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United States Bill of Rights
United States Bill of Rights
United States Bill of Rights
Created September 25, 1789
Ratified December 15, 1791
Location National Archives
Authors James Madison
Purpose To set limits on what the government can and cannot do in regard to personal liberties
.In the United States of America, the Bill of Rights is the name by which the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known.^ Click here for the text of the Constitution of the United States of America .
  • Constitution of the United States of America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ James Madison, "Father of the Constitution and first author of the Bill of Rights.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Bill of Rights - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What was the first constitution of the United States?
  • The U.S. Constitution FAQ - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

[1] .They were introduced by James Madison to the First United States Congress in 1789 as a series of articles, and came into effect on December 15, 1791, when they had been ratified by three-fourths of the States.^ The Regulations have not been updated since they came into effect in 1989.
  • Canada Gazette – Regulations Amending the Phosphorus Concentration Regulations 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.gazette.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What was the first constitution of the United States?
  • The U.S. Constitution FAQ - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These were adopted together as one unit on 15 December 1791.
  • Bill of Rights in the United States - magnacartaplus 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC magnacartaplus.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thomas Jefferson was a supporter of the Bill of Rights.^ Teach Support the New G.I. Bill of Rights Congress needs to stay united against President Bush's expected veto of the new G.I. Bill of Rights.

^ Thomas Jefferson's Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom - Jefferson first drafted his “Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom” in 1777.
  • United States History Sites 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC mrkash.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Written by Thomas Jefferson, it is the fundamental statement of people`s rights and what government is and from what source it derives its powers: .
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.The Bill of Rights prohibits Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, forbids infringement of "...the right of the people to keep and bear Arms...", and prohibits the federal government from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.^ It establishes the form of the national government and defines the rights and liberties of the American people.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.policyalmanac.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (Moved by Fisher Ames) Initial Senate version, SEP-3 "Congress shall make no law establishing religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof."
  • The First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The First Amendment provides that Congress make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise.
  • I Want My Bill of Rights, Right at www.whitehouse.gov - The Petition Site 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: Original source]

.In federal criminal cases, it requires indictment by a grand jury for any capital or "infamous crime", guarantees a speedy, public trial with an impartial jury composed of members of the state or judicial district in which the crime occurred, and prohibits double jeopardy.^ But most state constitutions also call for jury trials in civil as well as criminal cases.
  • U.S. GOVERNMENT > Introduction to the U.S. System > About America: The Constitution of the United States of America with Explanatory Notes 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC infousa.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This is done in criminal cases by serving upon the accused, as required by an act of Congress, a copy of the indictment by the grand jury.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles I - X 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ COMMENTARY: The Sixth Amendment provides for jury trials in criminal cases.
  • U.S. GOVERNMENT > Introduction to the U.S. System > About America: The Constitution of the United States of America with Explanatory Notes 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC infousa.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, the Bill of Rights states that "the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people,"[3] and reserves all powers not granted to the federal government to the citizenry or States.^ The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be con- .
  • The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The powers not delegated by this constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the States respectively.
  • Bill of Rights Menu: James Madison Proposes Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, it protects the powers reserved to the states and the rights of every individual.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.policyalmanac.org [Source type: Original source]

.Most of these restrictions were later applied to the states by a series of decisions applying the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, which was ratified in 1868, after the American Civil War.^ Justice Frankfurter was a strong advocate of this approach to the Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Ratified July 9, 1868, the XIVth AMENDMENT of the United States gave all Americans the Right to Due Process.
  • United States Constitution / Bill of Rights / Magna Carta 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Which was the first state to ratify the amendments?
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Bill of Rights - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Madison proposed the Bill of Rights while ideological conflict between Federalists and anti-Federalists, dating from the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, threatened the final ratification of the new national Constitution.^ James Madison, "Father of the Constitution and first author of the Bill of Rights.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Bill of Rights - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress adds a Bill of Rights to the Constitution!
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Initially drafted by James Madison in 1789, the Bill of Rights was written at a time when ideological conflict between Federalists and anti-Federalists, dating from the Philadelphia Convention in 1787, threatened the Constitution's ratification.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Bill of Rights - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.It largely responded to the Constitution's influential opponents, including prominent Founding Fathers, who argued that the Constitution should not be ratified because it failed to protect the fundamental principles of human liberty.^ The only reason there is a controversy about the Second Amendment is that on this subject many highly vocal and influential 21st Century Americans reject what seemed elementary common sense--and basic principle--to our Founding Fathers.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) work to protect such human rights.
  • Berkshire Blog by Karen Christensen » The United States and Human Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.berkshirepublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Federalists and Anti-Federalists - the Federalists were the supporters of a strong national government who wanted to ratify the Constitution without the addition of a Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Bill was influenced by George Mason's 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights, the 1689 English Bill of Rights, works of the Age of Enlightenment pertaining to natural rights, and earlier English political documents such as Magna Carta (1215).^ James Madison used the Virginia Declaration of Rights that Mason had earlier drafted as the basis of the Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 16, 1689 - English Parliament adopts a Bill of Rights.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Declaration of Rights of 1776, § 18 ; Md.
  • The Bill of Rights as a Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

.Two other articles were proposed to the States; only the last ten articles were ratified quickly.^ The first two articles were not accepted by enough states, but the last ten were.
  • Notes on the Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Notes on the Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During the negotiation of the CRC, the United States successfully proposed the inclusion of articles designed to prevent child abuse, and to protect freedom of religion, expression, and association.
  • United States Ratification of International Human Rights Treaties | Human Rights Watch 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At length, the House of Representatives adopted 17 proposals; the Senate rejected two and reduced the remainder to twelve, which were accepted by the House and sent on to the States\10\ where ten were ratified and the other two did not receive the requisite number of concurring States.\11\ \4\Substantial excerpts from the debate in the country and in the ratifying conventions are set out in 1 B. Schwartz (ed.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

.They correspond to the First through Tenth Amendments to the Constitution.^ Note that the number of states required for ratification increased through history - some amendments, then, required more states at the time of ratification than they needed at the time of proposal.
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bill of Rights [[Page 955]] FIRST THROUGH TENTH AMENDMENTS Bill of Rights On September 12, five days before the Convention adjourned, Mason and Gerry raised the question of adding a bill of rights to the Constitution.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles 3 to 12, however, ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures, constitute the first 10 amendments of the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights.
  • United States Constitution / Bill of Rights / Magna Carta 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first Article, dealing with the number and apportionment of U.S. Representatives, never became part of the Constitution.^ The first is in the Enumeration Clause, where representatives are apportioned.
  • Constitutional Topic: Slavery - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ [The part of this Clause relating to the mode of apportionment of representatives among the several States has been affected by Section 2 of amendment XIV , and as to taxes on incomes without apportionment by amendment XVI].
  • Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.terrella.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatbooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The second Article, limiting the power of Congress to increase the salaries of its members, was ratified two centuries later as the 27th Amendment.^ AMENDMENT XIII Section 2.1 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by .
  • Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC tcnbp.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AMENDMENT XXIV Section 2.1 The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by .
  • Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC tcnbp.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second article was eventually ratified as the 27th Amendment.
  • Notes on the Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Notes on the Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Though they are incorporated into the document known as the "Bill of Rights", neither article establishes a right as that term is used today.^ The Bill of Rights is a list of amendments for which document?
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Bill of Rights - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles 3 to 12, however, ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures, constitute the first 10 amendments of the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights.
  • United States Constitution / Bill of Rights / Magna Carta 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States negotiators frequently worked into these documents legal concepts and terms unfamiliar to tribal negotiators, binding tribes to obligations they did not fully understand.
  • Native Americans and the Law : Native Americans Under Current United States Law 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thorpe.ou.edu [Source type: Original source]

For that reason, and also because the term had been applied to the first ten amendments long before the 27th Amendment was ratified, the term "Bill of Rights" in modern U.S. usage means only the ten amendments ratified in 1791.
.The Bill of Rights plays a key role in American law and government, and remains a vital symbol of the freedoms and culture of the nation.^ Do American citizens have a right to disobey the law?
  • The U.S. Constitution FAQ - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bill of Rights plays a central role in American law and government, and remains a fundamental symbol of the freedoms and culture of the nation.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Bill of Rights - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendment I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
  • The United States Constitution - University of Phoenix 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.phoenix.edu [Source type: Original source]

One of the first fourteen copies of the Bill of Rights is on public display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

Contents

Text of the Bill of Rights

Preamble

Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent starts of its institution.
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.[4]

Amendments

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. [5][6]
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
No person shall be held to answer for any capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district where in the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  • Ninth Amendment – Protection of rights not specifically enumerated in the Bill of Rights.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

Proposed amendments not passed with Bill of Rights

After the enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred representatives, nor less than one representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than two hundred representatives, nor more than one representative for every fifty thousand persons.
No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

Background

.The Philadelphia Convention set out to correct weaknesses inherent in the Articles of Confederation that had been apparent even before the American Revolutionary War had been successfully concluded.^ The Federal Convention convened in the State House (Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, to revise the Articles of Confederation.
  • United States Constitution / Bill of Rights / Magna Carta 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ February 21, 1787 - The Continental Congress adopts a resolution calling for a convention of state delegates to draw up a change to the Articles of Confederation .
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress (which was the Second Continental Congress until 1781 and the Confederation Congress after that) could only ask – not force – the states to send troops and funds to fight the Revolutionary War.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

[7] .The newly constituted Federal government included a strong executive branch, a stronger legislative branch and an independent judiciary.^ The executive branch - - The legislative branch .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Controls the executive branch of government.
  • President of the United States of America@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitutional framework - - The executive branch .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Early sentiments favoring expanding the Bill of Rights

A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792
.The idea of adding a bill of rights to the Constitution was originally controversial.^ Congress adds a Bill of Rights to the Constitution!
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles 3 to 12, however, ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures, constitute the first 10 amendments of the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights.
  • United States Constitution / Bill of Rights / Magna Carta 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bill of Rights (the first Ten Amendments), however, are to all extents and purposes welcome additions, and at the same time, fundamental to the Constitution.
  • Constitution for the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.halexandria.org [Source type: Original source]

Alexander Hamilton, in Federalist No. .84, argued against a "Bill of Rights," asserting that ratification of the Constitution did not mean the American people were surrendering their rights, and, therefore, that protections were unnecessary: "Here, in strictness, the people surrender nothing, and as they retain everything, they have no need of particular reservations."^ We the People say no to repositioning and rewording our Constitutional Bill of Rights..
  • I Want My Bill of Rights, Right at www.whitehouse.gov - The Petition Site 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American people's economic, social and cultural rights are not properly protected.
  • Full Text of Human Rights Record of United States in 2008 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC english.gov.cn [Source type: News]

^ Here, in strictness, the people surrender nothing, and as they retain every thing, they have no need of particular reservations.” The Federalist No.

