Harper's Index Source: International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (The Hague, the Netherlands) .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Several of the Court's current judges are either alumni or former faculty members of the Academy. Its purpose is to adjudicate disputes among states. The court has heard cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference and ethnic cleansing, among others, and continues to hear cases.[16]
.A related court, the International Criminal Court (ICC), began operating in 2002 through international discussions initiated by the General Assembly.^ This spring, through tenacious commitment to First Amendment values, we were able to join consensus on the two information-policy resolutions that will be brought to the General Assembly for action.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This related to a report on the situation of the workers in the occupied Arab territories, which has been prepared by the ILO [International Labor Organization] director general since 1978.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ UN and many of its specialized and related agencies, International Monetary Fund (IMF), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), INTELSAT, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is the first permanent international court charged with trying those who commit the most serious crimes under international law, including war crimes and genocide.^ Slobodan Milosevic refused to undergo a psychiatric evaluation ordered by the U.N. war-crimes tribunal that is trying him for genocide.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ To the best of my ability to check, I established that CAG is not under contract to the UN. Just who is manning those boats?
  • Kathryn Cramer: United Nations 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the first time since the Korean War, the world had engaged in a conflict sanctioned by international law.

.The ICC is functionally independent of the UN in terms of personnel and financing, but some meetings of the ICC governing body, the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute, are held at the UN. There is a "relationship agreement" between the ICC and the UN that governs how the two institutions regard each other legally.^ Instead of a united body of nations determined to counter aggression from any quarter, the world was divided first between ideologies, then between newly independent states and the traditional powers, and then between rich countries and poor.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no implied relationship between document conformance requirements and implementation conformance requirements.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When a feature specifically only applies to one of the two languages, it is called out by explicitly stating that it does not apply to the other format, as in "for HTML, ...
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[17]

Economic and Social Council

.The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development.^ Two days after the opening of the UN General Assembly, and one day after the Taliban defeat, the Security Council adopts Resolution 1378.

^ By Dan Mabry Lacy SEE ALSO: Cold War ; Developing countries ; Economic assistance ; Economic assistance, American ; Foreign trade promotion ; International trade ; Investments, American ; United Nations PDF IMAGES .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ We therefore need to equip nations to become resilient to the full range of these natural phenomena by promoting economic growth and wealth generation...
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

.ECOSOC has 54 members, all of which are elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term.^ The UNGA elects the 10 non-permanent members to serve overlapping 2-year terms.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The W3C TAG has worked on the general issue of "versioning" for many years, and many TAG members may be worn out on the issue.
  • HTML - W3C Weblog - Category Archives 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: General]

^ [DOMRANGE] All of the members of the Selection interface are defined in terms of operations on the Range objects represented by this object.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The president is elected for a one-year term and chosen amongst the small or middle powers represented on ECOSOC. ECOSOC meets once a year in July for a four-week session.^ The UNGA elects the 10 non-permanent members to serve overlapping 2-year terms.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A mortar attack on July 17, 1992, hitting a bunker where British minister Douglas Hurd was meeting with Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic.

^ A week consists of a week-year number and a week number representing a seven day period.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Since 1998, it has held another meeting each April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).^ In doing this, however, we must keep in mind that the Philippines has embarked on an economic reform program in cooperation with the IMF [International Monetary Fund] and other donors, including the United States.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ UN and many of its specialized and related agencies, International Monetary Fund (IMF), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), INTELSAT, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The political leadership of the UN must be matched by the economic leadership of the IMF and the World Bank.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Viewed separate from the specialized bodies it coordinates, ECOSOC's functions include information gathering, advising member nations, and making recommendations.^ I can’t imagine an elected United States—elected member of the United States Senate or House of Representatives saying, I think I’m going to wait for the United Nations to make a decision.

.In addition, ECOSOC is well-positioned to provide policy coherence and coordinate the overlapping functions of the UN’s subsidiary bodies and it is in these roles that it is most active.^ An authoring tool that conforms to these guidelines will promote accessibility by providing an accessible user interface to authors with disabilities as well as by enabling, supporting, and promoting the production of accessible Web content by all authors.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These operations can raise exceptions, as defined for the Range interface; this can therefore result in the members of the Selection interface raising exceptions as well, in addition to any explicitly called out below.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These categories are related as follows: In addition, certain elements are categorized as form-associated elements and further subcategorized to define their role in various form-related processing models.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Specialized institutions

.There are many UN organizations and agencies that function to work on particular issues.^ Under UN auspices, the US is working with other countries to address issues of worldwide concern.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the UN effort has been slow in becoming organized, there has been an outpouring of pledges of assistance from the international community.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The membership of the UN-system agencies appear to agree with the US view that the PLO represents only a political organization which does not have the internationally accepted attributes of statehood.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some of the most well-known agencies are the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization, UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), the World Bank and the World Health Organization.^ The result has been a rebirth of the United Nations as well.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Within the United Nations system, programs, funds and specialized agencies work to improve the conditions of particular populations and oversee the enforcement of specific rights, such as the right to health, through the World Health Organization , and labor rights, through the International Labor Organization .
  • United Nations Systems 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ UNESCO met to discuss how to preserve world heritage sites, like the Tower of London and the Great Barrier Reef , from the effects of global warming ; the United States said that the organization had no brief to discuss an unproven theory.
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.It is through these agencies that the UN performs most of its humanitarian work.^ The narcotics control agencies of the UN system have been the subject of a comprehensive proposal for reorganization so that their work might become more efficient and effective.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Working through these issues took a certain amount of time.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

Examples include mass vaccination programmes (through the WHO), the avoidance of famine and malnutrition (through the work of the WFP) and the protection of vulnerable and displaced people (for example, by the HCR).
.The United Nations Charter stipulates that each primary organ of the UN can establish various specialized agencies to fulfill its duties.^ This video of the waiting line outside the COP-15 UN climate conference in Copenhagen on 12/15/09 shows the United Nations is equipped for neither task.
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing.” An Israeli soldier shot and killed a senior United Nations official, Iain John Hook, in the agency's compound in Jenin, in the West Bank.
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^ UNAIDS, the United Nations agency that fights AIDS, lowered its estimate of the number of people infected with the disease worldwide, from 39.5 million to 33.2 million.
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Specialized agencies of the United Nations
No. Acronyms Flag Agency Headquarters Head Established in
1 FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization Italy Rome, Italy Senegal Jacques Diouf 1945
2 IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency Austria Vienna, Austria Japan Yukiya Amano 1957
3 ICAO
International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization Canada Montreal, Canada France Raymond Benjamin 1947
4 IFAD
International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Fund for Agricultural Development Italy Rome, Italy Nigeria Kanayo F. Nwanze 1977
5 ILO International Labour Organization Switzerland Geneva, Switzerland Chile Juan Somavía 1946
6 IMO
International Maritime Organization
International Maritime Organization United Kingdom London, United Kingdom Greece Efthimios E. Mitropoulos 1948
7 IMF International Monetary Fund United States Washington, D.C., USA France Dominique Strauss-Kahn 1945
8 ITU
International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union Switzerland Geneva, Switzerland Mali Hamadoun Touré 1947
9 UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization France Paris, France Bulgaria Irina Bokova 1946
10 UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization Austria Vienna, Austria Sierra Leone Kandeh Yumkella 1967
11 UPU
Universal Postal Union
Universal Postal Union Switzerland Berne, Switzerland France Edouard Dayan 1947
12 WB World Bank United States Washington, D.C, USA United States Robert B. Zoellick 1945
13 WFP
World Food Programme
World Food Programme Italy Rome, Italy United States Josette Sheeran 1963
14 WHO
World Health Organization
World Health Organization Switzerland Geneva, Switzerland Hong Kong Margaret Chan 1948
15 WIPO
World Intellectual Property Organization
World Intellectual Property Organization Switzerland Geneva, Switzerland Australia Francis Gurry 1974
16 WMO
World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization Switzerland Geneva, Switzerland Russia Alexander Bedritsky 1950
17 UNWTO
World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization Spain Madrid, Spain Jordan Taleb Rifai 1974