Critics pointed out that earlier political documents had protected specific rights, but Hamilton argued that the Constitution was inherently different:
.Bills of rights are in their origin, stipulations between kings and their subjects, abridgments of prerogative in favor of privilege, reservations of rights not surrendered to the prince.^ Please restore our precious Bill of Rights to its original wording.
  • I Want My Bill of Rights, Right at www.whitehouse.gov - The Petition Site 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever would be a violation of the original bill of rights (Amendments I to VIII) if done by the federal government is now equally unlawful by force of the Fourteenth Amendment if done by a state.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ James Wilson went further in the Pennsylvania ratifying convention, asserting that an enumeration of rights was positively dangerous because it suggested, conversely, that every right not reserved was surrendered.

.Such was "Magna Charta", obtained by the Barons, swords in hand, from King John.^ Magna Carta was originally created because of disagreements between Pope Innocent III , King John and his English barons about the rights of the King .
  • United States Constitution / Bill of Rights / Magna Carta 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Story of King John and the Magna Carta .
  • United States History Sites 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC mrkash.com [Source type: Original source]

[8]
Finally, Hamilton expressed the fear that protecting specific rights might imply that any unmentioned rights would not be protected:
.I go further, and affirm that bills of rights, in the sense and in the extent in which they are contended for, are not only unnecessary in the proposed constitution, but would even be dangerous.^ The argument most used by proponents of the Constitution was that inasmuch as Congress was delegated no power to do those things which a bill of rights would proscribe no bill of rights was necessary and that it might be dangerous because it would contain exceptions to powers not granted and might therefore afford a basis for claiming more than was granted.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was only after a decade of repeated efforts on the part of the colonists to defend their rights that they resorted to armed conflict and, eventually, to the unthinkable–separation from the motherland.
  • United States Constitution / Bill of Rights / Magna Carta 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles 3 to 12, however, ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures, constitute the first 10 amendments of the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights.
  • United States Constitution / Bill of Rights / Magna Carta 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: Original source]

.They would contain various exceptions to powers which are not granted; and on this very account, would afford a colorable pretext to claim more than were granted.^ He would always emerge more powerful than ever in the eyes of his people.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The argument most used by proponents of the Constitution was that inasmuch as Congress was delegated no power to do those things which a bill of rights would proscribe no bill of rights was necessary and that it might be dangerous because it would contain exceptions to powers not granted and might therefore afford a basis for claiming more than was granted.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Note that the number of states required for ratification increased through history - some amendments, then, required more states at the time of ratification than they needed at the time of proposal.
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For why declare that things shall not be done which there is no power to do?^ But there is no such limitation upon the plenary power to regulate commerce”).

^ The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.
  • Constitution of the United States of America. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.fathermag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason , but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood , or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

[9]
.Essentially, Hamilton and other Federalists believed in the British system of common law which did not define or quantify natural rights.^ The FTC's actions under federal "unfair and deceptive" practices law essentially have created a "common law" of privacy in the country.

^ In the United States, human rights violations committed by law enforcement and judicial departments are common.
  • The Human Rights Record in the United States in 2006 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this is so, it is not because those rights are enumerated in the first eight amendments, but because they are of such nature that they are included in the conception of due process of law."
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

.They believed that adding a Bill of Rights to the Constitution would limit their rights to those listed in the Constitution.^ I believe I would be right to say, that they have been egregiously misled.
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress adds a Bill of Rights to the Constitution!
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The argument most used by proponents of the Constitution was that inasmuch as Congress was delegated no power to do those things which a bill of rights would proscribe no bill of rights was necessary and that it might be dangerous because it would contain exceptions to powers not granted and might therefore afford a basis for claiming more than was granted.
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

.This is the primary reason the Ninth Amendment was included.^ The Supreme Court has recognized that the phrase "the people," which is used in numerous parts of the Constitution, including the Preamble, the Second, Fourth, Ninth and Tenth Amendments, refers to people as individuals.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

The Anti-Federalists

.
On June 5, 1788, Patrick Henry spoke before Virginia's ratification convention in opposition to the Constitution: "Is it necessary for your liberty that you should abandon those great rights by the adoption of this system?
^ What will then become of you and your rights?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it necessary for your liberty that you should abandon those great rights by the adoption of this system?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Will the abandonment of your most sacred rights tend to the security of your liberty?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Is the relinquishment of the trial by jury and the liberty of the press necessary for your liberty?^ Is the relinquishment of the trial by jury and the liberty of the press necessary for your liberty?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On examination, you will find this very judiciary oppressively constructed; your jury trial destroyed, and the judges dependent on Congress.
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The 12-man jury declared that Zenger was “not guilty” at the end of a trial that took a significant first step toward establishing the principle of freedom of the press.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Will the abandonment of your most sacred rights tend to the security of your liberty?^ Will the abandonment of your most sacred rights tend to the security of your liberty?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I am not well versed in history, but I will submit to your recollection, whether liberty has been destroyed most often by the licentiousness of the people, or by the tyranny of rulers.
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it necessary for your liberty that you should abandon those great rights by the adoption of this system?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Liberty, the greatest of all earthly blessings—give us that precious jewel, and you may take every thing else!"
.Following the Philadelphia Convention, some famous revolutionary figures and statesmen, such as Patrick Henry, publicly argued against the Constitution.^ He and Patrick Henry might have prevented ratification of the Constitution in Virginia if the Federalists had not agreed to their demands for amendments.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.policyalmanac.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Founding Fathers: A Brief Overview This page summarizes the biographical information pertaining to all 55 State delegates who attended the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
  • Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC tcnbp.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Delegates to the Constitutional Convention believed strongly in the rule of the majority, but they wanted to protect minorities against any unjustness by the majority.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.policyalmanac.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] .Many were concerned that the strong national government proposed by the Federalists was a threat to individual rights and that the President would become a king, and objected to the federal court system in the proposed Constitution.^ The Warren Court upheld individual rights.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Nine 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He favored a strong national government like the Federalists.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Federal Government was not granted the powers to do what a bill of rights would proscribe.
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thomas Jefferson, at the time serving as Ambassador to France, wrote to Madison advocating a Bill of Rights: "Half a loaf is better than no bread.^ There can be no better place to begin than right at home.
  • The United States Government: Patron of Islam? :: Daniel Pipes 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bill of Rights (the first Ten Amendments), however, are to all extents and purposes welcome additions, and at the same time, fundamental to the Constitution.
  • Constitution for the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.halexandria.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James Madison used the Virginia Declaration of Rights that Mason had earlier drafted as the basis of the Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If we cannot secure all our rights, let us secure what we can."^ And simply dumping it into the hands of congress and -- guess what is our private sector anymore it -- you guys okay that's your response all right so so what is your solution then the solution as we may know less let me frame the question what is got a solution -- to.
  • Dean says Kill The Bill | WRKO 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC audio.wrko.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "If we desire to secure peace, one of the most powerful instruments of our rising prosperity, it must be known, that we are at all times ready for War."
  • United States of America - Fun Facts, National Symbols, Photos, Visitor Info 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC awesomeamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Let me read that clause of the bill of rights of Virginia which relates to this: 3d clause:—that government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation, or community.
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11] .George Mason refused to sign the proposed Constitution, in part to protest its lack of a Bill of Rights.^ But he refused to sign the Constitution because he feared the Senate was too powerful, the House too weak and it lacked a Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Congress adds a Bill of Rights to the Constitution!
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bill of Rights [[Page 955]] FIRST THROUGH TENTH AMENDMENTS Bill of Rights On September 12, five days before the Convention adjourned, Mason and Gerry raised the question of adding a bill of rights to the Constitution.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

[12]
In a paper later collected into the Anti-Federalist papers, the pseudonymous "Brutus" (probably Robert Yates) wrote,
.We find they have, in the ninth section of the first article declared, that the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless in cases of rebellion — that no bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed — that no title of nobility shall be granted by the United States, etc.^ Article I Section 9.3 No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
  • Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC tcnbp.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ T he Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatbooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.If every thing which is not given is reserved, what propriety is there in these exceptions?^ Perhaps the most noteworthy thing about the small Federal Reserve Bank Notes is that there is absolutely nothing to distinguish them in any of the ways that the large notes were distinctive.
  • Six Kinds of United States Paper Currency 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are a few things that have been continued that violate the Constitution, but these citizens weren’t complaining when the things were started.
  • Think Progress » Angry right boos John McCain for stating that Obama ‘respects the Constitution of the United States.’ 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ These reservations demonstrate the plenary nature of the federal power; the exceptions prove the rule.

.Does this Constitution any where grant the power of suspending the habeas corpus, to make ex post facto laws, pass bills of attainder, or grant titles of nobility?^ It is generally accepted that only Congress has the power to suspend habeas corpus .
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Bill of Rights in the United States - magnacartaplus 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC magnacartaplus.org [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article I Section 9.3 No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
  • Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC tcnbp.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

It certainly does not in express terms. .The only answer that can be given is, that these are implied in the general powers granted.^ The honorable gentleman has told us that these powers, given to Congress, are accompanied by a judiciary which will correct all.
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Where I thought there was a possibility of such mischiefs, I would grant power with a niggardly hand; and here there is a strong probability that these oppressions shall actually happen.
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Might Congress try to use the power granted by these words, they asked darkly, to dis arm the militia?
  • The Bill of Rights as a Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

.With equal truth it may be said, that all the powers which the bills of rights guard against the abuse of, are contained or implied in the general ones granted by this Constitution.^ Congress adds a Bill of Rights to the Constitution!
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It also has the power to initiate all money bills.
  • 82.03.03: The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cis.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federal Government was not granted the powers to do what a bill of rights would proscribe.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]
Brutus continued with an implication directed against the Framers:
.Ought not a government, vested with such extensive and indefinite authority, to have been restricted by a declaration of rights?^ The government that can restrict a right based on "need" can restrict any right.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Let me read that clause of the bill of rights of Virginia which relates to this: 3d clause:—that government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation, or community.
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Firearm ownership is a constitutional right, and that means government has very limited power to restrict it.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

It certainly ought. .So clear a point is this, that I cannot help suspecting that persons who attempt to persuade people that such reservations were less necessary under this Constitution than under those of the States, are wilfully endeavoring to deceive, and to lead you into an absolute state of vassalage.^ Who are those eight adopting states?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This power is reserved to the people and the states under the Ninth and Tenth Amendments.
  • United States v. OCBC - NORML 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.norml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ ProCon.org: "We oppose any attempt to call for a Constitutional convention, for any purpose whatsoever, because it cannot be limited to any single issue, and such convention could seriously erode our Constitutionally protected unalienable rights."
  • Should the US Constitution and Bill of Rights be altered or updated in any way? - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

[14]

Ratification and the Massachusetts Compromise

George Washington's 1788 letter to the Marquis de Lafayette observed, "the Convention of Massachusetts adopted the Constitution in toto; but recommended a number of specific alterations and quieting explanations." Source: Library of Congress
.Individualism was the strongest element of opposition; the necessity, or at least the desirability, of a bill of rights was almost universally felt, and the Anti-Federalists were able to play on these feelings in the ratification convention in Massachusetts.^ Federalists and Anti-Federalists - the Federalists were the supporters of a strong national government who wanted to ratify the Constitution without the addition of a Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The King felt that he and his Parliament had the right to impose whatever taxes he pleased on the colonies, despite the fact the citizens of these colonies were not represented in the Parliament.
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Massachusetts the convention was the scene of an intense conflict, in which a majority of the 355 delegates, led in part by Samuel Adams, were opposed to ratification.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

By this stage, five of the states had ratified the Constitution with relative ease; however, the Massachusetts convention was bitter and contentious:
In Massachusetts, the Constitution ran into serious, organized opposition. .Only after two leading Anti-federalists, Adams and Hancock, negotiated a far-reaching compromise did the convention vote for ratification on February 6, 1788 (187–168).^ In Massachusetts the convention was the scene of an intense conflict, in which a majority of the 355 delegates, led in part by Samuel Adams, were opposed to ratification.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not surprisingly, given Anti-Federalists' opposition to the strong new central government, only eight opponents of the Constitution were sent to the House of Representatives.
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federalists did not, of course, prevail on this point; most States voted for the Constitution only after proposing amendments and the First Congress speedily adopted a Bill of Rights.