Membership

.
An animation showing the timeline of accession of UN member states, according to the UN.
^ On behalf of the six initiators, he issued invitations to all UN member states to attend the summit.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

Note that Antarctica has no government; political control of Western Sahara is in dispute; and the territories administered by the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Kosovo are considered by the UN to be provinces of the People's Republic of China and Republic of Serbia, respectively.
.With the addition of Montenegro on 28 June 2006, there are currently 192 United Nations member states, including all fully recognized independent states[18] apart from Vatican City (the Holy See, which holds sovereignty over the state of Vatican City, is a permanent observer).^ We are a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

^ Date: Oct 1, 1990 10/1/90 Category: Fact Sheets Country: United States Subject: Trade/Economics , United Nations [TEXT] Background .
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the United States pays approximately one quarter of the United Nations' expenses, about 25 percent of Sevan's legal fees will be paid by American taxpayers.
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[19]
The United Nations Charter outlines the rules for membership:
  1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
  2. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
—United Nations Charter, Chapter 2, Article 4, http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/

Group of 77

.The Group of 77 at the UN is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.^ Hans Blix, the head of the United Nations ' inspection commission, negotiated a deal with Iraq to allow the return of weapons inspectors within two weeks.
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^ Date: Oct 1, 1990 10/1/90 Category: Fact Sheets Country: United States Subject: Trade/Economics , United Nations [TEXT] Background .
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States removed North Korea from its list of state sponsors of terrorism after the nation agreed to provide UN inspectors full access to its nuclear program.
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There were 77 founding members of the organization, but the organization has since expanded to 130 member countries. .The group was founded on 15 June 1964 by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).^ Date: Oct 1, 1990 10/1/90 Category: Fact Sheets Country: United States Subject: Trade/Economics , United Nations [TEXT] Background .
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Kathryn on Wednesday, February 15, 2006 at 01:47 PM in Haiti , Transparency , United Nations .
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^ The United Nations , responding to food riots in 30 countries, said that the number of chronically hungry people in the world was expected to rise 100 million to 950 million.
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The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun.[20]

Functions

Peacekeeping and security

UN peacekeeping missions. Dark blue regions indicate current missions , while light blue regions represent former missions.
.The UN, after approval by the Security Council, sends peacekeepers to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased or paused to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from resuming hostilities.^ The Chinese, too, have been active in promoting use of the UN Security Council to settle regional conflicts.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One day after Iraq's parliament rejected the terms of the Security Council resolution calling for resumed weapons inspections, a letter from Iraqi foreign minister Naji Sabri agreeing to the demands was delivered to the United Nations .
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^ The Security Council resolutions will be enforced—the just demands of peace and security will be met—or action will be unavoidable.

.Since the UN does not maintain its own military, peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states of the UN. The forces, also called the "Blue Helmets", who enforce UN accords are awarded United Nations Medals, which are considered international decorations instead of military decorations.^ Who speaks for the UN Peacekeepers?
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^ A congressional study found that the occupation of Iraq is unsustainable given the current size of the U.S. military, and the United States released a draft resolution calling on the United Nations to create a multinational peacekeeping force for Iraq that would remain under American military and political control.
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^ Date: Oct 1, 1990 10/1/90 Category: Fact Sheets Country: United States Subject: Trade/Economics , United Nations [TEXT] Background .
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988.
.The founders of the UN had envisaged that the organization would act to prevent conflicts between nations and make future wars impossible, however the outbreak of the Cold War made peacekeeping agreements extremely difficult because of the division of the world into hostile camps.^ These goals interlock with the goal of preserving international peace because the UN's founders realized that a peaceful world needed to be a prosperous one, and that prosperity could not be achieved without guarantees of individual rights, chief among which is the right to self-determination.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Organizers of the United Nations Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders failed to invite the Tibetan Dalai Lama because doing so would offend China .
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^ Although we will have differences with the Soviets and the Chinese, as well as other nations, on the particulars of our policy, I think there is a developing international consensus that will make it possible to utilize more fully the UN's peacekeeping machinery.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Following the end of the Cold War, there were renewed calls for the UN to become the agency for achieving world peace, as there are several dozen ongoing conflicts that continue to rage around the globe.^ These goals interlock with the goal of preserving international peace because the UN's founders realized that a peaceful world needed to be a prosperous one, and that prosperity could not be achieved without guarantees of individual rights, chief among which is the right to self-determination.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the UN effort has been slow in becoming organized, there has been an outpouring of pledges of assistance from the international community.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Another area of concern remains the continued underrepresentation of US citizens on the staffs of many UN agencies.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A 2005 RAND Corp study found the UN to be successful in two out of three peacekeeping efforts.^ Indeed, we especially appreciate your efforts in carrying out a study of the Soviet economy that is unprecedented in its scope.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Brazilian commander of UN peacekeepers in Haiti was found dead on the balcony of his hotel room Saturday after shooting himself in the head, authorities said, in a blow to the 9,000-strong force and efforts to restore democracy in Haiti.
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^ The security situation deteriorated dramatically, with many kidnappings and assassinations as well as the death of two UN peacekeepers.
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.It compared UN nation-building efforts to those of the United States, and found that seven out of eight UN cases are at peace, as compared with four out of eight US cases at peace.^ UN human rights experts decided not to visit Guantánamo Bay because the United States refused to allow them full access to detainees.
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^ Because the United States pays approximately one quarter of the United Nations' expenses, about 25 percent of Sevan's legal fees will be paid by American taxpayers.
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Daniel Patrick Moynihan, the US ambassador to the UN during the administration of Gerald Ford, will later admit in his memoirs: “The Department of State desired that the United Nations prove utterly ineffective in whatever measures it undertook [with regard to East Timor].

[21] .Also in 2005, the Human Security Report documented a decline in the number of wars, genocides and human rights abuses since the end of the Cold War, and presented evidence, albeit circumstantial, that international activism—mostly spearheaded by the UN—has been the main cause of the decline in armed conflict since the end of the Cold War.^ Certainly he was given no incentive by the Human Rights Commission to desist from the sweeping violations of international law which form the heart of his policy in the current crisis.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They are just now beginning to produce the results which we will need to confront the international issues before us as we enter the post-Cold War era.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, the millions of persons who have perished in conflicts since the founding of the United Nations are a grim testimony to the failure of the international community in living up to this principle.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[22] Situations where the UN has not only acted to keep the peace but also occasionally intervened include the Korean War (1950–1953), and the authorization of intervention in Iraq after the Persian Gulf War in 1990.
A British armoured car painted as it appeared while deployed on a UN peacekeeping mission.
The UN has also drawn criticism for perceived failures. .In many cases, member states have shown reluctance to achieve or enforce Security Council resolutions, an issue that stems from the UN's intergovernmental nature—seen by some as simply an association of 192 member states who must reach consensus, not an independent organization.^ Security Council Resolution 435 on Namibia.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Security Council Resolution 431 on Namibia.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, such behavior on the part of many of the developing countries who now have a majority on the commission is not isolated to the case of Iraq.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Disagreements in the Security Council about military action and intervention are seen as having failed to prevent the 1994 Rwandan Genocide,[23] failed to provide humanitarian aid and intervene in the Second Congo War, failed to intervene in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre and protect a refugee haven by the authorizing the peacekeepers to use force, failure to deliver food to starving people in Somalia, failure to implement provisions of Security Council resolutions related to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and continuing failure to prevent genocide or provide assistance in Darfur.^ Security Council Resolution 598 on the Iran-Iraq war.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Security Council Resolution 435 on Namibia.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Security Council Resolution 431 on Namibia.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.UN peacekeepers have also been accused of child rape, sexual abuse or soliciting prostitutes during various peacekeeping missions, starting in 2003, in the Congo,[24] Haiti,[25][26] Liberia,[27] Sudan,[28] Burundi and Côte d'Ivoire.^ Kathryn on Saturday, February 25, 2006 at 10:24 AM in Haiti , Photography , Transparency , United Nations .
  • Kathryn Cramer: United Nations 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United Nations was investigating accusations of sexual abuse by its staff in Bunia, Congo .
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^ Child abductions were on the rise in Afghanistan , and the United Nations was having a hard time recruiting peacekeepers for its mission in Haiti .
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[29] In 2004, former Israeli ambassador to the UN Dore Gold criticized what it called the organization's moral relativism in the face of (and occasional support of)[30] genocide and terrorism that occurred between the moral clarity of its founding period and the present day. .Gold specifically mentions Yasser Arafat's 1988 invitation to address the General Assembly as a low point in the UN's history.^ Two days after the opening of the UN General Assembly, and one day after the Taliban defeat, the Security Council adopts Resolution 1378.