.Anti-federalists had demanded that the Constitution be amended before they would consider it or that amendments be a condition of ratification; Federalists had retorted that it had to be accepted or rejected as it was.^ Note that the number of states required for ratification increased through history - some amendments, then, required more states at the time of ratification than they needed at the time of proposal.
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Federalists and Anti-Federalists - the Federalists were the supporters of a strong national government who wanted to ratify the Constitution without the addition of a Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Are they averse to give us a little time to consider, before we conclude?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Under the Massachusetts compromise, the delegates recommended amendments to be considered by the new Congress, should the Constitution go into force.^ The first Congress under the Constitution convenes in New York City.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Resolved , That the preceeding Constitution be laid before the United States in Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion of this Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of Delegates, chosen in each State by the People thereof, under the Recommendation of its Legislature, for their Assent and Ratification; and that each Convention assenting to, and ratifying the Same, should give Notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. GOVERNMENT > Introduction to the U.S. System > About America: The Constitution of the United States of America with Explanatory Notes 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC infousa.state.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC home.surewest.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.terrella.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Massachusetts compromise determined the fate of the Constitution, as it permitted delegates with doubts to vote for it in the hope that it would be amended.^ "I would amend the US Constitution and provide blanket protection to all unborn children from the moment of conception by prohibiting any state or federal law that denies the personhood of the unborn.
  • Should the US Constitution and Bill of Rights be altered or updated in any way? - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ratification of the Constitution may well have been jeopardized had it not been for assurances that the document would be so amended.
  • 82.03.03: The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.cis.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature and the Continental Congress, and then a delegate to the state convention that ratified the US Constitution.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.Four of the next five states to ratify, including New Hampshire, Virginia, and New York, included similar language in their ratification instruments.^ COMMENTARY: This amendment, originally proposed by James Madison, was approved by Congress in 1789 and submitted to the states for ratification, but after 200 years had not been ratified by the requisite 38 states.
  • U.S. GOVERNMENT > Introduction to the U.S. System > About America: The Constitution of the United States of America with Explanatory Notes 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC infousa.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ They were ratified by the following States, and the notifications of the ratification by the governors thereof were successfully communicated by the President to the Congress; New Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina, December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790; New Hampshire, January 25, 1790; Delaware, January 28, 1790; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790; New York, March 27, 1790; Rhode Island, June 15, 1790; Vermont, November 2, 1791; Virginia, December 15, 1791.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles I - X 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ ProForma ratifications by Massachusetts, March 2, 1939; Connecticut, April 19, 1939; and Georgia, March 18, 1939 made the ratification unanimous for the thirteen states qualified to ratify the amendments.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles I - X 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.They all sent recommendations for amendments with their ratification documents to the new Congress.^ Note that the number of states required for ratification increased through history - some amendments, then, required more states at the time of ratification than they needed at the time of proposal.
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ COMMENTARY: This amendment, originally proposed by James Madison, was approved by Congress in 1789 and submitted to the states for ratification, but after 200 years had not been ratified by the requisite 38 states.
  • U.S. GOVERNMENT > Introduction to the U.S. System > About America: The Constitution of the United States of America with Explanatory Notes 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC infousa.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The new law allowed a pension to all those who had served ninety days in the army or the navy, and were disabled, whether they contracted that disability in the service or not.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Since many of these recommendations pertained to safeguarding personal rights, this pressured Congress to add a Bill of Rights after Constitutional ratification.^ Congress adds a Bill of Rights to the Constitution!
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, it is said that a right to privacy is inherent in many of the amendments in the Bill of Rights, such as the 3rd , the 4th 's search and seizure limits, and the 5th 's self-incrimination limit.
  • Things That Are Not In the U.S. Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ [I]t is my sincere opinion that the Constitution ought to be revised, and that the first Congress meeting under it ought to prepare and recommend to the States for ratification, the most satisfactory provisions for all essential rights, particularly the rights of Conscience in the fullest latitude, the freedom of the press, trials by jury, security against general warrants &c.''
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, North Carolina refused to ratify the Constitution until progress was made on the issue of the Bill of Rights.^ Nov 1789 North Carolina ratifies Constitution.

^ North Carolina rejected the Constitution in 1788, but ratified it on Nov.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, it is said that a right to privacy is inherent in many of the amendments in the Bill of Rights, such as the 3rd , the 4th 's search and seizure limits, and the 5th 's self-incrimination limit.
  • Things That Are Not In the U.S. Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, while the Anti-Federalists were unsuccessful in their quest to prevent the adoption of the Constitution, their efforts were not totally in vain.^ Federalists and Anti-Federalists - the Federalists were the supporters of a strong national government who wanted to ratify the Constitution without the addition of a Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Anti-Federalists concentrated their efforts in state politics.
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Constitution was finally adopted, the Anti-Federalists became "strict constructionists" and the Federalists "loose constructionists".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

James Madison, "Father of the Constitution" and first author of the Bill of Rights
.After the Constitution was ratified in 1789, the 1st United States Congress met in Federal Hall in New York City.^ Which state was the first to ratify the US Constitution?
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first Congress under the Constitution convenes in New York City.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the delegates agreed that a "bill of rights" was needed and most of them agreed on the rights they believed should be enumerated.^ The Bill of Rights should always be expanded.
  • Should the US Constitution and Bill of Rights be altered or updated in any way? - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But not everyone agreed that this bill of rights was necessary.
  • United States History Sites 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC mrkash.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A bill of rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth, general or particular; and what no just government should refuse, or rest on inferences.
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

.Madison, at the head of the Virginia delegation of the 1st Congress, had originally opposed a Bill of Rights but hoped to pre-empt a second Constitutional Convention that might have undone the difficult compromises of 1787: a second convention would open the entire Constitution to reconsideration and could undermine the work he and so many others had done in establishing the structure of the United States Government.^ The Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution is short, to the point and written in English.
  • Southern Messenger � Bill of Rights, Constitution of the United States, & the Civil War History 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no explicit right to privacy in the United States Constitution.

.Writing to Jefferson, he stated, "The friends of the Constitution...wish the revisal to be carried no farther than to supply additional guards for liberty...and are fixed in opposition to the risk of another Convention....It is equally certain that there are others who urge a second Convention with the insidious hope of throwing all things into Confusion, and of subverting the fabric just established, if not the Union itself."^ The Constitution also had friends who were not members of the Convention.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no explicit right to privacy in the United States Constitution.

^ The establishment of any state religion is prohibited by the Constitution.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.Madison based much of the Bill of Rights on George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776),[17] which itself had been written with Madison's input.^ James Madison used the Virginia Declaration of Rights that Mason had earlier drafted as the basis of the Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their arguments were put forward in a series of articles written in 1787-8 by James Madison (who later changed some of his views and drafted the Bill of Rights), Alexander Hamilton and John Jay.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The great patriots and statesmen of Virginia , Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Mason, and others, hoped to see the institution quietly disappear.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.He carefully considered the state amendment recommendations as well.^ Amendment II [ Annotations ] A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
  • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a well-regulated militia, and not an army of conscripts, that is " necessary to the security of a free State"; the Second Amendment estops Congress from claiming otherwise.
  • The Bill of Rights as a Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That recommendation led to the 1986 formation of the National Victims' Constitutional Amendment Network (NVCAN), which initially sought to obtain state-level amendments for crime victims' rights.
  • The History of the Crime Victims’ Movement in the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ojp.usdoj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He looked for recommendations shared by many states to avoid controversy and reduce opposition to the ratification of the future amendments.^ ProForma ratifications by Massachusetts, March 2, 1939; Connecticut, April 19, 1939; and Georgia, March 18, 1939 made the ratification unanimous for the thirteen states qualified to ratify the amendments.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles I - X 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution has never prohibited women from voting and for many years before the adoption of this amendment women did vote in several states.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress approves 12 amendments and sends them to the states for ratification.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]

[18] .Additionally, Madison's work on the Bill of Rights reflected centuries of English law and philosophy, further modified by the principles of the American Revolution.^ Federalists and Anti-Federalists - the Federalists were the supporters of a strong national government who wanted to ratify the Constitution without the addition of a Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights was established to explore the application and effectiveness of copyright law and the National Information Infrastructure .
  • Association of Research Libraries :: Copyright Timeline: A History of Copyright in the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.arl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James Madison used the Virginia Declaration of Rights that Mason had earlier drafted as the basis of the Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ratification Timeline

  • September 17, 1787 - Final draft of the Constitution is signed and convention adjourns.
  • September 28, 1787 - Continental Congress approves sending proposed Constitution to states for their consideration.
  • December 7, 1787 - Delaware is 1st state to ratify the Constitution.
  • December 12, 1787 - Pennsylvania is 2nd state to ratify the Constitution.
  • December 18, 1787 - New Jersey is 3rd state to ratify the Constitution.
  • January 2, 1788 - Georgia is 4th state to ratify the Constitution.
  • January 9, 1788 - Connecticut is 5th state to ratify the Constitution.
  • February 6, 1788 - Massachusetts is 6th state to ratify the Constitution.
  • March 24, 1788 - Rhode Island REFUSES to call ratifying convention.
  • April 28, 1788 - Maryland is 7th state to ratify the Constitution.
  • May 23, 1788 - South Carolina is 8th state to ratify the Constitution.
  • June 21, 1788 - New Hampshire is 9th state to ratify the Constitution.
  • June 25, 1788 - Virginia is 10th state to ratify the Constitution.
  • July 26, 1788 - New York is 11th state to ratify the Constitution.
  • March 4, 1789 - The Constitution goes into effect.
  • September 25, 1789 - Congress proposes Bill of Rights.
  • November 20, 1789 - New Jersey is 1st state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • November 21, 1789 - North Carolina is 12th state to ratify the Constitution.
  • December 19, 1789 - Maryland is 2nd state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • December 22, 1789 - North Carolina is 3rd state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • January 19, 1790 - South Carolina is 4th state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • January 25, 1790 - New Hampshire is 5th state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • January 28, 1790 - Delaware is 6th state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • February 24, 1790 - New York is 7th state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • March 10, 1790 - Pennsylvania is 8th state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • May 29, 1790 - Rhode Island is 13th state to ratify the Constitution.
  • June 7, 1790 - Rhode Island is 9th state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • October 17, 1790 - Peace treaty between New York and Vermont paves way for Vermont's admission to the union.
  • January 10, 1791 - Vermont becomes 14th state to ratify the Constitution - except that it's not a state until March 4, 1791.
  • November 3, 1791 - Vermont is 10th state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • December 15, 1791 - Virginia is 11th state to ratify the Bill of Rights, and Bill of Rights goes into effect.
  • March 2, 1939 - Massachusetts is 12th state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • March 18, 1939 - Georgia is 13th state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
  • April 19, 1939 - Connecticut is 14th state to ratify the Bill of Rights.