^ (South Africa's voting rights in the UN General Assembly have been suspended since 1974.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We expect the report to be considered by the UN General Assembly in the fall of this year, and we are urging its adoption.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[31]
In addition to peacekeeping, the UN is also active in encouraging disarmament. .Regulation of armaments was included in the writing of the UN Charter in 1945 and was envisioned as a way of limiting the use of human and economic resources for the creation of them.^ Status: Last call for comments The icon keyword may be used with link elements, for which it creates an external resource link .
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^ It has a specification that unambiguously defines how to handle pages that use the keyword, including when they use it in incorrect ways.
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^ Status: Last call for comments The prefetch keyword may be used with link elements, for which it creates an external resource link .
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[32] .However, the advent of nuclear weapons came only weeks after the signing of the charter and immediately halted concepts of arms limitation and disarmament, resulting in the first resolution of the first ever General Assembly meeting calling for specific proposals for "the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other major weapons adaptable to mass destruction".[33] The principal forums for disarmament issues are the General Assembly First Committee, the UN Disarmament Commission, and the Conference on Disarmament, and considerations have been made of the merits of a ban on testing nuclear weapons, outer space arms control, the banning of chemical weapons and land mines, nuclear and conventional disarmament, nuclear-weapon-free zones, the reduction of military budgets, and measures to strengthen international security.^ All other week-years have 52 weeks.
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^ The United Nations adopts the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) banning the testing of nuclear weapons.

^ The US may be faced with the question of whether to take military steps to prevent the development or use of weapons of mass destruction,” it states, and notes that these steps may include pre-empting an impending attack with nuclear, chemical or biological weapons, “or punishing the attackers or threatening punishment of aggressors through a variety of means,” including attacks on the plants that manufacture such weapons.

The UN is one of the official supporters of the World Security Forum, a major international conference on the effects of global catastrophes and disasters, taking place in the United Arab Emirates, in October 2008.

Human rights and humanitarian assistance

.The pursuit of human rights was a central reason for creating the UN. World War II atrocities and genocide led to a ready consensus that the new organization must work to prevent any similar tragedies in the future.^ Otherwise, it must mark the last subpath as closed, create a new subpath whose first point is the same as the previous subpath's first point, and finally add this new subpath to the path.
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^ UN human rights experts decided not to visit Guantánamo Bay because the United States refused to allow them full access to detainees.
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^ On setting, if the value is one of start , end , left , right , or center , then the value must be changed to the new value.
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.An early objective was creating a legal framework for considering and acting on complaints about human rights violations.^ I am concerned by this move, which I see as an effort to dilute the commission's ability to deal impartially with human rights violations wherever they occur.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While such surveillance of foreign diplomats at the UN is legal under the US’s Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), it violates the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.

^ Certainly he was given no incentive by the Human Rights Commission to desist from the sweeping violations of international law which form the heart of his policy in the current crisis.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The UN Charter obliges all member nations to promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights" and to take "joint and separate action" to that end.^ UN human rights experts decided not to visit Guantánamo Bay because the United States refused to allow them full access to detainees.
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^ In fields as diverse as nuclear non-proliferation, AIDS research and monitoring, and international terrorism, UN specialized agencies have helped governments take concerted international action.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Several members of the UN Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) at its session earlier this year tried to pass a resolution criticizing Iraq, but were blocked by the reluctance of the developing countries on the commission to criticize one of their own.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, though not legally binding, was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 as a common standard of achievement for all.^ Two days after the opening of the UN General Assembly, and one day after the Taliban defeat, the Security Council adopts Resolution 1378.

^ The horizons of democracy, of human rights, of national dignity, and of economic progress have all been extended.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That stain is General Assembly Resolution 3379, adopted in 1975, which equates Zionism with racism.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Assembly regularly takes up human rights issues.^ The United Nations General Assembly defined AIDS as a political, human rights, and economic issue; formerly AIDS was a venereal disease .
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.The UN and its agencies are central in upholding and implementing the principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.^ UN human rights experts decided not to visit Guantánamo Bay because the United States refused to allow them full access to detainees.
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^ A UN human rights investigator warns that the Bosnian Muslims are “virtually threatened with extermination” unless they are helped by outside forces.

^ February 9, 2003: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights in Bosnia Condemns UN Complicity in Sex Trade .

.A case in point is support by the UN for countries in transition to democracy.^ East Asian and Pacific countries have displayed unprecedented unity in support of the seven UN Security Council resolutions and in implementing UN sanctions against Iraq.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Technical assistance in providing free and fair elections, improving judicial structures, drafting constitutions, training human rights officials, and transforming armed movements into political parties have contributed significantly to democratization worldwide.^ Ongoing activities concerning the environment, refugee assistance, and drug abuse and trafficking contribute significantly to international cooperation.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations and Human Rights Watch condemned the police in Kabul, Afghanistan, for shooting into a crowd of unarmed student protesters; at least two students were killed.
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^ An American official said that Libya's election as chairman of the United Nations Human Rights Commission was “regrettable.” Children from single-parent homes are more likely to go crazy, a Swedish study found.
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.The UN has helped run elections in countries with little or no democratic history, including recently in Afghanistan and East Timor.^ During the 24-year Indonesian occupation of East Timor (see December 7, 1976 ), the UN passes a number of resolutions condemning the invasion and occupation.

^ The US- and British- imposed “no-fly” zones have never been recognized by the UN and the two countries’ jurisdiction over the zones has no legal basis.

^ UN Repeatedly Condemns Occupation of East Timor, but Resolutions Have No Impact .

.The UN is also a forum to support the right of women to participate fully in the political, economic, and social life of their countries.^ We are seeing this, for example, in the restoration of private ownership in countries where the state once controlled every single aspect of economic life.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A team of economists and officials from the World Bank, IMF, and UN meet in Iraq to consider a new economic policy for the country.

^ Today, other countries, already facing painful economic and political transformations, must now deal with additional hardships.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The UN contributes to raising consciousness of the concept of human rights through its covenants and its attention to specific abuses through its General Assembly, Security Council resolutions, or International Court of Justice rulings.^ Security Council Resolution 435 on Namibia.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Security Council Resolution 431 on Namibia.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During a meeting in Jordan, Iraqi diplomat Kizam Hamdoon and US diplomat James Placke discuss a proposed draft resolution that Iran presented to the UN Security Council (see Mid-March 1984 ) calling on the international body to condemn Iraq’s use of chemical weapons.

.The purpose of the United Nations Human Rights Council, established in 2006,[34] is to address human rights violations.^ Parties to the conflict further agreed to establish a supreme national council , which will represent Cambodia externally and occupy the Cambodian seat at the United Nations.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. House of Representatives voted to withhold $244 million in United Nations dues if American did not regain its seat on the Human Rights Commission.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kathryn on Thursday, February 16, 2006 at 06:52 AM in Haiti , Transparency , United Nations .
  • Kathryn Cramer: United Nations 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Council is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which was often criticised for the high-profile positions it gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens.^ The United Nations gave up trying to stop human cloning .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

^ Hans Blix, the head of the United Nations ' inspection commission, negotiated a deal with Iraq to allow the return of weapons inspectors within two weeks.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .The council has 47 members distributed by region, which each serve three year terms, and may not serve three consecutive terms.^ The UNGA elects the 10 non-permanent members to serve overlapping 2-year terms.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In May, the spring ECOSOC [Economic and Social Council] voted to expand the membership of the UNHRC as of 1992 by 10 new members, allotted entirely to the Latin American, African, and Asian regional groups.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[36] A candidate to the body must be approved by a majority of the General Assembly. In addition, the council has strict rules for membership, including a universal human rights review. .While some members with questionable human rights records have been elected, it is fewer than before with the increased focus on each member state's human rights record.^ UN human rights experts decided not to visit Guantánamo Bay because the United States refused to allow them full access to detainees.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the fifth-cycle negotiations at the UN development program's governing council, the United States managed to increase the focus of UN grant assistance on the poorest countries.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States , which edited Iraq's weapons declaration before distributing it to other members of the U.N. .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]
.The rights of some 370 million indigenous peoples around the world is also a focus for the UN, with a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples being approved by the General Assembly in 2007.[38] The declaration outlines the individual and collective rights to culture, language, education, identity, employment and health, thereby addressing post-colonial issues which had confronted indigenous peoples for centuries.^ These goals interlock with the goal of preserving international peace because the UN's founders realized that a peaceful world needed to be a prosperous one, and that prosperity could not be achieved without guarantees of individual rights, chief among which is the right to self-determination.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations , responding to food riots in 30 countries, said that the number of chronically hungry people in the world was expected to rise 100 million to 950 million.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two days after the opening of the UN General Assembly, and one day after the Taliban defeat, the Security Council adopts Resolution 1378.

The declaration aims to maintain, strengthen and encourage the growth of indigenous institutions, cultures and traditions. It also prohibits discrimination against indigenous peoples and promotes their active participation in matters which concern their past, present and future.[38]
.In conjunction with other organizations such as the Red Cross, the UN provides food, drinking water, shelter and other humanitarian services to populaces suffering from famine, displaced by war, or afflicted by other disasters.^ Most will require transportation to their home countries and, while they await space in the international airlift, the world must provide for their basic needs for water, food, shelter, and medical attention.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Of this amount, Japan has allocated $8 million to the UN Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO), $2 million to the International Red Cross, and $12 million to the International Organization on Migration.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The UN oil-for-food scheme was set up in 1995 to allow Iraq to sell controlled amounts of oil to raise money for humanitarian supplies.
  • Kathryn Cramer: United Nations 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major humanitarian branches of the UN are the World Food Programme (which helps feed more than 100 million people a year in 80 countries), the office of the High Commissioner for Refugees with projects in over 116 countries, as well as peacekeeping projects in over 24 countries.^ During the preceding year, if any beneficiary has supplied more than 50% of the total US imports of a product or more than a certain dollar figure ($88 million in 1989) of that product, the President must withdraw its eligibility.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations , responding to food riots in 30 countries, said that the number of chronically hungry people in the world was expected to rise 100 million to 950 million.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson had himself debunked the allegations more than a year earlier (see February 21, 2002-March 4, 2002 ).

Social and economic development

Millennium Development Goals
  1. eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;
  2. achieve universal primary education;
  3. promote gender equality and empower women;
  4. reduce child mortality;
  5. improve maternal health;
  6. combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases;
  7. ensure environmental sustainability; and
  8. develop a global partnership for development.
The UN is involved in supporting development, e.g. by the formulation of the Millennium Development Goals. .The UN Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world.^ In the fifth-cycle negotiations at the UN development program's governing council, the United States managed to increase the focus of UN grant assistance on the poorest countries.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Parent organization of UN World Food Programme Parent organization of United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan Employer of Madeleine Rees Employer of Jacques Paul Klein United Nations (UN) was a participant or observer in the following events: .

.Organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO), UNAIDS, and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria are leading institutions in the battle against diseases around the world, especially in poor countries.^ UNESCO met to discuss how to preserve world heritage sites, like the Tower of London and the Great Barrier Reef , from the effects of global warming ; the United States said that the organization had no brief to discuss an unproven theory.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As David Ridenour notes in the video, which he shot, this may look like a waiting line for health care in a country with government-run medicine, but it's actually a waiting line for a conference attempting to establish a world government-run energy rationing scheme.
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ UNAIDS, the United Nations agency that fights AIDS, lowered its estimate of the number of people infected with the disease worldwide, from 39.5 million to 33.2 million.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The UN Population Fund is a major provider of reproductive services.^ At the request of the six initiators, the UN is providing support services, and UNICEF is providing the summit secretariat.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It has helped reduce infant and maternal mortality in 100 countries.^ The U.S. and other developed countries will help raise $100 billion per year by 2020 to help developing nations with climate change mitigation and adaptation.
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.The UN also promotes human development through various related agencies.^ The US government, through the Agency for International Development, contributed $150,000 to the summit budget.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Promotion of economic and social development under a regime of individual human rights is also an integral part of the vision contained in the charter.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ UN and many of its specialized and related agencies, International Monetary Fund (IMF), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), INTELSAT, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund (IMF), for example, are independent, specialized agencies and observers within the UN framework, according to a 1947 agreement.^ UN and many of its specialized and related agencies, International Monetary Fund (IMF), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), INTELSAT, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Effective multilateral diplomacy within the UN framework, however, requires a realistic look at the world organization's capabilities and limitations.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This year alone, US payments to the UN system (including the UN and specialized agencies and programs but not the World Bank) will total about $700 million.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

They were initially formed as separate from the UN through the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1944.[39]
.The UN annually publishes the Human Development Index (HDI), a comparative measure ranking countries by poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other factors.^ Places by which Russia's ranking in the U.N.'s Human Development Index of living standards has fallen since 1990: 31 .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several members of the UN Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) at its session earlier this year tried to pass a resolution criticizing Iraq, but were blocked by the reluctance of the developing countries on the commission to criticize one of their own.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We will, however, continue to work hard to develop new alliances with countries committed to advancing human rights standards throughout the world.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that all 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.[40] This was declared in the United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000.

Mandates

.From time to time the different bodies of the United Nations pass resolutions which contain operating paragraphs that begin with the words "requests", "calls upon", or "encourages", which the Secretary-General interprets as a mandate to set up a temporary organization or do something.^ The United Nations passes Resolution 678.

^ The United Nations began relief operations.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here is another way of marking this up, this time showing the paragraphs explicitly, and splitting the one link element into three: .
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.These mandates can be as little as researching and publishing a written report, or mounting a full scale peace-keeping operation (usually the exclusive domain of the Security Council).^ MINUSTAH's just-published report to the UN Security Council begins: .
  • Kathryn Cramer: United Nations 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Security Council resolutions will be enforced—the just demands of peace and security will be met—or action will be unavoidable.

^ This request is in keeping with both the spirit and letter of UN Security Council Resolution 661 and in agreement with the approach outlined above.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although the specialized institutions, such as the WHO, were originally set up by this means, they are not the same as mandates because they are permanent organizations that exist independently of the UN with their own membership structure.^ For members that return objects (including function objects), each distinct effective script origin that is not the same as the Window object's Document 's effective script origin must be provided with a separate set of objects.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The element's 2D context's fillStyle attribute is set to a CanvasPattern object that was created from an HTMLImageElement or an HTMLVideoElement whose origin was not the same as that of the Document object that owns the canvas element when the pattern was created.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But what needs to happen right now is that the UN needs to act, and they need to back up their actions with enforcement.