Antecedents

Locke

Madison's "Notes for speech on Constitutional amendments, June 8, 1791, in which he underlined the concept of "natural rights retained"
.To some degree, the Bill of Rights (and the American Revolution) incorporated the ideas of John Locke, who argued in his 1689 work Two Treatises of Government that civil society was created for the protection of property (Latin proprius, or that which is one's own, meaning "life, liberty, and estate").^ The Founding Fathers created the Bill of Rights to protect the rights of individuals.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the one that -- Apollo right now and what I mean by that.
  • Dean says Kill The Bill | WRKO 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC audio.wrko.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally, the protections were solely meant to limit the federal government, but with the fourteenth amendment's guarantee in 1868 that no state could deprive its citizens of the protections in the Bill of Rights this original view began to be expanded.
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

.Locke also advanced the notion that each individual is free and equal in the state of nature.^ Miller (1939), which individual rights opponents claim supports the notion of the Second Amendment protecting only a “collective right” of a state to maintain a militia.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

.Locke expounded on the idea of natural rights that are inherent to all individuals, a concept Madison mentioned in his speech presenting the Bill of Rights to the 1st Congress.^ States Rights Bill of Rights The Bill of rights presented in a way that we can all understand.

^ In addition, it is said that a right to privacy is inherent in many of the amendments in the Bill of Rights, such as the 3rd , the 4th 's search and seizure limits, and the 5th 's self-incrimination limit.
  • Things That Are Not In the U.S. Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Teach Support the New G.I. Bill of Rights Congress needs to stay united against President Bush's expected veto of the new G.I. Bill of Rights.

Locke's argument for protecting economic rights against government may have been most salient to the framers of the Amendments; quartering and cruel punishments were not the current abuses of 1791.[19]

Virginia Declaration of Rights

.The Virginia Declaration of Rights, well-known to Madison, had already been a strong influence on the American Revolution ("all power is vested in, and consequently derived from, the people …";[20] also "a majority of the community hath an indubitable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to reform, alter or abolish [the government]").^ The Founders also declared that governments are created by people to secure their rights.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

^ American people is the American power structure.
  • William Pfaff: The United States of Plutocracy - Truthdig 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Declaration of Rights of 1776, § 20 ; Md.
  • The Bill of Rights as a Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

It had shaped the drafting of the United States Declaration of Independence a decade before the drafting of the Constitution, proclaiming that "all men are by nature equally free and independent, and have certain inherent rights of which … [they cannot divest;] namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety."[21] On a practical level, its recommendations of a government with a separation of powers (Articles 5–6) and "frequent, certain, and regular"[22] elections of executives and legislators were incorporated into the United States Constitution — but the bulk of this work addresses the rights of the people and restrictions on the powers of government, and is recognizable in the modern Bill of Rights:
The government should not have the power of suspending or executing laws, "without consent of the representatives of the people,".[23] A legal defendant has the right to be "confronted with the accusers and witnesses, to call for evidence in his favor, and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury of his vicinage," and may not be "compelled to give evidence against himself."[24] Individuals should be protected against "cruel and unusual punishments",[25] baseless search and seizure,[26] and be guaranteed a trial by jury.[27] .The government should not abridge freedom of the press,[28] or freedom of religion ("all men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion").^ Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Freedom of religion Freedom of assembly Right to petition the government .
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

^ WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] The government should be enjoined against maintaining a standing army rather than a "well regulated militia".[30]

English Bill of Rights

.The English Bill of Rights (1689), one of the fundamental documents of English constitutional law, differed substantially in form and intent from the American Bill of Rights, because it was intended to address the rights of citizens as represented by Parliament against the Crown.^ Shadow Law Page addresses entire Bill of Rights.
  • Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC tcnbp.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ December 16, 1689 - English Parliament adopts a Bill of Rights.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Which freedoms in the Bill of Rights are "fundamental", however, is not entirely clear: the right to free speech or to choose one's religion is clearly fundamental; the right to a jury trial is not.
  • Territories & Commonwealths of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC macmeekin.com [Source type: Original source]

However, some of its basic tenets are adopted and extended to the general public by the U.S. Bill of Rights, including
  • the right of petition
  • an independent judiciary (the Sovereign was forbidden to establish his own courts or to act as a judge himself),
  • freedom from taxation by royal (executive) prerogative, without agreement by Parliament (legislators),
  • freedom from a peace-time standing army,
  • freedom [for Protestants] to bear arms for their defence, as allowed by law,
  • freedom to elect members of Parliament without interference from the Sovereign,
  • freedom of speech in Parliament,
  • freedom from cruel and unusual punishments and excessive bail, and
  • freedom from fines and forfeitures without trial.

Madison's preemptive proposal

.On June 8, 1789, Madison submitted his proposal to Congress.^ Annals of Congress 439 (June 8, 1789).
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fourteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on June 13, 1866, when it passed the House, Cong.
  • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since 1789, when the first Congress was convened, there have been 11,413 proposals to amend the Constitution.
  • Should the US Constitution and Bill of Rights be altered or updated in any way? - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

In his speech to Congress on that day, Madison said:
.For while we feel all these inducements to go into a revisal of the constitution, we must feel for the constitution itself, and make that revisal a moderate one.^ Only about 50% of Congressional bills are backed by the President and not all these will go through.
  • President of the United States of America@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In examining the constitutionality of a state law one is to assume that the state legislature has power to pass all acts whatever, unless they are prohibited by the Constitution of the United States or by the constitution of the state.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Clause 18: To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
  • Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.terrella.com [Source type: Original source]

.I should be unwilling to see a door opened for a re-consideration of the whole structure of the government, for a re-consideration of the principles and the substance of the powers given; because I doubt, if such a door was opened, if we should be very likely to stop at that point which would be safe to the government itself: But I do wish to see a door opened to consider, so far as to incorporate those provisions for the security of rights, against which I believe no serious objection has been made by any class of our constituents.^ Will the great rights of the people be secured by this government?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then there would have been no human rights."
  • United States presidents and their advisers killer file 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Federal Government was not granted the powers to do what a bill of rights would proscribe.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

[31]
Prior to listing his proposals for a number of constitutional amendments, Madison acknowledged a major reason for some of the discontent with the Constitution as written:
.I believe that the great mass of the people who opposed [the Constitution], disliked it because it did not contain effectual provision against encroachments on particular rights, and those safeguards which they have been long accustomed to have interposed between them and the magistrate who exercised the sovereign power: nor ought we to consider them safe, while a great number of our fellow citizens think these securities necessary.^ Will the great rights of the people be secured by this government?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution and Bill of Rights repeatedly refer to the "rights" of the people and to the "powers" of government.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendment II [ Annotations ] A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
  • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

[32]

Ratification process

.On November 20, 1789, New Jersey became the first state to ratify these amendments.^ November 26, 1778 - New Jersey to ratify the Articles of Confederation .
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were ratified by the following States, and the notifications of the ratification by the governors thereof were successfully communicated by the President to the Congress; New Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina, December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790; New Hampshire, January 25, 1790; Delaware, January 28, 1790; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790; New York, March 27, 1790; Rhode Island, June 15, 1790; Vermont, November 2, 1791; Virginia, December 15, 1791.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles I - X 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However an amendment is proposed, it does not become part of the Constitution unless it is ratified by three-quarters of the states (either the legislatures thereof, or in amendment conventions).
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On December 15, 1791, 10 of these proposals became the First through Tenth Amendments — and United States law — when they were ratified by the Virginia legislature.^ Amendment 10 - Powers of the States and People.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Which state was the first to ratify the US Constitution?
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ratified 12/15/1791.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Articles III to XII were ratified by 11/14 states (> 75%).^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.pacificwestcom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This article shall be inoperative , unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the constitution by the legislators of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission.

^ Constitution of the United States Preamble Article I Article II Article III Article IV Article V Article VI Article VII AMENDMENTS Introduction Written in 1787, ratified in 1788, and in operation since 1789, the United States Constitution is the world’s longest surviving written charter of government.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Article I, rejected by Delaware, was ratified only by 10/14 States (< 75%), and despite later ratification by Kentucky (11/15 states < 75%), the article has never since received the approval of enough states for it to become part of the Constitution.^ Which state was the first to ratify the US Constitution?
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ December 15, 1791 - The Bill of Rights (containing the 1st 10 Amendments ) is ratified by 3/4ths of the states and becomes a part of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At length, the House of Representatives adopted 17 proposals; the Senate rejected two and reduced the remainder to twelve, which were accepted by the House and sent on to the States 10 where ten were ratified and the other two did not receive the requisite number of concurring States.
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Article II was ratified by 6/14, later 7/15 states, but did not receive the 3/4 majority of States needed for ratification until 1992 when it became the 27th Amendment.^ The latter proposal was ratified in 1992 as the 27th Amendment.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Comments on Amendments 13, 14 and 15.