.One could say that original mandate was simply to cover the process of setting up the institution, and has therefore long expired.^ Hedges writes that the interviews were “set up by an Iraqi group that seeks the overthrow of… Hussein.” He quotes al-Ghurairy as saying, “There is a lot we do not know.

^ Only one link is created for the set of one or more up keywords and, if present, the index keyword.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Most mandates expire after a limited time period and require renewal from the body which set them up.^ As a general rule, user agents should not expire application caches, except on request from the user, or after having been left unused for an extended period of time.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Expected Council Action The Council is expected to renew the mandate of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), which expires on 15 February.
  • Kathryn Cramer: United Nations 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the outcomes of the 2005 World Summit was a mandate (labeled id 17171) for the Secretary-General to "review all mandates older than five years originating from resolutions of the General Assembly and other organs". To facilitate this review and to finally bring coherence to the organization, the Secretariat has produced an on-line registry of mandates to draw together the reports relating to each one and create an overall picture.^ Countries around the world welcomed those actions, which, together with the major improvement in US-USSR relations, created a positive atmosphere for last year's UN General Assembly.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With 15 minutes allotted to him, Libyan leader Colonel Muammar el-Qaddafi spoke to the General Assembly of the United Nations for more than an hour.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two days after the opening of the UN General Assembly, and one day after the Taliban defeat, the Security Council adopts Resolution 1378.

[41]

Other

Over the lifetime of the UN, over 80 colonies have attained independence.[42] .The General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples in 1960 with no votes against but abstentions from all major colonial powers.^ When a country becomes a member of the United Nations, it undertakes the obligations set forth in the Charter of the United Nations , which includes the promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all people.
  • United Nations Systems 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The UN General Assembly votes 158-3 to adopt the CTBT, with India (see June 20, 1996 ), Bhutan, and Libya voting against it, and Cuba, Lebanon, Syria, Mauritius, and Tanzania abstaining.

^ Two days after the opening of the UN General Assembly, and one day after the Taliban defeat, the Security Council adopts Resolution 1378.

Through the UN Committee on Decolonization,[43] created in 1962, the UN has focused considerable attention on decolonization. .It has also supported the new states that have arisen as a result self-determination initiatives.^ If the navigation was initiated for entry update of an entry Replace the entry being updated with a new entry representing the new resource and its Document object and related state.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Move all the events in the port message queue of original port to the port message queue of new port , if any, leaving the new port 's port message queue in its initial disabled state.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Otherwise, run the algorithm to convert a number to a string , as defined for that state, on the new value, and set the value of the element to resulting string.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The committee has overseen the decolonization of every country larger than 20,000 km² and removed them from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, besides Western Sahara, a country larger than the UK only relinquished by Spain in 1975.
.The UN declares and coordinates international observances, periods of time to observe some issue of international interest or concern.^ Some UN personnel and international aid workers have been linked to prostitution rings in the area.

^ Under UN auspices, the US is working with other countries to address issues of worldwide concern.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At times, a foreign minister has attended SC meetings on an issue of concern to his/her country.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Using the symbolism of the UN, a specially designed logo for the year, and the infrastructure of the United Nations System, various days and years have become catalysts to advancing key issues of concern on a global scale.^ United Nations logo.

^ The United Nations Security Council issues a presidential statement condemning the use of chemical weapons without a specific reference to Iraq, despite Iran’s insistence that the Security Council pass a binding resolution condemning Iraq’s use of chemical weapons against Iran.

^ The United Nations said the world needed to create 500 million new jobs over the next ten years.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, World Tuberculosis Day, Earth Day and International Year of Deserts and Desertification.

Funding

Top 10 donators to the UN budget, 2009[44]
Member state Contribution
(% of UN budget)
 United States 22.00%
 Japan 16.624%
 Germany 8.577%
 United Kingdom 6.642%
 France 6.301%
 Italy 5.079%
 Canada 2.977%
 Spain 2.968%
 China 2.667%
 Mexico 2.257%
Other member states 23.908%
.The UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from member states.^ On behalf of the six initiators, he issued invitations to all UN member states to attend the summit.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States remains by far the single largest contributor to the UN, its affiliated agencies, and its voluntary programs.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The agency is able to do this, while maintaining zero real growth in overall expenditures drawn from assessed contributions by IAEA member states.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The regular two-year budgets of the UN and its specialized agencies are funded by assessments.^ In fields as diverse as nuclear non-proliferation, AIDS research and monitoring, and international terrorism, UN specialized agencies have helped governments take concerted international action.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The summit is funded through voluntary contributions that supplement regular contributions to UNICEF. The budget for the summit is $3 million.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This year alone, US payments to the UN system (including the UN and specialized agencies and programs but not the World Bank) will total about $700 million.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

The General Assembly approves the regular budget and determines the assessment for each member. .This is broadly based on the relative capacity of each country to pay, as measured by their Gross National Income (GNI), with adjustments for external debt and low per capita income.^ If a country's per capita GNP exceeded $8,500 in 1985 or subsequent years, its benefits are automatically terminated after a 2-year phaseout.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[45]
.The Assembly has established the principle that the UN should not be overly dependent on any one member to finance its operations.^ Two days after the opening of the UN General Assembly, and one day after the Taliban defeat, the Security Council adopts Resolution 1378.

Thus, there is a 'ceiling' rate, setting the maximum amount any member is assessed for the regular budget. In December 2000, the Assembly revised the scale of assessments to reflect current global circumstances. As part of that revision, the regular budget ceiling was reduced from 25% to 22%. The U.S. is the only member that has met the ceiling. .In addition to a ceiling rate, the minimum amount assessed to any member nation (or 'floor' rate) is set at 0.001% of the UN budget.^ When a country becomes a member of the United Nations, it undertakes the obligations set forth in the Charter of the United Nations , which includes the promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all people.
  • United Nations Systems 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: Academic]

.Also, for the least developed countries (LDC), a ceiling rate of 0.01% is applied.^ The President can waive these lower limits, and the law exempts least developed countries from them.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[45]
.The current operating budget is estimated at $4.19 billion for the 2-year (biennial)period of 2008 to 2009, or a little over 2 billion dollars a year[45] (refer to table for major contributors).^ Otherwise, the current drag operation must be set based on the values the effectAllowed and dropEffect attributes of the dataTransfer object had after the event was handled, as per the following table: .
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The FAO conference ignored the concerns of the United States and other major contributors and approved an excessive budget.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

A large share of UN expenditures addresses the core UN mission of peace and security. .The peacekeeping budget for the 2005–2006 fiscal year is approximately $5 billion (compared to approximately $1.5 billion for the UN core budget over the same period), with some 70,000 troops deployed in 17 missions around the world.^ Countries around the world welcomed those actions, which, together with the major improvement in US-USSR relations, created a positive atmosphere for last year's UN General Assembly.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[46] .UN peace operations are funded by assessments, using a formula derived from the regular funding scale, but including a weighted surcharge for the five permanent Security Council members, who must approve all peacekeeping operations.^ We are a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

^ For members that return objects (including function objects), each distinct effective script origin that is not the same as the Window object's Document 's effective script origin must be provided with a separate set of objects.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It was this constant contact that reassured the Soviets that we looked to them not as token players who could present obstacles to US plans, but as partners who as permanent members of the Security Council had a crucial role in maintaining international solidarity against Iraq's actions.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