^ The following is a record of each ratified amendment and the states and dates that led to the ratification.
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ratification dates

Later consideration

.Lawmakers in Kentucky, which became the 15th state to join the Union in June 1792, ratified the entire set of twelve proposals during that commonwealth's initial month of statehood, perhaps unaware — given the nature of long-distance communications in the 1700s — that Virginia's approval six months earlier had already made ten of the package of twelve part of the Constitution.^ Tennessee became a state on June 1, 1796.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ June 1, 1792 - Kentucky is the 15th state admitted to the Union.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kentucky became the first state to be carved from the great western wilderness on June 1, 1792.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although ratification made the Bill of Rights effective in 1791, three of the original thirteen states — Connecticut, Georgia, and Massachusetts — did not "ratify" the first ten amendments until 1939, when they were urged to do so in a celebration of the 150th anniversary of their passage by Congress.^ The first ten amendments comprise the Bill of Rights.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Which state was the first to ratify the US Constitution?
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first ten Amendments, known as the Bill of Rights (ratified Dec.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

[33]

Copies of the Bill of Rights

George Washington had 14 handwritten copies of the Bill of Rights made, one for Congress and one for each of the original thirteen states:[34]
.The copies for Georgia, Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania are missing.^ That outbreak was suppressed in 1794 by sending the militia of New Jersey , Maryland , and Virginia , and some troops of Pennsylvania , into the troubled region.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Delaware , Pennsylvania , New Jersey , Georgia , Connecticut , Massachusetts , Maryland , South Carolina , New Hampshire , Virginia , New York, North Carolina , and Rhode Island .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [Credits : Art Resource, New York] Original copy of the U.S. Constitution, housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.[Credits : © Steve Bronstein—The Image Bank/Getty Images] Cartoon depicting attacks on the Pennsylvania state constitution by self-interest groups.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The New York copy is thought to have been destroyed in a fire[40] while the Pennsylvania copy reportedly disappeared in the later 18th century.^ New York and New Jersey came later.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Later she moved to New York, and worked for 30 years as a nurse's aide.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late 19th and early 20th century, many immigrants came to America by way of New York and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.August 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Two unidentified copies of the missing four (thought to be the Georgia and Maryland copies) survive; one is in the National Archives[1][43] and the other is in the New York Public Library.^ Today, the National Lawyers Guild has a national office in New York and many local chapters.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He died in the custody in August 2008 with his spine fractured and his body riddled with cancer that had gone undiagnosed and untreated for months (The New York Times, August 12, 2008).
  • Full Text of Human Rights Record of United States in 2008 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC english.gov.cn [Source type: News]

^ On the other hand, gun registration lists have been used to confiscate citizens` firearms in cities like New York and in states such as California.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

[41]
.North Carolina's copy was stolen by a Union soldier in April 1865 and returned to North Carolina in 2005, 140 years later by the FBI's Special Agent Robert King Wittman.^ For more than three years she nursed the sick and wounded in Florida and the Carolinas, tending whites and blacks, soldiers and contrabands.
  • Slavery in the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC userwww.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ November 21, 1789 - North Carolina is the 12th state admitted to the Union.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two years later, he started his antislavery paper called the North Star .
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34][41]
Virginia's copy was used for the Bill of Rights Tour, to mark the bicentennial of the Bill of Rights, in 1991.

Incorporation extends to States

.Originally, the Bill of Rights restrictions applied only to the federal government and not to the state governments.^ The government that can restrict a right based on "need" can restrict any right.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only the federal government, not the states, can determine who becomes a citizen.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federal Government was not granted the powers to do what a bill of rights would proscribe.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Parts of the amendments originally proposed by Madison that would have limited state governments ("No state shall violate the equal rights of conscience, or the freedom of the press, or the trial by jury in criminal cases."^ Whatever would be a violation of the original bill of rights (Amendments I to VIII) if done by the federal government is now equally unlawful by force of the Fourteenth Amendment if done by a state.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Right of trial by jury weakened .
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ States do not have equal rights; people do.
  • A Clean Bill of Voting Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

) were not approved by .Congress, and therefore the Bill of Rights did not apply to the powers of state governments.^ Congress adds a Bill of Rights to the Constitution!
  • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federal Government was not granted the powers to do what a bill of rights would proscribe.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution and Bill of Rights repeatedly refer to the "rights" of the people and to the "powers" of government.
  • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

[44]
.States had established state churches up until the 1820s, and Southern states, beginning in the 1830s, could ban abolitionist literature.^ In the beginning of 1865 there was an attempt to end the war by a conference of Southern statesmen and President Lincoln, with his Secretary of State, at Hampton Roads, Virginia .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although it was not enacted into law until 1786, it firmly established the principles of religious freedom and the separation of church and state and provided the basis for the First Amendment’s clause on religion.
  • United States History Sites 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC mrkash.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress (which was the Second Continental Congress until 1781 and the Confederation Congress after that) could only ask – not force – the states to send troops and funds to fight the Revolutionary War.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

In the 1833 case Barron v. Baltimore, the Supreme Court specifically ruled that the Bill of Rights provided "security against the apprehended encroachments of the general government—not against those of local governments." In the Gitlow v. .New York, 268 U.S. 652, (1925) case, the Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment, which had been adopted in 1868, could make certain applications of the Bill of Rights applicable to the states.^ The court also ruled that slaves were not citizens of any state nor of the U.S. .
  • Slavery in the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC userwww.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In June 2001, the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Kyllo v.

^ The Court asserted this right in the case of Marbury v.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

However, the Gitlow case stated (p. 666): "For present purposes we may and do presume that freedom of speech and of the press - which are protected by the First Amendment from abridgment by Congress - are among the fundamental personal rights and 'liberties' protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment from impairment by the States." However at p. 668, the Court held: "It does not protect publications prompting the overthrow of government by force", which Gitlow and associates advocated in their publications. .The Supreme Court has cited Gitlow v.^ No. 102—197, at 47 (citing Colorado Supreme Court Task Force on Gender Bias in the Courts, Gender Justice in the Colorado Courts 91 (1990)).

^ Hardy Citing a United States Supreme Court case Kahle v.
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.New York
as precedent for a series of decisions that made most, but not all, of the provisions of the Bill of Rights restrictions applicable to the states under the doctrine of selective incorporation.^ This case the Court decided on other grounds, but in a series of subsequent cases it confronted the argument and rejected it, 19 though over the dissent of the elder Justice Harlan, who argued that the Fourteenth Amendment in effect incorporated the Bill of Rights and made them effective restraints on the States.
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [I]t is my sincere opinion that the Constitution ought to be revised, and that the first Congress meeting under it ought to prepare and recommend to the States for ratification, the most satisfactory provisions for all essential rights, particularly the rights of Conscience in the fullest latitude, the freedom of the press, trials by jury, security against general warrants &c.''
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ "[I]t is my sincere opinion that the Constitution ought to be revised, and that the first Congress meeting under it ought to prepare and recommend to the States for ratification, the most satisfactory provisions for all essential rights, particularly the rights of Conscience in the fullest latitude, the freedom of the press, trials by jury, security against general warrants & c."
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

Display and honoring of the Bill of Rights

.In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared December 15 to be Bill of Rights Day, commemorating the 150th anniversary of the ratification of the Bill of Rights.^ Teach Support the New G.I. Bill of Rights Congress needs to stay united against President Bush's expected veto of the new G.I. Bill of Rights.

^ James Madison used the Virginia Declaration of Rights that Mason had earlier drafted as the basis of the Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In any event, the opponents of ratification soon made the absence of a bill of rights a major argument, 4 and some friends of the document, such as Jefferson, 5 strongly urged amendment to include a declaration of rights.
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Bill of Rights is on display at the National Archives and Records Administration,[45] in the Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom.^ For additional notes see the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights as hosted in the U.S. National Archives.
  • Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.terrella.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Federalists and Anti-Federalists - the Federalists were the supporters of a strong national government who wanted to ratify the Constitution without the addition of a Bill of Rights.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington, D.C. : National Archives and Records Administration, 1994.
  • Slavery in the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC userwww.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Rotunda itself was constructed in the 1950s and dedicated in 1952 by President Harry S Truman, who said, "Only as these documents are reflected in the thoughts and acts of Americans, can they remain symbols of power that can move the world.^ Presidents have frequently summoned Congress into "extra" or "special" sessions, but they have never exercised the power to adjourn Congress.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This imbalance of power creates incentives to move U.S. jobs overseas and puts downward pressure on the wages of American workers as they are placed in more direct competition with poorly-paid, disempowered Omani workers.
  • United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 2006 | TheMiddleClass.org 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These attempts to create a legal framework that would move the world beyond torture received a major setback after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
  • Rights Matter: the story of the Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.rightsmatter.org [Source type: Original source]

.That power is our faith in human liberty …."^ This exercise of rights by the people and the states to legislate in matters of personal human dignity is protected from federal abrogation under our fundamental concept of ordered liberty and federalism.
  • United States v. OCBC - NORML 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.norml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This case presents the recognition of important legal doctrines at the heart of our form of constitutional government: individual liberty and the powers reserved to the people and the states.
  • United States v. OCBC - NORML 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.norml.org [Source type: Original source]

[46]
.After fifty years, signs of deterioration in the casing were noted, while the documents themselves appeared to be well-preserved: "But if the ink of 1787 was holding its own, the encasements of 1951 were not … minute crystals and microdroplets of liquid were found on surfaces of the two glass sheets over each document....^ More than 1,000 government employees, including hundreds of police officers, have been convicted in FBI graft cases in the past two years.
  • The Human Rights Record in the United States in 2006 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, the government has gone so far as to reclassify documents that had been available to the general public for many years.

^ For me, fifty years of notes and sometimes-unsorted and unsourced note cards, some of which date back to my early teens, have also been a problem.
  • TKW ALRI Pages 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.mmdtkw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The CMS scans confirmed evidence of progressive glass deterioration, which was a major impetus in deciding to re-encase the Charters of Freedom."[47]
Accordingly, the casing was updated and the Rotunda rededicated on September 17, 2003. In his dedicatory remarks, two hundred and sixteen years after the close of the Constitutional Convention, President George W. Bush stated, "The true [American] revolution was not to defy one earthly power, but to declare principles that stand above every earthly power—the equality of each person before God, and the responsibility of government to secure the rights of all."[48]
.In 1991, the Bill of Rights toured the country in honor of its bicentennial, visiting the capitals of all fifty states.^ States Rights Bill of Rights The Bill of rights presented in a way that we can all understand.

^ Whatever would be a violation of the original bill of rights (Amendments I to VIII) if done by the federal government is now equally unlawful by force of the Fourteenth Amendment if done by a state.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God grant that when we at last do revise the Constitution as it should have been revised in the 1860s, so as to replace states' rights once and for all with human rights, we will not have to shed as much blood as was shed during the 1860s.
  • A Clean Bill of Voting Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Primary Documents in American History: The Bill of Rights". The Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/billofrights.html. 
  2. ^ http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/freedom/bill/
  3. ^ See: Ninth Amendment to the United States Constitution
  4. ^ "Preamble to the Bill of Rights". 2006-03-10. http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html. 
  5. ^ http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html
  6. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_States_Bill_of_Rights&action=edit
  7. ^ Lloyd, Gordon. "Introduction to the Constitutional Convention". http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/intro.html. Retrieved October 6 2007. 
  8. ^ Hamilton, Alexander. The Federalist Papers, #84. ""On opposition to a Bill of Rights."". http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/bill_of_rightss7.html. Retrieved 2006-02-28. 
  9. ^ Ibid.
  10. ^ Henry, Patrick. ""Against the Federal Constitution." June 5, 1788.". 2006-03-10. http://www.wfu.edu/~zulick/340/henry.html. 
  11. ^ "Jefferson's letter to Madison, March 15, 1789.". 2006-03-09. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/print_documents/v1ch14s49.html. 
  12. ^ Delegates to the Constitutional Convention - National Constitution Center
  13. ^ ""On the lack of a Bill of Rights," also known as "Anti-Federalist #84"". http://www.wepin.com/articles/afp/afp84.html. Retrieved 2006-02-28.  Also see: "The Federalist with Letters of Brutus", edited by Terence Ball, Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought, pp. 447–453. Excerpt from the writings of "Brutus" probably in the New York Journal, November 1, 1787.
  14. ^ Ibid.
  15. ^ Bernstein, Richard B. "Ratification of the Constitution." "The Reader's Companion to American History". http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_073800_ratification.htm. Retrieved 2006-02-28. 
  16. ^ Letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson (December 8, 1788) (Source: 14 The Papers of Thomas Jefferson 339-42 (J. Boyd, ed. 1958)), at [1]
  17. ^ "This uniquely influential document was also used by James Madison in drawing up the Bill of Rights (1789) and by the Marquis de Lafayette in drafting the French Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789). "[2]
  18. ^ Madison introduced "amendments culled mainly from state constitutions and state ratifying convention proposals, especially Virginia's." Levy, Leonard W. Origins of the Bill of Rights. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-300-08901-5, p.35
  19. ^ see Jerome Huyler, Locke in America : the moral philosophy of the founding era, Lawrence : University Press of Kansas, (1995), Chapter 8, pp.218-250; also pp. 275-9. For "many scholars"' discussion of economic rights and the Amendments, see p. 277.
  20. ^ Virginia Declaration of Rights, Article 2
  21. ^ Article 1, later paraphrased in the opening sentences of the United States Declaration of Independence.
  22. ^ Article 5
  23. ^ Article 7
  24. ^ Article 8
  25. ^ Article 9
  26. ^ Article 10
  27. ^ Article 11
  28. ^ Article 12
  29. ^ Article 16
  30. ^ Article 13
  31. ^ "Text of Madison's speech, at the James Madison Center". http://www.jmu.edu/madison/center/main_pages/madison_archives/constit_confed/rights/jmproposal/jmspeech.htm. Retrieved 2006-02-28. 
  32. ^ Ibid.
  33. ^ "Order and Dates of Ratification of the Bill of Rights.". 2006-02-28. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendments.html. 
  34. ^ a b c "The U.S. Marshals Service Takes Possession of North Carolina's Copy of the Bill of Rights". United States Marshals Service. http://www.usmarshals.gov/history/north_carolina_bill_of_rights.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f g Frieden, Terry (March 19, 2003). "FBI recovers original copy of Bill of Rights". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/03/19/bill.of.rights. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  36. ^ "Bill of Rights". The State of Delaware. http://archives.delaware.gov/bor/bor.shtml. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  37. ^ [http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/stagser/s1259/121/7989/html/amend01.html "The Bill of Rights signed by Thomas Jefferson (1791)"]. Maryland State Archives. December 9, 2004. http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/stagser/s1259/121/7989/html/amend01.html. Retrieved 2008-04-25.  {Note: this is a printed copy-see note 43}
  38. ^ "Documentary treasures: Bill of Rights". State of New Jersey. 2003-2004. http://www.njarchives.org/links/treasures/usconstitution/billofrights.html. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  39. ^ "The New York Ratification of the Bill of Rights". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/ratification/. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  40. ^ a b "Background on the Bill of Rights and the New York Ratification of the Bill of Rights". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 2007. http://www.archives.gov/press/press-releases/2007/nr07-33.html. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  41. ^ a b c "Bill of Rights Returns Home". North Carolina Office of Archives and History. 2005. http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/archives/news/bill_of_rights1.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  42. ^ ""Bill of Rights"". The Library of Virginia. http://www.lva.lib.va.us/whatwedo/k12/bor/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  43. ^ "History of the Bill of Rights" However The Maryland Archives report that Unknown National Archives copy {pictured above in Wikipedia article} is the Maryland Copy}
  44. ^ Bent, Devin. ""James Madison proposes Bill of Rights."". http://www.jmu.edu/madison/center/main_pages/madison_archives/constit_confed/rights/jmproposal/jmproposal.htm. Retrieved 2006-02-28. 
  45. ^ "American Treasures of the Library of Congress". 2006-03-13. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trt013.html. 
  46. ^ ""Truman's Remarks in the Rotunda, December 1952"". 2006-03-14. http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/visit/truman_transcript.html. 
  47. ^ Mary Lynn Ritzenthaler and Catherine Nicholson, ""A New Era Begins for the Charters of Freedom."". 2006-03-14. http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/charters_preservation_01.html.  Prologue, Fall 2003.
  48. ^ ""Remarks by President George W. Bush at the Rededication of the National Archives."". 2006-03-14. http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/news/visit_reopening_remarks_bush.html. 

Bibliography

.
  • Irving Brant; The Bill of Rights: Its Origin and Meaning (1965) online version
  • Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, eds.^ It was Hitler who had the blessings and vote of his people to turn this "total democracy" (meaning a country with no Bill of Inalienable Rights or absolute freedoms i.e.

    ^ Whatever would be a violation of the original bill of rights (Amendments I to VIII) if done by the federal government is now equally unlawful by force of the Fourteenth Amendment if done by a state.
    • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]
    • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Because for me, it is the Second Amendment's gloss on Article I--a synthesis of original Constitution and Bill of Rights, if you will--that is decisive.
    • The Bill of Rights as a Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Bill of Rights: Government Proscribed. University Press of Virginia for the United States Capitol Historical Society, 1997. 463 pp. ISBN 0-8139-1759-X essays by scholars
  • Kathleen Krull.^ "This is the right guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States."
    • The Bill of Rights as a Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Historical maps of the United States .
    • United States History Sites 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC mrkash.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Federal Government was not granted the powers to do what a bill of rights would proscribe.
    • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]
    • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .A Kid's Guide to America's Bill of Rights (1999), 224 pp
  • Robert Allen Rutland; The Birth of the Bill of Rights, 1776–1791 University of North Carolina Press, (1955) online
  • Spaeth, Harold J.; and Smith, Edward C. (1991).^ Unreasonable The Ideas of America's Founders: The Debate Over the Bill of Rights The Bill of Rights was heavily debated before being added to the U. S. Constitution.

    ^ Seneca Falls The Internet and the Right to Freedom of Speech A paper describing what online activity is and is not protected under the first amendment of the Bill of Rights.

    ^ Bill of Rights The United States of America Vs.

    .HarperCollins College Outline: The Constitution of the United States (13th ed.^ Constitutional Rights Explaining The Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States are commonly referred to as the "Bill Of Rights."

    ^ The fundamental document defining the powers of the National and State Governments is the Constitution of the United States, adopted in 1789.
    • Territories & Commonwealths of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC macmeekin.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ MAGAZINE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES .
    • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]

    )
    . New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-467105-4. 
  • Labunski, Richard. James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights (2008)

External links

U.S Government sites

Related documents

.

History and analysis


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.United States Bill of Rights is the list of Natural Rights protected within the Constitution of the United States of America.^ Click here for the text of the Constitution of the United States of America .
  • Constitution of the United States of America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ What was the first constitution of the United States?
  • The U.S. Constitution FAQ - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The original Constitution of the United States was ratified without a declaration of "Rights" .
  • 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.rain.org [Source type: Original source]

Sourced

.
  • *Can any of you seriously say the Bill of Rights could get through Congress today?^ Can any of you seriously say the Bill of Rights could get through Congress today?
    • United States Bill of Rights - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • United States Bill of Rights - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Congress adds a Bill of Rights to the Constitution!
    • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Submitted the proposed Bill of Rights to Congress.
    • 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.rain.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It wouldn’t even get out of committee.^ It wouldn’t even get out of committee.
    • United States Bill of Rights - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • United States Bill of Rights - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Senator, even if he votes for a bill in committee and is assured he can work on the bill after the committee, is obligated to support a bill that comes out of his committee.
    • .: United States Senator Tom Coburn :: Right Now :. 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC coburn.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • I cannot consider the Bill of Rights to be an outworn 18th Century 'strait jacket'…Its provisions may be thought outdated abstractions by some.^ Provisions Civil liberties and the Bill of Rights .
    • Constitution of the United States of America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Some of the Bill of Rights provisions were not included in the Indian Civil Rights Act.
    • Native Americans and the Law : Native Americans Under Current United States Law 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC thorpe.ou.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since the adoption of the Bill of Rights, only 17 additional amendments have been made part of the Constitution.
    • Contributions by the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

    And it is true that they were designed to meet ancient evils. .But they are the same kind of human evils that have emerged from century to century wherever excessive power is sought by the few at the expense of the many.^ For centuries, most blacks had been relegated to a sub-human status, and that feeling, even among many Northerners, was not going to go away with slavery.
    • Constitutional Topic: Slavery - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ SLAM (Stop Lennar Action Movement) reminded the audience of the kind of power they have in the battle to save Bayview Hunters Point.
    • The United States | San Francisco Bay View 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.sfbayview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This proposed amendment provides an additional check on federal power by empowering the same number of states to rescind any law or regulation when they concur it is necessary.
    • The Bill of Federalism | As Proposed by Professor Randy Barnett 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC federalismamendment.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In my judgement the people of no nation can lose their basic liberty so long as a Bill of Rights like ours survives and its basic purposes are conscientiously interpreted, enforced and respected so as to afford continuous protection against old, as well as new, devices and practices which might thwart those purposes.^ Will these few protect our rights?
    • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no proper protection of prisoners' basic rights.
    • Full Text of Human Rights Record of United States in 2008 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC english.gov.cn [Source type: News]

    ^ We the People say no to repositioning and rewording our Constitutional Bill of Rights..
    • I Want My Bill of Rights, Right at www.whitehouse.gov - The Petition Site 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Justice Hugo Black, dissenting in Adamson v.^ Florida, supra, 106-08 (Justice Black concurring in part and dissenting in part).
      • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Florida, 399 U.S. at 106-08 (Justice Black concurring in part and dissenting in part).
      • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The late Justice Hugo Black tried to get around the doctrine by arguing that the Fourteenth Amendment as a whole, including the Privileges or Immunities Clause, accomplishes incorporation.
      • Does the Second Amendment Bind the States? 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC writ.news.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

      .California
      (1947)
  • In recent years it has been suggested that the Second Amendment protects the "collective" right of states to maintain militias, while it does not protect the right of "the people" to keep and bear arms...^ A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
    • http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0749825.html 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ AMENDMENT 2 The right to form a militia The right to keep and bear arms .
    • The Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.evgschool.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Second Amendment gives citizens the right to bear arms.
    • I Want My Bill of Rights, Right at www.whitehouse.gov - The Petition Site 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: Original source]

    The phrase ."the people" meant the same thing in the Second Amendment as it did in the First, Fourth, Ninth and Tenth Amendments — that is, each and every free person.^ Did the same exact thing as you.
    • The Value of United States Currency in Circulation | 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.visualeconomics.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is exactly what the First Amendment was meant to prevent.
    • The Bill Of Rights - The Politics of Consciousness - Steve Kubby 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lizmichael.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Democracy, U S Constitution, US Constitution, free society, freedom, freedoms, foundation of freedom, We the people, democracy, governemnt, democratic society, slavery, Bill of Rights, First Amendment, Second Amendment, Third Amendment, Fourth Amendment, Forth Amendment, Fifth Amendment, Six Amendment, Seventh Amendment, Eigth Amendment, Ninth Amendment, Tenth Amendment, 1st Amendment, 2nd Amendment, 3rd Amendment, 4th Amendment, 1 st Amendment, 2 nd Amendment, Democracy, Natural Persons, full text of, as amended, with definitions, self contained, study version, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Religion, Four Freedoms, 4 Freedoms, Self Incrimanation, Trial by Jury, Search and Siezure, States Rights, Personal Freedoms, .
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]


    .A select militia defined as only the privileged class entitled to keep and bear arms was considered an anathema to a free society, in the same way that Americans denounced select spokesmen approved by the government as the only class entitled to the freedom of the press.^ America`s Founders defined the militia the same way.
    • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Right to keep and bear arms—Cf.
    • US Constitution Annotated - Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ AMENDMENT 2 The right to form a militia The right to keep and bear arms .
    • The Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.evgschool.org [Source type: Original source]


    .If anyone entertained this notion in the period during which the Constitution and Bill of Rights were debated and ratified, it remains one of the most closely guarded secrets of the 18th century, for no known writing surviving from the period between 1787 and 1791 states such a thesis.^ Amendments 1-10 are known as The Bill of Rights .
    • Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America - CRW Flags Store in Glen Burnie, Maryland 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ December 15, 1791 - Virginia becomes the final state to ratify the ten amendments to the United States Constitution, also known as the Bill of Rights.