This surcharge serves to offset discounted peacekeeping assessment rates for less developed countries. .As of 1 January 2008, the top 10 providers of assessed financial contributions to United Nations peacekeeping operations were: the United States, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, China, Canada, Spain, and the Republic of Korea.^ The United Nations human rights treaties establish the obligations of the state to enforce these rights.
  • United Nations Systems 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Date: Oct 1, 1990 10/1/90 Category: Fact Sheets Country: United States Subject: Trade/Economics , United Nations [TEXT] Background .
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the United States pays approximately one quarter of the United Nations' expenses, about 25 percent of Sevan's legal fees will be paid by American taxpayers.
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[47]
.Special UN programmes not included in the regular budget (such as UNICEF, the WFP and UNDP) are financed by voluntary contributions from other member governments.^ The summit is funded through voluntary contributions that supplement regular contributions to UNICEF. The budget for the summit is $3 million.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fields as diverse as nuclear non-proliferation, AIDS research and monitoring, and international terrorism, UN specialized agencies have helped governments take concerted international action.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Number of troops that China has contributed to current U.N. peacekeeping missions: 1,408 Number from the other permanent members of the U.N. Security Council combined: 822 .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of this is financial contributions, but some is in the form of agricultural commodities donated for afflicted populations.^ Some of our East Asian allies and friends also have contributed financial and material resources to the multinational force in the gulf, and Australia has contributed military assets as well.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The second part of Japan's substantial financial contribution is another $2 billion for economic assistance to the countries most affected by the imposition of economic sanctions.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Because their funding is voluntary, many of these agencies suffer severe shortages during economic recessions.^ An element can still suffer from these states even when the element is disabled ; thus these states can be represented in the DOM even if validating the form during submission wouldn't indicate a problem to the user.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ UN and many of its specialized and related agencies, International Monetary Fund (IMF), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), INTELSAT, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In July 2009, the World Food Programme reported that it has been forced to cut services because of insufficient funding[48].^ Points a player earns for delivering a parcel of medicine, in the U.N. World Food Programme’s video game : 250 .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harper's Index Source: U.N. World Food Programme (Rome) .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has received barely a quarter of the total it needs for the 09/10 financial year.

Personnel policy

The UN and its agencies are immune to the laws of the countries where they operate, safeguarding UN's impartiality with regard to the host and member countries.[49] .This independence allows agencies to implement human resources policies that may even be contrary to the laws of a host – or a member country.^ When a country becomes a member of the United Nations, it undertakes the obligations set forth in the Charter of the United Nations , which includes the promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all people.
  • United Nations Systems 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Change the selection User agents must allow users to change the selection within an editing host, even into nested editable elements.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Move the caret User agents must allow users to move the caret to any position within an editing host, even into nested editable elements.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
.Despite their independence in matters of human resources policy, the UN and its agencies voluntarily apply the laws of member states regarding same-sex marriages, allowing decisions about the status of employees in a same-sex partnership to be based on nationality.^ UN human rights experts decided not to visit Guantánamo Bay because the United States refused to allow them full access to detainees.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Status: Last call for comments When an input element's type attribute is in the Radio Button state, the rules in this section apply.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Status: Working draft When an input element's type attribute is in the Color state, the rules in this section apply.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The UN and its agencies recognize same-sex marriages only if the employees are citizens of countries that recognize the marriage.^ The membership of the UN-system agencies appear to agree with the US view that the PLO represents only a political organization which does not have the internationally accepted attributes of statehood.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Another area of concern remains the continued underrepresentation of US citizens on the staffs of many UN agencies.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The US- and British- imposed “no-fly” zones have never been recognized by the UN and the two countries’ jurisdiction over the zones has no legal basis.

.This practice is not specific to the recognition of same-sex marriage but reflects a common practice of the UN for a number of human resources matters.^ IMAP server or a post on an NNTP server) then return a globally unique identifier specific to the resource identified by url , so that if this algorithm is invoked again for URLs that identify the same resource, the same identifier will be returned.
  • HTML5 9 October 2009 21:45 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ February 9, 2003: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights in Bosnia Condemns UN Complicity in Sex Trade .

It has to be noted though that some agencies provide limited benefits to domestic partners of their staff and that some agencies do not recognise same-sex marriage or domestic partnership of their staff.

Reform

Proposed logo for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, which would involve direct election of a country's representative by its citizens.
.Since its founding, there have been many calls for reform of the United Nations, although little consensus on how to do so.^ (How typical of the corrupt United Nations!
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A United Nations investigation of last week's coalition airstrikes in Afghanistan found that the United States had killed 90 civilians, including 60 sleeping children.
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Although we will have differences with the Soviets and the Chinese, as well as other nations, on the particulars of our policy, I think there is a developing international consensus that will make it possible to utilize more fully the UN's peacekeeping machinery.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some want the UN to play a greater or more effective role in world affairs, while others want its role reduced to humanitarian work.^ The narcotics control agencies of the UN system have been the subject of a comprehensive proposal for reorganization so that their work might become more efficient and effective.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Effective multilateral diplomacy within the UN framework, however, requires a realistic look at the world organization's capabilities and limitations.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What we and others--including many of Japan's leaders--have been seeking in recent years is a greater international role for Japan.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[50] .There have also been numerous calls for the UN Security Council's membership to be increased, for different ways of electing the UN's Secretary-General, and for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly.^ We are a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

^ In a speech to the United Nations General Assembly, President Bush says: “Right now, Iraq is expanding and improving facilities that were used for the production of biological weapons.… Iraq has made several attempts to buy high-strength aluminum tubes used to enrich uranium for a nuclear weapon.” [ PBS, 9/12/2002 ; US President, 9/16/2002 ; Age (Melbourne), 6/7/2003 ] Bush also says that the US “will work with the UN Security Council.” [ US President, 9/16/2002 ; Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pp.

^ One day after Iraq's parliament rejected the terms of the Security Council resolution calling for resumed weapons inspections, a letter from Iraqi foreign minister Naji Sabri agreeing to the demands was delivered to the United Nations .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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The UN has also been accused of bureaucratic inefficiency and waste. .During the 1990s the United States withheld dues citing inefficiency, and only started repayment on the condition that a major reforms initiative was introduced.^ Third, the United States is committed to the central role of the IMF and World Bank in helping bring about economic reforms.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The FAO conference ignored the concerns of the United States and other major contributors and approved an excessive budget.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the invitation of the summit initiators, representatives of the United States and other countries have participated in the planning and preparation for the summit.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1994, the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) was established by the General Assembly to serve as an efficiency watchdog.^ For the past 7 years we have opposed General Assembly resolutions on information because they contained language calling for the establishment of a new world information and communications order (NWICO).
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[51]
.An official reform programme was begun by Kofi Annan in 1997. Reforms mentioned include changing the permanent membership of the Security Council (which currently reflects the power relations of 1945), making the bureaucracy more transparent, accountable and efficient, making the UN more democratic, and imposing an international tariff on arms manufacturers worldwide.^ This request is in keeping with both the spirit and letter of UN Security Council Resolution 661 and in agreement with the approach outlined above.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ VOTE: Unanimous (15-0) US Department of State Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 Title: UN Security Council Resolution 670 on Iraq .
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Last week, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 666--a resolution which, while allowing food supplies to reach the innocent bystanders in this crisis, will deny them to Iraq.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
In September 2005, the UN convened a World Summit that brought together the heads of most member states, calling the summit "a once-in-a-generation opportunity to take bold decisions in the areas of development, security, human rights and reform of the United Nations."[52] Kofi Annan had proposed that the summit agree on a global "grand bargain" to reform the UN, renewing the organisation's focus on peace, security, human rights and development, and to make it better equipped at facing 21st century issues. .The result of the summit was a compromise text agreed on by world leaders,[53] which included the creation of a Peacebuilding Commission to help countries emerging from conflict, a Human Rights Council, and a democracy fund, a clear and unambiguous condemnation of terrorism "in all its forms and manifestations", and agreements to devote more resources to the Office of Internal Oversight Services, to spend billions more on achieving the Millennium Development Goals, to wind up the Trusteeship Council because of the completion of its mission, and that the international community has a "responsibility to protect" – the duty to intervene in when national governments fail to fulfill their responsibility to protect their citizens from atrocious crimes.^ We helped to create the Security Council.