    ^ The original Constitution of the United States was ratified without a declaration of "Rights" .
    • 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.rain.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Stephen P. Holbrook, That Every Man Be Armed: The Evolution of a Constitutional Right

Unsourced

.
  • The very first item in our Bill of Rights is freedom of the press, freedom of speech.^ First Amendment rights, is critical of the bill.
    • The Indypendent » Bringing the War on Terrorism Home: Congress Considers How to ‘Disrupt’ Radical Movements in the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.indypendent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Bill of Rights Amendment I · No Religious establishment; Freedom of speech, of the press; Right to petition .
    • We the People; US Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Freedom of religion Freedom of assembly Right to petition the government .
    • The Bill of Rights [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Roy Barnes
  • Without adherence to the original understanding, even the actual Bill of Rights could be pared or eliminated.^ This was the original proposal for the Bill of Rights.
    • Page 1; American Milestone Documents - Footnote.com 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.footnote.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The original Constitution had no bill of rights.
    • The Constitution for Kids (8th-12th Grade) - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The original Bill of Rights was passed by Congress on September 25, 1789, and copies of the first twelve articles of amendment were transcribed to be sent to the states for ratification.
    • Pictures of the Documents - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is asserted nonetheless, and sometimes on high authority, that the judicial philosophy of original understanding is fatally defective in any number of respects. .
    • Robert Bork
  • The Framers of the Bill of Rights did not purport to "create" rights.^ This was explained as compassion and a human rights gesture based on "All men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights" in the US bill of rights.
    • cachsl 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC raenergy.igc.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The fact is, prior to incorporation, discussed below, the Bill of Rights did not apply to the states.
    • Constitutional Topic: The Bill of Rights - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Constitution On what day did the Bill of Right's amendments come into effect?
    • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Bill of Rights - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Rather, they designed the Bill of Rights to prohibit our Government from infringing rights and liberties presumed to be preexisting.^ We have seen how our government is openly defying our Bill of Rights.
    • The Bill Of Rights - The Politics of Consciousness - Steve Kubby 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lizmichael.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our rights come from GOD not the government.
    • I Want My Bill of Rights, Right at www.whitehouse.gov - The Petition Site 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They were our rights to life and liberty.
    • Daily Kos: 66th Anniversary of the Second Bill of Rights! 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

  • The Bill of Rights is a born rebel. It reeks with sedition. .In every clause it shakes its fist in the face of constituted authority...^ Clause 2: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
    • The United States Constitution - University of Phoenix 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.phoenix.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.terrella.com [Source type: Original source]

    it is the one guarantee of human freedom to the American people. .
  • The whole of the Bill [of Rights] is a declaration of the right of the people at large or considered as individuals...^ It has been seen that the Petition of Right, the Declaration of Rights and the Bill of Rights were favorites of the English peoples.
    • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications- "Bill of Rights" Proposals 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A Bill of Rights on paper comforts people.

    ^ The Government can not prevent individuals from owning guns (if you doubt this was the intended meaning see the Pennsylvania 1776 constitution declaration of rights section XIII) .
    • 2007 October Supervisors' meetings and Thoughts on Government 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC home.epix.net [Source type: Original source]

    .It establishes some rights of the individual as unalienable and which consequently, no majority has a right to deprive them of.^ However, individuals can still bring actions against state authorities in federal court to prevent these authorities from depriving them of their Constitutional rights.
    • U.S. GOVERNMENT > Introduction to the U.S. System > About America: The Constitution of the United States of America with Explanatory Notes 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC infousa.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Despite well-established principles of law on the interpretation of constitutional guarantees, some courts ignore these rules when interpreting both the right to keep arms and the right to bear arms.
    • BEARING ARMS IN STATE BILLS OF RIGHTS, JUDICIAL INTERPRETATION, AND PUBLIC HOUSING 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In 1215, the Magna Carta established the principles that no one is above the law (not even the King), and that no one can take away certain rights.
    • United States Constitution / Bill of Rights / Magna Carta 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC www.capveterans.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Albert Gallatin
  • You must remember that, to defeat them, you have to beat them with the principles that this nation was founded upon, man's inalienable right to his own life, Andrew.^ To have it means to possess the ability to do as you wish, without infringing upon someone else's self-same right.
    • USFlag.org: A website dedicated to the Flag of the UnitedStates of America - Constitutional Amendendment Issue 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.usflag.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Throughout civilization, nations have codified the basic and essential rights of their people—rights that must not be infringed upon by the government or other individuals or entities.
    • Featured Idea: Animal Bill of Rights | Animal Rights | Change.org 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC animalrights.change.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The most important aspect of the Second Amendment is the philosophy on which it is founded: that all free people have the right to defend themselves, their families, communities and nation.
    • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Dr. Goldstone
  • The Declaration of rights is like all other human blessings alloyed with some inconveniences, and not accomplishing fully its object. .But the good in this instance vastly overweighs the evil.^ But the good in this instance vastly outweighs the evil."
    • Jefferson on Politics & Government: The Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC etext.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • A Bill of Rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth, general or particular, and what no just government should refuse, or rest on inferences.^ A Bill of Rights on paper comforts people.

    ^ The Bill of Rights should always be expanded.
    • Should the US Constitution and Bill of Rights be altered or updated in any way? - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A bill of rights is a list of rights that belong to the people that the government is not allowed to break.
    • The Constitution for Kids (8th-12th Grade) - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • We have the Bill of Rights.^ Jefferson on Politics & Government: The Bill of Rights Thomas Jefferson on Politics & Government .
    • Jefferson on Politics & Government: The Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC etext.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is not a draft copy of the Bill of Rights; it is a copy of the Bill of Rights as it was approved by Congress, ratified by the several States, and then signed into Law by the United States Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson.
    • The Original US Bill of Rights; Introduction Page 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Democratic Party- Thomas Jefferson founded the Democratic Party in 1792 as a congressional caucus to fight for the Bill of Rights and against the elitist Federalist Party.
    • The United States of America Political Parties 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.solcomhouse.com [Source type: Original source]

    .What we need is a Bill of Responsibilities.^ And they need a way to escape responsibility for the destruction they've they've created what this bill does it takes all those things and it makes him invisible.
    • Dean says Kill The Bill | WRKO 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC audio.wrko.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Like the government, corporations must be bound with the chains of the Constitution, and especially of the Bill of Rights.^ The original Constitution had no bill of rights.
    • The Constitution for Kids (8th-12th Grade) - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Constitution and Bill of Rights repeatedly refer to the "rights" of the people and to the "powers" of government.
    • NRA-ILA :: The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Firearms Ownership in America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nraila.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Bill of Rights amendments restrict the Constitution.
    • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications- "Bill of Rights" Proposals 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Bill of Rights by United States Congress
Ratified in 1791 (Still in use, though article the first was never ratified, and article the second was not ratified until 1992.)
Drafted 8 June – 25 September 1789; Signed 28 September 1789; Articles three through twelve ratified 15 December 1791; Article two ratified 5 May 1992.
The United States Bill of Rights
.In the United States, the Bill of Rights is the term for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.^ Students will identify and explain the first 10 amendments as the Bill of Rights.
  • Washington State Courts - Lesson Plans 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.courts.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ "Constitution of the United States proposed amendments to the Constitution not ratified..."
  • Emory Law School: Historical Documents - Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC library.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ December 15, 1791 - Virginia becomes the final state to ratify the ten amendments to the United States Constitution, also known as the Bill of Rights.

.These amendments explicitly limit the Federal government's powers, protecting the rights of the people by preventing Congress from abridging freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of religious worship, and the right to bear arms, preventing unreasonable search and seizure, cruel and unusual punishment, and self-incrimination, and guaranteeing due process of law and a speedy public trial with an impartial jury.^ Amendment 1 - Freedom of religion, press .
  • Notes on the U.S. Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendment VI · Right to a speedy trial; Witnesses, etc.; Right to council .
  • We the People; US Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Will these few protect our rights?
  • henry 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, the Bill of Rights states that "the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people," and reserves all powers not specifically granted to the Federal government to the citizenry or States.^ The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be con- .
  • The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Preamble to the Bill clearly states the Bill of Rights is to prevent abuse of the powers of the Government.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC biblescripture.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, it protects the powers reserved to the states and the rights of every individual.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.policyalmanac.org [Source type: Original source]

.These amendments came into effect on December 15, 1791, when ratified by three-fourths of the States.

The Bill of Rights is the third of the three Charters of Freedom along with the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.^ The original handwritten copy is on display in the National Archives in Washington, D.C. It is the third of the three Charters of Freedom along with the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution .
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Bill of Rights - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Constitution of the United States proposed amendments to the Constitution not ratified..."
  • Emory Law School: Historical Documents - Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC library.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ December 15, 1791 - Virginia becomes the final state to ratify the ten amendments to the United States Constitution, also known as the Bill of Rights.

Wikipedia logo .Wikipedia has more on:
United States Bill of Rights.
^ Citizens of the United States have a right to information.
  • A Bill of Rights for the 21st Century 1 - 3 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC frontal-lobe.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Bill of Rights in the United States of America [1791] .
  • Bill of Rights in the United States - magnacartaplus 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC magnacartaplus.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "This is the right guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States."
  • The Bill of Rights as a Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

The Declaration of Independence | The Articles of Confederation | The Constitution | The Bill of Rights | Other Amendments | Unsuccessful Amendments
Congress OF THE United States,
begun and held at the City of New-York, on
Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.
.
                                                   THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added; And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.
^ The Preamble to the Bill clearly states the Bill of Rights is to prevent abuse of the powers of the Government.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC biblescripture.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The conventions of a number of the States having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to .
  • The Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.surviveall.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If, then, the institution could not be abolished, it should not be further extended.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

                                                   .RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.^ Click here for the text of the Constitution of the United States of America .
  • Constitution of the United States of America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION and BILL OF RIGHTS 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.alpinesurvival.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Fundamental Documents: Constitution of the United States and the First Twelve Amendments 1787--1804 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC press-pubs.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the united States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ark-of-salvation.org [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.terrella.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally, senators were chosen by state legislatures.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

                                                   .ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.^ Click here for the text of the Constitution of the United States of America .
  • Constitution of the United States of America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Originally, senators were chosen by state legislatures.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution."
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Bill of Rights - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Article the first. .... .After the first enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every 30,000 until the number shall amount to 100, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than 100 Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every 40,000 persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to 200; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than 200 Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every 50,000 persons.^ Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New .
  • The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or Elector of .
  • The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Each Representative now elected to the U.S. Congress represents, on the average, 570,000 persons.
  • Territories & Commonwealths of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC macmeekin.com [Source type: Original source]

Article the second ... .No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.^ No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.
  • Bill of Rights - 1789 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC ahp.gatech.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Bill Of Rights 11 September 2009 10:41 UTC html.rincondelvago.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This amendment, which also failed, prevented any law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives intervened.
  • Wikijunior:United States Charters of Freedom/Bill of Rights - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Paragraph 1 No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and FindLaw .
  • Web Guide to The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC tcnbp.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

Article the third ...... .Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.^ Amendment 1 - Freedom of religion, press .
  • Notes on the U.S. Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The people must assemble "peaceably."
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles I - X 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Seven years later, in 1798, Congress passed a law abridging the freedom of speech and the press.

Article the fourth..... .A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.^ A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0749825.html 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "A well regulated Militia" 144 .
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles I - X 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ States are free to enact stricter regulations.
  • INTRODUCTION TO THE UNITED STATES LEGAL SYSTEM 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.tenant.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Introduction to the United States Legal System 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lectlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

Article the fifth ....... .No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.^ No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the .
  • The Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Article III. No soldier quartered… .
  • Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.terrella.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendment III -- No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
  • Constitution for the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.halexandria.org [Source type: Original source]

Article the sixth ...... .The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.^ Warrants may not be issued except upon probable cause, and must specifically describe the place to be searched and the person or thing to be seized.
  • Washington State Courts - Lesson Plans 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.courts.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fourth Amendment secures the people against unreasonable searches and seizures and forbids the issuance of warrants except upon probable cause and directed to specific persons and places.
  • Bill of Rights (United States Constitution) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ARTICLE IV - The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirrnation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
  • The Bill Of Rights - The Politics of Consciousness - Steve Kubby 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lizmichael.com [Source type: Original source]

Article the seventh .. .No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.^ Cases arising in the Land or Naval forces or in the Militia, when in actual Service in Time of War or public Danger; Nor shall any Person be subject for the same Offence to be Twice put in jeopardy of Life or Limb; 149 .
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles I - X 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatbooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
  • The amendments 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.alcyone.com [Source type: Original source]

Article the eighth ... .In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.^ Amendment VI · Right to a speedy trial; Witnesses, etc.; Right to council .
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nature and Cause of the accusation; 154 .
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles I - X 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendment VII · Right of trial by jury .
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

Article the ninth .. .In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.^ No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatbooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendment VII: Right for a jury trial.
  • Emory Law School: Historical Documents - Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC library.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged..."
  • Emory Law School: Historical Documents - Constitution of the United States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC library.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

Article the tenth ..... .Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.^ ARTICLE VIII - Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  • The Bill Of Rights - The Politics of Consciousness - Steve Kubby 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.lizmichael.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Excessive Bail shall not be required; 159 .
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles I - X 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  • The amendments 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.alcyone.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Bill of Rights in the United States - magnacartaplus 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC magnacartaplus.org [Source type: Original source]
  • We the People; US Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Bill of Rights Limited Edition Set 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC minsky.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Popular Names of Constitutional Provisions 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC lib.law.washington.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the united States 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.ark-of-salvation.org [Source type: Original source]
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Documents: Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC odur.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.surviveall.net [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0749825.html 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. GOVERNMENT > Introduction to the U.S. System > About America: The Constitution of the United States of America with Explanatory Notes 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC infousa.state.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Bill of Rights Menu: James Madison Proposes Bill of Rights 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Original US Bill of Rights; Introduction Page 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

Article the eleventh .... .The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.^ The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparge others retained by the people.
  • The Original US Bill of Rights; Introduction Page 16 October 2009 12:27 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article IX. The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
  • Terrella Media, Inc. » The United States Constitution 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.terrella.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 16 October 2009 11:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
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  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States of America 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.greatbooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Article the twelfth ... The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”
ATTEST,
Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg  Speaker of the House of Representatives
John Adams, Vice-President of the United States, and President of the Senate.
.

John Beckley, Clerk of the House of Representatives.^ On September 21, three members of the House were appointed as members of this conference: Mr. Madison of Virginia, Mr. Sherman, and Delaware's representative, John Vining.

  • Delaware And The Bill of Rights: Constitution Day 2006 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC www2.lib.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Directing the Clerk of the House of Representatives to make technical corrections in the enrollment of H.R. 1975.
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^ The signers are Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenburg, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, John Adams, the Vice President and President of the Senate, John James Beckley, the Clerk of the House of Representatives and Samuel Allyne Otis, the Secretary of the Senate.
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.Sam A. Otis, Secretary of the Senate.^ A. Otis Secretary of the Senate.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 28 January 2010 2:02 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]

PD-icon.svg This work is in the .public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).^ The federal United States is bankrupt.
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^ Government of the United States, directed to the President of the .
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^ United States History/Government students.
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Simple English

The Bill of Rights is the name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution, which limit the power of the federal government and guarantee citizens of the United States certain rights. The amendments were written in 1789 by James Madison, and were based on important ideas about personal rights. The Bill of Rights went into effect in 1791, when 3/4 of the states agreed that they were fair. Originally, the Bill of Rights had 12 different amendments, but the first two were not passed by enough states. The second amendment that was not passed was eventually added to the Constitution in 1992. It is now the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and deals with pay changes for the government.

The Amendments

NumberYearDescription
1st 1791 Congress must protect the rights of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of petition, and freedom of religion.
2nd 1791 "A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed." - People have the right to have weapons, for example guns.
3rd 1791 The government cannot send soldiers to live in private homes without the permission of the owners.
4th 1791 The government cannot get a warrant to arrest a person or search their property unless there is "probable cause" to believe a crime has been committed.
5th 1791 The government cannot put a person on trial for a crime until a grand jury has written an indictment. A person cannot be put on trial twice for the same crime. The government must follow due process of law before punishing a person or taking their property. A person on trial for a crime does not have to testify against themself in court.
6th 1791 Any person who is accused of a crime should get a speedy trial by a jury. That person can have a lawyer during the trial. They must be told what they are charged with. The person can question the witnesses against them, and can get their own witnesses to testify.
7th 1791 A jury trial is needed for civil cases.
8th 1791 The government cannot require excessive bail or fines, or any cruel and unusual punishment.
9th 1791 The listing of individual rights in the Constitution and Bill of Rights does not include all of the rights of the people and the states(For example, privacy).
10th 1791 Any powers that the Constitution does not give to the United States belong to the states and the people. This does not include powers that the Constitution says the states cannot have.
  • 1st Amendment

"Congress shall make no law regarding an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof..."

This means that the government cannot make any religion an official religion. It also cannot stop people from practicing any religion.

"...or abridging the freedom of speech"

This means that the government cannot stop people from saying what they think. It applies to many forms of expression, like art.

"...or of the press"

This means that the government cannot prevent newspapers and other news sources from reporting the news.

"...or of the right of the people to peaceably assemble..."

This means that people can protest things by getting together and having rallies or marches.

"...and to petition the government for redress of grievances."

This means that people can complain about things they do not like to the government. However, people do not have freedom to say things that will limit other people's rights. For example, people do not have the freedom to threaten to kill other people.
  • 2nd Amendment

"A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed."

People have the right to have guns.
  • 3rd Amendment

"No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law."

This means that people cannot be forced to keep soldiers in their houses.
  • 4th Amendment

"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated..."

The government does not have the right to search people or their property without a good reason, and it does not have the right to take people's property without a good reason.

"...and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized."

A search warrant, which gives the police permission to search a person's property, can only be issued if there is a good reason to think that the person is hiding something that might show that a crime has been committed.
  • 5th Amendment

"No person shall be held to answer for any capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger..."

If somebody is accused of committing a very serious crime, including crimes that can be punished with the death penalty, they have the right to have a grand jury decide if there is enough evidence to give the person a trial. However, this does not apply to somebody who is accused of committing a crime while serving in the military.

"...nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb..."

If somebody is accused of committing a crime and goes to a trial, and is found not guilty, the person cannot be forced to have a second trial. The idea of giving the same person a second trial after being found not guilty the first time is called double jeopardy.

"...nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself..."

Somebody cannot be forced to testify against themselves in court. This means that they cannot be forced to say things that hurt their case in a trial.

"nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation."

Somebody cannot be punished by being executed, going to jail or prison, or having money or property taken away from them without going through the legal system first. This could mean having a hearing, going before a judge, or having a jury trial.
  • 6th Amendment

"In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district where in the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law..."

If somebody is accused of a crime, they have the right to a trial that does not take too long to start after the person is accused of the crime. The trial must be held in public and cannot be secret. The person has the right to have a jury who will decide the case fairly. Members of the jury cannot decide which side they will take before the trial starts. They also have the right to have their trial in the same area where the crime was committed.

"...and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor..."

Somebody who is going on trial for a crime has the right to know why they are being accused of a crime and to ask questions to any witnesses who testify, or say in court, that the person committed the crime. Somebody going on trial also has the right to bring witnesses to the trial who say that the person did not commit the crime.

"...and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense."

A person going on trial for a crime has the right to be defended by a lawyer.
  • 7th Amendment

"In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law."

If somebody sues somebody over something that is worth at least $20, this is called a civil trial. They have the right of a jury trial. The decision of the jury is final, although in some rare cases, the judge can throw out the jury's decision and bring in a new jury if the judge thinks that the jury's decision ignored the facts that they learned during the trial.
  • 8th Amendment

"Excessive bail shall not be required..."

If somebody is arrested, they cannot be given too high of an amount for bail. Bail is something that people who are arrested have to pay if they want to be let out of jail before their trial starts. If they show up for their trial, they will get their money back.

"nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted."

If a jury in a trial decides that somebody is guilty of a crime, their punishment cannot be too harsh or cruel. They also cannot be forced to pay too high of an amount of money as punishment for their crime.
  • 9th Amendment

"The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people."

People can have other rights even if the Constitution does not specifically talk about them.
  • 10th Amendment

"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."

If the Constitution does not specifically say that the federal (United States) government has the power to do something, then the power to do it goes to the state government unless the Constitution specifically says that states can not do it.

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on United States Bill of Rights, which are similar to those in the above article.








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