^ Within the United Nations system, programs, funds and specialized agencies work to improve the conditions of particular populations and oversee the enforcement of specific rights, such as the right to health, through the World Health Organization , and labor rights, through the International Labor Organization .
  • United Nations Systems 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Organizers of the United Nations Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders failed to invite the Tibetan Dalai Lama because doing so would offend China .
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Office of Internal Oversight Services is being restructured to more clearly define its scope and mandate, and will receive more resources. In addition, to improve the oversight and auditing capabilities of the General Assembly, an Independent Audit Advisory Committee (IAAC) is being created. .In June 2007, the Fifth Committee created a draft resolution for the terms of reference of this committee.^ Russia offers an alternative draft resolution to the US-British version, which drops Washington’s toughest inspection terms and threat of “consequences” if Iraq refuses to comply.

[54][55] An ethics office was established in 2006, responsible for administering new financial disclosure and whistleblower protection policies. Working with the OIOS, the ethics office also plans to implement a policy to avoid fraud and corruption.[56] .The Secretariat is in the process of reviewing all UN mandates that are more than five years old.^ Wilson had himself debunked the allegations more than a year earlier (see February 21, 2002-March 4, 2002 ).

^ For more than 40 years, the fund and the bank have quietly been enlisting the talents and the energies of the developed and developing world in a global struggle against poverty.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This marks only the third time in the 45-year history of this organization that all of the permanent five foreign ministers of the Security Council are meeting.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

The review is intended to determine which duplicative or unnecessary programmes should be eliminated. .Not all member states are in agreement as to which of the over 7000 mandates should be reviewed.^ On behalf of the six initiators, he issued invitations to all UN member states to attend the summit.
  • Dispatch, Vol 1, No 5, October 1, 1990 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

The dispute centres on whether mandates that have been renewed should be examined. As of September 2007, the process is ongoing.[57]

See also

References

  1. ^ "The World Today" (PDF). http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/world00.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-18. "The designations employed and the presentation of material on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country" 
  2. ^ a b "FAQ: What are the official languages of the United Nations?". UN Department for General Assembly and Content Management. http://www.un.org/Depts/DGACM/faq_languages.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  3. ^ David, Wilton. "United Nations". Etymologies & Word Origins: Letter U. WordOrigins.org. http://www.wordorigins.org/index.php/site/comments/united_nations/. 
  4. ^ "Milestones in United Nations History". Department of Public Information, United Nations. http://www.un.org/aboutun/milestones.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  5. ^ Gerbet, Pierre (1995). "Naissance des Nations Unies" (in French). Espoir (102). http://www.charles-de-gaulle.org/pages/l-homme/dossiers-thematiques/1944-1946-la-liberation/restaurer-le-rang-de-la-france/analyses/naissance-des-nations-unies.php. 
  6. ^ "Membership of Principal United Nations Organs in 2005". United Nations. 2005-03-15. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2005/org1436.doc.htm. 
  7. ^ "UN Charter: Chapter V". United Nations. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/chapter5.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  8. ^ "UN Security Council Members". United Nations. http://www.un.org/sc/members.asp. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  9. ^ a b Office of the Secretary-General - United Nations.
  10. ^ Charter of the United Nations, Article 97.
  11. ^ Charter of the United Nations, Article 99.
  12. ^ United Nations - Appointment Process of the Secretary-General.
  13. ^ a b "An Historical Overview on the Selection of United Nations Secretaries-General" (PDF). UNA-USA. http://www.unausa.org/atf/cf/%7B49C555AC-20C8-4B43-8483-A2D4C1808E4E%7D/SG%20Reform%20Fact%20Sheet-fina-logol.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  14. ^ Former Secretaries-General - United Nations.
  15. ^ "Statute of the International Court of Justice". International Court of Justice. http://www.icj-cij.org/documents/index.php?p1=4&p2=2&p3=0. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 
  16. ^ "The Court". International Court of Justice. http://www.icj-cij.org/court/index.php?p1=1&PHPSESSID=26e84ff7b1a8f1f3edf82cf94f3a7d68. Retrieved 2007-05-17. 
  17. ^ "Agreement Between the International Criminal Court and the United Nations". International Criminal Court. 2004-10-04. http://www.icc-cpi.int/pressrelease_details&id=47&l=en.html. 
  18. ^ Kosovo and Taiwan are only partially recognized, and are not recognized by the UN.
  19. ^ "United Nations Member States". United Nations. http://www.un.org/members/. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  20. ^ "About the G77". Group of 77. http://www.g77.org/doc/. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  21. ^ RAND Corporation. "The UN's Role in Nation Building: From the Congo to Iraq" (PDF). http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG304.sum.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  22. ^ Human Security Centre. "The Human Security Report 2005". http://www.humansecurityreport.info/. Retrieved 2007-02-08. 
  23. ^ "Book Review: A People Betrayed, the Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide". Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/community/bookreviews/melvern.htm. 
  24. ^ Colum Lynch (2004-12-16). "U.N. Sexual Abuse Alleged in Congo". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A3145-2004Dec15.html. 
  25. ^ "UN troops face child abuse claims". BBC News. 2006-11-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6195830.stm. 
  26. ^ "108 Sri Lankan peacekeepers in Haiti to be repatriated after claims they paid prostitutes". International Herald Tribune. 2007-11-02. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/11/02/news/UN-GEN-UN-Haiti-Sexual-Exploitation.php. 
  27. ^ "Aid workers in Liberia accused of sex abuse". International Herald Tribune. 2006-05-08. http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/05/08/news/abuse.php. 
  28. ^ "UN staff accused of raping children in Sudan". Telegraph. 2007-01-04. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/01/03/wsudan03.xml. 
  29. ^ "UN staff accused of raping children in Sudan". BBC. 2007-05-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7420798.stm. 
  30. ^ Gold, 216–217
  31. ^ Gold, 38
  32. ^ United Nations Charter, Article 26.
  33. ^ "Resolutions Adopted by the General Assembly During its First Session". United Nations. http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/1/ares1.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  34. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 251 session 60 on 15 March 2006 (retrieved 2007-09-19)
  35. ^ "The Shame of the United Nations". New York Times. 2006-02-26. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/26/opinion/26sun2.html?_r=1&n=Top%2fOpinion%2fEditorials%20and%20Op%2dEd%2fEditorials&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2006-08-15. 
  36. ^ "UN Human Rights Council Elections". United Nations. http://www.un.org/ga/61/elect/hrc/. Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  37. ^ "Successful UN Human Rights Council Elections Demonstrate UN Members are Taking Reform Effort Seriously.". Open Society Policy Center. 2006-05-09. http://www.opensocietypolicycenter.org/news/article.php?docId=110. 
  38. ^ a b UN General Assembly - 61st session - United Nations adopts Declaration on Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
  39. ^ "About Us - United Nations". The World Bank. 2003-06-30. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,,contentMDK:20040610~menuPK:41691~pagePK:43912~piPK:44037,00.html. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  40. ^ "The UN Millennium Development Goals". United Nations. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/. Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  41. ^ The Secretary-General (30 March 2006). "Mandating and Delivering - Executive Summary". United Nations. http://www.un.org/mandatereview/executive.html. 
  42. ^ "Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories, 1945-1999". Un.org. http://www.un.org/Depts/dpi/decolonization/trust2.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  43. ^ the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization - Official Website.
  44. ^ "Assessment of Member States' contributions to the United Nations regular budget for the year 2009" (PDF). UN Secretariat. 2008-12-24. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=ST/ADM/SER.B/755. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  45. ^ a b c "Fifth Committee Approves Assessment Scale for Regular, Peacekeeping Budgets, Texts on Common System, Pension Fund, as it Concludes Session (Press Release)". United Nations. 2006-12-22. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/gaab3787.doc.htm. 
  46. ^ "United Nations Peacekeeping Operations". United Nations. 2007-12-31. http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/bnote.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  47. ^ Financing of UN Peacekeeping Operations
  48. ^ "BBC News, 'Dire shortage' at UN food agency". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/8179250.stm. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  49. ^ http://diplomaticlaw.com/blog/2009/03/23/jerusalem-court-no-immunity-for-un-employee-for-private-acts/
  50. ^ The Future of the United Nations: Understanding the Past to Chart a Way Forward / Joshua Muravchik (2005) ISBN 978-0-8447-7183-0.
  51. ^ Reddy, Shravanti (2002-10-29). "Watchdog Organization Struggles to Decrease UN Bureaucracy". Global Policy Forum. http://www.globalpolicy.org/ngos/ngo-un/rest-un/2002/1029watchdog.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-21. 
  52. ^ "The 2005 World Summit: An Overview" (PDF). United Nations. http://www.un.org/ga/documents/overview2005summit.pdf. 
  53. ^ "2005 World Summit Outcome" (PDF). United Nations. http://www.un.org/summit2005/presskit/fact_sheet.pdf. 
  54. ^ Irene Martinetti (1 December 2006). "Reforming Oversight and Governance of the UN Encounters Hurdles". http://www.centerforunreform.org/node/226. 
  55. ^ "Oversight and Governance". Center for UN Reform Education. http://www.centerforunreform.org/node/31. 
  56. ^ "Ethics Office". Center for UN Reform Education. http://www.centerforunreform.org/node/32. 
  57. ^ "Mandate Review". Center for UN Reform Education. http://www.centerforunreform.org/node/30. 

Further reading

.
  • United Nations Intellectual History Project Book Series.^ December 1952 Article The open city By Syed Amjad Ali SEE ALSO: Headquarters ; Intellectual cooperation ; International cooperation ; United Nations PDF IMAGES .
    • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The United Nations announced that old people will soon outnumber young people for the first time in history.
    • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ September 1995 Readings/Article The U.N.'s secret history SEE ALSO: Censorship ; United Nations PDF IMAGES .
    • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Indiana University Press.
  • "Think Again: The United Nations", Madeleine K. Albright, Foreign Policy, September/October, 2004.
  • Hans Köchler, Quo Vadis, United Nations?, in: Law Review, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, College of Law, May 2005 Online version.
  • An Insider's Guide to the UN, Linda Fasulo, Yale University Press (1 November 2003), hardcover, 272 pages, ISBN 0-300-10155-4.
  • United Nations: The First Fifty Years, Stanley Mesler, Atlantic Monthly Press (1 March 1997), hardcover, 416 pages, ISBN 0-87113-656-2.
  • United Nations, Divided World: The UN's Roles in International Relations edited by Adam Roberts and Benedict Kingsbury, Oxford University Press; 2nd edition (1 January 1994), hardcover, 589 pages, ISBN 0-19-827926-4.
  • A Guide to Delegate Preparation: A Model United Nations Handbook, edited by Scott A. Leslie, The United Nations Association of the United States of America, 2004 edition (October 2004), softcover, 296 pages, ISBN 1-880632-71-3.
  • "U.S. At War – International." Time Magazine XLV.19 7 May 1945: 25–28.
  • The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations, edited by Thomas G. Weiss and Sam Daws, Oxford University Press, July 2007, hardcover, 896 pages, ISBN 978-0-19-927951-7, ISBN 0-19-927951-9.
  • Gold, Dore. .Tower of Babble: How the United Nations Has Fueled Global Chaos.^ UNESCO met to discuss how to preserve world heritage sites, like the Tower of London and the Great Barrier Reef , from the effects of global warming ; the United States said that the organization had no brief to discuss an unproven theory.
    • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • United Nations (Harper's Magazine) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From Peyton Knight: On the theory of human-caused global warming, United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki Moon claims "the time for doubt has passed."
    • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The United Nations is a global organization that includes nearly every country in the world.
    • United Nations Systems 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: Academic]

    New York: Three Rivers Press, 2004.

External links

Official websites
Other
  • (English) (French) EQUITAS, the Authority on Judicial Morality providing legal resources helpful in aid for the better advancement of the Rule of Law.

Source material

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From Wikisource

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Please also refer to the related subcategories;
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Contents

Works

.

Conventions

Statements of NGOs

  • International Movement ATD Fourth World : Redefining Human Rights-Based Development : The Wresinski Approach to Partnership With the Poorest

International Atomic Energy Agency

International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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Commissions

Council on Human Rights

Hariri assassination

Beirut assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik al-Hariri:

Brundtland Report


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
United Nations
Plural
-
United Nations
  1. An international coalition, founded 24 October 1945, headquartered in New York City

Translations

See also

External links

.
  • http://www.un.org/
  • Wikipedia-logo.png United Nations on Wikipedia.^ "The National United Nations-free Zone Committee" http://www.apfn.org/apfn/un_freezone.htm .
    • The truth about the United Nations! 23 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ CHRISTIANITY UNDER SIEGE, TOWARD A ONE WORLD RELIGION http://www.apfn.org/apfn/christianity.htm .
    • The truth about the United Nations! 23 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Single search interface for data produced and collected by various United Nations (UN) organizations.
    • United Nations - UCSD Libraries 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC libraries.ucsd.edu [Source type: Reference]

    Wikipedia

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Welcome to the wikibook on the
United Nations
.
The United Nations General Assembly.
^ More recently, the secretary general has suggested that the cure for the United Nations' financial woes is to give the world body taxing power.
  • A Miasmia of Corruption: The United Nations at 50 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until last year, in fact, the United Nations lacked an inspector general's office, despite repeated urgings of supporters and critics alike.
  • A Miasmia of Corruption: The United Nations at 50 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February 1946 the United Nations General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council established a Commission on Human Rights to work on an international bill of human rights.
  • United Nations and Human Rights by Sanderson Beck 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

December 16th, 2004
Foreword
I. Founding of the United Nations
The UN came into existence on October 24, 1945, after the Charter had been ratified by the five permanent members of the Security Council — the Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States — and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. This chapter will discuss the reasons behind the UN foundation and how it came to be.
II. History
For 60 years the United Nations has worked towards securing world peace. This chapter will cover the landmarks events and decisions of the United Nations and how it has affected the world.
III. The UN Today
Having endured 60 years of conflict the United Nations enters a new century. Today it is faced with more problems than ever before. This chapter will look at how the United Nations is coping with an ever changing world and how the UN itself looks at these changes.
IV. Structure
The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. According to the United Nations Charter, the Secretary-General is to be appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
.This chapter will explain how the United Nations is managed and how the different organs of the United Nations interact with one another.^ (How typical of the corrupt United Nations!
  • Amy Ridenour's National Center Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Principal judicial organ of the United Nations.
  • United Nations Internet Resources 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It was created under Chapter 14 of the Charter of the United Nations and has its seat in The Hague, Netherlands.
  • United Nations 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Reference]

V. General Assembly
The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. This chapter will cover the structure, resolutions, history, and powers held by the General Assembly.
VI. Security Council
The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. It is charged with maintaining peace and security between nations. In this chapter you will learn the decisions, missions, resolutions and history of the Security Council.
VII. Economic and Social Council
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. In this chapter you will learn the decisions, operations, structure and duties of the Economic and Social Council.
VIII. International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. In this chapter you will learn of the duties, cases, and decisions passed down by the ICJ. In addition you will be educated in the history and the importance of this organization.
IX. Secretariat
X. Trusteeship Council
XI. Additional UN Organization
XII. Peacekeeping
XIII. Organizations associated with the UN

.Note: Although the United Nations has no sovereignty of its own, it is only convenient for WikiTextBook to classify the U.N. under public administration for simplicity's sake.^ Public Information, United Nations, 1947-.
  • NYU Law - Research Guides: United Nations Research 21 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.law.nyu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ "The Committee aims to integrate spirituality and values into all areas of the United Nations agenda and of public policy.
  • The United Nations 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently Muller is not the only one the have such a grandiose vision of the United Nations..
  • The United Nations 17 September 2009 22:53 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The U.N. is actually just a global body that can only recommend, not force, as force is a component mandatory for a government to officially be a government.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 07, 2010

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